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Unit 2 Resources

The Cell

A GLENCOE PROGRAM

BIOLOGY

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Glencoe/McGraw-Hill
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ISBN 13: 978-0-07-874606-2
ISBN 10: 0-07-874606-X
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Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Copyright by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Permission is granted to reproduce the material contained herein on the condition
that such material be reproduced only for classroom use; be provided to students,
teachers, and families without charge; and be used solely in conjunction with the
Glencoe Biology program. Any other reproduction, for use or sale, is prohibited
without prior written permission of the publisher.

Table of
Contents
To the Teacher . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iv

Unit 2 The Cell


Reproducible Student Pages
Student Lab Safety Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Chapter 6
Chemistry in Biology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Chapter 7
Cellular Structure and Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Chapter 8
Cellular Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
Chapter 9

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Cellular Reproduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113

Teacher Guide and Answers


Chapter 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
Chapter 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
Chapter 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166
Chapter 9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173

iii

To the Teacher
This unit-based booklet contains resource materials to help you teach this unit more
effectively. You will find the following in the chapters:

Reproducible Pages
Hands-on Activities
Launch Lab, MiniLab, and BioLab Worksheets: Each activity in this book is an expanded
version of each lab that appears in the Student Edition of Glencoe Biology. All materials lists, procedures, and questions are repeated so that students can read and complete
a lab in most cases without having a textbook on the lab table. All lab questions are
reprinted with lines on which students can write their answers. In addition, for student
safety, all appropriate safety symbols and caution statements have been reproduced on
these expanded pages. Answer pages for each Launch Lab, MiniLab, and BioLab are
included in the Teacher Guide and Answers section at the back of this book.

Extension and Intervention


Diagnostic Test: Each Diagnostic Test provides an opportunity for students to predict
answers to questions about the chapter content based on what they already know. The
students decide on one of the possible answers given, and then explain their reasoning. Answers to the questions and explanations for student preconceptions are given in
the Teacher Guide and Answers section. These student predictions to the questions will
allow you to design your lessons to meet the students needs.

Enrichment: Enrichment pages offer research activities to students who need additional
challenges. There are three types of Enrichment activities: Diagramming, Analyze a
Problem, and Group Project. Diagramming activities have students use resources to
draw and label their own diagrams. Analyze a Problem activities have students research,
discuss, and write about specific topics. Group Project activities have students work in
groups to research topics, organize information, and make class presentations.

iv

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Real-World Biology: These two-page activities provide students with the opportunity
to explore a technological or everyday application of biology. There are two types of
Real-World Biology pages: Lab activities and Analysis activities. Each activity is directly
related to a major concept in the Student Edition, and several examine principles from
the physical sciences that underlie the biology content. While some activities are more
hands-on, all require critical thinking and creativity. The teaching notes in the Teacher
Guide and Answers section at the back of this book suggest chapters and topics with
which to correlate the activities, explain the purpose of each activity, present career
applications for the relevant field of science, offer materials tips and safety tips for the
Lab activities, provide teaching strategies that include ideas for below-level and abovelevel students, and give answers to all questions on the student pages.

To the Teacher

continued

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Concept Mapping: The Concept Mapping worksheets reinforce and extend the graphic
organizational skills introduced in the Skill Handbook in the Student Edition. Concept
maps are visual representations of relationships among particular concepts. By using
these worksheets, students will gain experience with six different types of concept maps:
the network tree, which shows causal information, group hierarchies, and branching
procedures; the flowchart, which is similar to an events chain but has more possibilities for events; the cycle map, which shows a series of events without a final outcome;
the Venn diagram, which illustrates similarities and differences between items; the
events chain, which describes the stages of a process, the steps in a linear procedure, or
a sequence of events; and the cycle map, which shows how a series of events interacts to
produce a set of results again and again.
There is one Concept Mapping worksheet for each chapter in the Student Edition.
Each worksheet is geared toward a specific section or sections in the chapter so that you
can assign it at the most relevant time. An entire section or just a few key concepts from
the section might be mapped. Answers to all Concept Mapping worksheets are provided
in the Teacher Guide and Answers section at the back of this book.

Study Guide in English and Spanish: These pages help students understand, organize,
and compare the main biology concepts in the textbook. The questions and activities
also help build strong study and reading skills. There are four study guide pages for each
chapter. Students will find these pages easy to follow because the section titles match
those in the textbook. Italicized sentences in the study guide direct students to the
related topics in the text.
The Study Guide exercises employ a variety of formats including multiple-choice,
matching, true/false, ordering, labeling, completion, and short answer questions. The
clear, easy-to-follow exercises and the self-pacing format are geared to build your students confidence in understanding biology. The English pages are followed immediately by the study guide pages in Spanish.

Section Quick Check: The Section Quick Check pages provide students an overview of
the text using a short-answer format. Each page of questions is correlated to a section of
the Student Edition, and the items are different from those in the Student Edition for
broader coverage of section content. The questions utilize Blooms verbs and are scaffolded according to difficulty from easiest to hardest.

Chapter Tests: The Chapter Tests are arranged in five parts with five different types of
questions. These worksheets provide materials to assess your students understanding of
concepts from each chapter in the unit.

Test A (below level): Multiple Choice, Matching, Interpreting, Short Answer, and
Concept Application
Test B (on level): Multiple Choice, Matching and Completion, Interpreting, Short
Answer, and Concept Application
Test C (above level): Multiple Choice, Matching and Completion, Interpreting, Short
Answer, and Concept Application

To the Teacher

continued

The Multiple Choice, Matching, and Completion questions test comprehension of the
vocabulary of the chapter.
The Interpreting questions ask the student to combine factual and explanatory information. Students will need to interpret data and discover relationships presented in
graphs, tables, and diagrams.
The Short Answer questions allow the student to express understanding of the information. Students will apply their understanding of concepts to solve problems, compare
and contrast situations, make inferences or predictions, and explain their reasoning.
The Concept Application questions present the student with a situation. These
situations give the student the opportunity to demonstrate both reasoning and
creative skills.

Student Recording Sheet: Student Recording Sheets allow students to use the Chapter
Assessment and the Standardized Test Practice questions in the Student Edition as a
practice for standardized tests. Student Recording Sheets give them the opportunity
to use bubble answer grids and numbers grids for recording answers. Answers for the
Student Recording Sheets can be found in the Teacher Wraparound Edition on Chapter
Assessment and Standardized Test Practice pages.

Teacher Guide and Answers: Answers or possible answers for questions in this booklet
can be found in the Teacher Guide and Answers section. Materials, teaching strategies, and content background, along with chapter references, are also provided where
appropriate.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

vi

Teacher Approval Initials


Date of Approval

Student Lab Safety Form


Student Name:
Date:
Lab Title:
In order to show your teacher that you understand the safety concerns of this lab, the
following questions must be answered after the teacher explains the information to you.
You must have your teacher initial this form before you can proceed with the lab.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

1. How would you describe what you will be doing during this lab?

2. What are the safety concerns associated with this lab (as explained by your teacher)?

3. What additional safety concerns or questions do you have?

Adapted from Gerlovich, et al. (2004). The Total Science Safety System CD, JaKel, Inc.
Used with Permission.
1

Table of
Contents

Reproducible Pages

Chapter 6 Chemistry in Biology


Diagnostic Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Launch Lab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
MiniLab (1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
MiniLab (2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
BioLab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Real-World Biology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Enrichment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Concept Mapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Study Guide (English) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Study Guide (Spanish) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Section Quick Check 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

Section Quick Check 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23


Section Quick Check 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Chapter Test A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Chapter Test B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Chapter Test C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Student Recording Sheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Section Quick Check 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22

Name

Diagnostic
Test

Date

Class

CHAPTER 6

Chemistry in Biology

Before reading Chapter 6, predict answers to questions about the chapter content based on what
you already know. Circle the letter of the correct answer, and then explain your reasoning.
1. Derek is watching a documentary about the scientists who worked on the
Manhattan Project and who succeeded in splitting atoms. The documentary
explains what makes up atoms. Which explanation is given?
A. Atoms are composed of electrical charges that are made of only energy.
B. Atoms are hard, solid balls of matter that are the smallest known particles.
C. Atoms are made of a hard particle called a nucleus surrounded by electrons.
D. Atoms are made of three particles called electrons, neutrons, and protons.

Explain.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

2. Jackies uncle is undergoing radioactive iodine treatments for thyroid cancer. The
radioactive iodine used by the doctor is an isotope of the element iodine. Jackie
researches the term isotope. Which definition for the term does she learn?
A. atoms of the same element with a different number of neutrons
B. atoms of the same element with a different number of protons
C. atoms of the same element with a negative charge
D. atoms of the same element with a positive charge

Explain.

3. Abla is taking a nutrition class as an elective. She learns about the four most
common organic macromolecules in human beings. About what macromolecules
does she learn?

Unit 2

CHAPTER 6 Chemistry in Biology

Name

Date

Launch Lab

Class

CHAPTER 6

How does the nutrient content


of foods compare?

Your bodys structure and function depends on chemical elements. The chemical ingredients that your body
needs to function properly are found in nutrients like fats, protein, carbohydrates, minerals, vitamins, and
water. In this lab, you will investigate those nutrients.

Procedure
1. Read and complete the lab safety form.
2. Construct a data chart to record grams or
percent of each nutrient listed in the lab introduction. Include columns labeled Serving Size,
Calories, and Calories from Fat.

3. Study the Nutrition Facts label on a cereal box.


Record data for the cereal provided.
4. Choose three additional labeled food items.
Predict how the nutrients in these items compare with the nutrients in the cereal. Use the
Nutrition Facts label to record data for each item.

Data and Observations

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Analysis
1. Evaluate What factors influenced your predictions of the nutrient content of the
food items? Were your predictions correct? Explain.

2. Infer Which food item has the greatest nutritional value per serving? Justify
your answer.

Chemistry in Biology CHAPTER 6

Unit 2

Name

MiniLab

Date

Class

CHAPTER 6

Test for Simple Sugars

What common foods contain glucose? Glucose is a simple sugar that provides energy
for cells. In this lab, you will use a reagent called Benedicts solution, which indicates the
presence of CHO (carbon, hydrogen, oxygen) groups. A color change determines the
presence of glucose and other simple sugars in common foods.

Procedure
1. Read and complete the lab safety form.
2. Create a data table with columns labeled Food
Substance, Sugar Prediction, Observations, and
Results.
3. Choose four food substances from those provided. Read the food labels and predict the presence of simple sugar in each food. Record your
prediction.

4. Prepare a hot water bath using a hot plate and


1000-mL beaker.
5. Label four test tubes. Obtain a graduated cylinder. Add 10 mL of a different food substance to
each test tube. Then add 10 mL distilled water.
Swirl gently to mix.
6. Add 5 mL of Benedicts solution to each tube.
Use a clean stirring rod to mix the contents.
7. Using test tube holders, warm the test tubes
in the hot water bath for 23 min. Record your
observations and results.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Data and Observations

Analysis
1. Interpret Data Did any of the foods contain simple sugars? Explain.

2. Think Critically Could a food labeled sugar free test positive using Benedicts
solution as an indicator? Explain.

Unit 2

CHAPTER 6 Chemistry in Biology

Name

Date

MiniLab

Class

CHAPTER 6

Investigate Enzymatic Browning

What factors affect enzymatic browning? When sliced, an apples soft tissue is exposed
to oxygen, causing a chemical reaction called oxidation. Enzymes in the apple speed this
reaction, producing darkened, discolored fruit. In this lab, you will investigate methods
used to slow enzymatic browning.

Procedure
1. Read and complete the lab safety form.
2. Predict the relative amount of discoloration each
of these apple wedges will show when exposed to
air. Justify your prediction.
Sample 1: Untreated apple wedge
Sample 2: Apple wedge submerged in boiling
water
Sample 3: Apple wedge submerged in lemon juice
Sample 4: Apple wedge submerged in sugar
solution

3. Prepare 75 mL of each of the following: boiling


water, lemon juice, and sugar solution in three
250-mL beakers.
4. Slice an apple into four wedges. Immediately use
tongs to submerge each wedge in a different liquid. Put one wedge aside.
5. Submerge the wedges for three minutes, then
place on a paper towel, skin side down. Observe
for 10 min, then record the relative amount of
discoloration of each apple wedge.

Data and Observations

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Analysis
1. Analyze How did each treatment affect the chemical reaction that occurred on the
fruits soft tissue? Why were some of the treatments successful?

2. Think Critically A restaurant owner wants to serve fresh-cut fruit. What factors
might be considered in choosing a recipe and preparation method?

Chemistry in Biology CHAPTER 6

Unit 2

Name

Design Your Own

BioLab

Date

Class

CHAPTER 6

What factors affect an


enzyme reaction?

Background: The compound hydrogen peroxide, H2O2, is produced when organisms


metabolize food, but hydrogen peroxide damages cell parts. Organisms combat the
buildup of H2O2 by producing the enzyme peroxidase. Peroxidase speeds up the breakdown of hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen.
Question: What factors affect peroxidase activity?

Materials
Choose materials that would be appropriate for this
lab. Possible materials include:
400-mL beaker
kitchen knife
hot plate
test-tube rack
ice
beef liver
dropper
distilled water

18-mm 150-mm test tubes


buffer solutions (pH 5, pH 6, pH 7, pH 8)
50-mL graduated cylinder
10-mL graduated cylinder
tongs or large forceps
square or rectangular pan
stopwatch or timer
nonmercury thermometer
3% hydrogen peroxide
potato slices

Safety Precautions

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

WARNING: Use only GFCI-protected circuits for


electrical devices.

Plan and Perform the Experiment


1. Read and complete the lab safety form.
2. Choose a factor to test. Possible factors include
temperature, pH, and substrate (H2O2)
concentration.
3. Form a hypothesis about how the factor will
affect the reaction rate of peroxidase.
4. Design an experiment to test your hypothesis.
Create a procedure and identify the controls and
variables.

Unit 2

5. On a separate sheet of paper, create a data


table for recording your observations and
measurements.
6. Make sure your teacher approves your plan
before you proceed.
7. Conduct your approved experiment.
8. Cleanup and Disposal Clean up all equipment
as instructed by your teacher and return everything to its proper place. Wash your hands thoroughly with soap and water.

CHAPTER 6 Chemistry in Biology

Design Your Own BioLab, What factors affect an enzyme reaction?

continued

Analyze and Conclude


1. Describe how the factor you tested affected the enzyme activity of peroxidase.

2. Graph your data, then analyze and interpret your graph.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

3. Discuss whether or not your data supported your hypothesis.

4. Infer why hydrogen peroxide is not the best choice for cleaning an open wound.

5. Error Analysis Identify any experimental errors or other errors in your data that
might have affected the accuracy of your results.

Chemistry in Biology CHAPTER 6

Unit 2

Name

Date

Real-World Biology:

Lab

Class

CHAPTER 6

How lean is lean ground beef?

You need fats in your diet for your body to function properly, but the amount of fat and
the kind of fat you eat can affect your health. The best fats in your diet are unsaturated
fats. These fats help keep you healthy when they are eaten in moderation. Unsaturated
fats can be monounsaturated (one double bond between carbon atoms) or polyunsaturated (more than one double bond between carbon atoms). Sources of monounsaturated fats include olive oil and canola oil. Sources of polyunsaturated fats include
soybean oil, sunflower oil, salmon, and walnuts.
Eating too many fats of any kind can lead to becoming overweight. Saturated fats (no
double bond between carbon atoms) also increase the risk of heart disease. Most saturated fats are found in animal products, such as beef, butter, and whole milk.
Another kind of fat also linked to heart disease is trans-fatty acid, or trans fat. Trans
fats do not exist naturally in foods. Manufacturers make trans fats by adding hydrogen to vegetable oil. This process of hydrogenation turns liquid oils into solid fats and
increases how long foods can keep without spoiling. Trans fats are found in some margarines, shortenings, and many processed foods, such as crackers and cookies.
When people choose foods at a supermarket, they can read labels on processed foods
to determine the amounts of saturated fats, unsaturated fats, and trans fats in the foods.
If they want to buy ground beef, they can choose among different amounts of fat in the
beef. Labels on packages of ground beef might have numbers such as 80/20. This means
the ground beef is 80 percent lean and 20 percent fat. In this activity, you will determine
the fat content of three samples of ground beef.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Procedure
1. Read and complete the lab safety form.
2. Obtain three different samples of ground beef
and label them 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Observe
the appearance of each sample, and record your
observations in Table 1. Based on your observations, predict the percentage lean and percentage
fat that would appear on each samples store label.
3. Using a balance, a large plastic cup, and a
plastic spoon, measure out 100 g of sample 1
ground beef and place it in a large beaker. Fill
the beaker three-fourths full with water, set it
on a hot plate, and heat to boiling.
WARNING: Use care when working with a heat
source. Avoid touching the ground beef with
your hands.
4. Use tongs or gloves to remove the beaker from
the heat source, and allow it to cool 10 min.

5. The fat will form a separate layer above the water.


Pour as much of the fat as you can into a graduated cylinder. Use care so as not to pour off water
into the graduated cylinder. It might be necessary
to gently scrape remaining fat particles from the
beaker and add them to the graduated cylinder.
Determine the volume of fat in sample 1 ground
beef, and record the volume in Table 1. Calculate
the mass of the fat by multiplying the volume of
fat by 0.9 gm/mL, the density of fat.
6. Calculate the percentage of fat by dividing the
mass of fat by the mass of sample 1 and multiplying by 100 percent. Record the percentage of fat.
7. Repeat steps 36 for the other two beef samples.

&AT
7ATER
'ROUNDBEEF

Unit 2

CHAPTER 6 Chemistry in Biology

Real-World Biology: Lab, How lean is lean ground beef? continued


Table 1

Ground
Beef
Sample

Appearance

Prediction of
Percent Lean/
Percent Fat

Volume of
Fat (mL)

Mass of
Fat (g)

Percentage
of Fat in
Sample

1
2
3

Analyze and Conclude


Respond to each question.
1. Explain How accurate were your predictions of the percentage of lean and
percentage of fat of the ground-beef samples?

2. Compare How do the percentage of lean and percentage of fat of the three groundbeef samples compare?

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

3. Connect How does the percentage of fat affect the appearance of ground beef?

Careers In Biology
Dietetics Visit the biologygmh.com for information on dieticians.
What are the responsibilities of a dietician?

10

Chemistry in Biology CHAPTER 6

Unit 2

Name

Date

Class

CHAPTER 6

Enrichment

Group Project: Just One of the Family

Scientists have identified more than ten million organic compounds. To understand and work
with such a large number of compounds, chemists divide organic compounds into a number
of families, with the members of each family having similar physical, chemical, and biological
properties. Each family is characterized by a group of atoms known as a functional group. For
example, the alcohols are a family of organic compounds that contain the hydroxyl (OH)
group. The characteristic properties of the functional group determine to a large extent the
chemical, physical, and biological properties of the members of that family.
Categorize In addition to the families of organic
macromolecules discussed in the text, many simple
organic families are important in biological processes. Some members of those families occur
naturally in plants and animals and have important
biological functions. Others do not occur naturally
in living organisms, but they have important effects
on the functioning of those organisms.

Organic Family

Functional Group

Research Working in a small group, choose one


of the organic families listed in the table below.
Consult reference books at the library to fill in the
table for the organic family your group chose.
Portray Prepare a one-page report on the biological
significance of one member of the organic family
you researched. Work with other groups in the class
on a presentation that will combine the results from
all groups in an interesting and informative way.

Examples

Biological Significance

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Alkanes
Alkenes
Aromatic
hydrocarbons
Alcohols
Aldehydes
Ketones
Esters
Ethers
Carboxylic acids
Amines
Amides
Unit 2

CHAPTER 6 Chemistry in Biology

11

Name

Date

Concept
Mapping

Class

CHAPTER 6

Organic Macromolecules

Complete the network tree about organic macromolecules. These terms may be used more than
once: amino acids, carbohydrates, (CH2O) n, DNA, fatty acid tails, lipids, nucleic acids,
nucleotides.
Organic
Macromolecules

1.

2.

3.

include

which are

proteins

include

are made of
4.

monosaccharides

and have a general


formula of

steroids

which have
a central

and have

5.

RNA

carbon atom
and are made up of

8.

12

Chemistry in Biology CHAPTER 6

Unit 2

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

7.

6.

Name

Date

Class

CHAPTER 6

Study Guide

Section 1: Atoms, Elements, and Compounds

In your textbook, read about the structure of atoms.


Label the diagram of an atom. Use these choices:
electron

energy level

neutron

nucleus

e
1.

p+
n0

proton

3.
4.

2.
5.

In your textbook, read about elements, compounds, and chemical bonds.


