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GONDWANALAND

Answers
1. C
2. G
3. H
4. A
5. E
6. B
7. F
8. D

9. P
10. K
11. N
12. J
13. Q

THE FAMILY IOF GERMANICUS


Answers
1. Livia
2. Claudius
3. Julia Livilla
4. true
5. true
6. false
7. true
8. false

9. not given
10. not given
11. false
12. D
13. G
14. F
15. A
16. B

Questions 1 2
Completeeach of the following statementswith words or phrases taken from the text.
Use NO MORE THAN FOUR WORDS.
1 Extensive study of the El Nino phenomenon has only begun in recent years.
2 The system used to track variations in weather conditions is called Tropical Atmosphere Ocean
Array
Questions 3 6
Label the diagram showing the Planetary Heat engine.
USE NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS

Questions 7 9
Which THREE of the following are effects of El Nino?
A There are more clouds.
B The level of the sea goes down.
C There is a lack of rain.
D Fewer fish for fishermen to catch.
E There are plagues in Australia and Indonesia.
F There are more strong storms.
Questions 10 12
Choose the appropriate answer to each question.
10. Why is El Nino more noticeable now than in previous times?
A There are small changes in natural resources.
B Industrial fishing.
C People are now living in more dangerous areas than those of the past.
D South American fishermen cannot make a profit during an El Nino.
11. What is the benefit of monitoring the weather in the Pacific?
A Scientists can prevent El Ninos.
B The length of an El Nino is reduced by six months.
C Farmers will harvest more grain.
D Provisions can be taken in advance against the El Nino.
12. In what way is there a definite link between El Nino and global warming?
A It increases Northern American temperatures by affecting the jet stream.
B By inducing local warming changes.

C Increasing rain and causing floods.


D None of the above.
1. In India weddings are
A a duty for the man to continue his family.
B thought to end at death.
C a duty for the father.
D seen asa benefit for the father.
2. Divorce and remarriage
A are only possible for non-Muslims.
B were sometimes not possible in the past.
C have always been possible.
D have only become possible in modern times.
3. Indian weddings
A are straightforward and brief.
B are thought to be lucky
C are intricate and time consuming.
D involve only the immediate family.
4 Before the wife-to-be is given recommendations about
married life.
5 The wedding ceremony is conducted in a special
wedding altar/ mandapa.
6 The gold and jewels the bride wears represent
prosperity.
7 These days the materials applied prior to the ceremony
are only symbolic.
8 After the wedding, the bride has left her fathers family
and belongs to her husbands.
9 The new bride should go into her new house right foot
first.

________________________________
IELTS Reading Passage - Finding the Answers
Indian Marriages
Marriage is one of the oldest human institutions and this is
as true in Indian culture as anywhere else. In India
marriage, called Kanyadana or donating a virgin, is
thought of as the greatest sacrifice that a father can make
(1) and for the groom as an obligation to perpetuate
his bloodline. Many people believe that a marriage is still
binding after death.
In early times girls were thought to be ready for
marriage after puberty and later even children could be
married. (2) Divorce and remarriage were not always
possible. By Medieval times Marriage was compulsory for
girls, who very often married between the ages of eight
and nine. Among those able to afford it, polygamy was
common and rulers would often have one wife from their
own region and other minor wives from other areas. Now,
divorce and remarriage is possible and non-Muslim Indian
men can only have one wife.
Although are many regional variations, some features of
the Indian wedding ceremony are similar throughout the
country. (3) In general weddings are very
complicated events and involve long negotiations
about dowry payments prior to the event. After this has
been decided a day is chosen by asking an astrologer to
find a lucky day. Preparations begin early because a
marriage is not only one of the highlights a persons life,
but a large and complex social gathering to organize.
The night before, the bride, her friends and female
relatives gather together for a party called a mehendi,
where they paint each others hands and feet with Henna
and dance and listen to music. Her guests often give the
bride advice (4) about married life and tease her about
her future husband.

