Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 4

Historical Timeline of Philippine Literature

Historical Background
Long time before the Spaniards and other foreigners landed on Philippine shores, our forefathers
already had their own literature stamped in the history of our race.
Our ancient literature shows our customs and traditions in everyday life as traced in our folk
stories, old plays and short stories.
Our ancient ancestors also had their own alphabet which was different from that brought by the
Spaniards. The first alphabet used by our ancestors was similar to that of the Malayo-Polynesian
alphabet.
Whatever records our ancestors left were either burned by the Spaniards friars in the belief that
they were works of the devil or were written on materials that easily perished, like the barks of
trees, dried leaves and bamboo cylinders which could not have remained undestroyed even if
efforts were made to preserve them
Other records that remained showed folk songs that proved the existence of a native culture
truly our own. Some of these were passed on by word of mouth till they reached the hands of
some publishers or printers who took interest in printing the manuscripts of the ancient Filipinos.
The Spaniards who came to the Philippines tried to prove that our ancestors were really fond of
poetry, songs, stories, riddles and proverbs which we still enjoy today and which serve to show to
generations the true culture of our people.
PRE-COLONIAL PERIOD (--BC to 1564)
A. Characteristics
1.Based on oral traditions
2.Crude on ideology and phraseology
B. Literary Forms
Oral Literature
a. Riddles (bugtong) battle of wits among participants
Tigmo Cebu
Paktakon Ilonggo
Patotdon Bicol
b. Proverbs (salawikain) wise sayings that contain a metaphor used to teach as a food for
thought etc.
c. Tanaga - a mono-riming heptasyllabic quatrain expressing insights and lessonson life is "more
emotionally charged than the terse proverb and thus hasaffinities with the folk lyric."
2.Folk Songs It is a form of folk lyric which expresses the hopes and aspirations, the
people'slifestyles as well as their loves. These are often repetitive and sonorous, didactic
andnaivea.
Hele or oyayi lullaby
b. Ambahan (Mangyan) 7-syllable per line poem that are about humanrelationships and social
entertainment
c. Kalusan (Ivatan) - work songs that depict the livelihood of the peopled.
d. Tagay (Cebuano and Waray) drinking song.
e. Kanogan (Cebuano) song of lamentation for the dead
Folk Tales
Myths explain how the world was created, how certain animals possess certain characteristics,
why some places have waterfalls, volcanoes, mountains, flora or fauna.
Legends explain the origin of things Why the Pineapple Has EyesThe Legend of Maria Makiling
c. Fables used animal characters and allegoryd.Fantasti stories deal with underworld
characters such as tiyanak,aswang, kapre and others.
E
pics These are narratives of sustained length based on oral tradition revolving
aroundsupernatural events or heroic deeds (Arsenio Manuel)
Examples: Lam-ang (Ilocano) Hinilawod (Panay) Kudaman (Palawan) Darangen (Maranao)
Owing to the works of our own archaeologists, ethnologists and anthropologists, we are able to know more
and better judge information about our pre-colonial times set against a bulk of material about early Filipinos as
recorded by Spanish, Chinese, Arabic and other chroniclers of the past.

Pre-colonial inhabitants of our islands showcase a rich past through their folk speeches, folk songs, folk
narratives and indigenous rituals and mimetic dances that affirm our ties with our Southeast Asian neighbors.

II. SPANISH COLONIZATION PERIOD (1565 1863)


Characteristics
1. It has two distinct classifications: religious and secular
It introduced Spanish as the medium of communication.
B.Literary Forms
1. Religious Literature - Religious lyrics written by ladino poets or those versed in both Spanish
and Tagalog were included in early catechism and were used toteach Filipinos the Spanish
language.
a. Pasyon long narrative poem about the passion and death of Christ. The most popular was
Ang Mahal na Passion ni Jesu Cristong Panignoon Natin byAguino de Belen
b.Senakulo dramatization of the pasyon, it shows the passion and death of Christ
Secular (non-religious)
Literature
a.Awit - colorful tales of chivalry made for singing and chanting Example: Ibong Adarna
b.Korido metrical tale written in octosyllabic quatrainsExample: Florante at Laura by Francisco
Baltazar
c. Prose Narratives written to prescribe proper decorum i. Dialogo
iii. Ejemplo ii.Manual de Urbanidad iv. tratado Examples: Modesto de Castro's "Pagsusulatan ng
Dalawang Binibini na siUrbana at si Feliza" and Joaquin Tuason's "Ang Bagong Robinson" (The
New Robinson) in 1879.
While it is true that Spain subjugated the Philippines for more mundane reasons, this former European power
contributed much in the shaping and recording of our literature. Religion and institutions that represented
European civilization enriched the languages in the lowlands, introduced theater which we would come to know
as komedya, the sinakulo, the sarswela, the playlets and the drama. Spain also brought to the country, though
at a much later time, liberal ideas and an internationalism that influenced our own Filipino intellectuals and
writers for them to understand the meanings of liberty and freedom.
Literature in this period may be classified as religious prose and poetry and secular prose and poetry.