If the statement is true, write true. If the statement is false, replace the italicized term or
phrase to make it true.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

6. On the periodic table, each element has a unique name and formula.

7. The periodic table is organized into horizontal rows, called periods, and vertical
columns, called elements.

8. Water is composed of hydrogen and oxygen.

9. Atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons are
called isotopes.

10. The period of an element is the amount of time it takes for half of a radioactive
isotope to decay.

11. A combination is a substance formed when two or more different elements combine.

12. The two main types of chemical bonds are covalent bonds and van der Waals forces.

Unit 2

CHAPTER 6 Chemistry in Biology

13

Name

Date

Class

CHAPTER 6

Study Guide

Section 2: Chemical Reactions

In your textbook, read about reactants and products.


Fill in the blanks with the correct number of molecules to balance the chemical equation.
C6H12O6 +
(1)

O2

CO2 +
(2)

H 2O
(3)

Respond to each statement.


4. State the principle that explains why there must be the same number of atoms of
each element on each side of an equation.

5. Identify which number indicates the number of atoms of each element in a molecule
of a substance.

7ITHOUT%NZYME

In your textbook, read about activation energy


and enzymes.

6. Draw a line on the graph that approximates the


reaction pathway if an enzyme is added to the reactants.

!CTIVATION
ENERGY

89
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

%NERGY

Refer to the graph of the reaction pathway.

89
2EACTIONPROGRESS

Match the description in Column A with the term in Column B.


Column A
7. minimum amount of energy required for reactants
to form products

Column B
A. enzyme
B. substrate

8. substance that lowers energy needed to start a


chemical reaction

C. activation energy

9. protein that is a biological catalyst

D. catalyst

10. molecule that binds to an enzyme

14

Chemistry in Biology CHAPTER 6

Unit 2

Name

Date

Class

CHAPTER 6

Study Guide

Section 3: Water and Solutions

In your textbook, read about waters polarity.


Label the diagram. Use these choices:
covalent bond

hydrogen bond

slightly negative end

slightly positive end




1.

2.


3.

/
(



(
/

4.

(
/

In your textbook, read about mixtures with water.



For each statement below, write true or false.

5. A mixture is a combination of two or more substances in which each


substance retains its individual characteristics.
6. A suspension is a mixture that has a uniform composition throughout.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

7. In a mixture, the solvent is the substance that is dissolved.


8. A mixture of sand and water is a heterogeneous mixture.
9. A suspension is a homogeneous mixture in which water is mixed with
a substance that does not dissolve in it.

In your textbook, read about acids and bases.


Use each of the terms below only once to complete the passage.
acids

bases

biology

buffers

hydrogen ions

neutral

pH

Substances that release hydrogen ions when dissolved in water are called
(10)

. The more (11)

a substance

releases, the more acidic the solution becomes. Substances that release hydroxide ions when dissolved in
water are called (12)

. Acids and bases are key substances in

(13)

. The concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution is called

(14)

. Pure water is (15)

value of 7.0. (16)

and has a pH

are weak acids or weak bases that can react with strong

acids or strong bases to keep the pH within a particular range.


Unit 2

CHAPTER 6 Chemistry in Biology

15

Name

Date

Class

CHAPTER 6

Study Guide

Section 4: The Building Blocks of Life

In your textbook, read about the building blocks of life.


For each statement below, write true or false.
1. Carbon atoms can bond together in straight chains, branched chains,
or rings.
2. Large molecules containing carbon atoms are called micromolecules.
3. Polymers are molecules made from repeating units of identical organic
compounds that are linked together by hydrogen bonds.
4. Carbon is a component of almost all biological substances.
5. Macromolecules can be organized into vitamins, lipids, proteins, and
nucleic acids.

In your textbook, read about carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids.
Label the diagrams. Use these choices: saturated fat, unsaturated fat.
6.

7.

H H H
|
|
|
CCCC
|
|
HO
H H

H H
|
|
CCH
|
H

Complete the table by checking the correct column(s) for each description.
Description

Carbohydrate

Lipid

Protein

Nucleic Acid

8. Stores coded genetic information


9. Makes up fats, oils, and waxes in biology
10. Makes up muscles, skin, and hair
11. Forms double-helix structures
12. Is made of amino acids
13. Includes glucose, lactose, sucrose,
and glycogen
14. Stores energy and is part of membranes
15. Contains peptide bonds

16

Chemistry in Biology CHAPTER 6

Unit 2

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

H H H H H H
|
|
|
|
|
|
CCCCCCCH
|
|
|
|
|
|
HO
H H H H H H

Nombre

Fecha

Gua
de estudio

Curso

CAPTULO 6

Seccin 1: Los tomos, los elementos


y los compuestos

En tu libro de texto, lee acerca de la estructura de los tomos.


Identifica el diagrama de un tomo. Usa estas opciones:
electrn

neutrn

nivel de energa

ncleo

e
1.

protn

3.

p+
n0

4.

2.
5.

En tu libro de texto, lee acerca de los elementos, compuestos y enlaces qumicos.


Si la afirmacin es verdadera, escribe verdadero. Si la afirmacin es falsa, substituye el
trmino o la frase en cursiva para volverla verdadera.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

6. En la tabla peridica, cada elemento tiene un nombre y frmula nicos.

7. La tabla peridica est organizada en filas horizontales, llamadas perodos, y


columnas verticales, llamadas elementos.

8. El agua est compuesta de hidrgeno y oxgeno.

9. Los tomos del mismo elemento que tienen diferentes nmeros de neutrones se
llaman istopos.

10. El perodo de un elemento es la cantidad de tiempo que toma para que la mitad de
un istopo radiactivo decaiga.

11. Una combinacin resulta cuando dos o ms elementos diferentes se combinan.

12. Los dos tipos principales de enlaces qumicos son los enlaces covalentes y las fuerzas
de van der Waals.

Unidad 2

CAPTULO 6 La qumica en la biologa

17

Nombre

Fecha

Gua
de estudio

Curso

CAPTULO 6

Seccin 2: Las reacciones qumicas

En tu libro de texto, lee acerca de los reactantes y los productos.


Llena los espacios en blanco con el nmero correcto de molculas para mantener el balance de
la ecuacin qumica.
C6H12O6 +
(1)

O2

CO2 +
(2)

H 2O
(3)

Responde a cada afirmacin.


4. Indica el principio que explica porqu debe haber el mismo nmero de tomos de
cada elemento en cada lado de una ecuacin.

5. Identifica cmo se indica el nmero de tomos de cada elemento en una molcula


de una sustancia.

3INENZIMA

En tu libro de texto, lee acerca de la energa de activacin


y de las enzimas.

%NERGADE
ACTIVACIN

89

89
0ROGRESODELAREACCIN

Relaciona la descripcin de la columna A con el trmino de la columna B.


Columna A
7. cantidad mnima de energa necesaria para que los
reactantes formen productos

Columna B
A. enzima
B. sustrato

8. sustancia que reduce la energa necesaria para iniciar


una reaccin qumica

C. energa de activacin

9. protena que es un catalizador biolgico

D. catalizador

10. molcula que se enlaza a una enzima

18

La qumica en la biologa CAPTULO 6

Unidad 2

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

6. Traza una lnea en la grfica que aproxima la ruta de


reaccin si se agrega una enzima a los reactantes.

%NERGA

Consulta la grfica de la ruta de reaccin.

Nombre

Fecha

Curso

CAPTULO 6

Gua
de estudio

Seccin 3: El agua y las soluciones

En tu libro de texto, lee acerca de la polaridad del agua.


Identifica el diagrama. Usa estas opciones:
enlace covalente

enlace de hidrgeno

extremo ligeramente negativo

extremo ligeramente positivo




1.

2.



3.

/
(



(
/

4.

(
/

En tu libro de texto, lee acerca de las mezclas con agua.



Para cada afirmacin a continuacin, escribe verdadero o falso.

5. Una mezcla es una combinacin de dos o ms sustancias en la


cuale cada sustancia retiene sus caractersticas individuales.
6. Una suspensin es una mezcla que tiene una composicin
totalmente uniforme.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

7. En una mezcla, el solvente es la sustancia que se disuelve.


8. Una mezcla de arena y agua es una mezcla heterognea.
9. Una suspensin es una mezcla homognea en la cual el agua se
mezcla con una sustancia que no se disuelve en ella.

En tu libro de texto, lee acerca de los cidos y las bases.


Usa cada uno de los siguientes trminos slo una vez para completar el prrafo.
cidos

amortiguadores

bases

biologa

iones de hidrgeno

neutra

pH

Las sustancias que liberan iones de hidrgeno cuando se disuelven en agua se llaman
(10)

. Mientras ms (11)

libere una

sustancia, ms cida se vuelve la solucin. Las sustancias que liberan iones de hidrxido cuando se disuelven
en agua se llaman (12)

. Los cidos y las bases son sustancias clave en la

(13)

. La concentracin de iones de hidrgeno en una solucin se llama

(14)

. El agua pura es (15)

valor de pH de 7.0. Los (16)

y tiene un
son cidos dbiles o bases dbiles que pueden

reaccionar con cidos fuertes o bases fuertes para mantener el pH dentro de un lmite particular.
Unidad 2

CAPTULO 6 La qumica en la biologa

19

Nombre

Fecha

Curso

CAPTULO 6

Gua
de estudio

Seccin 4: Los bloques edificantes de vida

En tu libro de texto, lee acerca de los bloques edificantes de vida.


Para cada afirmacin a continuacin, escribe verdadero o falso.
1. Los tomos de carbono se pueden enlazar en cadenas rectas, cadenas
ramificadas o anillos.
2. Las molculas grandes que contienen tomos de carbono se llaman
micromolculas.
3. Los polmeros son molculas de unidades repetitivas de compuestos
orgnicos idnticos que estn unidos mediante enlaces de hidrgeno.
4. El carbono es un componente de casi todas las sustancias biolgicas.
5. Las macromolculas pueden organizarse en vitaminas, lpidos, protenas y
cidos nucleicos.

En tu libro de texto, lee acerca de los carbohidratos, lpidos, protenas y cidos nucleicos.
Identifica los diagramas. Usa estas opciones: grasa insaturada, grasa saturada.
6.

7.

H H H
|
|
|
CCCC
|
|
HO
H H

H H
|
|
CCH
|
H

Completa la tabla marcando la(s) columna(s) correcta(s) para cada descripcin.


Descripcin

Carbohidratos

Lpidos

Protenas

cidos nucleicos

8. Almacenan informacin gentica


codificada.
9. Constituyen las grasas, los aceites y
las ceras en biologa.
10. Constituyen los msculos, la piel y
el pelo.
11. Forman estructuras de hlice doble.
12. Estn compuestos de aminocidos.
13. Incluyen la glucosa, la lactosa, la
sucrosa y el glicgeno.
14. Almacenan energa y es parte de
las membranas.
15. Contienen enlaces pptidos.
20

La qumica en la biologa CAPTULO 6

Unidad 2

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

H H H H H H
|
|
|
|
|
|
CCCCCCCH
|
|
|
|
|
|
HO
H H H H H H

Name

Section
Quick Check

Date

Class

CHAPTER 6

Section 1: Atoms, Elements,


and Compounds

After reading the section in your textbook, respond to each statement.


1. Define ionic bond.

2. Identify the particles that make up atoms, and state their charges.

3. Clarify the difference between carbon-12 and carbon-14 in terms of their


abundance, stability, and atomic structure.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

4. Oxygen has eight protons in its nucleus. Calculate the number of neutrons and
electrons in a neutral oxygen-16 atom. Show your work and explain.

5. When 200 mL water and 2.5 g sodium chloride are combined, they make a saltwater
solution. When 100 mL water and 5 g sodium chloride are combined, they also make
a saltwater solution. Conclude whether or not salt water is a compound. Explain.

Unit 2

CHAPTER 6 Chemistry in Biology

21

Name

Date

Section
Quick Check

Class

CHAPTER 6

Section 2: Chemical Reactions

After reading the section in your textbook, respond to each statement.


1. State the term for the amount of energy that is needed for a chemical reaction
to occur.

2. Summarize the relationship between an enzyme and a substrate.

3. Classify which of the compounds in the reaction below are reactants and which
are products.
PbO2 + 4HCl PbCl2 + Cl2 + 2H2O

4. Compare endothermic reactions and exothermic reactions.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

5. Predict Suppose four atoms of oxygen gas (O2) and two atoms of hydrogen gas (H2)
are combined. Determine how many atoms of water (H2O) and oxygen gas (O2) will
be produced.

22

Chemistry in Biology CHAPTER 6

Unit 2

Name

Section
Quick Check

Date

Class

CHAPTER 6

Section 3: Water and Solutions

After reading the section in your textbook, respond to each statement.


1. Tell how a solution is made. Use the terms solute and solvent in your answer.

2. Discuss the importance of buffers in biology.

3. Explain why water molecules are polar.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

4. Indicate whether a solution will have more OH or H+ if the pH value of the solution
is 10.

5. Determine whether each of the following is a solution or a heterogeneous mixture:


oil mixed with vinegar by shaking to make a salad dressing that settles into an oil
layer and a vinegar layer; carbon dioxide dissolved in water to make carbonated
water for making soft drinks. Explain.

Unit 2

CHAPTER 6 Chemistry in Biology

23

Name

Date

Section
Quick Check

Class

CHAPTER 6

Section 4: The Building Blocks of Life

After reading the section in your textbook, respond to each statement.


1. Recall what polymers are.

2. Review why carbon can form a variety of organic compounds in a variety of shapes.

3. Express the importance of nucleic acids to living organisms.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

4. Compare and contrast saturated fats and unsaturated fats in terms of their
structures.

5. Assess why the structure of proteins is so complex.

24

Chemistry in Biology CHAPTER 6

Unit 2

Name

Date

Chapter Test

Class

CHAPTER 6

Chemistry in Biology

Part A: Multiple Choice


In the space at the left, write the letter of the term or phrase that best completes each statement
or answers each question.
1. Which defines an atom?
A. building block of energy
B. building block of matter
C. charged particle
D. smallest particle
2. A charged atom that has lost or gained electrons is called a(n)
A. acid.
B. catalyst.
C. ion.
D. isotope.
3. An organic compound is a compound that contains
A. carbon.
B. hydrogen.
C. oxygen.
D. sodium.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Part B: Matching
Matching Set 1 Check the box of the atomic particle that matches each statement. More than
one box may be checked for each statement.
Statement

Electron

Neutron

Proton

1. Positively charged particle


2. Located outside the nucleus
3. Can be shared by two atoms
4. Has no charge

Matching Set 2 Write the letter of the correct term on the line next to its description. Answers
may be used only once.

Unit 2

5. bond that forms when electrons are shared

A. carbon-14

6. bond that forms between charged ions

B. covalent

7. radioactive isotope of carbon

C. ionic

CHAPTER 6 Chemistry in Biology

25

Name

Date

Chapter Test

Class

CONTINUED

Part C: Interpreting Graphs


2ELATIVE#OMPOSITIONOF
,IVINGV.ONLIVING-ATTER

0ERCENTOFRELATIVE
ABUNDANCE



/RGANISMS



%ARTHS#RUST





#A .A
AND AND
-' +

3I /THERS

Use the graph above to respond to the following statement.


1. Identify the three most abundant elements found in living things.

(ALF ,IFEOF#ARBON 

Use the graph at the right to respond to the following


question.











 

 

 

 

4IMEELAPSEDY

Write your response to each statement in the


space provided.
1. Define element.

26

Chemistry in Biology CHAPTER 6

Unit 2

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Part D: Short Answer

!MOUNTOFCARBONG



2. Interpret How long does it take for one half of a


sample of carbon-14 to decay?

Name

Chapter Test

Date

Class

CONTINUED

2. State the role of enzymes in chemical reactions.

3. List three macromolecules used in the human body.

Part E: Concept Application


Write your response to each statement in the space provided.
1. Infer why living things depend on the ability of water to dissolve many substances
such as vitamins and minerals.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

2. Infer why a small amount of fats are a necessary part of a healthy diet.

Unit 2

CHAPTER 6 Chemistry in Biology

27

Name

Date

Chapter Test

Class

CHAPTER 6

Chemistry in Biology

Part A: Multiple Choice


In the space at the left, write the letter of the term or phrase that best completes each statement
or answers each question.
1. Ions form when
A. an atom gains neutrons.
B. an atom loses neutrons.
C. one atom gives up a proton to another atom.
D. one atom gives up an electron to another atom.
2. A chemical reaction is a process by which atoms or groups of atoms in substances are
A. dissolved in other substances.
B. ionized by the loss of protons.
C. mixed together with atoms in other substances.
D. reorganized into different substances.
3. Which equation is balanced properly?
A. 3O2 + 2Al 2AlO3
B. 3O2 + Al 3AlO3
C. 4O2 + 3Al 4AlO3
D. 4O2 + Al AlO3

5. Which substance would be extensively studied during a college organic chemistry course?
A. glucose
B. oxygen
C. sodium
D. water

Part B: Matching and Completion


Matching Write the letter of the correct macromolecule on the line next to its description.
Answers may be used only once or not at all.
1. provides energy for organisms

A. carbohydrate

2. does not dissolve in water

B. lipid

3. communicates genetic information

C. nucleic acid
D. protein

28

Chemistry in Biology CHAPTER 6

Unit 2

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

4. Which is an example of a solute?


A. soil suspended in water
B. sugar that is dissolved in water
C. water that dissolves salt
D. water with undissolved soil

Name

Date

Chapter Test

Class

CONTINUED

Completion Write the correct term in the blank to complete each sentence below.
4. The building blocks of all matter are called

5. Magnesium and oxygen combine to form a new substance, magnesium oxide, which is

a(n)

6. A positively charged potassium atom is called a(n)

7. The oxygen formed during the chemical reaction of photosynthesis is called

a(n)

8. An acid is a substance that releases

Part C: Interpreting Graphs


2ELATIVE#OMPOSITIONOF
,IVINGV.ONLIVING-ATTER

/RGANISMS



%ARTHS#RUST




!MOUNTOFCARBONG

0ERCENTOFRELATIVE
ABUNDANCE



(ALF ,IFEOF#ARBON 








Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

"

#A .A
AND AND
-' +

3I /THERS





 

 

 

 

4IMEELAPSEDY

Use the first graph above to respond to the following statement.


1. Identify the three most abundant elements found in living things labeled AC.
A.

B.

C.

Use the second graph above to respond to the following question.


2. Interpret Approximately what percentage of the original carbon-14 will remain

in a 11,500-year-old mastodon?

Part D: Short Answer


Write your response to each statement in the space provided.
1. Compare and contrast an electron, proton, and neutron.

Unit 2

CHAPTER 6 Chemistry in Biology

29

Name

Date

Chapter Test

Class

CONTINUED

2. Compare and contrast covalent and ionic bonds.

3. Explain the relationship between enzymes and the activation energy of a


chemical reaction.

Part E: Concept Application


Write your response to each statement in the space provided.
1. Propose how chemists would use the periodic table of the elements to make
new compounds.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

2. Infer Sodium is a metal that reacts violently with water, and chlorine is a toxic gas.
Table salt is a compound made of sodium and chlorine. Infer how humans can
ingest these two dangerous elements in the form of table salt.

3. Explain Human skin contains lipids. Explain why this is a useful survival
mechanism.

30

Chemistry in Biology CHAPTER 6

Unit 2

Name

Date

Chapter Test

Class

CHAPTER 6

Chemistry in Biology

Part A: Multiple Choice


In the space at the left, write the letter of the term, phrase, or sentence that best completes each
statement or answers each question.
1. Which is true in a covalent bond?
A. The bond forms between ions.
B. The bond forms when electrons are shared.
C. The bond holds atoms weakly.
D. The bond is caused by van der Waals forces.
2. Elements are placed into the same period on the periodic table of the elements
because they
A. form the same type of chemical bonds.
B. form the same type of isotopes.
C. have the same chemical properties.
D. have the same number of electron energy levels.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

3. Which equation satisfies the law of conservation of matter?


A. 3O2 + 2Al 2AlO3
B. 3O2 + Al 3AlO3
C. 4O2 + 3Al 4AlO3
D. 4O2 + Al AlO3
4. Biological buffers function to achieve a pH range of
A. 4.55.5
C. 6.57.5
B. 5.56.5
D. 7.58.5
5. Which macromolecule is involved in nearly every function in the human body?
A. carbohydrate
C. nucleotide
B. lipid
D. protein
6. Which macromolecule stores energy for an organism?
A. carbohydrate
C. nucleotide
B. lipid
D. protein

Part B: Completion
Write the correct term in the blank to complete each sentence below.
1. Positively charged particles in an atom are called

2. Two atoms of uranium that differ in their number of neutrons are

called

3. The chemical formula of a compound formed with boron and fluorine

is

Unit 2

CHAPTER 6 Chemistry in Biology

31

Name

Date

Chapter Test

Class

CONTINUED

4. The hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon atoms in a glucose molecule are held together

by

5. Because ammonia releases hydroxide ions, it is called a(n)

6. The branch of science that studies carbon compounds is called

Part C: Interpreting Graphs


2ELATIVE#OMPOSITIONOF
,IVINGV.ONLIVING-ATTER

/RGANISMS



%ARTHS#RUST




!MOUNTOFCARBONG

0ERCENTOFRELATIVE
ABUNDANCE



(ALF ,IFEOF#ARBON 







"

#A .A
AND AND
-' +

3I /THERS





 

 

 

 

4IMEELAPSEDY

Use the first graph above to respond to the following statement.