Weddings are traditionally held at the brides home or in a


temple, but parks, hotels and marriage halls are becoming
increasingly popular. On the day a wedding altar or (5)
mandapa is built and covered in flowers. All of the
wedding ceremony will be held in the altar.
The clothing a couple wear on their wedding day varies
between regions and ethnic groups. Women most
commonly wear a sari. The bride wears a lot of jewelry as
this symbolizes the (6) prosperity she will bring to her
new family. In the South wearing flowers is common. The
groom wears traditional costume or a suit. Turbans are
also popular headgear.
The ceremony begins with a mixture of turmeric,
sandalwood paste and oils being applied to the couples
face and arms. In the past this was done to the whole
body, but now it is only (7) symbolic, with only a little
being rubbed on. Then they are showered in flowers. After
this they perform the rituals that will make them man and
wife. First they garland each other and then take seven
symbolic steps together representing seven gifts and seven
promises.
Finally they say the vows and then they are legally
married. The brides father or guardian takes her hands
and puts them in her husbands giving her to him. Now she
is no longer a member of (8) her fathers family, but a
member of her husbands. They then touch the feet of
their elders for luck. After the wedding ceremony, the
couple go to the grooms house. The bride should be
careful to enter the house (9 )right foot first for luck. In
the evening and late into the night the families and their
guests celebrate with dancing, music and food.
Australia and the Great War, 1914 1918
Australias role in the First World War, (1) or the Great
War as it was known until 1939, is central to the
development of modern Australias vision of itself in the

world. In many ways it has served to create what is in


some ways a second founding of the nation in the Gallipoli
campaign and on the battlefields of France and Belgium.
The influence of the war experience in the First, and
Second, World War is evident in the way in which ANZAC
day is, perhaps even more than Australia day, the
countrys national day.
When the war broke out in 1914, it was a certainty that,
because of longstanding economic, family and defense
ties, Australia, along with New Zealand, would stand
alongside Britain. The then Prime Minister Andrew Fisher
was quick to pledge (2) the countrys support to the
last man, the last shilling. This was no idle promise and
Australia paid a high price for their loyalty to their
colonizers. From a pre-war population of 5m, 417,000
enlisted in the armed forces, of which 324,000 served
abroad. By the end of the war, Australia had lost 60,000
dead and 155,000 men had been wounded. The economic
price was also high. (8) The national debt, which had
stood at 6m in 1914, was 325m by the end of the
war.
It is possible that (3) the first shot of the war was fired
in Australia, when a shot was fired across the bow of the
German merchant ship Pfalz as it tried to escape from Port
Arthur only a few hour after the declaration of war. In late
1914 the light cruiser HMAS Sydney sank the German
warship Emden off the west coast of the country. Also early
in the war, Australian troops captured the German radio
transmitters in Rabaul and Nauru and conquered all of
German New Guinea.
At first the Australian forces were intended only to defend
Australia, but in 1915 the Australia New Zealand Army
Corps (ANZAC) departed for Europe. Their first stop was
Egypt and it was because they were so close that they
were chosen to take part in the campaign to capture the
Gallipoli peninsula, the key to shipping into the Black Sea,

from the Turks. The plan was for British, French and Anzac
forces to land on the peninsular at night at weak points in
the Turkish defense. However, (4) strong winds blew the
troops off course to better defended spots and in the
advantage was lost. What followed was months (10) of
bitter fighting in which 20,000 British and 7,000
ANZAC soldiers were killed and which ended in a
successful withdrawal, but no gain for the Allies. It was at
this moment of history that Australia was propelled on to
(5) the world stage. From this moment onward Australia
began to think of itself as a country in its own right; as
being separate to Britain and no longer a colony.
Most of the ANZAC force was sent to Europe, but the
Australian Light Horse remained to fight Turkish forces in
Palestine and Syria. They defended the Suez Canal and
advanced through Palestine and Syria. They also took part
in what was one of the worlds last great cavalry charges at
Beersheba.
The main ANZAC force arrived in Europe in 1916. The
ANZAC experience was similar to that of the other
participants in the war; a high death toll and little gain to
be shown for it. Australian forces were present at all the
major battles of the war and sustained some terrible
casualties. For example, in 24 hours near Pozieres the 5th
Division suffered 5,000 casualties. At the battle of
Bullecort, of the 3,000 men who advanced, 2339 were
killed, wounded or captured.
By 1917 most of the officers were not professional
soldiers. The most prominent example was General Sir
John Monash, who was an engineer by training. He
commanded the allied forces at the battle of Hamel so well
that the general staff published the battle reports (6) as a
model. In August 1918, he commanded 200,000 troops
on what way called Ludendorffs black day, a turning
point in the war. Monash was probably Australias greatest
military figure.

