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# MAT FOUNDATION USING

FEM

STAAD has the ability to generate supports for structures like slabs on
which also go by the name mat foundations. A mat foundation is a large
concrete
slab sitting on soil. The support for the structure is the soil itself. The
resistance of
the soil is represented through a term called Modulus of Subgrade
Reaction.
The general approach to solving such problems is to sub-divide the slab
into several
plate elements. Each node of the meshed slab will then have an influence
area or a
contributory area, which is to say that soil within the area surrounding
that node
acts like a spring. The influence area is then multiplied by the subgrade
modulus to
arrive at the spring constant. Subgrade modulus has units of force per
length^3. So,
the spring will have units of force/length.

The problem with using this method is that, for irregularly-shaped or large
slabs with

many nodes, computing the influence area for each node can become
quite tedious
and time-consuming. The model below exemplifies the problem ..

This is where the Foundation type of support can be useful. STAAD will
calculate the influence areas of all the nodes by itself and derive the
spring constants for you. In STAAD, we refer to facility as SPRING
SUPPORT GENERATION.
STAAD has two options for such supports:
a) The ELASTIC MAT option
b) The PLATE MAT option
The ELASTIC MAT option :
When the spring support generation facility was first introduced in STAAD,
it was
based on this method. In fact, this was the only method available until and
including
STAAD.Pro 2002 Build 1004. This method calculates the influence area of
the
various nodes using the Delaunay triangle method.
The distinguishing aspect of this method is that it uses the joint-list that
accompanies the ELASTIC MAT command to form a closed surface. The
area within this closed surface is then determined and the share of this
area for each node in the list is then calculated.

Hence, while specifying the joint-list, one should make sure that these
joints make up a closed surface. Without a proper closed surface, the area
calculated for the region may be indeterminate and the spring constant
values may be erroneous. Consequently, the list should have at a
minimum, 3 nodes.
While forming the closed surface, namely, a polygon, the sides of the
polygon have to be assembled by lining up points along the edges. The
edge detection aspects of this method are very sensitive to out-ofstraightness, which may occur if the coordinates of the nodes aren't
precise to a significant number of digits.
Also, the internal angle formed by 2 adjacent lines connecting 3
consecutive nodes in the list should be less than 180 degrees, which is to
say that, the region should have the shape of a convex polygon.
Failure to form straight edges and convex polygons can lead to erroneous
influence area values and consequently, erroneous spring constants. This
is the limitation of this feature.
The example below explains the method that may be used to get around a
situation where a convex polygon is not available.
For the model comprised of plate elements 100 to 102 in the figure below,
one
wishes to generate the spring supports at nodes 1 to 8. However, a single
ELASTIC
MAT command will not suffice because the internal angle between the
edges 1-8
and 8-7 at node 8 is 270 degrees, which violates the requirements of a
convex
polygon
So, one should break it up into 2 commands:
1 2 3 8 ELASTIC MAT DIREC Y SUBG 200.
3 4 5 6 7 8 ELASTIC MAT DIREC Y SUBG 200.

Joints 3 and 8 will hence get the contribution from both of the above
commands.
Because this method uses nodes to generate contours, it may be used
whether the
mat is defined using plates, or solids. This is the advantage of this
method.
The PLATE MAT option :
If the foundation slab is modeled using plate elements, the influence area
can be calculated using the principles used in determining the tributary
area of the nodes from the finite element modeling standpoint. In other
words, the rules used by the program in converting a uniform pressure
load on an element into fixed end actions at the nodes are used in
calculating the influence area of the node, which is then multiplied by the
subgrade modulus to obtain the spring constant. This feature has been
available since STAAD.Pro 2002 Build 1005.
The advantage of this method is that it overcomes one of the major
limitations of the Delaunay triangle method, which is that the contour
formed by the nodes of the mat must form a convex hull.
Example

SUPPORTS
17054 TO 17081 PLATE MAT DIR YONLY SUBGRADE 5000.0 PRINT
YR -.01 0.01 PLATE MAT DIR YONLY SUBGRADE 5000.0
The first of the above 2 commands instructs STAAD to internally generate
supports for the nodes at the corners of plate elements 17054 TO 17081.
The second example instructs STAAD to internally generate supports for
the nodes at the corners of plate elements which lie in the global XZ plane
bound by the YRANGE value of -0.01 and +0.01 length units.
Another advantage of the PLATE MAT method is that it enables us to view
soil
pressure contours beneath the base of the slab. After the analysis, go to
the post
processing mode, and click on the Plates page. In the selection box for
choosing the
type of result to plot, choose base pressures. This is not currently
available with the
ELASTIC MAT method.
Modelling of SOIL:
The soil is represented by elastic springs located at the nodes as shown in
fig. below. The elastic spring of the constant is named as spring stiffness
(K1,K2
etc.) ( KN/m)