1. Identify the four most abundant elements found in living things labeled AD.
B.

C.

D.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

A.

Use the second graph above to respond to the following statement.


2. Contrast the accuracy of dating a 5000-year-old seed and a 100,000-year-old bone
using carbon-14 dating.

Part D: Short Answer


Write your response to each statement in the space provided.
1. Summarize the information about the element gold that is available to a chemist
studying a periodic table of the elements.

32

Chemistry in Biology CHAPTER 6

Unit 2

Name

Chapter Test

Date

Class

CONTINUED

2. Predict the effect on water molecules if each molecule had no areas of positive or
negative charges.

3. Contrast blood, hot sugar water, and a soil-water mixture.

Part E: Concept Application


Write your response to each statement in the space provided.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

1. Infer why hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is toxic to drink even though it is composed of
the same elements as water.

2. Predict The substance papain is a common enzyme found in meat tenderizers.


Predict the effect of papain on meat.

3. Consider how the properties of water protect the aquatic organisms living in a
temperate-climate pond during both the summer and winter months.

Unit 2

CHAPTER 6 Chemistry in Biology

33

Name

Date

Class

CHAPTER 6

Student Recording Sheet

Assessment
Section 6.1
Vocabulary Review

Explain the difference between the vocabulary terms in each pair.


1.

2.

3.

4.

Understand Key Concepts

Select the best answer from the choices given, and fill in the corresponding circle.
5.

6.

7.

8.

Constructed Response

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

9.

10.
11.

Think Critically
12.

13.

Section 6.2
Vocabulary Review

Write the letter of the definition that best matches each vocabulary term.
14.

16.

15.

17.

Unit 2

CHAPTER 6 Chemistry in Biology

35

Name

Date

Class

CHAPTER 6

Assessment

Student Recording Sheet

Understand Key Concepts

Select the best answer from the choices given, and fill in the corresponding circle.
18.

19.

20.

Constructed Response
21.
22.

Think Critically
23.
24.

Section 6.3
Vocabulary Review

Explain the relationship between the vocabulary terms in each pair.


25.
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

26.
27.
28.
29.
Understand Key Concepts

Select the best answer from the choices given, and fill in the corresponding circle.
30.

31.

32.

Constructed Response
33.

34.

35.

36

Chemistry in Biology CHAPTER 6

Unit 2

Name

Date

Class

CHAPTER 6

Assessment

Student Recording Sheet

Think Critically
36.
37. Record your answer for question 37 on a separate sheet of paper.

Section 6.4
Vocabulary Review

Write the vocabulary term that best completes each sentence.


38.

40.

39.

41.

Understand Key Concepts

Select the best answer from the choices given, and fill in the corresponding circle.
42.

43.

44.

Constructed Response
45.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

46.

Think Critically
47. Record your answer for question 47 on a separate sheet of paper.
Additional Assessment
48. Writing in Biology Record your answer for question 48 on a separate sheet of paper.
Document-Based Questions
49.

50.

Cumulative Review
51.

52. Record your answer for question 52 on a separate sheet of paper.


Unit 2

CHAPTER 6 Chemistry in Biology

37

Name

Date

Class

CHAPTER 6

Student Recording Sheet

Assessment

Standardized Test Practice


Multiple Choice

Select the best answer from the choices given, and fill in the corresponding circle.
1.

3.

5.

7.

2.

4.

6.

8.

Short Answer

Answer each question with complete sentences.


9.

10.

11.

12.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

13.
14.

Extended Response

Answer each question with complete sentences.


15.

16.

17. Record your answer for question 17 on a separate sheet of paper.


Essay Question
18. Record your answer for question 18 on a separate sheet of paper.
38

Chemistry in Biology CHAPTER 6

Unit 2

Table of
Contents

Reproducible Pages

Chapter 7 Cellular Structure and Function


Diagnostic Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Launch Lab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
MiniLab (1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
MiniLab (2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
BioLab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Real-World Biology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
Enrichment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Concept Mapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
Study Guide (English) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
Study Guide (Spanish) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Section Quick Check 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59


Section Quick Check 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
Section Quick Check 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
Section Quick Check 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
Chapter Test A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
Chapter Test B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
Chapter Test C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
Student Recording Sheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73

39

Name

Diagnostic
Test

Date

Class

CHAPTER 7

Cellular Structure and Function

Before reading Chapter 7, predict answers to questions about the chapter content based on what
you already know. Circle the letter of the correct answer, and then explain your reasoning.
1. During the nineteenth century, many scientists and naturalists studied
microscopic organisms using magnifying lenses and simple microscopes. After
studying plant tissues, animal tissues, and protozoans under the microscope,
scientists summarized their observations of cells and formulated the cell theory.
Which would not be included as part of the cell theory?
A. All living things are made of one or more cells.
B. Cells are the building blocks of living structures.
C. Parent cells pass genetic material on to daughter cells.
D. Unicellular organisms can grow from organic molecules.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Explain.

2. Science students in Almas class are observing prepared slides of the cells of maple
tree leaves and mammal skin cells. As they study the cells under the microscopes
highest magnification, their teacher records their observations on the board. Which
would be included in the teachers list?
A. Both the animal and plant cells have an oval shape and are about the same size.
B. Both types of cells have a membrane that is also surrounded by a cell wall.
C. The leaf cells have green organelles called chloroplasts; the animal cells do not.
D. The skin cells have a nucleus, but the cells of the leaves have no nucleus.

Explain.

3. Soto puts a drop of green food dye into a glass of water and observes the dye
forming colorful swirls before eventually turning the water green. Explain Sotos
observations.

Unit 2

CHAPTER 7 Cellular Structure and Function

41

Name

Date

Launch Lab

Class

CHAPTER 7

What is a cell?

All things are made of atoms and molecules, but only in living things are the atoms and
molecules organized into cells. In this lab, you will use a compound microscope to view
slides of living things and nonliving things.

Procedure
1. Read and complete the lab safety form.
2. In the space below, construct a data table for
recording your observations.
3. Obtain slides of the various specimens.

4. View the slides through a microscope at the


power designated by your teacher.
5. As you view the slides, fill out the data table you
constructed.

Data and Observations

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Analysis
1. Describe some of the ways to distinguish between the living things and the
nonliving things.

2. Write a definition of a cell based on your observations.

42

Cellular Structure and Function CHAPTER 7

Unit 2

Name

MiniLab

Date

Class

CHAPTER 7

Discover Cells

How can you describe a new discovery? Imagine you are a scientist looking through
the eyepiece of some newfangled instrument called a microscope and you see a field of
similarly shaped objects. You might recognize that the shapes you see are not merely
coincidence and random objects. Your whole idea of the nature of matter is changing as
you view these objects.

Procedure
1. Read and complete the lab safety form.
2. In the space below, prepare a data table in which
you will record observations and drawings for
three slides.

3. View the slide images your teacher projects for


the class.
4. Describe and draw what you see. Be sure to
include enough detail in your drawings to convey the information to other scientists who have
not observed cells.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Data and Observations

Analysis
1. Describe What analogies or terms could explain the images in your drawings?

2. Explain How could you show Hooke, with twenty-first century technology, that his
findings were valid?

Unit 2

CHAPTER 7 Cellular Structure and Function

43

Name

Date

MiniLab

Class

CHAPTER 7

Investigate Osmosis

What will happen to cells placed in a strong salt solution? Regulating flow and
amount of water into and out of the cell is critical to the survival of that cell. Osmosis is
one method used to regulate a cells water content.

Procedure
1. Read and complete the lab safety form.
2. Prepare a control slide using onion epidermis,
water, and iodine stain as directed by your
teacher.
3. Prepare a test slide using onion epidermis, salt
water, and iodine stain as directed by your
teacher.

4. Predict the effect, if any, that the salt solution


will have on the onion cells in the test slide.
5. View the control slide using a compound
microscope under low power and sketch several
onion cells in the space below.
6. View the test slide under the same magnification, and sketch your observations.

Data and Observations

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Analysis
1. Analyze and Conclude Was your prediction correct or incorrect? Explain.

2. Explain Use the process of osmosis to explain what you observe.

44

Cellular Structure and Function CHAPTER 7

Unit 2

Name

BioLab

Date

Class

CHAPTER 7

Selective Permeability of Membranes

Background: All membranes in cells, including the plasma membrane and the membranes that surround organelles in eukaryotic cells, are selectively permeable. In this
lab, you will examine the movement of some biologically important molecules through
a dialysis membrane that is analogous to the plasma membrane. Because a dialysis
membrane has tiny pores, it is only permeable for tiny molecules.
Question: Which substances pass through a dialysis membrane?

Materials
cellulose dialysis tubing (2)
400-mL beakers (2)
string
scissors
distilled water
small plastic dishpan
starch solution
albumin solution
glucose solution
NaCl solution

iodine solution (tests starch)


anhydrous Benedicts reagent (tests glucose)
silver nitrate solution (tests NaCl)
biuret reagent (tests albumin)
10-mL graduated cylinder
test tubes (2)
test-tube rack
funnel
wax pencil
dropper

Safety Precautions

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

WARNING: Always wear goggles in the lab.

Procedure
1. Read and complete the lab safety form.
2. Construct a data table in the space on page 46
as instructed by your teacher.
3. Collect two lengths of dialysis tubing, two
400-mL beakers, and the two solutions that
you have been assigned to test.
4. Label the beakers with the type of solution that
you place in the dialysis tubing.
5. With a partner, prepare and fill one length of
dialysis tubing with one solution. Rinse the
outside of the bag thoroughly. Place the filled
tubing bag into a beaker that contains distilled
water.
6. Repeat step 5 using the second solution.

Unit 2

7. After 45 minutes, transfer some of the water


from each beaker into separate test tubes.
8. Add a few drops of the appropriate test reagent
to the water.
9. Record your results and determine whether your
prediction was correct. Compare your results
with other groups in your class and record the
results for the two solutions that you did not
test.
10. Cleanup and Disposal Wash and return all reusable materials. Dispose of test solutions and
used dialysis tubing as directed by your teacher.
Wash your hands thoroughly after using any
chemical reagent.

CHAPTER 7 Cellular Structure and Function

45

BioLab, Selective Permeability of Membranes

continued

Data and Observations

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Analyze and Conclude


1. Evaluate Did your test molecules pass through the dialysis tubing? Explain.

2. Think Critically What characteristics of a plasma membrane give it more control


over the movement of molecules than the dialysis membrane?

3. Error Analysis How could failing to rinse the dialysis tube bags with distilled water
prior to placing them in the beaker cause a false positive test for the presence of a
dissolved molecule? What other sources of error might lead to inaccurate results?

46

Cellular Structure and Function CHAPTER 7

Unit 2

Name

Date

Real-World Biology:

Analysis

Class

CHAPTER 7

Extending Our Senses

In the 1600s, modern science was just beginning. Many people believed that Earth was
at the center of the universe and that diseases were caused by evil spirits. Anton van
Leeuwenhoek was born in the Netherlands in 1632. He had no higher education and
made a living as a fabric merchant, a janitor, and a lens grinder. After reading a book
about Robert Hookes discoveries, van Leeuwenhoek made his own microscope and
used it to examine pond water and other substances. With his microscopes, he succeeded in making some of the most important discoveries in the history of biology.
Early compound microscopes did not magnify objects more than 20 or 30 times their
natural size. However, van Leeuwenhoeks microscopes magnified more than 200 times,
with clearer and brighter images than any of his colleagues could achieve. Among the
things he discovered with his microscopes were bacteria, sperm cells, and blood cells.
%YEPIECES
#ONTAINMAGNIFYINGLENSES
TOLOOKTHROUGH

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Part A: Microscope Parts and Functions


Van Leeuwenhoeks simple microscope consisted
of one lens mounted in a tiny hole in a metal
plate. The specimen was mounted on a sharp
point in front of the lens. Its position and focus
could be adjusted by turning two screws that
moved up and down. The entire instrument was
only 5 to 7.6 cm long and had to be held close to
sunlight or candlelight.
Figure 1 is a picture of a compound microscope like the ones used in school laboratories
today. This type of microscope incorporates
more than one lens so that the image magnified
by one lens can be further magnified by another.

8
!RM
,OW POWEROBJECTIVE
#ONTAINSTHELENSWITH
LOW POWERMAGNIFICATION
8
3TAGECLIPS
(OLDSTHEMICROSCOPE
SLIDEINPLACE

8
8

#OARSEADJUSTMENT
&OCUSESTHEIMAGE
UNDERLOWPOWER

(IGH POWEROBJECTIVES
#ONTAINLENSESWITHGREATER
POWERSOFMAGNIFICATION
3TAGE
3UPPORTSTHEMICROSCOPE
SLIDE

&INEADJUSTMENT
3HARPENSTHEIMAGE
UNDERHIGHANDLOW
MAGNIFICATION

$IAPHRAGM
2EGULATESTHEAMOUNTOF
LIGHTTHATPASSESTHROUGH
THESPECIMEN

Analyze and Conclude

,IGHTSOURCE
!LLOWSLIGHTTOREFLECT
UPWARDTHROUGHTHE
DIAPHRAGM THESPECIMEN
ANDTHELENSES

Use Figure 1 to respond to the following statement.


1. Calculate the microscopes magnifying power
if using the eyepiece and the 40 objective.

2EVOLVINGNOSEPIECE
(OLDSANDTURNSTHE
OBJECTIVESINTOVIEWING
POSITION

Figure 1

2. Compare The table below lists functions of parts of the microscope. In the second and
third columns, list descriptions of the microscope parts that perform each function.
Function

Van Leeuwenhoeks Microscope

Modern Compound Microscope

Magnification
Specimen mounting
Position/focus of
specimen
Light source
Unit 2

CHAPTER 7 Cellular Structure and Function

47

Real-World Biology: Analysis, Extending Our Senses continued


Part B: Using Microscopes to Examine
Evidence
The Student Council room at Central High has been
set up for a crime scene investigation. Three weeks
ago, Mrs. Sarah Roberts, the biology teacher, was writing a test in the lab. Her lunch was on the table where
she was working. Suddenly, the fire alarm rang. Mrs.
Roberts promptly left the building and, in her haste,
left the lab door open. She was surprised to see a large
group of people outside the building, most of them
with animals. She thought this was a little unusual but
soon forgot about it. When Mrs. Roberts returned to
the lab, she found that her lunch was missing.
Background Information

Red blood cells of mammals do not have nuclei.


Red blood cells of nonmammals have nuclei.
Cancer cells lack contact inhibition. They continue
to grow, forming layers of cells. The cells grow
randomly in culture.
Normal skin cells grow in culture until they
physically come in contact with each other.
Growth then stops. This is called contact
inhibition. The cells do not grow randomly, but
are oriented in a particular direction.

Debris from the floor: sand and hay


Blood sample: Red blood cells have nuclei.
Skin sample: Was cultured; cells were found
to have contact inhibition and be oriented in a
particular direction.

Suspects

Suspect 1
Spends weekends on the beach
Works as a dishwasher
Is being treated for skin cancer
Has a poodle named Fifi with a bandaged leg
Suspect 2
Works in a stone quarry
Doesnt go anywhere without his pet frog,
Croak, last seen with a bandaged webbed foot
Suspect 3
Lives on a farm
Recently spent a week at the shore
Never goes anywhere without her bird, Polly,
last seen nursing a hurt wing
Suspect 4
Lives on Main Street above the bagel shop
Said he shaves hourly
Has a pet iguana that he recently took to the vet
(Adapted from Surmacz, C., Association for Biology
Laboratory Education)

Analyze and Conclude


Respond to the following statement.
1. Deduce After reviewing the evidence information, deduce the identity of the thief.
Explain how you arrived at your answer.

Careers In Biology
Cell Biology Visit biologygmh.com for information on cell biologists.
What are the responsibilities of a cell biologist?
48

Cellular Structure and Function CHAPTER 7

Unit 2

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Laboratory Test Results

She looked around the room and saw some things


that had not been there when she left. There was
some kind of debris on the floor. A small piece of
human skin was stuck to a broken beaker. Nearby
was a trail of blood. The security chief arrived, collected the three pieces of evidence, and ordered
laboratory reports on each. The laboratory used
microscopes to examine the skin and blood samples.
The security chief then apprehended four suspects.
All were in the vicinity of the building on the day of
the theft. The following information is listed on the
evidence bulletin board. You must use this information to determine who stole the lunch bag.

Name

Date

Class

CHAPTER 7

Enrichment

Analyze a Problem: Practical Applications


of Osmosis

Osmosis is a process that occurs naturally any time two solutions of different concentrations
are separated from each other by a semipermeable membrane. For example, the watery
solution inside the root cells of a growing plant normally has a higher concentration than the
groundwater that surrounds the roots. The solution inside the cell is hypertonic in comparison
to the groundwater. Water passes more rapidly across the cell membrane into the cell than it
does out of the cell. This process makes possible the movement of water from the base of a plant
upward through its trunk and branches into upper parts of the plant.
Differentiate Humans use the principle of osmosis
in a number of practical applications. The table below
lists some of those applications. In each case, tell
how osmosis explains the process that takes place. If
needed, use text resources to research explanations.

Application

Then tell whether the solution in bold is isotonic,


hypotonic, or hypertonic. Use the abbreviations iso
for an isotonic solution, hypo for a hypotonic solution, and hyper for a hypertonic solution.

Explanation

Solution

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Pickles are made by immersing


cucumbers in a concentrated
saltwater solution.
Spraying plants with a solution
that contains too high a concentration of fertilizer might cause them
to dry out and die.
Patients undergoing surgery are
given a 0.9% saline (saltwater)
solution.
One of the oldest methods of preserving foods is to pack them in
saline solutions, which kill the
bacteria that cause foods to spoil.
Organisms that live in seawater
have specialized mechanisms that
prevent them from becoming
dehydrated.
Florists store fresh flowers in cold
water to help the flowers keep
their original appearance . . .
. . . although the flowers begin to
wilt as soon as they are taken out
of the water for a period of time.
Unit 2

CHAPTER 7 Cellular Structure and Function

49

Name

Date

Concept
Mapping

Class

CHAPTER 7

Cellular Structure

Complete the network tree about cellular structure. These terms may be used more than
once: animals, bacteria, chloroplasts, eukaryotes, a large central vacuole, plants, plasma
membrane, prokaryotes.

1.
All cells have a

and are grouped into


two bread categories:

2.

3.

which are mainly

which include

4.

6.

some yeast and algae

which contain unique


structures such as

7.

8.

cell walls

50

Cellular Structure and Function CHAPTER 7

Unit 2

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

5.

Name

Date

Class

CHAPTER 7

Study Guide

Section 1: Cell Discovery and Theory

In your textbook, read about the history of the cell theory and microscope technology.
Respond to each statement.
1. Name the invention that helped scientists discover the cell.

2. Tell why Hooke called the structures he saw in the cork cellulae (small rooms).

3. Name the type of microscope that uses a series of magnifying lenses.

Write the term or phrase that best completes each statement. Use these choices:
cell theory
The (4)

cells

daughter cells

genetic material

organisms

includes the following three principles:

1. All living organisms are composed of one or more (5)

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

2. Cells are the basic unit of structure and organization of all living
(6)

3. Cells arise only from previously existing cells, with cells passing copies of their
(7)

on to their (8)

In your textbook, read about basic cell types.


Complete the table by checking the correct column(s) for each description.
Description

Prokaryotes

Eukaryotes

9. Organisms that break down molecules to generate energy


10. Organisms that have cells lacking internal membrane-bound organelles
11. Organisms whose cells do not have nuclei
12. Organisms that are either unicellular or multicellular
13. Organisms that are generally unicellular
14. Organisms that have cells containing organelles
15. Organisms that have plasma membranes
Unit 2

CHAPTER 7 Cellular Structure and Function

51

Name

Date

Class

CHAPTER 7

Study Guide

Section 2: The Plasma Membrane

In your textbook, read about the function of the plasma membrane.


Complete the table by checking the correct column(s) for each description.
Selective
Permeability

Description

Homeostasis

Plasma
Membrane

1. The process of maintaining balance inside a cell


2. A boundary between a cell and its environment
3. The feature of the plasma membrane that keeps
some substances out
4. Separates prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells from
the watery environment in which they exist
5. The quality of a plasma membrane that allows
oxygen and glucose to move in
6. Maintained by the plasma membrane

In your textbook, read about the structure of the plasma membrane.


