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The peak incidence occurs during wet season since this is the time were mosquitoes

most likely lay their eggs and reproduce. The risk is higher for those staying in places with
nearby stagnant water reservoirs and no mosquito protection, but transmission can occur in
any urban areas including downtown business areas. The transmission of this disease is
through the bite of mosquitoes specifically the female mosquitoes under the genus Aedes.
Other Aedes species that could infect humans are A. albopictus, A. polynesiensis and A.
scutellaris. They are commonly day biting mosquitoes but there are recorded incidents that
they as well could infect at night time.
Proliferation of this mosquito-borne disease can be prevented with the use of major
tool in mosquito control, the application of synthetic larvicide such as
dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane(DDT), but it has been found out that DTT can pose serious
health effects causing genotoxicity, acute and chronic toxicity and other major
complications on humans (Belle et al., 2002). According to Sandanasamy, when it is to be
continually used to control the proliferation of these mosquitoes it would be absorbed and
distributed in the environment thus causing damage to the biodiversity (Chowdhury et
al.,2008). Aside from these, synthetic larvicides have high cost that is why the researchers
look for an alternative larvicide which is eco-friendly and cost effective in lieu of the
synthetic one.
Azadirachta indica (Neem tree) from the family Meliaceae a tree native in Asia.
Studies have been conducted with regards to identifying the components of the extract. Its
efficacy and efficiency as an insect repellent has long been recognized for its content
azadirachtin, a complex tetranortri- terpenoid limonoid from the A. indica. It is the main
component responsible for both antifeedant and toxic effects in insects. The extract from A.
indica contains many related triterpenoids in addition to azadirachtin including 3-tigloylazadirachtin (Azadirachtin B), deacetylnimbin, deacetylgedumin, 17- hydroxyazadiradionr
and salannin (Kishore et al., 2011). Their efficacy is directly related to azadirachtin content
however many of the other compound have biological activity. In addition to its effects, pure
azadirachtin has shown effectiveness in the field of larvicides. Other limonoid and sulphurcontaining compound with repellent, antiseptic, contraceptive, antipyretic and antiparasitic
properties are found elsewhere in the tree, e.g. leaves, flowers, bark, roots. For this reason,
A. indica served as the positive control.
According to Kishore et. al., (2011), Plectranthus scutellarioides from the family
Labiatae contains piperidine alkaloids that is known as a phytochemical in warding off
insects such as mosquitoes. On the other hand, Plectranthus amboinicus which has
abietane diterpenes and triterpenoids that may be an effective mosquito repellent. All three
plants could be seen in house backyards and these could be easily grown.
The study was conducted to know the larvicidal properties of P. scutellariodes and P.
amboinicus against Aedes aegypti in comparison to the biological control which is
Azadirachta indica.
The study was conducted to compare the larvicidal activity of the leaf crude extract
of Plectranthus scutellarioides (Mayana) and Plectranthus amboinicus (Oregano) against

Aedes aegypti with Azadirachta indica (Neem) as positive control. Specifically this study
intended to:
1. determine the presence of phytochemical: terpenoids, phenolic compounds, flavonoids,
saponins, anthraquinones and essential oils found in Plectranthus scutellarioides, and
Plectranthus amboinicus
2. determine the mortality of A. aegypti in the two leaf crude extract using larvicidal
bioassay method in three different concentrations (6 ppm, 12 ppm, and 60 ppm)
3. determine the sublethal concentration of the two leaf crude extract and
4. compare the mortality of each of the treatments using Independent sample test

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