Unlike in other armies in the war, the Australian soldiers


were all volunteers. (12) They were also more
individualistic and showed less respect for the
rulebook than other soldiers. The relationship
between ranks was more democratic and officer had
to win the respect of their troops. All in all, they paid a
high price for fighting in the war. (11) Of the 324,000
soldiers who served overseas in the war 215,000
were killed or wounded. This was the highest
proportion of any of the countries in the war and
was probably due to the Australians fighting
qualities, which meant that they were often used on the
frontline of the fighting.
At home, the war had a significant effect on the economy.
Negative effects included the end of British investment, the
closure of many shipping lanes and the stockpiling of
Australias main export, wool. However, the isolation that
resulted from the war meant that Australia had to make
some things that had previously been imported. This led to
the development of new industries. In addition, the BHP
smelting company, which is now a major Australian
company, saw a great increase in demand for iron and
steel. The needs of the war were stimulus for the
beginning of full industrialization in Australia.
At the signing of the treaty of Versailles, which marked the
end of the war, Australia signed as a separate country. This
reflected the fact that, at the cost of 60,000 dead,
Australia had finally emerged from the (7) shadow of
Britain. The Great War was, perhaps, the beginning of
modern Australian history.
IELTS Reading Passages: Questions 1 7
1.

According to the passage Australias view of itself is directly related to


its involvement in the Great War

2.

Soon after the war had begun, Australias Prime Minister offered the
countrys support

3.

Australia had an early involvement in the war and it is even possible


that they were responsible for the first shot

4.

When combating the Turkish defense, the British, French and Anzac
forces ended up attacking stronger points than they had originally
intended because of strong winds

5.

The outcome of the bitter fight with the Turks was significant for
Australia because it enabled them to take their place on the world stage

6.

John Monash commanded the battle of Hamel so well that reports of


the battle were published in order to be used as a model

7.

The Great War marked the beginning of modern Australia. They had
emerged as a separate country and would no longer have to live under
the shadow of Britain
IELTS Reading Passages: Questions 1 7
Yopinions the writer agree with
N statements the writer would disagree with
NI facts not reported in the passage
Write the appropriate letters marked A C in boxes 8
12 on your answer sheet.

8.

Australias national debt increased greatly as a result of the Great War.


-Y

9.

Australia made a great contribution to the successful outcome of the


First World War. - NI

10. The British forces suffered a greater number of casualties than the
Anzac forces during the months of fighting with the Turkish. - Y
11. Overall, the British had a higher proportion of soldiers killed or injured
than Australia. - N
12.

Australian soldiers were disrespectful to their superiors. - N

THE CONTAINER TRADE


1. B - led to more global trade.
The globalised modern economy depends on the rapid and
efficient movement of goods that containerisation allows.

In many ways it was the advent of the container that


allowed this globalised economy to develop.
2. C - was initially for military purposes.
Invented during World War two as an efficient method of
moving equipment to the front lines
"front lines" = a military line formed by the most advanced
tactical combat units
3. A - prevent the need for companies to hold large
amounts of stock.
companies no longer keep large warehouses of stock
or parts
4. C - make trade between countries on different sides of
the world easier.
This means that companies rely more and more on the
prompt delivery of parts from their suppliers to fulfill
orders. This is particularly true of industries such as
computer manufacture, which no longer make all the
parts of the products that bear their names, but
instead out source, often to suppliers half way
around the world.
5. B - had its container fleet increase by 12%.
The container fleet grew by 12% in 2001.
6. E - has witnessed a substantial decrease in container
trade.
However after the 1990s there was a dramatic fall off in
trade. Trans-Pacific trade, for example, fell to 50% of
its 1990s high.
7. rest some

Their response has been to cut services, rest some of the


older ships and share the burden amongst themselves.
8. reduced theft
At first, containers reduced theft as it was more difficult
for casual thieves to get into the containers.
9. use by terrorists
Increasingly, the huge number of containers and their selfcontained and
enclosed nature has been raising worries about their
possible use by terrorists.
10. difficult to track
Containers are also extremely difficult to track and
monitor. This is because they pass through so many
countries and jurisdictions and because they can travel on
both land and sea.
11. disrupt international trade
Additionally, it might cause delays in delivery that would
disrupt international trade and industry out of
proportion to the good the searches do.
12. cause problems
They are one of the cornerstones of global trade, but many
yet cause problems their inventors never envisaged.
WIND POWER IN THE USA
1.
D
2.