Label the diagram of the plasma membrane. Use these choices:
nonpolar tails

polar head

transport protein

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

carbohydrate chain

7.

8.

9.
10.



Match the definition or description in Column A with the term in Column B.


Column A

Column B

11. make up most of the molecules in the plasma membrane

A. transport proteins

12. a molecule that has a glycerol backbone, two fatty acid


chains, and a phosphate-containing compound

B. lipids
C. phospholipid

13. move substances through the plasma membrane


D. fluid mosaic model
14. two layers of phospholipids arranged tail-to-tail
E. phospholipid bilayer
15. the phospholipid sea in which embedded substances float
52

Cellular Structure and Function CHAPTER 7

Unit 2

Name

Date

Class

CHAPTER 7

Study Guide

Section 3: Structures and Organelles

In your textbook, read about structures and organelles.


Label the diagram of a typical animal cell. Use these choices:
cytoplasm
mitochondrion

endoplasmic reticulum
nucleolus

Golgi apparatus
nucleus

microtubules

1.
2.




3.
4.
5.

6.

7.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

If the statement is true, write true. If the statement is false,


replace the italicized word or phrase to make it true.

8. Microtubules are long, hollow protein cylinders that form a rigid skeleton for
the cell.

9. The Golgi apparatus contains most of the cells DNA.

10. The nucleolus is the structure that produces sugars.

11. The endoplasmic reticulum is a stack of membranes that packages proteins into
sacs called vesicles.

12. The cytoplasm is the semifluid internal environment of the cell.

Unit 2

CHAPTER 7 Cellular Structure and Function

53

Name

Date

Class

CHAPTER 7

Study Guide

Section 4: Cellular Transport

In your textbook, read about cellular transport.


Match the definition in Column A with the term in Column B.
Column A

Column B
A. osmosis

1. moves small molecules across the plasma membrane


using transport proteins

B. exocytosis
2. involves water moving across the plasma membrane
to the side with the greater solute concentration

C. facilitated diffusion

3. occurs when substances move against the concentration


gradient; requires energy and the aid of carrier proteins
4. occurs when the plasma membrane surrounds a large
substance inside the cell and moves it outside the cell

D. dynamic equilibrium
E. active transport
F. endocytosis

5. the condition that results when diffusion continues until


the concentrations are the same in all areas
6. occurs when the plasma membrane surrounds a large
substance outside the cell and moves it inside the cell

In your textbook, read about osmosis.

Description

Isotonic
Solution

Hypotonic
Solution

Hypertonic
Solution

7. A solution that has the same osmotic concentration as a


cells cytoplasm
8. A solution that causes a cell to shrivel
9. A solution that causes a cell to swell
10. A solution that neither shrinks nor swells a cell
11. A solution in which there is more water outside the cell than
inside the cell
12. A solution that causes water to move out of a cell

54

Cellular Structure and Function CHAPTER 7

Unit 2

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Complete the table by checking the correct column(s) for each description.

Nombre

Fecha

Curso

CAPTULO 7

Gua
de estudio

Seccin 1: Descubrimiento y teora de la clula

En tu libro de texto, lee acerca de la historia de la teora de la clula y la tecnologa del


microscopio.
Responde a cada afirmacin.
1. Nombra el invento que ayud a los cientficos a descubrir la clula.

2. Indica porqu Hooke denomin las estructuras que observ en el corcho con el
nombre de cellulae (celdillas).

3. Nombra el tipo de microscopio que utiliza una serie de lentes de aumento.

Escribe el trmino o la frase que mejor completa cada afirmacin. Usa estas opciones:
clulas
La (4)

clulas hijas

material gentico

organismos

teora de la clula

se define por los siguientes tres principios:

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

1. Todos los organismos vivos estn compuestos por una o ms (5)

2. Las clulas son la unidad bsica de estructura y organizacin de todos los


(6)

vivos.

3. Las clulas surgen nicamente de clulas anteriormente existentes, que pasan copias del
(7)

a sus (8)

En tu libro de texto, lee acerca de los tipos bsicos de clulas.


Completa la tabla marcando la(s) columna(s) correcta(s) para cada descripcin.
Descripcin

Procariotas

Eucariotas

9. Organismos que descomponen molculas para generar energa


10. Organismos que tienen clulas que carecen de organelos internos
unidos a membranas
11. Organismos cuyas clulas no tienen ncleo
12. Organismos que son unicelulares o multicelulares
13. Organismos que son generalmente unicelulares
14. Organismos que tienen clulas con organelos
15. Organismos que tienen membranas de plasma
Unidad 2

CAPTULO 7 Estructura y funcin celular

55

Nombre

Fecha

Gua
de estudio

Curso

CAPTULO 7

Seccin 2: La membrana de plasma

En tu libro de texto, lee acerca de la funcin de la membrana de plasma.


Completa la tabla marcando la(s) columna(s) correcta(s) para cada descripcin.
Permeabilidad
selectiva

Descripcin

Homeostasis

Membrana de
plasma

1. El proceso de mantener el balance al interior de


una clula
2. Una divisin entre una clula y su ambiente
3. La caracterstica de la membrana de plasma que
mantiene ciertas substancias por fuera
4. Separa las clulas procariotas y las eucariotas del
ambiente acuoso en el que existen
5. La calidad de una membrana de plasma que
permite que el oxgeno y la glucosa entren
6. Se mantiene gracias a la membrana de plasma

En tu libro de texto, lee acerca de la estructura de la membrana de plasma.


Identifica en el diagrama las partes de la membrana de plasma. Usa estas opciones:
cabeza polar

cadena de carbohidratos

colas apolares

protenas de transporte


8.


9.
10.



Relaciona la definicin o descripcin de la columna A con el trmino de la columna B.


Columna A
11. constituyen la mayora de las molculas en la membrana de plasma

______

56

Columna B
A. protenas de
transporte

12. una molcula que tiene una estructura de glicerol, dos cadenas de
cidos grasos y un compuesto que contiene fosfato

B. lpidos

13. mueve substancias a travs de la membrana de plasma

C. fosfolpidos

14. dos capas de fosfolpidos organizadas de cola a cola

D. modelo del
mosaico fluido

15. el mar de fosfolpidos en el cual flotan las sustancias incrustadas

Estructura y funcin celular CAPTULO 7

E. capa doble de
fosfolpidos
Unidad 2

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

7.

Nombre

Fecha

Gua
de estudio

Curso

CAPTULO 7

Seccin 3: Estructuras y organelos

En tu libro de texto, lee acerca de las estructuras y los organelos.


Identifica en el diagrama las partes de una clula animal comn. Usa estas opciones:
aparato de Golgi
ncleo

citoplasma
nucleolo

microtbulos
retculo endoplsmico

mitocondria

1.
2.

4.





5.

6.

3.

7.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Si la afirmacin es verdadera, escribe verdadero. Si la


afirmacin es falsa, substituye la palabra o frase en cursiva
para volverla verdadera.

8. Los microtbulos son cilindros de protena largos y huecos que forman un esqueleto
rgido para la clula.

9. El aparato de Golgi contiene la mayor parte del ADN de la clula.

10. El nucleolo es la estructura que produce azcares.

11. El retculo endoplsmico es un grupo de membranas que empaca protenas en bolsas


llamadas vesculas.

12. El citoplasma es el ambiente interno semifluido de la clula.

Unidad 2

CAPTULO 7 Estructura y funcin celular

57

Nombre

Fecha

Gua
de estudio

Curso

CAPTULO 7

Seccin 4: Transporte celular

En tu libro de texto, lee acerca del transporte celular.


Relaciona la definicin de la columna A con el trmino de la columna B.
Columna A

Columna B

1. mueve pequeas molculas por la membrana de plasma


mediante las protenas de transporte
2. implica mover agua por la membrana de plasma hacia el lado
con la mayor concentracin soluble

A. smosis
B. exocitosis
C. difusin facilitada

3. ocurre cuando las substancias se mueven contra el gradiente


de concentracin; necesita energa y la ayuda de protenas
transportadoras

D. equilibrio dinmico

4. ocurre cuando la membrana de plasma rodea una sustancia


grande al interior de la clula y la mueve hacia el exterior de
la clula

F. endocitosis

E. transporte activo

5. la condicin que resulta cuando la difusin contina hasta


que las concentraciones sean las mismas en todas las reas
6. ocurre cuando la membrana de plasma rodea una sustancia
grande al exterior de la clula y la mueve hacia el interior de
la clula

Completa la tabla marcando la(s) columna(s) correcta(s) para cada descripcin.


Descripcin

Solucin
isotnica

Solucin
hipotnica

Solucin
hipertnica

7. Una solucin que tiene la misma concentracin osmtica


que el citoplasma de una clula
8. Una solucin que causa que una clula se contraiga
9. Una solucin que causa que una clula se hinche
10. Una solucin que ni contrae ni hincha una clula
11. Una solucin en la cual hay ms agua por fuera de la clula
que al interior de la misma
12. Una solucin que causa que el agua salga de una clula

58

Estructura y funcin celular CAPTULO 7

Unidad 2

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

En tu libro de texto, lee acerca de la smosis.

Name

Section
Quick Check

Date

Class

CHAPTER 7

Section 1: Cell Discovery and Theory

After reading the section in your textbook, respond to each statement.


1. Describe the discovery of the cell. Mention Robert Hooke and Anton
van Leeuwenhoek in your answer.

2. Summarize the three parts of the cell theory.

3. List three characteristics or structures that all cells share.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

4. Evaluate the impact of microscope technology on the modern study of cells.

5. Differentiate between prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells.

Unit 2

CHAPTER 7 Cellular Structure and Function

59

Name

Date

Section
Quick Check

Class

CHAPTER 7

Section 2: The Plasma Membrane

After reading the section in your textbook, respond to each statement.


1. Identify three components of the plasma membrane other than phospholipids.

2. Describe the structure of the phospholipid bilayer.

3. State the function of the plasma membrane as it relates to homeostasis.

4. Predict what would happen to a cell if its plasma membrane lost its selective
permeability. Explain.
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

5. Clarify why the surface of the plasma membrane can be described as a mosaic.

60

Cellular Structure and Function CHAPTER 7

Unit 2

Name

Section
Quick Check

Date

Class

CHAPTER 7

Section 3: Structures and Organelles

After reading the section in your textbook, respond to each statement.


1. List the two major components of the cytoskeleton of a cell.

2. Identify a structure other than a cell wall or a vacuole that might be found in a
plant cell but not in an animal cell. Explain why an animal cell would not have the
structure you identify.

3. Cite the essential cell processes that organelles perform.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

4. Infer why muscle cells contain more mitochondria than do skin cells.

5. Depict the role of lysosomes within a cell, using the metaphor of a factory. Explain.

Unit 2

CHAPTER 7 Cellular Structure and Function

61

Name

Date

Section
Quick Check

Class

CHAPTER 7

Section 4: Cellular Transport

After reading the section in your textbook, respond to each statement.


1. Name the two transport processes that allow large substances to cross the
plasma membrane.

2. Identify three transport processes in cells that do not require energy.

3. Evaluate the relative environments inside and outside the cell when a cell is said to
be in dynamic equilibrium with its environment.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

4. Predict the appearance of an egg after the following procedure is performed:


An egg is soaked in a vinegar solution to remove the hard shell, leaving the inner
membrane intact. The egg is then placed in a solution of salt water overnight. As
part of your answer, explain what kind of solution the salt water is, relative to the
eggs interior.

5. Distinguish between diffusion and active transport.

62

Cellular Structure and Function CHAPTER 7

Unit 2

Name

Date

Chapter Test

Class

CHAPTER 7

Cellular Structure and Function

Part A: Multiple Choice


In the space at the left, write the letter of the term or phrase that best answers each question.
1. Which defines a cell?
A. microscopic organisms in water
B. protein molecules in animals
C. the basic unit of living things
D. the smallest type of animal
2. Which is a structure common to all cells?
A. mitochondria
B. nucleus
C. endoplasmic reticulum
D. plasma membrane
3. Which is a protein fiber that forms the cells supporting network?
A. cytoskeleton
B. cell wall
C. endoplasmic reticulum
D. plasma membrane

Part B: Matching

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Matching Set 1 Place a check in the correct box to identify the type of cell described by
each statement.
Statement

Eukaryote

Prokaryote

1. A unicellular organism such as bacteria


2. A cell with a nucleus
3. A cell with organelles that do specific tasks
4. The first type of cell to evolve

Matching Set 2 Write the letter of the correct cell structure on the line next to the
structures description. Answers may be used only once.
5. creates energy for the cell

A. lysosome

6. produces proteins

B. mitochondria

7. unwanted substances would build up in the cell


without this organelle

C. nucleus
D. ribosome

8. contains the cells DNA

Unit 2

CHAPTER 7 Cellular Structure and Function

63

Name

Date

Chapter Test

Class

CONTINUED

Part C: Interpreting Drawings

/UTSIDE
THECELL

Write your response to each statement in the


space provided.

"

1. Study the drawing of a plasma


membrane. Identify the substances that
belong with the arrows labeled A to E. Use
the substances carbon dioxide, glucose,
oxygen, wastes, and water for your labels.

0LASMA
MEMBRANE

$
%
!

A.

D.

B.

E.

)NSIDE
THECELL

C.
2. Study the drawings of the three solutions below. Identify the hypertonic,
hypotonic, and isotonic solutions.

7ATER

7ATER

7ATER

B.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

3OLUTE

3OLUTE

A.

7ATER

7ATER

7ATER

3OLUTE

C.

Part D: Short Answer


Write your response to each statement in the space provided.
1. State the three principles of the cell theory.

64

Cellular Structure and Function CHAPTER 7

Unit 2

Name

Chapter Test

Date

Class

CONTINUED

2. Explain how a selectively permeable plasma membrane works.

3. Describe the function of a cell nucleus.

Part E: Concept Application


Write your response to the statement in the space provided.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

1. Contrast the organelles you might observe in the cell of a celery stalk and the
skin cell of a human.

Read the paragraph below to respond to each statement.


Tamara puts a drop of red food dye into a glass of water. The dye makes swirls of color
in the water for several minutes. After 10 min, the water has a uniform, red color.
2. Infer how the concept of diffusion explains Tamaras observations.

3. Identify the time when the solution reached a dynamic equilibrium.

Unit 2

CHAPTER 7 Cellular Structure and Function

65

Name

Date

Chapter Test

Class

CHAPTER 7

Cellular Structure and Function

Part A: Multiple Choice


In the space at the left, write the letter of the term, phrase, or sentence that best completes each
statement or answers each question.
1. Which scientist first used the term cell?
A. Hooke
B. Janssen
C. Pasteur
D. Virchow
2. Which would be the result if the electron microscope had not been invented?
A. Images of cells and microorganisms would remain blurry.
B. Microscope magnification would be limited to 1000.
C. Scientists would be unable to view different cell organelles.
D. The atoms of elements would not have been discovered.
3. Which manufactures ribosomes?
A. nucleolus
B. nucleus
C. endoplasmic reticulum
D. Golgi apparatus

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

4. Which is the result of smooth endoplasmic reticulum being damaged


in liver cells by excess alcohol consumption?
A. absorption of excess water
B. difficulty with protein synthesis
C. excessive breakdown of carbohydrates
D. inability to detoxify harmful substances
5. The process of the plasma membrane pumping excess sodium out of a
cell into an environment where there is a lower concentration of sodium
is called
A. diffusion.
B. osmosis.
C. active transport.
D. coupled transport.

66

Cellular Structure and Function CHAPTER 7

Unit 2

Name

Date

Chapter Test

Class

CONTINUED

Part B: Matching and Completion


Matching Write the letter of the correct organelle on the line next to its description. Answers
may be used only once or not at all.
1. stores cell materials

A. Golgi apparatus

2. produces protein for the cell

B. lysosome

3. controls cell division

C. mitochondria

4. acts as a distribution center for cell proteins

D. nucleus

5. breaks down excess microtubules

E. ribosome
F. vacuole

Completion Write the correct term or name to complete each sentence below.
6. The scientist who first named cells was

7. An instrument used to magnify thin slices of cells is called a(n)

8. Large, complex cells that contain a nucleus are called

9. Substances that move wastes and other materials through the plasma membrane

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

are called

10. The organelles that allow a unicellular paramecium to sweep food toward its

mouthlike opening are called

11. The diffusion of water across the selectively permeable membrane of an alga cell is

called

/UTSIDE
THECELL

Part C: Interpreting Drawings

"

Write your response to each statement in the


space provided.
1. Study the drawing of a plasma
membrane above. Identify the substances
that belong with the arrows labeled
A to E. Identify the substance embedded
in the plasma membrane labeled F.

0LASMA
MEMBRANE

$
%
!

A.

D.

B.

E.

C.

F.

Unit 2

&

)NSIDE
THECELL

CHAPTER 7 Cellular Structure and Function

67

Name

Date

Chapter Test

Class

CONTINUED

2. Study the drawings of the three solutions below. Identify the three solutions.

7ATER

7ATER

7ATER
7ATER

3OLUTE

A.

7ATER

7ATER

3OLUTE

3OLUTE

B.

C.

Part D: Short Answer


Write your response to each statement in the space provided.
1. State the principles of the cell theory.

2. Infer why the nonpolar, fatty-acid tails in a cells plasma membrane are essential
for creating a barrier between the cells internal environment and the external
environment.
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

3. Describe the support structure of the cells interior. Include the terms
cytoskeleton, microtubules, and microfilaments in your discussion.

Part E: Concept Application


Write your response to the statement in the space provided.
1. Hypothesize how the evolutionary history of cells might have differed had
endosymbiosis not occurred.

68

Cellular Structure and Function CHAPTER 7

Unit 2

Name

Date

Chapter Test

Class

CHAPTER 7

Cellular Structure and Function

Part A: Multiple Choice


In the space at the left, write the letter of the term or phrase that best completes each statement
or answers each question.
1. Which scientist revolutionized the way biologists think about the evolutionary
history of eukaryotes?
A. Everett
B. Margulis
C. Pasteur
D. Virchow
2. The advantage of a compound-light microscope over an electron microscope
is that it
A. can view living microorganisms.
B. does not blur magnified images.
C. has a greater degree of magnification.
D. relies on readily available visible light.
3. Which organelle produces protein for a cell?
A. nucleus
B. ribosome
C. endoplasmic reticulum
D. Golgi apparatus

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

4. Which organelle is large in plant cells but small or absent in animal cells?
A. centriole
B. chloroplast
C. nucleolus
D. vacuole
5. Which organelle is called the powerhouse of the cell?
A. mitochondria
B. nucleus
C. ribosome
D. vesicle
6. Which organelle is present in a paramecium protozoan but absent in the cells
of a strawberry plant?
A. cilia
B. cytoskeleton
C. microtubules
D. nucleus

Unit 2

CHAPTER 7 Cellular Structure and Function

69

Name

Date

Chapter Test

Class

CONTINUED

Part B: Completion
Write the correct term to complete each sentence below.
1. The bacterium E. coli is a type of cell called

2. Substances would have more difficulty moving across the plasma membrane without

a substance called

3. The central structure that defines the cell is called the

4. A flu virus could easily infect a cell without the presence of

5. The spread of a drop of food dye throughout a glass of milk is called

6. A pump located in a cells plasma membrane transports sodium and

.
/UTSIDE
THECELL

Part C: Interpreting Drawings


Write your response to each statement in the
space provided.

"

1. Study the drawing of a plasma membrane


to the right. Identify the substances that
belong with the arrows labeled A to E.
Identify the substance embedded in the
plasma membrane labeled F, and explain
how this substance regulates materials
entering and exiting a cell.

0LASMA
MEMBRANE

$
%
!

&

)NSIDE
THECELL

Figure 1

D.

B.

E.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

A.

C.
F.
2. Study the drawings of the three solutions below. Identify the three types
of solutions.

7ATER

7ATER

7ATER

3OLUTE

70

7ATER

7ATER

7ATER

3OLUTE

3OLUTE

Figure 2

Figure 3

Figure 4

A.

B.

C.

Cellular Structure and Function CHAPTER 7

Unit 2

Name

Chapter Test

Date

Class

CONTINUED

3. Infer which drawing on the previous page would resemble a blood cell after a
patient has been injected with an intravenous solution of pure water instead of an
intravenous solution made of 1 percent salt. Explain the reason(s) for your choice.

Part D: Short Answer


Write your response to each statement in the space provided.
1. Discuss the advancement of scientific knowledge about the microscopic world
during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

2. Explain why phosphate groups in the phospholipid bilayer of the plasma


membrane face toward the outside and the fatty acids face inward.