III. NATIONALISTIC / PROPAGANDA AND REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD(1864 1896)


Characteristics
Planted seeds of nationalism in Filipinos
Language shifted from Spanish to Tagalog
3.Addressed the masses instead of the intelligentsia
B.Literary Forms
1. Propaganda Literature - Reformatory in objective
a. Political Essays satires, editorials and news articles were written to attackand expose the
evils of Spanish rule
i.Diariong Tagalog founded by Marcelo del Pilar
ii.La Solidaridad whose editor-in-chief is Graciano Lopez-Jaena
Political Novels
i. Noli Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo Jose Rizals masterpiecesthat paved the way to the
revolution
2.Revolutionary Literature more propagandistic than literary as it is moreviolent in nature and
demanded complete independence for the country
a.Political Essays helped inflame the spirit of revolutioni.
Kalayaan newspaper of the society, edited by Emilio Jacinto
b. Poetry True Decalogue Apolinario Mabini
Katapusang Hibik ng Pilipinas Andres Bonifacio
Liwanag at Dilim Emilio Jacinto

IV. AMERICAN COLONIAL PERIOD (1910 1945)


Period of Apprenticeship (1910-1930)
1.Filipino Writers imitated English and American models
2.Poems -- written were amateurish and mushy, which phrasing and diction is awkward and
artificial.
a.Short Stories
i.Dead Stars Paz Marquez Benitez
ii.The Key Paz Latorena
iii.Footnote to Youth Jose Garcia Villa
b.Novels
i. Childe of Sorrow first novel in English, by Zoilo Galang
B. Period of Emergence (1920-1930)
Highly influenced by Western literary trends like Romanticism and Realism.
a. Short Stories most prevalent literary form
i. Jose Garcia Villa earned the international title Poet of theCentury
A new set of colonizers brought about new changes in Philippine literature. New literary forms such as free
verse [in poetry], the modern short story and the critical essay were introduced. American influence was deeply
entrenched with the firm establishment of English as the medium of instruction in all schools and with literary
modernism that highlighted the writers individuality and cultivated consciousness of craft, sometimes at the
expense of social consciousness.
The last throes of American colonialism saw the flourishing of Philippine literature in English at the same
time, with the introduction of the New Critical aesthetics, made writers pay close attention to craft and
indirectly engendered a disparaging attitude towards vernacular writings a tension that would recur in the
contemporary period.
V. JAPANESE OCCUPATION (1942 - 1960) War Years (1942-1944)
1. Tagalog poets broke away from the Balagtas tradition and insteadwrote in simple language
and free verse
2.Fiction prevailed over poetry
a.25 Pinakamabuting Maikling Kthang Pilipino (1943) compilation of theshort story contest by
the military government.
Suyuan sa Tubigan Macario Pineda
Lupang Tinubuan Narciso Reyes
Uhaw ang Tigang na Lupa Liwayway Arceo
B.Period of Maturity and Originality (1945-1960)
1.Bountiful harvest in poetry, fiction, drama and essay
2.Filipino writers mastered English and familiarized themselves iwhtdiverse techniques
3.Literary giants appeared
a. Palanca Awards for Literature
i.Jose Garcia Villa
ii.Nick Joaquin
iii.NVM Gonzales
iv.Bienvenido Santos
v.Gregorio Brillantes
vi.Gilda CorderoFernando
b.National Artist Awards
i.Jose Garcia Villa
ii.Nick Joaquian

CONTEMPORARY/MODERN PERIOD (1960 PRESENT)


A. Characteristics
1.Martial Law repressed and curtailed human rights, including freedom of thepress
2.Writers used symbolisms and allegories to drive home their message, at theface of heavy
censorship
Theater was used as a vehicle for protest, such as the PETA (Phil. Educational Theater
Association) and UP Theater.
From the eighties onwards, writers continue to show dynamism and innovation
The flowering of Philippine literature in the various languages continue especially with the appearance of
new publications after the Martial Law years and the resurgence of committed literature in the 1960s and the
1970s.
Filipino writers continue to write poetry, short stories, novellas, novels and essays whether these are
socially committed, gender/ethnic related or are personal in intention or not.
Of course the Filipino writer has become more conscious of his art with the proliferation of writers
workshops here and abroad and the bulk of literature available to him via the mass media including the
internet. The various literary awards such as the Don Carlos Palanca Memorial Awards for Literature, the
Philippines Free Press, Philippine Graphic, Home Life and Panorama literary awards encourage him to
compete with his peers and hope that his creative efforts will be rewarded in the long run.

Похожие интересы