3.

diminished

4.

nuclear

5.

locals

6.

television signals

7.

Danish Farm / Denmark

8.

BR

9.

10.

US

11.

IRE

12.

13.

AIR RAGE
1.
Paragraph B______ii
2.

Paragraph C______viii

3.

Paragraph D______xiii

4.

Paragraph E______xi

5.

Paragraph F______vi

6.

Paragraph G______i

7.

Paragraph H______ix

8.

Paragraph I______iv

9.

In the first case of air rage, the man was not punished because the
plane was not registered.F

10. The statistics on air rage were collected by private monitoring groups.
NG
11. The second most common catalyst for incidents is problems with
seating. T
12. The environment in a plane makes disagreements more likely to
become serious problems.T

13. Airlines have been encouraging passengers to bring more items


onboard as carry-on luggage.NG
14.

It has been impossible to ban passengers with histories of air-rage.F

Beetles
Answers:
6 South African
7 French
8 Spanish;
The Motor Car:
14 C
15 F
16 E
17 H
18 A
19 D
Risks of cigarette smoking
NO
NG
YES
NG
ROCKETS
A
A
B
E
MATCHING HEADINGS
1v
2 vii
3 ii
4 iv
5i
MCQ
C
B
D
TABLE COMPLETION
9 temperate
10 early spring

11 two to five / 2-5


12 sub-tropical
13 South African tunneling/tunnelling
Alternative answers
DRESSED TO DAZZLE
1 D 2G 3 C 4A 5 B 6F 7 Ingeo 8 soya bean 9 weaving 10 electronic components 11 battery
12 costumes 13 fragile 14 accessories/ handbags
UNMASKING SKIN
Questions 1-4
The passage has 10 paragraphs AJ.
Which paragraph contains the following information?
Answer the questions below by writing the correct letters, A-J, in boxes 1-4 on your
answer sheet.
1) the features of human skin, on and below the surfaceB
2) an experiment in which the writer can see what is happeningH
3) advice on how you can avoid damage to the skinJ
4) cruel research methods used in the pastD
Questions 5 and 6
Choose the correct letter, A, B,C or D.
5) How does a lack of affectionate touching affect children?

A It makes them apathetic.


B They are more likely to become violent
adults.
C They will be less aggressive when they
grow up.
D We do not really know.

6) After the wetness experiments, the writer says that


A his skin is not normal.
B his skin was wet when it felt wet.

C he knew why it felt wet when it was dry.


D the experiments taught him nothing new.

Questions 711
Complete each sentence with the correct ending AI from the box below.
Write the correct letter AI in boxes 711 on your answer sheet.
A because it is both cold and painful.
because the outer layer of the skin can mend itself.
because it can be extremely thin.
D because there is light pressure on the skin.
E because we do not need the others to survive.
F because there is a good blood supply to the skin.
G because of a small amount of pain.
H because there is a low temperature and pressure.
I because it is hurting a lot.
J because all humans are capable of experiencing it.

7) Touch is unique among the five sensesE


8) A substance may feel wetH
9) Something may tickleD
10) The skin may itchG
11) A small cut heals up quicklyB
GLOW WORMS
Which section contains the following information?
Write the correct letter A-E in boxes 28-33 on your answer sheet.
NB You may use any letter more than once.
28 threats to the glow-worm D
29 ways in which glow-worms have been used B
30 variations in type of glow-worm A
31 glow-worm distribution B
32 glow-worms becoming an attraction E
33 the life-cycle of a glow-worm C

Questions 36-40
Do the following statements agree with the information given in the passage.
In boxes 34-40 on your answer sheet, write
TRUE

if the statement agrees with the information

FALSE

if the statement contradicts the information

NOT GIVEN

iif there is no information on this

34 Scientists have only recently been able to list the exact number of glow-worm
species. NOT GIVEN
35 The first fireflies appeared 30 million years ago. FALSE
36 Glow-worm populations are decreasing faster in some countries than in others.
NOT GIVEN
37 Heat affects the production of glow-worm larvae. TRUE

38 Adulthood is the longest stage of a glow-worm's life. FALSE


39 The exact reason why glow-worm numbers are decreasing is unknown. TRUE
40 Glow-worms are usually found in wet areas. TRUE