3. Contrast endocytosis and exocytosis.

Part E: Concept Application


Write your response to the statement in the space provided.
1. Analyze the principles of the cell theory that serve as the fundamental ideas for
modern biology. Critique the modern theory of unicellular evolution based on one
or more principles of the cell theory.

Unit 2

CHAPTER 7 Cellular Structure and Function

71

Name

Date

Class

CHAPTER 7

Assessment

Student Recording Sheet

Section 7.1
Vocabulary Review

Write the vocabulary term that makes each sentence true.


1.

2.

3.

Understand Key Concepts

Select the best answer from the choices given, and fill in the corresponding circle.
4.

5.

6.

Constructed Response
7.

8.

Think Critically

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

9.

10.

Section 7.2
Vocabulary Review

Write the vocabulary term that best completes each sentence.


11.

12.

13.

Understand Key Concepts

Select the best answer from the choices given, and fill in the corresponding circle.
14.

15.

Constructed Response
16.

17.

Unit 2

CHAPTER 7 Cellular Structure and Function

73

Name

Date

Class

CHAPTER 7

Assessment

Student Recording Sheet

18.

Think Critically
19.
20.

Section 7.3
Vocabulary Review

Write the vocabulary term that best matches each definition.


21.

23.

22.

24.

Understand Key Concepts

Select the best answer from the choices given, and fill in the corresponding circle.
25.

26.

27.

Constructed Response
28.
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

29.

30.

Think Critically
31.

32.

Section 7.4
Vocabulary Review

Write sentences to compare and contrast each pair of terms.


33.35. Record your answers for questions 33, 34, and 35 on a separate sheet of paper.
74

Cellular Structure and Function CHAPTER 7

Unit 2

Name

Date

Class

CHAPTER 7

Assessment

Student Recording Sheet

Understand Key Concepts

Select the best answer from the choices given, and fill in the corresponding circle.
36.

37.

Constructed Response
38.

39.

40.

Think Critically
41.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

42.

Additional Assessment
43. Writing in Biology Record your answer for question 43 on a separate sheet of paper.
Document-Based Questions
44.

45. Record your answer for question 45 on a separate sheet of paper.


Cumulative Review
46.

47.

Unit 2

CHAPTER 7 Cellular Structure and Function

75

Name

Date

Class

CHAPTER 7

Student Recording Sheet

Assessment

Standardized Test Practice


Multiple Choice

Select the best answer from the choices given, and fill in the corresponding circle.
1.

3.

5.

7.

2.

4.

6.

8.

Short Answer

Answer each question with complete sentences.


9. Record your answer for question 9 on a separate sheet of paper.
10.

11.

12.

13.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

14. Record your answer for question 14 on a separate sheet of paper.


15.

Extended Response

Answer each question with complete sentences.


16.

17. Record your answer for question 17 on a separate sheet of paper.


18.

19.

Essay Question
20. Record your answer for question 20 on a separate sheet of paper.
76

Cellular Structure and Function CHAPTER 7

Unit 2

Table of
Contents

Reproducible Pages

Chapter 8 Cellular Energy


Diagnostic Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
Launch Lab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
MiniLab (1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
MiniLab (2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
BioLab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
Real-World Biology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
Enrichment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
Concept Mapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
Study Guide (English) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
Study Guide (Spanish) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Section Quick Check 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97


Section Quick Check 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
Section Quick Check 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
Chapter Test A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
Chapter Test B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
Chapter Test C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
Student Recording Sheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109

77

Name

Diagnostic
Test

Date

Class

CHAPTER 8

Cellular Energy

Before reading Chapter 8, predict answers to questions about the chapter content based on
what you already know. Circle the letter of the correct answer, and then explain your reasoning.
1. Sam is building a campfire while camping with his family. Sams younger brother
asks how energy is generated from the burning log to make fire and heat. Sam
studied thermodynamics in science class the month before and is able to answer his
brothers question. Which answer does he give?
A. Chemical energy in the log is converted to heat and light energy.
B. Energy is continually generated by the fires high temperature.
C. The increasing entropy in the system creates usable energy.
D. The matter in the log is destroyed to generate excess energy.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Explain.

2. Elena is taking a guided hike through a New Hampshire forest in October to enjoy
the changing colors of autumn leaves. Her guide explains that the leaves change
color as the green pigment chlorophyll used in photosynthesis decomposes. Another
hiker asks the guide to explain photosynthesis. Which is the guides answer?
A. Photosynthesis is the process autotrophs use to make energy.
B. Photosynthesis is the process autotrophs use to make sugar.
C. Photosynthesis is the process heterotrophs use to make energy.
D. Photosynthesis is the process heterotrophs use to make sugar.

Explain.

3. Zina is applying to be a volunteer in a nutrition program at the local hospital. For


her application essay, she must research the topic of cellular respiration. What does
she learn about cellular respiration?

Unit 2

CHAPTER 8 Cellular Energy

79

Name

Date

Launch Lab

Class

CHAPTER 8

How is energy transformed?

The flow of energy in living systems is driven by a variety of chemical reactions and
chemical processes. Energy is transformed from the Suns radiant energy to chemical
energy to other forms of energy along the way. In this lab, you will observe two processes in which energy is transformed.

Procedure
1. Read and complete the lab safety form.
2. Measure 100 mL of water using a graduated
cylinder; pour into a 250-mL beaker. Use a
thermometer to record the water temperature.
3. Measure 40 g of anhydrous calcium chloride
(CaCl2). Use a stirring rod to dissolve CaCl2 in
the water. Record the solution temperature every
fifteen seconds for three minutes.

4. Repeat steps 2 and 3 using 40 g of Epsom salts


instead of CaCl2 .
5. Graph your data using a different color for each
process.

Data and Observations

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Analysis
1. Describe the graph of your data.

2. Predict what energy transformations occurred in the two processes.

80

Cellular Energy CHAPTER 8

Unit 2

Name

Date

Class

CHAPTER 8

MiniLab

Relate Photosynthesis to
Cellular Respiration

How do photosynthesis and cellular respiration work together in an ecosystem? Use a


chemical indicator to examine how carbon dioxide is transferred in photosynthesis and
cellular respiration.

Procedure
1. Read and complete the lab safety form.
2. Prepare a data table to record the contents,
treatment, initial color, and final color for two
experimental test tubes.
3. Pour 100 mL bromothymol blue (BTB)
solution into a beaker. Using a straw, exhale
gently into the solution until it just turns
yellow. WARNING: Do not blow so hard that
the solution bubbles over or that you get a
headache. Do not suck on the straw.

4. Fill two large test tubes three-quarters full with


the yellow BTB solution.
5. Cover one test tube with aluminum foil. Place a
6-cm sprig of an aquatic plant into both of the
tubes, tightly stopper the tubes, and place them
in a rack in bright light.
6. Record your observations in your data table.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Data and Observations

Analysis
1. Infer the purpose of the tube covered in aluminum foil.

2. Explain how your results demonstrate that photosynthesis and cellular respiration
depend on one another.

Unit 2

CHAPTER 8 Cellular Energy

81

Name

Date

MiniLab

Class

CHAPTER 8

Observe Chloroplasts

What do chloroplasts look like? Most ecosystems and organisms in the world depend
on tiny organelles called chloroplasts. Discover what chloroplasts look like in this
investigation.

Procedure
1. Read and complete the lab safety form.
2. Observe the slides of plant and algae cells with
a microscope.

3. Identify the chloroplasts in the cells you observe.


4. Make a data table to record your observations
and sketch the chloroplasts in the cell.

Data and Observations

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Analysis
1. Compare and contrast the physical features of the chloroplasts you observed in the
different cells.

2. Hypothesize why green plant leaves vary in color.

82

Cellular Energy CHAPTER 8

Unit 2

Name

Design Your Own

BioLab

Date

Class

CHAPTER 8

Do different wavelengths of light affect the


rate of photosynthesis?

Background: Photosynthesizing organisms need light to complete photosynthesis.


White light is composed of the different colors of light found in the visible light
spectrum, and each color of light has a specific wavelength. During this lab, you will
design an experiment to test the effect of different light wavelengths on the rate of
photosynthesis.
Question: How do different wavelengths of light affect photosynthesis rates?

Materials
Choose materials that would be appropriate to
this lab. Possible materials include:
aquatic plant material
Erlenmeyer flasks
test tubes (15 mL)
graduated cylinder (10 mL)

metric ruler
colored cellophane (assorted colors)
aluminum foil
lamp with reflector and 150-W bulb
baking soda solution (0.25%)
watch with a second hand

Safety Precautions

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Plan and Perform the Experiment


1. Read and complete the lab safety form.
2. Predict how different wavelengths of light will
affect the rate of photosynthesis in your plant.
3. Design an experiment to test your prediction.
Write a list of steps you will follow and identify
the controls and variable you will use.
4. Explain how you will generate light with
different wavelengths, supply the plant with
carbon dioxide, and measure the oxygen
production of the plants.

5. Create a data table for recording your observations and measurements.


6. Make sure your teacher approves your plan
before you begin.
7. Conduct your experiment as approved.
8. Cleanup and Disposal Clean up all equipment
as instructed by your teacher, and return
everything to its proper place. Dispose of plant
material as instructed by your teacher. Wash
your hands thoroughly with soap and water.

Data and Observations

Unit 2

CHAPTER 8 Cellular Energy

83

Design Your Own BioLab, Do different wavelengths of light affect


the rate of photosynthesis? continued
Analyze and Conclude
1. Identify the controls and variables in your experiment.

2. Explain how you measured the rate of photosynthesis.

3. Graph your data.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

4. Describe how the rate of photosynthesis is affected by different wavelengths of light


based on your data.

5. Discuss whether or not your data supported your prediction.

6. Error Analysis Identify possible sources of error in your experimental design,


procedure, and data collection.

7. Suggest how you would reduce these sources of error if repeating the experiment.

84

Cellular Energy CHAPTER 8

Unit 2

Name

Date

Real-World Biology:

Analysis

Class

CHAPTER 8

Bioluminescence and Behavior

You have probably enjoyed the blinking lights of fireflies on a summer evening. Fireflies
are not the only species that can glow in the dark. Glowing in the dark is common in
species that live in the oceans. Some species contain body cells that produce light. Other
species contain bacteria that produce light. The process by which organisms produce
light is called bioluminescence.
Scientists study bioluminescent organisms for a variety of reasons. Marine biologists
study bioluminescent species to understand marine populations, ecosystems, and evolutionary relationships. Other scientists study bioluminescence to develop technological
uses, such as screening for medical conditions, detecting organic pollutants in lakes and
rivers, and testing for contamination in the food and drug industry.
In this activity, you will explore the chemistry of bioluminescence and write a
hypothesis about bioluminescence and animal behavior.

Researchers interested in bioluminescence conducted a series of experiments to study several


species that are able to produce their own light.
Figure 1 shows the conclusions the researchers
formed in four of the experiments.
As the researchers worked, it became clear that
an additional substance is essential for the chemical reaction that produces bioluminescent light.
Figure 2 shows data collected in a fifth experiment in which the scientists explored the role of
ATP (adenosine triphosphate). ATP is present in
every cell of every living organism and supplies
the energy needed for many metabolic processes.

Experiment 1: All bioluminescent organisms contain


two substances: luciferin and
an enzyme called luciferase.
Bioluminescence occurs only
if both are present.

Experiment 3: The color


of light produced varies
among species and from one
individual to another within
a species.

Experiment 2: The chemical


compositions of luciferin and
luciferase can vary from one
species to another.

Experiment 4:
Bioluminescence does not
occur in the absence of
oxygen.

Figure 1

Analyze and Conclude


Respond to each question and statement.
1. Identify Based on the information in Figure 1, what three
substances are needed for bioluminescence to occur?

2. Hypothesize about the cause of the variance in color of the


bioluminescent light produced.

4OTALLIGHTOUTPUTCD

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Part A: Producing Light














!40MICROLITERS
Figure 2

3. Conclude From the data in Figure 2, what conclusion can you draw about the
relationship between ATP and bioluminescence?

Unit 2

CHAPTER 8 Cellular Energy

85

Real-World Biology: Analysis, Bioluminescence and Behavior continued


Part B: Using Light
All organisms produce bioluminescent light by a similar chemical reaction, but the role
of bioluminescence in the adaptive behavior of different species varies. Study the data
collected in Figure 3 about three different bioluminescent marine organisms and some
of their behaviors involving bioluminescence.

Lanternfish

Firefly squid

Colobonema

Pattern of distribution of light organs is


different for each species.
Males have patterns that differ from
those of females within the same species.

Organism can shoot out a


luminescent cloud.
Clouds appear to be related
to the presence of potential
predators.

Tentacles light up when


it is disturbed.
Brightly colored
tentacles can break off.

Figure 3

Analyze and Conclude


Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Respond to each question and statement.


1. Hypothesize Choose one organism from Figure 3. Suggest a testable hypothesis
that explains the use of bioluminescence by that organism.

2. Plan How could you test your hypothesis? What information would you want
to gather?

Careers In Biology
Biochemistry Visit biologygmh.com for information on biochemical
technicians. What are the responsibilities of a biochemical technician?

86

Cellular Energy CHAPTER 8

Unit 2

Name

Date

Class

CHAPTER 8

Enrichment

Drawing: Many Kinds of Chlorophyll

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Chlorophyll was first discovered in 1817 by two French chemists, Pierre-Joseph Pelletier
(17881842) and Joseph-Bienaim Caventou (17951877). Pelletier and Caventou did not
pursue their discovery, however, as they were more interested at the time in learning more
about a variety of drugs, including quinine, strychnine, and brucine. In fact, it was not until a
half century later, in 1865, that German botanist Julius von Sachs (18321897) discovered the
role of chlorophyll in photosynthesis.
The next step in unraveling the mysteries of chlorophyll occurred in 1912 when German
chemist Richard Willsttter (18721942) discovered that chlorophyll exists in two forms:
chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b. In 1943, a team of three researchers, Harold H. Strain,
Winston M. Manning, and Garrett Hardin, announced that they had found a third type of
chlorophyll, which they called chlorophyll c. Later the same year, the same researchers found
a fourth kind of chlorophyll, which they called chlorophyll d. In addition to the four naturally
occurring forms of chlorophyll, scientists have produced a semisynthetic form of chlorophyll,
which is known as chlorophyllin.
Distinguish How are these forms of chlorophyll and
chlorophyllin different from one another chemically
and biologically? Choose one of these compounds
to study in detail. Consult references in your local
library to find the chemical structure of the form
of chlorophyll or chlorophyllin you have chosen to
research. Find the organisms in which your type
of chlorophyll occurs or the commercial use of the
chlorophyllin. In the space below, draw the chemical
structure of the chlorophyll or chlorophyllin and add
a caption that briefly describes its occurrence in the
natural world or its use by humans.

Unit 2

Compare After completing your study of one type


of chlorophyll or chlorophyllin, compare your
results with those of other members of the class.
How are the chemical structures of the chlorophyll
and chlorophyllin molecules alike and different?
How are their functions in living organisms alike
and different? What are the practical applications of
chlorophyllin? Prepare a chart that summarizes the
similarities and differences in chemical structure
and biological function of the types of chlorophyll
and chlorophyllin.

CHAPTER 8 Cellular Energy

87

Name

Date

Concept
Mapping

Class

CHAPTER 8

Photosynthesis and Respiration

Complete the Venn diagram about photosynthesis and respiration. These terms may be used
more than once: absorbs, Calvin cycle, chlorophyll, CO2, H2O, Krebs cycle, mitochondria,
releases.

Photosynthesis

Respiration
Both
electrontransports

(1)

NADPH

energy using
ATP

(2)
occurs in chloroplasts
(3)
produces glucose

occurs in
(4)

(7)

(5)
O2

Cellular Energy CHAPTER 8

(8)
breaks pyruvate down into
carbon dioxide
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

glucose

88

(6)
energy

FADH2

Unit 2

Name

Date

Class

CHAPTER 8

Study Guide

Section 1: How Organisms Obtain Energy

In your textbook, read about how organisms obtain energy.


Match the definition in Column A with the term in Column B.
Column A

Column B

1. the idea that energy cannot be created or destroyed

A. energy

2. all the chemical reactions in a cell

B. thermodynamics

3. anabolic pathway that converts energy from the Sun


to chemical energy for use by cells

C. first law of thermodynamics


D. second law of thermodynamics

4. ability to do work

E. metabolism

5. series of chemical reactions in which the product


of one reaction is the substrate for the next reaction

F. photosynthesis

6. biological molecule that provides chemical energy

G. cellular respiration

7. study of the flow and transformation of energy

H. metabolic pathway

8. source of nearly all energy for life

I. adenosine triphosphate (ATP)

9. catabolic pathway that breaks down organic molecules

J. sunlight

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

10. spontaneous increase in disorder, or entropy

In your textbook, read about autotrophs and heterotrophs.


Refer to the illustrations. Use each of the terms below only once to complete the passage.
autotrophs

chemoautotrophs

Group A

'ROUP!

-ICE

3EED EATINGBIRDS

group are called (12)

(14)

'RASS

$EER

3HRUBS

4REES

. The organisms in this


. The group that must eat other organisms
. The organisms in this group are called

. Some organisms get their energy from inorganic substances,

such as hydrogen sulfide. These organisms are called (15)


Unit 2

heterotrophs

'ROUP"

The group that makes their own food is (11)

for food is (13)

Group B

.
CHAPTER 8 Cellular Energy

89

Name

Date

Class

CHAPTER 8

Study Guide

Section 2: Photosynthesis

In your textbook, read about light reactions.


Number the following steps of light reactions in the order in which they occur.
1. The energy lost by electrons as they pass through the electron transport chain is used
to make ATP.
2. The electrons pass from the chlorophyll to an electron transport chain.
3. Sunlight strikes the chlorophyll molecules in the thylakoid membranes.
4. NADP+ molecules change to NADPH as they carry the electrons to the stroma
of the chloroplast.
5. Light energy is transferred to the chlorophylls electrons.
6. The electrons are passed down a second electron transport chain.

Refer to the graph. Respond to each statement.




8. State the name of the pigment that absorbs the most light

#HLOROPHYLLA
#HLOROPHYLLB
#AROTENOIDS










7AVELENGTHOF,IGHTNM

at about 450 nm.


In your textbook, read about the Calvin cycle and alternative photosynthesis pathways.
Complete the table by checking the correct column(s) for each description.
Description

Calvin

C4

CAM

9. The second phase of photosynthesis, in which energy is stored in glucose


10. Pathway(s) that help(s) plants photosynthesize while minimizing water loss
11. Pathway that allows carbon dioxide to enter leaves only at night
12. Light-independent reactions
13. Uses the enzyme rubisco to convert carbon dioxide into molecules that can
be used by the cell
14. Type of plant found in hot, dry environments
90

Cellular Energy CHAPTER 8

Unit 2

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

0ERCENTAGEOF,IGHT!BSORBED

7. Explain why there are usually several types of pigments


present in chloroplasts.

!BSORPTION3PECTRAOF
0HOTOSYNTHETIC0IGMENTS

Name

Date

Class

CHAPTER 8

Study Guide

Section 3: Cellular Respiration

In your textbook, read about cellular respiration and glycolysis.


Use each of the terms below only once to complete the passage.
aerobic
glucose

anaerobic
glycolysis

ATP
mitochondria

cellular respiration
NADH

energy

Organisms obtain energy in a process called (1)

. This process harvests

electrons from carbon compounds, such as (2)

, and uses that energy to

make (3)

. ATP is used to provide (4)

for cells to do work. In (5)

, glucose is broken down into pyruvate.

Glycolysis is a(n) (6)

process because it does not require oxygen. Glycolysis

takes place in the (7)

. Two molecules of ATP and two molecules of

(8)

are formed for every glucose molecule that is broken down.

(9)

respiration takes place in the (10)

It is aerobic because the process requires (11)

Refer to the diagram of glycolysis. Label the steps in the


description to match the diagram.
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

cytoplasm
oxygen

12. Step
. Each three-carbon compound is
converted into a three-carbon pyruvate.
13. Step
. A six-carbon compound is broken down
into two three-carbon compounds.
14. Step
. Phosphate groups from two ATP
molecules are transferred to a glucose molecule.
15. Step
. Two NADH molecules and four ATP
molecules are produced.

Glycolysis
!40

!$0

!$0

3TEP
 CARBONCOMPOUND
# # #

 CARBONCOMPOUND
# # #

!$0

3TEP

17. Explain Why is there a net gain of only two ATP


molecules in the glycolysis of one six-carbon glucose?
3TEP

Unit 2

!40

3TEP

Respond to each question.


16. Interpret How many total ATP molecules
are produced from the glycolysis of one
six-carbon glucose?

'LUCOSE
# # # # # #

!$0

!40

!40

.!$

.!$

.!$(

.!$(

0YRUVATE
# # #

0YRUVATE
# # #

CHAPTER 8 Cellular Energy

91

Study Guide, Section 3: Cellular Respiration


In your textbook, read about the Krebs cycle, electron
transport, and anaerobic respiration.

continued

Cellular Respiration

Refer to the diagram of cellular respiration. Respond to


each question and statement.
18. Recall What is the net yield of ATP produced by
each of the circled processes in the diagram?