## Fig. 3 Finite element model for raft foundation

Problem:
MAT FOUNDATION USING

FEM

Data:
Width
l
: 9.50m
Length
: 10.0m
No. of columns
: 9
Mat Thickness
: 0.45m
: M20
: Fe 415
SBC of soil
: 120 KN/m2

(9.50m x 10.m)
1 .Creation of Geometry :
File New Project Select space File Name= Mat foundation
Unit KNS Met. Next Add plate Finish.
Type minimum Data on Data area.
Node

0.50

0.0

0.0

0.50

0.50

0.0

0.50

Y X
Z

## 1 No. Plate created

(Note: Plate shall be preferably connected in anticlockwise direction.)
Select Plate 1 created. Click Translational Repeat icon.
Global direction X
No. of steps

=18

## Default spacing =0.50m

(9.50-0.50)/0.5 =18)
Ok.

Y X
Z

## Select 19 Plates created.

Click Translational Repeat icon.
Global Direction Z
No. of steps

=19

(10.0-0.50)/0.5 =19)

## Default spacing =0.50m

Ok.

2. Member Property :
Select all the plates using Plate cursor Assign to selected plates
Assign
Yes.

Y X
Z

R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1
R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1
R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1
R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1
R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1
R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1
R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1
R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1
R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1
R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1
R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1
R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1
R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1
R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1
R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1
R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1
R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1
R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1
R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1
R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1

3. Supports :
Calculation of Sub grade reaction :
SBC =120KN/m2
Elastic mat subgrade reaction value is KN/m2/m
As per Bowels subgrade modulus =40 x FOS x SBC
(for 25mm settlement)
FOS =2.5 to 3
Sub grade modulus =40 x (2.5 to 3) x SBC
= 100 to 120 tomes SBC = X
For 50mm settlement

=X/2

## For 75mm settlement

= X/3

= SBC/ settlement of 25 mm

(OR)

## =120KN/m2/0.025 =4800 KN/m2/m.

Ks =subgrade reaction = 100 to 120 times SBC say 100 x 120
=100x120 =12,000KN/m2
Ka= End plate = area x ks
= (0.50/2 x 0.50/2) x 12000
= 0.0625 x 12000 = 750 KN/m3

## Kb = Middle plate = area x ks

= (0.50 x 0.5/2) x 12000
=0.125 x 12000 = 1500 KN/m3
Kc = Interior plate = area x ks
= (0.50x 0.50) x 12000
=0.25 x 12000 = 3000 KN/m3

For ka

ky =750 KN/m3

For kb

ky = 1500 KN/m3

For kc

ky = 3000 KN/m3

## Select corner node ka

Ky=750KN/m3 Assign.

## Select intermediate end plates for kb Ky =1500KN/m3 assign.

Select all intermediate node kc for Ky=3000KN/m3 Assign.

Self weight

Factor=-1

Select Fy =-250 KN Select all column support node Assign.
Select Fy =-150KN Select all column support nodes Assign.
Name: 1.5 (DL+LL) Normal Factor Default :1.5

1=1.5

2=1.5 Close.

Ok Close.
5. Analysis Type:
Main menu Commands Analysis Perform Analysis No Print Ok.
6 .Post Analysis print:
Main menuCommands Post analysis print Support reactions Ok.
7 . Design:

## Main menu Commands Design Concrete Design Current

code=IS456
Main menu Tools Set current input unit= length=mm;
Force =N OK. Select all plate elements Define Parameters
Fc=25 Assign
Fymain=415 Assign
Fysec=415 Assign
Max Main=16 Assign
Min Main=10 Assign Close.
Click Commands Design slab elements AddClose
Go to top view & select entire plate using plate cursor Assign to
selected plates
Assign Yes.
8 .Analysis:
Main menu Analysis Run Analysis Done.
9. Results:
POST PROCESSING
Go to post processing mode. Maximize screen. Select Load case
and see the deflections.
Click Bending Moment Mz icon.
Results View valueBeam results
Bending Moment Ends Mid span Annotate Close
Click Shear Force Fy icon
Results View valueBeam results
Shear Force Ends Annotate Close
Click Axial Force icon FX
Results View valueBeam results.
Axial Force Ends Annotate Close.

Report:
Click Report set up.
Available

Selected

Input

Sections
Supports

Output

## Beam End Forces

Reactions
Beam max. Axial Forces
Beam Max. Moments
Beam Force Details Summary Ok

## Report Preview Report.

To Take picture:
Click take picture icon Enter the title of the sketch. Then Go to report set
up.
Select picture Album. If you want to change the sketch title enter the
title in
caption. Adjust the picture size by adjusting height & width. Select Full
page.
To export Results in word file:
File Export Report MS word file. Click save.