Glycolysis =
Krebs cycle =

Glucose
without oxygen
Glycolysis

2 ATP

ATP
ATP

Electron transport chain =

ATP

19. Find the total net yield of ATP from one


molecule of glucose.

20. Specify Based on the diagram and your


calculations, which process produces more
energythe anaerobic pathway or the
aerobic pathway?

Pyruvate
with oxygen
Acetyl-CoA

Krebs cycle

2 ATP

Electron
transport chain

32 ATP

For each statement below, write true or false.


21. The anaerobic pathway that follows glycolysis in the absence of oxygen
is fermentation.

23. Cellular respiration in eukaryotes is slightly more efficient than in prokaryotes.


24. The Krebs cycle is sometimes called the TCA cycle or the citric acid cycle.
25. Fermentation occurs in the mitochondria.
26. Skeletal muscle produces lactic acid when the body cannot supply
enough oxygen.
27. Alcohol fermentation is found in some bacteria and in humans.
28. The two pyruvate molecules formed during glycolysis result in two Krebs cycles.
29. Electron transport is the first step in the breakdown of glucose.

92

Cellular Energy CHAPTER 8

Unit 2

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

22. The hydrogen necessary in the electron transport chain comes from the
splitting of carbon dioxide molecules.

Nombre

Fecha

Curso

CAPTULO 8

Gua
de estudio

Seccin 1: Cmo los organismos obtienen energa

En tu libro de texto, lee acerca de cmo los organismos obtienen energa.


Relaciona la definicin de la columna A con el trmino de la columna B.
Columna A

Columna B

1. la idea de que la energa no se puede crear ni destruir

A. energa

2. todas las reacciones qumicas en una clula

B. termodinmica

3. la ruta anablica que convierte energa del sol en energa


qumica para el uso de las clulas

C. primera ley de
termodinmica

4. la capacidad de trabajar

D. segunda ley de
termodinmica

5. una serie de reacciones qumicas en las cuales el producto


de una reaccin es el sustrato de la siguiente reaccin

E. metabolismo

6. la molcula biolgica que ofrece energa qumica

F. fotosntesis

7. el estudio del flujo y la transformacin de energa

G. respiracin celular

8. la fuente de prcticamente toda la energa para la vida

H. ruta metablica
I. adenosina trifosfato (ATP)

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

9. la ruta catablica que descompone las molculas orgnicas

J. luz solar

10. el aumento espontneo en desorden, o entropa

En tu libro de texto, lee acerca de los auttrofos y hetertrofos.


Consulta las ilustraciones. Usa los siguientes trminos slo una vez para completar el prrafo.
auttrofos
'RUPO!

grupo A

grupo B

quimioauttrofos

'RUPO"

0JAROSQUE
COMENSEMILLAS

2ATONES

hetertrofos

#IERVOS

0ASTO

RBOLES
!RBUSTOS

El grupo que produce su propia comida es el (11)

. Los organismos en

este grupo se llaman (12)

. El grupo que debe comer otros organismos

para alimentarse es el (13)

. Los organismos en este grupo se llaman

(14)

. Algunos organismos obtienen energa a partir de sustancias

inorgnicas, tales como sulfito de hidrgeno. Estos organismos se llaman (15)


Unidad 2

.
CAPTULO 8 La energa celular

93

Nombre

Fecha

Gua
de estudio

Curso

CAPTULO 8

Seccin 2: La fotosntesis

En tu libro de texto, lee acerca de las reacciones a la luz.


Enumera los siguientes pasos de las reacciones a la luz en el orden en el cual ocurren.
1. La energa perdida por los electrones a medida que pasan a travs de la cadena de
transporte de electrones se usa para producir ATP.
2. Los electrones pasan de la clorofila a una cadena de transporte de electrones.
3. La luz solar golpea las molculas de clorofila en las membranas tilacoides.
4. Las molculas NADP+ cambian a NADPH a medida que transportan los electrones
hacia el estroma del cloroplasto.
5. La energa de luz se traslada a los electrones de la clorofila.
6. Los electrones se pasan a una segunda cadena de transporte de electrones.
%SPECTRODEABSORCINDE
PIGMENTOSFOTOSINTTICOS

7. Explica porqu generalmente hay varios tipos de pigmentos


presentes en los cloroplastos.



#LOROFILAA
#LOROFILAB
#AROTENOIDES










,ONGITUDDEONDADELALUZNM

En tu libro de texto, lee acerca del ciclo de Calvin y las rutas alternas de la fotosntesis.
Completa la tabla marcando la(s) columna(s) correcta(s) para cada descripcin.
Descripcin

Calvin

C4

CAM

9. La segunda fase de la fotosntesis, en la cual la energa se almacena en glucosa


10. La(s) ruta(s) que ayuda(n) a las plantas a completar la fotosntesis mientras se
reduce la prdida de agua
11. La ruta que permite que el dixido de carbono entre a las hojas nicamente
durante la noche
12. Las reacciones independientes a la luz
13. Utiliza la enzima rubisco para convertir el dixido de carbono en molculas
que la clula puede usar
14. Tipo de planta que se encuentra en ambientes calientes y secos
94

La energa celular CAPTULO 8

Unidad 2

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

8. Indica el nombre del pigmento que absorbe la mayor


cantidad de luz aproximadamente a 450 nm.

0ORCENTAEDELUZABSORBIDA

Consulta la grfica. Responde a cada afirmacin.

Nombre

Fecha

Gua
de estudio

Curso

CAPTULO 8

Seccin 3: La respiracin celular

En tu libro de texto, lee acerca de la respiracin celular y la gliclisis.


Usa los siguientes trminos slo una vez para completar el prrafo.
ATP
glucosa

aerbico
mitocondria

anaerbico
NADH

citoplasma
oxgeno

energa
respiracin celular

gliclisis

Los organismos obtienen energa mediante un proceso llamado (1)

Este proceso produce electrones a partir de compuestos de carbono, tales como la


(2)

, y usa esa energa para producir (3)

La ATP sirve para brindar (4)


la (5)
proceso (6)

a las clulas para trabajar. Durante


, la glucosa se descompone en piruvato. La gliclisis es un
debido a que no requiere oxgeno. La gliclisis se

realiza en el (7)
(8)

. Dos molculas de ATP y dos molculas de


se forman para cada molcula de glucosa que se descompone.

La respiracin (9)

se lleva a cabo en la (10)

Es aerbica debido a que el proceso requiere (11)

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Consulta el diagrama de la gliclisis. Identifica los pasos en la


descripcin segn el diagrama.
12. Paso
. Cada compuesto de tres carbonos se
convierte en un piruvato de tres carbonos.
13. Paso
. Un compuesto de seis carbonos se
descompone en dos compuestos de tres carbonos.
14. Paso
. Los grupos de fosfato de dos molculas de
ATP se transfieren a una molcula de glucosa.
15. Paso
. Se producen dos molculas de NADH y
cuatro molculas de ATP.

Responde a cada pregunta.

'LICLISIS
'LUCOSA
!40

Unidad 2

!40

0ASO
!$0

!$0

0ASO
#OMPUESTODECARBONOS

#OMPUESTODECARBONOS

# # #

# # #

!$0

0ASO

16. Interpreta Cuntas molculas de ATP en total se


producen en la gliclisis de una glucosa de seis carbonos?

17. Explica Por qu hay una ganancia neta de slo dos


molculas de ATP en la gliclisis de una glucosa de
seis carbonos?

# # # # # #

0ASO

!$0

!40

!40

.!$

.!$

.!$(

.!$(

0IRUVATO

0IRUVATO

# # #

# # #

CAPTULO 8 La energa celular

95

Gua de estudio, Seccin 3: La respiracin celular


En tu libro de texto, lee acerca del ciclo de Krebs, el
transporte de electrones y la respiracin anaerbica.

continuacin
Respiracin celular

Consulta el diagrama de la respiracin celular. Responde a


cada pregunta y afirmacin.
18. Recuerda Cul es el rendimiento neto de ATP
producido por cada uno de los procesos encerrados
en un crculo en el diagrama?

Gliclisis =

ATP

Cadena de transporte de electrones =

Gliclisis

2 ATP

Piruvato
con oxgeno

ATP

Ciclo de Krebs =

Glucosa
sin oxgeno

ATP

Acetil-CoA

19. Encuentra el rendimiento total neto de ATP de una


molcula de glucosa.

20. Especifica Con base en el diagrama y tus clculos,


qu proceso produce ms energa: la ruta
anaerbica o la ruta aerbica?

Ciclo de Krebs

2 ATP

Cadena de
transporte de
electrones

32 ATP

Para cada afirmacin a continuacin, escribe verdadero o falso.

22. El hidrgeno necesario en la cadena de transporte de electrones viene de la


divisin de las molculas de dixido de carbono.
23. La respiracin celular en las eucariotas es ligeramente ms eficiente que en
las procariotas.
24. El ciclo de Krebs algunas veces se llama el ciclo TCA o el ciclo del
cido ctrico.
25. La fermentacin ocurre en la mitocondria.
26. El msculo esqueltico produce cido lctico cuando el cuerpo no puede
suministrar suficiente oxgeno.
27. La fermentacin del alcohol se encuentra en algunas bacterias y en humanos.
28. Las dos molculas de piruvato formadas durante la gliclisis resultan en dos
ciclos de Krebs.
29. El transporte de electrones es el primer paso en la descomposicin de glucosa.
96

La energa celular CAPTULO 8

Unidad 2

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

21. La ruta anaerbica que sigue a la gliclisis en la ausencia de oxgeno es


la fermentacin.

Name

Section
Quick Check

Date

Class

CHAPTER 8

Section 1: How Organisms Obtain Energy

After reading the section in your textbook, respond to each statement.


1. Recall the basic components of ATP.

2. Paraphrase the first law of thermodynamics.

3. Contrast catabolic pathways and anabolic pathways.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

4. Examine how nearly all energy for life comes directly or indirectly from the Sun,
given that heterotrophs get their energy from the food they eat.

5. Classify the synthesis of a protein from amino acids as anabolic or


catabolic. Explain.

Unit 2

CHAPTER 8 Cellular Energy

97

Name

Date

Section
Quick Check

Class

CHAPTER 8

Section 2: Photosynthesis

After reading the section in your textbook, respond to each statement.


1. State the process of photosynthesis as a chemical reaction.

2. Summarize briefly the process of photosynthesis from absorption of light to


production of glucose.

3. Discuss what pigments are. Give two examples.

4. Clarify why the reactions of the Calvin cycle are also referred to as light-independent
reactions.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

5. Deduce how you can tell if an organism carries out photosynthesis just by looking at
its cells under a microscope.

98

Cellular Energy CHAPTER 8

Unit 2

Name

Section
Quick Check

Date

Class

CHAPTER 8

Section 3: Cellular Respiration

After reading the section in your textbook, respond to each question and statement.
1. List the stages of cellular respiration.

2. Express the process of cellular respiration as a chemical equation.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

3. Clarify the relationship between photosynthesis and cellular respiration.

4. Arrange Write the following steps in the order in which they occur
during glycolysis.
A six-carbon molecule is broken down into two three-carbon molecules.
Two NADP+ molecules are converted into two NADH molecules.
Two phosphate groups from two ATP molecules are joined to glucose.
Two three-carbon molecules are converted into two molecules of pyruvate as four
molecules of ATP are produced.

5. Infer After you have been exercising for a while, why do you start breathing hard?

Unit 2

CHAPTER 8 Cellular Energy

99

Name

Date

Chapter Test

Class

CHAPTER 8

Cellular Energy

Part A: Multiple Choice


In the space at the left, write the letter of the phrase that best answers each question.
1. Which defines energy?
A. ability to do work
B. creation of heat
C. increase of disorder
D. power to change
2. Which is the biological importance of the molecule adenosine triphosphate (ATP)?
A. creates glucose from light
B. makes biological proteins
C. provides chemical energy
D. repairs cell membranes
3. Which occurs during the Krebs cycle?
A. breaking down pyruvate
B. capturing light energy
C. creating glucose molecules
D. producing ethyl alcohol

Part B: Matching
Write the letter of the correct process on the line next to its description. Answers may be used
only once.
A. cellular respiration

2. A cell uses oxygen to break down molecules, generating energy.

B. glycolysis

3. One molecule of glucose is broken down into two pyruvate


molecules.

C. photosynthesis

Part C: Interpreting Graphs and Formulas

6CO2 + 6H2O

light

C6H12O6 + 6O2

Use the formula above to respond to the following statement.


1. Identify the process represented by the chemical equation.

100 Cellular Energy CHAPTER 8

Unit 2

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

1. A bacterium converts light energy into chemical energy.

Name

Chapter Test

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CONTINUED

0ERCENTAGEOF,IGHT!BSORBED

!BSORPTION3PECTRAOF
0HOTOSYNTHETIC0IGMENTS


#HLOROPHYLLA
#HLOROPHYLLB
#AROTENOIDS










7AVELENGTHOF,IGHTNM

Use the graph above to respond to the following question.


2. Interpret What wavelengths of light are absorbed by chlorophyll a?

Part D: Short Answer


Write your response to each statement in the space provided.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

1. State the first law of thermodynamics.

2. Relate the second law of thermodynamics.

3. Identify the importance of the Calvin cycle for green plants.

Unit 2

CHAPTER 8 Cellular Energy 101

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CONTINUED

4. Contrast aerobic and anaerobic processes.

Part E: Concept Application


Write your response to each statement in the space provided.
1. Contrast how an oak tree and a squirrel obtain energy. Include the terms autotroph
and heterotroph in your answer.

2. Infer the effect of damaged chloroplasts on a cell.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

102 Cellular Energy CHAPTER 8

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Chapter Test

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CHAPTER 8

Cellular Energy

Part A: Multiple Choice


In the space at the left, write the letter of the term or sentence that best completes each
statement or answers each question.
1. Which is an autotroph?
A. daisy
B. earthworm
C. mushroom
D. wolf
2. Which identifies the relationship between photosynthesis and cellular respiration?
A. Both processes generate energy for cell use.
B. Both processes release energy for cell use.
C. The products of one process are used as reactants by the other process.
D. The reactants of one process are also the reactants of the other process.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

3. Light-absorbing molecules such as chlorophyll are called


A. grana.
B. pigments.
C. stomata.
D. thylakoids.
4. Which molecule results from the final step of the Calvin cycle?
A. COA
B. COB
C. RuBP
D. RuTP
5. Where in the cell does the Krebs cycle occur?
A. chloroplast
B. cytoplasm
C. mitochondrion
D. nucleus

Part B: Matching and Completion


Matching Check the box to indicate whether each statement occurs during the process of
photosynthesis or cellular respiration. Boxes may be checked more than once.
Statement

Cellular Respiration

Photosynthesis

1. Includes NADP+ as an electron carrier


2. Includes the Krebs cycle
3. Includes the reduction of glucose molecules into
pyruvate molecules
4. Includes the Calvin cycle

Unit 2

CHAPTER 8 Cellular Energy 103

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CONTINUED

Completion Write the correct term in the blank to complete each sentence below.
5. The ability to do work is called

6. The most important molecule for providing cells with energy is

called

7. An oak tree performs photosynthesis in organelles called

8. 3-PGA is an abbreviation that stands for

Part C: Interpreting Graphs and Formulas

6CO2 + 6H2O

light

A+B

Use the formula above to respond to the following statement.


1. Identify the reactants labeled A and B in the equation for photosynthesis.
A.

B.



#HLOROPHYLLA
#HLOROPHYLLB
#AROTENOIDS
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

0ERCENTAGEOF,IGHT!BSORBED

!BSORPTION3PECTRAOF
0HOTOSYNTHETIC0IGMENTS










7AVELENGTHOF,IGHTNM

Use the graph above to respond to the following statement.


2. Contrast the optimal range of wavelengths of light needed by chlorophyll a and
chlorophyll b to perform photosynthesis.

104 Cellular Energy CHAPTER 8

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CONTINUED

Part D: Short Answer


Write your response to each statement in the space provided.
1. State the first and second laws of thermodynamics.

2. Distinguish between catabolic pathways and anabolic pathways.

3. Analyze the chemical formula for cellular respiration. Use the term aerobic process
in your answer.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Part E: Concept Application


Write your response to each statement in the space provided.
1. Explain why the leaves of a tulip tree in New York will turn bright yellow during the
month of October.

2. Infer the economic importance of the process of fermentation.

Unit 2

CHAPTER 8 Cellular Energy 105

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Chapter Test

Class

CHAPTER 8

Cellular Energy

Part A: Multiple Choice


In the space at the left, write the letter of the term or phrase that best answers each question.
1. Which would be a habitat for chemoautotrophs but not photoautotrophs?
A. cold tundra plain
B. deep Ocean trench
C. high-altitude mountain
D. shallow ocean water
2. Which describes the process of cellular respiration?
A. anabolic pathway that breaks molecules into energy
B. anabolic pathway that builds molecules of stored energy
C. catabolic pathway that breaks molecules into energy
D. catabolic pathway that builds molecules of stored energy
3. Which is formed during the light-independent phase of photosynthesis?
A. ATP
C. glucose molecules
B. NADPH
D. pigment molecules

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

4. Which describes the process of glycolysis?


A. aerobic process that breaks down glucose
B. aerobic process that manufactures glucose
C. anaerobic process that breaks down glucose
D. anaerobic process that manufactures glucose
5. Which describes the process of fermentation?
A. aerobic process that manufactures pyruvate
B. aerobic process that restores NAD + supply
C. anaerobic process that manufactures pyruvate
D. anaerobic process that restores NAD + supply
6. Which is recycled through the Krebs cycle?
A. citric acid
B. FAD
C. NADH
D. nucleic acid

Part B: Completion
Write the correct term in the blank to complete each sentence below.
1. A black widow spider snaring an insect to eat is an example of an organism called

a(n)

2. Light-dependent reactions take place in saclike membranes called

3. In eukaryotic cells, aerobic respiration occurs in organelles called

106 Cellular Energy CHAPTER 8

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CONTINUED

4. Inorganic carbon dioxide cannot be converted into organic molecules during

photosynthesis without the enzyme


5. The final step of aerobic respiration when ATP is created is called

Part C: Interpreting Graphs and Formulas

6CO2 + A

light

B+C

Use the formula above to respond to the following statement.

!BSORPTION3PECTRAOF
0HOTOSYNTHETIC0IGMENTS

A.
B.
C.

Use the graph to respond to the following question.


2. Interpret What is the optimal range of light for all three
pigments to photosynthesize at one time?

0ERCENTAGEOF,IGHT!BSORBED

1. Identify the compounds labeled AC in the equation.




#HLOROPHYLLA
#HLOROPHYLLB
#AROTENOIDS










7AVELENGTHOF,IGHTNM

Part D: Short Answer


Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Write your response to each statement in the space provided.


1. Analyze the system and energy changes of a burning log of wood.

2. Identify the most important biological molecule that provides organisms with
chemical energy. Describe its structure and function.

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CHAPTER 8 Cellular Energy 107

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CONTINUED

3. Infer the primary effect on the process of photosynthesis if NADP+ production


were disrupted.

Part E: Concept Application


Write your response to each question and statement in the space provided.
1. Infer In 1977, scientists discovered extremely hot, toxic substances pouring from
fissures in deep ocean trenches. The scientists named these fissures black smokers,
and, to their surprise, discovered diverse ecosystems thriving near these locations.
These ecosystems contained organisms such as large clams, mussels, snails, and a
variety of worms. Infer the energy source for these ecosystems.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

2. Formulate an economic strategy northeastern states could develop to profit from


the seasonal decomposition of chlorophyll in the leaves of deciduous trees.

3. Deduce why a soccer player might feel soreness in his or her muscles during a game.
How could the player relieve leg soreness?

108 Cellular Energy CHAPTER 8

Unit 2

Name

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Class

CHAPTER 8

Assessment

Student Recording Sheet

Section 8.1
Vocabulary Review

Replace the italicized words with the correct vocabulary terms.


1.

3.

2.

4.

5.

Understand Key Concepts

Select the best answer from the choices given, and fill in the corresponding circle.
6.
7.
8.

9.

Constructed Response
10.

11.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Think Critically
12.

13.

Section 8.2
Vocabulary Review

Write the vocabulary term that best matches each definition.


14.

16.

15.

17.

Understand Key Concepts

Select the best answer from the choices given, and fill in the corresponding circle.
18.
19.
20.
Unit 2

21.
CHAPTER 8 Cellular Energy 109

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CHAPTER 8

Assessment

Student Recording Sheet

Constructed Response
22.

23.

24.

Think Critically
25.

26.

27.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Section 8.3
Vocabulary Review

Write a sentence defining each vocabulary term.


28.

29.

30.

31.

32.

110 Cellular Energy CHAPTER 8

Unit 2

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CHAPTER 8

Assessment

Student Recording Sheet

Understand Key Concepts

Select the best answer from the choices given, and fill in the corresponding circle.
33.
35.
37.
34.

36.

Constructed Response
38.

39.

40.

Think Critically
41.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

42.

43.

Additional Assessment
44. Writing in Biology Record your answer for question 44 on a separate sheet of paper.
Document-Based Questions
45.

46.
47.
Cumulative Review
48.

Unit 2

CHAPTER 8 Cellular Energy 111

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CHAPTER 8

Assessment

Student Recording Sheet

Standardized Test Practice


Multiple Choice

Select the best answer from the choices given, and fill in the corresponding circle.
1.
4.
7.
2.

5.

8.

3.

6.

9.

Short Answer

Answer each question with complete sentences.


10.

11.

12.

13.

14.
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

15.

16.

Extended Response

Answer each question with complete sentences.


17.

18.

Essay Question
19. Record your answer for question 19 on a separate sheet of paper.

112 Cellular Energy CHAPTER 8

Unit 2

Table of
Contents

Reproducible Pages

Chapter 9 Cellular Reproduction


Diagnostic Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
Launch Lab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
MiniLab (1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
MiniLab (2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
BioLab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
Real-World Biology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
Enrichment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
Concept Mapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
Study Guide (English) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
Study Guide (Spanish) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Section Quick Check 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133


Section Quick Check 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
Section Quick Check 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
Chapter Test A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
Chapter Test B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
Chapter Test C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142
Student Recording Sheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145

113

Name

Diagnostic
Test

Date

Class

CHAPTER 9

Cellular Reproduction

Before reading Chapter 9, predict answers to questions about the chapter content based on
what you already know. Circle the letter of the correct answer, and then explain your reasoning.
1. Carlos is studying human skin cells under a microscope during science class. He
asks his teacher why cells are small. Which response does his teacher give him?
A. A large cell rapidly becomes a dangerous cancer cell.
B. Cells divide too rapidly to grow much larger in size.
C. Larger cells could not efficiently transport nutrients.
D. Small cells place fewer energy demands on an organism.

Explain.

2. Scott learns that his aunt has a form of cancer. Scotts science teacher explains to
Scott what cancer is. Which is part of the teachers explanation?
A. A cancer patient can pass the disease to other people.
B. A pathogen, such as a virus, infects a cell with cancer.
C. Cancer is caused when body cells divide out of control.
D. Some cancer cells perform normal functions in the body.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Explain.

3. Keshia is watching a news broadcast story that features the controversy over stem
cell research. She does not know what stem cells are, and she looks up the term in a
dictionary. What definition does she find?

Unit 2

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CHAPTER 9

From where do healthy cells come?

All living things are composed of cells. The only way an organism can grow or heal
itself is by cellular reproduction. Healthy cells perform vital life functions, and they
reproduce to form more cells. In this lab you will investigate the appearance of different
cell types.

Procedure
1. Read and complete the lab safety form.
2. Observe slides of human cells under high magnification using a light microscope.
3. Observe onion root tip cells under the
microscope.

4. Observe other cells on the prepared slides your


teacher will give you.
5. Draw diagrams of the sample cells you observed.
Identify and label any of the structures you
recognize.

Data and Observations

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Analysis
1. Compare and contrast the different cells you observed.

2. Hypothesize why the cells you observed had different appearances and structures.
How could you identify diseased cells?

116 Cellular Reproduction CHAPTER 9

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MiniLab

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CHAPTER 9

Investigate Cell Size

Could a cell grow large enough to engulf your school? What would happen if the size
of an elephant were doubled? At the organism level, an elephant cannot grow significantly larger, because its legs would not support the increase in mass. Do the same principles and limitations apply at the cellular level? Do the math!

Procedure
1. Read and complete the lab safety form.
2. Prepare a data table for surface area and volume
data calculated for five hypothetical cells.
Assume the cell is a cube. (Dimensions given are
for one face of a cube.)

3. Calculate the surface area for each cell using this


formula: length width number of sides (6).
4. Calculate the volume for each cell using this formula: length width height.

Cell 1: 0.00002 m (the average diameter of most


eukaryotic cells)
Cell 2: 0.001 m (the diameter of a squids giant
nerve cell)
Cell 3: 2.5 cm
Cell 4: 30 cm
Cell 5: 15 m

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Data and Observations

Analysis
1. Cause and Effect Based on your calculations, confirm why cells do not become
very large.

2. Infer Are large organisms, such as redwood trees and elephants, large because they
contain extra-large cells or just more standard-sized cells? Explain.

Unit 2

CHAPTER 9 Cellular Reproduction 117

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Class

CHAPTER 9

Compare Sunscreens

Do sunscreens really block sunlight? Sunscreens contain a variety of different compounds that absorb UVB from sunlight. UVB is linked to mutations in DNA that can
lead to skin cancer. Find out how effective at blocking sunlight various sunscreens are.

Procedure
1. Read and complete the lab safety form.
2. Choose one of the sunscreen products provided
by your teacher. Record the active ingredients
and the sun protection factor (SPF) in the space
below.
3. Obtain two sheets of plastic wrap. On one sheet
use a permanent marker to draw two widely
spaced circles. Place a drop of sunscreen in the
middle of one circle and a drop of zinc oxide in
the middle of the other.

4. Lay the second sheet on top of both circles.


Spread the drops by pressing with a book.
5. Take a covered piece of sun-sensitive paper
and two pieces of plastic wrap to a sunny area.
Quickly uncover the paper, lay the two pieces of
plastic wrap on top, and place in the sunlight.
6. After the paper is fully exposed, remove it
from the sunlight and develop according to
instructions.

Data and Observations

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Analysis
1. Think Critically Why did you compare the sunscreens to zinc oxide?

2. Draw Conclusions After examining the developed sun-sensitive papers from


your class, which sunscreens do you think would be most likely to prevent
DNA mutations?

118 Cellular Reproduction CHAPTER 9

Unit 2

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BioLab

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Class

CHAPTER 9

Does sunlight affect mitosis in yeast?

Background: Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is a component of sunlight that can damage


DNA and interrupt the cell cycle.
Question: Can sunscreens prevent damage to UV-sensitive yeast?

Materials
sterile pipettes (10)
aluminum foil
test-tube rack

sterile spreaders (10)


dilution of UV-sensitive yeast
yeast extract dextrose (YED) agar plates (10)
sunscreens with various amounts of SPF

Safety Precautions

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Procedure
1. Read and complete the lab safety form.
2. Obtain a test tube containing a diluted broth
culture of the UV-sensitive yeast.
3. Formulate a hypothesis, then choose a sunscreen
and predict how it will affect the yeast when
exposed to sunlight.
4. Label ten YED agar plates with your group name.
Label two plates as control. The control plates
will not be placed in the sunlight. Label four of
the experimental plates as no sunscreen and
four as sunscreen.
5. Spread a 0.1 mL sample of the yeast dilution
on all ten YED agar plates. Wrap the control
plates in foil and give them to your teacher for
incubation.

6. With direction from your teacher, decide how


long to expose each of the experimental plates
and label each plate accordingly. Prepare a table
in which to collect your data.
7. Wrap the no sunscreen plates in foil. Apply
sunscreen to the lids of the four sunscreen plates
and wrap them in foil.
8. Remove the covers from all experimental plates,
and expose the plates for the planned times.
Re-cover the plates after exposure and give them
to your teacher for incubation.
9. After incubation, count and record the number
of yeast colonies on each plate.
10. Cleanup and Disposal Wash and return all
reusable materials. Dispose of the YED plates as
described by your teacher. Disinfect your work
area. Wash your hands thoroughly with soap
and water.

Data and Observations

Unit 2

CHAPTER 9 Cellular Reproduction 119

BioLab, Does sunlight affect mitosis in yeast?

continued

Analyze and Conclude


1. Estimate Assume that each yeast colony on a YED plate grew from one yeast cell in
the dilution. Use the number of yeast colonies on your control plate to determine
the percent of yeast that survived on each exposed plate.

2. Graph Data Draw a graph with the percent survival on the y-axis and the exposure
time on the x-axis. Use a different color to graph the data from the plates with and
without sunscreen.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

3. Evaluate Was your hypothesis supported by your data? Explain.

4. Error Analysis Describe several possible sources of error.

120 Cellular Reproduction CHAPTER 9

Unit 2

Name

Date

Real-World Biology:

Analysis

Class

CHAPTER 9

Examining and Reducing


the Risks of Cancer

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Most of your body cells undergo mitosis and make more cells to replace cells that are
damaged, diseased, or worn out. Some cells divide rapidly to replace dead cells. Millions
of cells in your body die every day. For example, blood cells and skin cells constantly
need to be replaced. A red blood cell might live for only a few months. New blood cells
are made by stem cells in your bone marrow. Dead cells in the outer layer of your skin
are replaced every few days by new cells made in a lower layer of the skin.
Sometimes, cells continue to make more cells even when they are not needed, or cells
might not die when they should. This uncontrolled, unregulated growth and division
of cells is cancer. Cancer cells can crowd out and kill healthy cells. Cancer can affect
different parts of the body, such as the stomach, lungs, and brain. Cancer is the second
leading cause of death in the United
States. In this activity, you will examine
Risks of Cancer
Carcinogen
some cancer risks and lifestyle choices
Tobacco use accounts for at least 30 percent of
that can help reduce those risks.
all cancer deaths.
Smoking causes nearly 87 percent of all lung
Part A: Examining the Risks
cancers. Smokeless tobacco, pipe tobacco, cigars,
Cancer is caused by changes in parts of
Tobacco
and secondhand smoke also cause cancer.
a cell that control the growth and death

Tobacco
use causes lung, stomach, mouth, nasal
of the cell. Certain substances, called
cavity, esophagus, pancreas, kidney, and bladder
carcinogens, can cause these changes.
cancer, as well as other cancers.
Scientists do research and collect evidence to determine what substances are
carcinogens. Some research takes place
in laboratories. Other research involves
studying the lifestyles of people with
different types of cancer. Scientists
have identified some substances as
known carcinogens; other substances
have been identified as possible carcinogens. The table lists the cancer risks of
three known carcinogens.

Analyze and Conclude

Alcohol

Alcohol is the primary cause of liver cancer,


but it can also cause mouth cancer, esophagus
cancer, and other cancers.
The cancer risk increases as the amount of
alcohol consumed increases.

Ultraviolet
radiation

UV radiation is the primary cause of skin cancer.


People are at greater risk if they live in an area
with year-round bright sunlight. For example,
the risk of skin cancer is twice as high in
Arizona as it is in Minnesota.
People are at greater risk if they use tanning
booths or sunlamps.

Respond to each question.


1. Explain Why are tobacco, alcohol, and ultraviolet radiation listed as carcinogens
in the table?

2. Identify What carcinogens in the table are known to cause cancer of the esophagus,
the tube leading from the mouth to the stomach?

Unit 2

CHAPTER 9 Cellular Reproduction 121

Real-World Biology: Analysis, Examining and Reducing the Risks of Cancer continued
3. Apply Why are people who work outdoors at greater risk of getting skin cancer?

Part B: Reducing the Risks


Carcinogens can cause changes in cells that result in cancer, but
that does not mean everyone exposed to carcinogens will get cancer.
Some people inherit a tendency to develop cancer. For people who
have a family history of cancer, regular checkups are important.
Many kinds of cancer can be treated successfully if they are detected
early enough.
Avoiding or reducing exposure to known carcinogens reduces
a persons risk of getting cancer. In addition, numerous studies
indicate that a healthy diet and exercise might protect people from
cancer. Steps that people can take to reduce their risks of developing
cancer are listed below.

Lifestyle Choices for Reducing


Cancer Risks
Avoid smoking and secondhand
smoke.
Avoid alcohol.
Avoid exposure to UV radiation,
use sunscreen, and wear
protective clothing.
Choose foods with less fat and
eat more vegetables, fruits, and
whole grains.
Exercise regularly and maintain
a healthy weight.

Analyze and Conclude


Respond to each question.
1. Explain How do the lifestyle choices listed above help reduce a persons risk
of cancer?

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

2. Identify In addition to following the lifestyle choices above, what should a person
who has a family history of cancer do to reduce his or her risk of dying from cancer?
How does this help?

3. Compare Which diet would give a person a higher risk of cancerone with lots
of fat and few vegetables, fruits, and whole grains, or one with little fat and lots of
vegetables, fruits, and whole grains?

Careers In Biology
Cancer Research Visit biologygmh.com for information on cancer
research. What are the responsibilities of a scientist who works in cancer
research?
122 Cellular Reproduction CHAPTER 9

Unit 2

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Class

CHAPTER 9

Enrichment

Group Project: Protecting Against Carcinogens

Carcinogens are substances known to cause cancer in humans or other animals. Scientists have
identified hundreds of carcinogens, ranging from X rays and sunlight to industrial chemicals
and once-popular food additives. Some carcinogens cannot always be avoided in ones daily
life. For example, the only way to avoid ultraviolet radiation, a carcinogen, is to stay out of
sunlight. But other carcinogens can be avoided if one knows where they are to be found.
Scrutinize Lists of known carcinogens are available
from a number of library reference books. Locate
some of those sources and find out the kind of
information available in each one. Notice that some
substances are known to be carcinogenic, while
others are suspected of being carcinogenic. Decide
whether suspected carcinogens or known carcinogens pose greater health risks to the public.

Depict Summarize the information you have found


in a poster, a newsletter, a short newspaper article
or television news story, or some other method for
informing the community. Your presentation should
be interesting enough to attract someones attention,
while providing information on the ten carcinogens
you have studied and the dangers they pose to people living in the community.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Organize Form a committee of five classmates to


serve as a carcinogen study group for your community. Search the lists of carcinogens that you are
able to find and select ten items from those lists on
which to focus your research. Find out where in
your community each carcinogen is most likely to
be found. For each carcinogen, prepare a carcinogen profile listing its source and its possible health
effects on humans.

Unit 2

CHAPTER 9 Cellular Reproduction 123

Name

Date

Concept
Mapping

Class

CHAPTER 9

The Cell Cycle

Complete the cycle map about the cell cycle. These terms may be used more than once: cell,
cytoplasm, metaphase, nuclear membrane, nucleoli, poles.

Interphase
(1) The
grows. DNA is duplicated.

Prophase
Cytokinesis
Chromosomes condense.
(6)

divides.

Two cells are formed.

(2) The
and nucleolus disappear.
Spindle apparatus forms.

Telophase

Nuclear membranes and


(5)

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Chromosomes arrive at poles.


(3)
reappear.
Sister chromatids line up at equator.
Chromosomes decondense.

Anaphase
Chromatids are pulled apart toward
(4)

124 Cellular Reproduction CHAPTER 9

Unit 2

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Class

CHAPTER 9

Study Guide

Section 1: Cellular Growth

In your textbook, read about cell size limitations.


List two alternative futures for cells when they reach their size limitations.
1.
2.

In your textbook, read about the cell cycle.


Draw the cell cycle in the space below. Include the following labels: cytokinesis, G1, G2,
interphase, mitosis, S.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

3.

Match the definition in Column A with the term in Column B.


Column A

Column B

4. stage in which the cell divides into two daughter cells with
identical nuclei

A. S phase
B. cytokinesis

5. substage of interphase immediately after a cell divides


C. G1
6. substage of interphase in which the cell copies its DNA
in preparation for cell division

D. G2

7. stage in which the cells nuclear material divides and separates

E. interphase

8. main stage in which the cell grows, carries out normal functions,
and duplicates its DNA

F. mitosis

9. substage in which the cell prepares for nuclear division and a


protein that makes microtubles for cell division is synthesized
Unit 2

CHAPTER 9 Cellular Reproduction 125

Name

Date

Class

CHAPTER 9

Study Guide

Section 2: Mitosis and Cytokinesis

In your textbook, read about the stages of mitosis.


For each statement below, write true or false.
1. The nuclear membrane disintegrates during prophase.
2. Microtubules move chromatids to the poles of the cell during anaphase.
3. Chromosomes reach the poles of the cell during metaphase.
4. The cells chromatin condenses into chromosomes during prophase.
5. The nuclear envelope re-forms during anaphase.
6. Chromosomes attach to spindle fibers and line up along the equator of the
cell during metaphase.
7. The nucleus reappears during prophase.
8. Centrioles migrate to the poles of the cell during telophase.
9. Chromatids are pulled apart during anaphase.
10. The first stage of mitosis is telophase.
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

11. The chromosomes decondense or unwind during telophase.


12. The shortest stage of mitosis is metaphase.

Label the diagram of the stages of mitosis using lines 1316. Use these choices:
anaphase

metaphase

prophase

telophase

















Label the diagrams above using lines 1720. Use these choices:
centrioles

centromere

126 Cellular Reproduction CHAPTER 9

sister chromatids

spindle fibers
Unit 2

Study Guide, Section 2: Mitosis and Cytokinesis

continued

In your textbook, read about cytokinesis.

Animal cell

Plant cells

Refer to the diagrams above. Respond to each statement.


21. Discuss the role of microfilaments in cytokinesis.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

22. Summarize cell division in prokaryotes.

Draw the formation of two genetically identical cells in plants in the space below. Include the
following labels: cell plate, identical daughter cells, new cell wall.
23.

Unit 2

CHAPTER 9 Cellular Reproduction 127

Name

Date

Class

CHAPTER 9

Study Guide

Section 3: Cell Cycle Regulation

In your textbook, read about the abnormal cell cycle and cancer.
Complete the graphic organizer about the causes and prevention of cancer. These terms may be
used more than once: carcinogens, cell cycle, cells, DNA damage, genetic changes, spindle
fiber failure, the Suns ultraviolet rays, tobacco.
Cancer

is the uncontrolled
growth and division of
1.

that is often prevented by

that is caused by
unrepaired

cell-cycle checkpoints

exposure to

2.

that monitor for


3.

or

5.

4.

6.

7.

8.

before
excessive X rays
cytokinesis

Complete the table by checking the correct column for each description.
Description

Apoptosis

Stem Cells

9. After a sperm fertilizes an egg, the resulting mass of cells divides until there
are about 100 to 150 cells.
10. Some cells go through a programmed death.
11. Embryonic cells shrivel and die, resulting in the formation of fingers and toes.
12. Unspecialized cells are either embryonic or adult.
13. This event occurs in cells that are damaged beyond repair.
128 Cellular Reproduction CHAPTER 9

Unit 2

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

such as

and stop the

Nombre

Fecha

Gua
de estudio

Curso

CAPTULO 9

Seccin 1: El crecimiento celular

En tu libro de texto, lee acerca de las limitaciones en el tamao de las clulas.


Enumera dos futuros alternativos para las clulas cuando alcanzan sus limitaciones de tamao.
1.
2.

En tu libro de texto, lee acerca del ciclo celular.


Dibuja el ciclo celular en el siguiente espacio. Identifica lo siguiente: citoquinesis, G1, G2,
interfase, mitosis, S.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

3.

Relaciona la definicin de la columna A con el trmino de la columna B.


Columna A

Columna B
A. fase S

4. etapa en la cual la clula se divide en dos clulas hijas con


ncleos idnticos

B. citoquinesis
5. sub-etapa de la interfase inmediatamente despus de que una
clula se divide

C. G1
D. G2

6. sub-etapa de la interfase en la cual la clula copia su ADN


preparndose para la divisin celular

E. interfase
7. etapa en la cual el material nuclear de la clula se divide y se separa
F. mitosis
8. etapa principal en la cual la clula crece, realiza funciones
normales y duplica su ADN
9. sub-etapa en la cual la clula se prepara para la divisin nuclear y
se sintetiza una protena que produce microtbulos para la divisin celular

Unidad 2

CAPTULO 9 La reproduccin celular 129

Nombre

Fecha

Curso

CAPTULO 9

Gua
de estudio

Seccin 2: Mitosis y citoquinesis

En tu libro de texto, lee acerca de las etapas de la mitosis.


Para cada afirmacin a continuacin, escribe verdadero o falso.
1. La membrana nuclear se desintegra durante la profase.
2. Los microtbulos mueven cromtidas hacia los polos de la clula
durante la anafase.
3. Los cromosomas alcanzan los polos de la clula durante la metafase.
4. La cromatina de la clula se condensa en cromosomas durante la profase.
5. La envoltura nuclear se vuelve a formar durante la anafase.
6. Los cromosomas se unen a las fibras del huso y se alinean a lo largo
del ecuador de la clula durante la metafase.
7. El ncleo vuelve a aparecer durante la profase.
8. Los centriolos migran hacia los polos de la clula durante la telofase.
9. Los cromtidas se separan durante la anafase.
10. La primera etapa de la mitosis es la telofase.

12. La etapa ms corta de la mitosis es la metafase.

Identifica el diagrama de las etapas de la mitosis en las lneas 1316. Usa estas opciones:
anafase

metafase

profase

telofase

















Identifica los diagramas anteriores en las lneas 1720. Usa estas opciones:
centriolos

centrmero

130 La reproduccin celular CAPTULO 9

cromtidas hermanas

fibras del huso


Unidad 2

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

11. Los cromosomas se descondensan o se desenrollan durante la telofase.

Gua de estudio, Seccin 2: Mitosis y citoquinesis

continuacin

En tu libro de texto, lee acerca de la citoquinesis.

Clula animal

Clulas de las plantas

Consulta el diagrama anterior. Responde a cada afirmacin.


21. Comenta la funcin de los microfilamentos en la citoquinesis.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

22. Resume la divisin celular en las procariotas.

En el siguiente espacio, dibuja la formacin de dos clulas de plantas genticamente idnticas.


Identifica lo siguiente: clulas hijas idnticas, nueva pared celular, placa celular.
23.

Unidad 2

CAPTULO 9 La reproduccin celular 131

Nombre

Fecha

Curso

CAPTULO 9

Gua
de estudio

Seccin 3: La regulacin del ciclo celular

En tu libro de texto, lee acerca del ciclo celular anormal y del cncer.
Completa el organizador grfico acerca de las causas y de la prevencin del cncer. Estos
trminos se pueden usar ms de una vez: cambios genticos, carcingenos, clulas, ciclo
celular, dao al ADN, el tabaco, falla de las fibras del huso, los rayos ultravioletas del sol.
Cncer

es el crecimiento y la
divisin incontrolada de
1.

que a menudo se evita mediante

que es causado por

puntos de control del


ciclo celular

exposicin a

2.

que buscan
3.

4.

no reparados

5.

6.
7.

8.

antes de la
citoquinesis

rayos X en exceso

Completa la tabla marcando la(s) columna(s) correcta(s) para cada descripcin.


Descripcin

Apptosis Clulas madre

9. Despus de que un esperma fertiliza un huevo, la masa resultante de clulas


se divide hasta que haya alrededor de 100 a 150 clulas.
10. Algunas clulas pasan por una muerte programada.
11. Las clulas embrinicas se arrugan y mueren, lo que resulta en la formacin
de los dedos de las manos y de los pies.
12. Las clulas no especializadas son embrinicas o adultas.
13. Este evento ocurre en las clulas que se han daado sin posibilidad
de reparacin.
132 La reproduccin celular CAPTULO 9

Unidad 2

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

tales como

y frenan el

Name

Section
Quick Check

Date

Class

CHAPTER 9

Section 1: Cellular Growth

After reading the section in your textbook, respond to each statement.


1. Define mitosis.

2. Summarize the stages of interphase.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

3. Clarify the difference between chromatin and chromosomes.

4. Distinguish between mitosis and cytokinesis.

5. The unicellular spores of the fern Ceratopteris richardii are about 100 m in
diameter. Calculate the surface-area-to-volume ratio of a cube whose sides are
100 m in length to approximate the surface-area-to-volume ratio of the fern
spore cell. Show your work.

Unit 2

CHAPTER 9 Cellular Reproduction 133

Name

Section
Quick Check

Date

Class

CHAPTER 9

Section 2: Mitosis and Cytokinesis

After reading the section in your textbook, respond to each statement.


1. Recount the major events that happen during prophase.

2. Describe the structure of chromosomes during prophase.

3. Summarize how cytokinesis occurs in plant cells.

4. Contrast the spindle apparatus of an animal cell with that of a plant cell.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

5. Devise a way to remember each stage of mitosis. Propose one word or a short phrase
that describes each stage and also starts with the same letter as the name of that
stage, for example, telophasetwo nuclei.

134 Cellular Reproduction CHAPTER 9

Unit 2

Name

Section
Quick Check

Date

Class

CHAPTER 9

Section 3: Cell Cycle Regulation

After reading the section in your textbook, respond to each statement.


1. Relate apoptosis to cancer.

2. Explain how cancerous cell growth differs from normal cell growth.

3. Identify the protein and enzyme complex that is important in controlling the cell
cycle and three of the processes it controls.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

4. Determine the significance of stem cells.

5. Deduce what would happen if there were no spindle checkpoints.

Unit 2

CHAPTER 9 Cellular Reproduction 135

Name

Date

Chapter Test

Class

CHAPTER 9

Cellular Reproduction

Part A: Multiple Choice


In the space at the left, write the letter of the term or phrase that best answers each question.
1. What can limit the size of a cell?
A. frequency of the cell cycle
B. maximum rate of cell mitosis
C. nutrient and energy levels
D. ratio of surface to volume
2. Which occurs during cytokinesis?
A. binary fission takes place
B. cytoplasm divides
C. DNA duplicates
D. spindle apparatus forms
3. What type of concern is raised by embryonic stem cell research?
A. ethical
B. medical cost
C. public health
D. scientific

Part B: Matching
Check the box to indicate whether the event described by each statement occurs during the
normal cell cycle or abnormal cell cycle. Check one box for each statement.
Normal Cycle

Abnormal Cycle

1. Results in a condition called cancer


2. Involves special proteins called cyclins
3. Can be caused by an overexposure to X rays
4. Has an environmental limit to prevent cells from dividing endlessly

136 Cellular Reproduction CHAPTER 9

Unit 2

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Statement

Name

Date

Chapter Test

Class

CONTINUED

Part C: Interpreting Drawings and Graphs

"

Use the illustration above to respond to the following statement.


1. Identify the anaphase, metaphase, prophase, and telophase stages of mitosis in the
drawings labeled A, B, C, and D.
A.

C.

B.

D.




-ALE
&EMALE








"IRTH


















Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

2ATEPER PEOPLE

0ANCREATIC#ANCER

 YAGEGROUPS

Use the graph above to answer each question.


2. Interpret What is the rate of pancreatic cancer for 62-year-old males?

3. Interpret What gender and age experiences the highest rate of pancreatic cancer?

Unit 2

CHAPTER 9 Cellular Reproduction 137

Name

Chapter Test

Date

Class

CONTINUED

Part D: Short Answer


Write your response to each statement in the space provided.
1. List the three stages of the cell cycle.

2. Compare the medical benefits of adult stem cells and embryonic stem cells. Use the
term specialized cells in your answer.

Part E: Concept Application


Write your response to each statement in the space provided.
1. Infer why a law was passed in some states and cities in the United States that
prevents people from smoking inside public buildings and restaurants. Include the
term carcinogen in your discussion.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

2. Explain why the cancer rate of a group of elderly people living in a nursing home is
higher than the cancer rate of a class of first-grade children.

138 Cellular Reproduction CHAPTER 9

Unit 2

Name

Date

Chapter Test

Class

CHAPTER 9

Cellular Reproduction

Part A: Multiple Choice


In the space at the left, write the letter of the term or phrase that best completes each statement
or answers each question.
1. During the cell cycle, a cell grows
A. and dies.
B. and divides.
C. without completing cytokinesis.
D. without completing mitosis.
2. What is the purpose of mitosis?
A. create genetic diversity
B. increase cell volume
C. produce new offspring
D. replace damaged cells

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

3. Which is the reproductive method of prokaryotes?


A. binary fission
B. cell apoptosis
C. cytokinesis
D. mitosis
4. How can cancer cells be described?
A. completing abnormal mitosis
B. dividing out of control
C. lacking essential nutrients
D. shrinking to a small size
5. The combination of mitotic cyclin with CDK signals the
A. beginning of cell mitosis.
B. completion of cytokinesis.
C. growth of a cancer cell.
D. start of the cell cycle.

Part B: Matching and Completion


Matching Write the letter of the correct stage of mitosis on the line next to its description.
Answers may be used only once or not at all.
1. Chromatin condense into chromosomes.

A. anaphase

2. The nucleolus reappears.

B. interphase

3. This stage ensures that the new cells have


accurate copies of the chromosomes.

C. metaphase
D. prophase

4. The cell grows during this stage.


E. telophase
Unit 2

CHAPTER 9 Cellular Reproduction 139

Name

Date

Chapter Test

Class

CONTINUED

Completion Write the correct term in the blank to complete each sentence below.
5. The stage during which the cells cytoplasm divides is called

6. The stage during which the cell carries out cell functions is called

7. Tobacco smoke is an example of a(n)

8. Unspecialized human cells are called

Part C: Interpreting Drawings and Graphs

"

Use the illustration above to respond to the following statement.


1. Identify the prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase stages of mitosis in the
drawings labeled AD in the order that they occur during mitosis.
A.

C.

B.

D.




-ALE
&EMALE








"IRTH


















2ATEPER PEOPLE

2. Contrast the rate of pancreatic cancer for males and


females at the age of 69.

0ANCREATIC#ANCER

 YAGEGROUPS

3. Interpret What age group is not usually afflicted by


pancreatic cancer?

140 Cellular Reproduction CHAPTER 9

Unit 2

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Use the graph on the right to respond to each question


and statement.

Name

Chapter Test

Date

Class

CONTINUED

Part D: Short Answer


Write your response to each statement in the space provided.
1. Identify two limiting factors that control eukaryotic cell division. Describe each
limiting factor.

2. Infer why embryonic stem cell research raises ethical concerns in the United States.

Part E: Concept Application


Write your response to each question and statement in the space provided.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

1. Evaluate Why is it impractical for human liver cells to triple their average size?

2. Formulate a strategy for a restaurant waiter who is searching for a job to minimize
his risk of contracting cancer from work-related environmental conditions. Use the
term carcinogen in your answer.

Unit 2

CHAPTER 9 Cellular Reproduction 141

Name

Date

Chapter Test

Class

CHAPTER 9

Cellular Reproduction

Part A: Multiple Choice


In the space at the left, write the letter of the term, phrase, or sentence that best completes each
statement or answers each question.
1. Which distinguishes the process of cytokinesis in plant and animal cells?
A. A cell plate forms in animal cells, while a furrow forms in plant cells.
B. A cell plate forms in plant cells, while a furrow forms in animal cells.
C. Cytokinesis results in genetic diversity in animal cells but not plant cells.
D. Cytokinesis results in genetic diversity in plant cells but not animal cells.
2. Which is part of the spindle apparatus?
A. aster fibers
B. centromere
C. chromatin
D. nuclear envelope
3. The G 1 stage of the cell cycle marks the beginning of the
A. cell cycle.
B. process of cytokinesis.
C. process of mitosis.
D. protein cycle.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

4. How can apoptosis be defined?


A. cell death
B. cell growth
C. complete mitosis
D. incomplete mitosis
5. Unspecialized human cells are called
A. cancer cells.
B. mitotic cells.
C. signal cells.
D. stem cells.
6. Why is adult stem cell research less controversial than
embryonic stem cell research?
A. Adult stem cell research has wider medical applications.
B. Consent can be obtained from adult stem cell donors.
C. Donated cadavers can be used to harvest adult stem cells.
D. Stem cells from adults require no animal experimentation.

Part B: Completion
Write the correct term in the blank to complete each sentence below.
1. The structure that attaches sister chromatids is called the
2. The shortest stage of mitosis is
142 Cellular Reproduction CHAPTER 9

.
.
Unit 2

Name

Date

Chapter Test

Class

CONTINUED

3. A bacterium cell reproduces using the process of

4. Special proteins that bind to enzymes during the cell cycle are called

5. A failure in the regulation of the cell cycle will result in

6. Ultraviolet radiation is an example of a(n)

Part C: Interpreting Drawings and Graphs

"

Use the illustration above to respond to the following statement.


1. Interpret Identify the four stages of mitosis in the drawings labeled AD. Explain
the reasons for your identifications.

2. Interpret At what age does the occurrence of pancreatic cancer increase


significantly for males and females?

3. Interpret What age group of men does not fit the


pattern for contracting pancreatic cancer? Explain.




0ANCREATIC#ANCER

-ALE
&EMALE








"IRTH


















2ATEPER PEOPLE

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Use the graph on the right to respond to each question.

 YAGEGROUPS

Unit 2

CHAPTER 9 Cellular Reproduction 143

Name

Chapter Test

Date

Class

CONTINUED

Part D: Short Answer


Write your response to each statement in the space provided.
1. Summarize the three stages of the cell cycle.

2. Explain why the risk of cancer increases with age.

3. Describe the formation of embryonic stem cells.

Part E: Concept Application


Write your response to each statement in the space provided.
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

1. Contrast A typical animal cell has a diameter of 20 m. Contrast the efficiency of a


typical cells functions with the cell function efficiency of a hypothetical cell with a
40-m diameter.

2. Contrast the arguments of those in favor of embryonic stem cell research with those
who oppose the research.

144 Cellular Reproduction CHAPTER 9

Unit 2

Name

Date

Class

CHAPTER 9

Assessment

Student Recording Sheet

Section 9.1
Vocabulary Review

Write the vocabulary term that best matches each definition.


1.

2.

3.

Understand Key Concepts

Select the best answer from the choices given, and fill in the corresponding circle.
4.
6.
8.
5.

7.

Constructed Response
9.

10.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

11.

Think Critically
12.

13.

Section 9.2
Vocabulary Review

Use vocabulary terms to complete the concept map.


14.

17.

15.

18.

16.
Unit 2

CHAPTER 9 Cellular Reproduction 145

Name

Date

Class

CHAPTER 9

Assessment

Student Recording Sheet

Understand Key Concepts

Select the best answer from the choices given, and fill in the corresponding circle.
19.

21.

20.

22.

Constructed Response
23.

24.

25.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Think Critically
26.

27. Math in Biology

Section 9.3
Vocabulary Review

Write the vocabulary term that makes each sentence true.


28.

29.

30.

Understand Key Concepts

Select the best answer from the choices given, and fill in the corresponding circle.
31.

34.

32.

35.

33.

146 Cellular Reproduction CHAPTER 9

Unit 2

Name

Date

Class

CHAPTER 9

Assessment

Student Recording Sheet

Constructed Response
36.

37.

Think Critically
38.

39.

40. Record your answer for question 40 on a separate sheet of paper.


Additional Assessment

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

41. Writing in Biology Record your answer for question 41 on a separate sheet of paper.
42. Record your answer for question 42 on a separate sheet of paper.
Document-Based Questions
43.

44.

45.

Cumulative Review
46.

47.

Unit 2

CHAPTER 9 Cellular Reproduction 147

Name

Date

Class

CHAPTER 9

Student Recording Sheet

Assessment

Standardized Test Practice


Multiple Choice

Select the best answer from the choices given, and fill in the corresponding circle.
1.
4.
7.
2.

5.

8.

3.

6.

9.

10.

Short Answer

Answer each question with complete sentences.


11.

12.
13.

14.

15.
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

16.

17.
Extended Response

Answer each question with complete sentences.


18.

19.

Essay Question
20. Record your answer for question 20 on a separate sheet of paper.

148 Cellular Reproduction CHAPTER 9

Unit 2

Chapter 6

Teacher Guide and Answers

Diagnostic Test
Page 3

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

1. The correct answer is D. Based on student


responses, use the list below to address
preconceptions.
Student thinks atoms are composed of electrical charges instead of made of charged and
noncharged particles. Direct student to the
atoms discussion in Section 6.1.
Student thinks atoms are the smallest particles
of matter. Direct student to the atoms discussion
in Section 6.1.
Student thinks the nucleus of an atom is a particle. Direct student to the atoms discussion in
Section 6.1.
Student thinks atoms are made of energy and
not matter. Direct student to the atoms discussion in Section 6.1.
2. The correct answer is A. Based on student
responses, use the list below to address
preconceptions.
Student thinks isotopes can be different elements. Direct student to the isotopes discussion
in Section 6.1.
Student thinks isotopes vary in their number
of protons. Direct student to the isotopes discussion in Section 6.1.
Student thinks isotopes are particles with a
negative charge. Direct student to the isotopes
discussion in Section 6.1.
Student thinks isotopes are particles with a
positive charge. Direct student to the isotopes
discussion in Section 6.1.
3. Responses should include carbohydrates,
lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. Based on
student responses, use the list below to address
preconceptions.
Student thinks vitamins and minerals are macromolecules. Explain to student that vitamins
and minerals are essential nutrients, but they do
not have the structure of macromolecules.
Student thinks amino acids are macromolecules. Explain that proteins are macromolecules,
and proteins are made up of amino acids.

Unit 2

Student thinks DNA and RNA are macromolecules. Explain that DNA and RNA are specific types of nucleic acids and direct student
to the organic macromolecules discussion in
Section 6.4.
Student thinks fats are macromolecules.
Explain to student that fats contain lipids, which
are considered macromolecules.
Student thinks sugars and carbohydrates are
two different types of macromolecules. Explain
to student that sugars are types of carbohydrates.

Launch Lab
Page 4 How does the nutrient content of foods
compare?
Analysis
1. Factors might include texture, composition, or
taste, as well as prior knowledge of how the item
is classified among food groups.
2. While answers will vary, justifications should
include the fact that some foods contain multiple
nutrients in significant amounts.

MiniLab
Page 5 Test for Simple Sugars
Analysis
1. Answers will be based on the foods tested.
2. Students might find a positive result because
some sugar-free foods contain natural fruit
sugar.

MiniLab
Page 6 Investigate Enzymatic Browning
Analysis
1. They slowed down, or prevented, the reaction of
the soft tissue with oxygen.
2. The owner should choose a recipe that decreases
the enzymes ability to catalyze oxidation (i.e.,
lower pH with lemon juice). The addition of
lemon juice or some other acid will prevent
browning, keep the apples more rigid, and
enhance appearance.

CHAPTER 6 TEACHER GUIDE AND ANSWERS 149

Chapter 6

Teacher Guide and Answers

BioLab: Design Your Own


Page 7 What factors affect an enzyme reaction?
Analyze and Conclude
1. An increase in temperature will speed up the
reaction until the enzyme is deactivated around
70C. The ideal pH range for the enzyme will be
68. An increased concentration of the substrate
will increase the reaction until the enzyme is
saturated with the substrate.
2. Graphs will depend on the factor being tested.
A graph of temperature data will show a bellshaped curve that tops out at about 35C.
A graph showing effects of pH changes will
also have a bell shape, and will top out around
pH 7. A line graph of substrate concentration
should show a steady increase before leveling off
as the enzyme becomes saturated with
the substrate.
3. Answers will depend on the factor tested and
data collected.
4. Human cells have the enzyme peroxidase, which
catalyzes the hydrogen peroxide into water and
oxygen, limiting the chemicals antiseptic value.
5. Answers will vary.

Page 9 How lean is lean ground beef?


Planning the Activity
Use this activity after students have read about types
of organic macromolecules in Chapter 6 of the text.
Alternatively, this activity may be used as students
investigate nutrition and digestion later in the course
(Chapter 35).
Purpose
Students determine and compare the fat content of
three different samples of ground beef.
Career Applications
An interest in organic macromolecules in foods and
how they are used by and affect the body can lead
to a career as a dietician. Dieticians assess peoples
nutritional needs, plan nutrition programs and
meals, recommend dietary changes, teach people
about nutrition, supervise the preparation of meals,
analyze foods, and do research. They might work for
hospitals, schools, public health clinics, physicians,
150 CHAPTER 6 TEACHER GUIDE AND ANSWERS

Materials Tips
Materials three samples of ground beef with different fat contents, large plastic cup, plastic spoon,
balance, 250-mL beaker, hot plate, tongs or gloves,
graduated cylinder, water
Record information from the label on each kind of
ground beef, such as percentage lean and percentage fat, type of meat that was ground, and price
per pound.
You might want to review the procedure with
students before they begin the activity. Instruct
students to pour fat slowly into the graduated cylinder. If too much fat is spilled or left in the beaker, it will affect results.
Safety Tips
Caution students to use care when measuring and
transferring the ground beef. Raw ground beef can
contain bacteria. Anything that comes in contact
with the raw ground beef should be washed thoroughly or discarded.
Remind students to use care when working with
hot plates and handling hot objects. Students
should wear goggles and gloves throughout the
activity. Instruct students to discard ground beef
and fat into appropriate receptacles when the
activity has been completed.
Teaching Strategies
After students have read the opening paragraphs,
discuss the common dietary sources of fats and the
importance of fat in human physiology. Remind
students about the health dangers associated with
eating too much fat or too many saturated and
trans fats, and then lead into a discussion about
planning healthful diets.
Ask students to describe what happens to the size
of the ground beef as it cooks. Elicit that the volume of ground beef shrinks because water and
fat are removed during the heating process. Have
students discuss how the fat content of a rare
hamburger and a well-done hamburger might
compare. Point out that eating rare ground beef
is not safe because of bacteria in raw ground beef.
Thorough cooking kills the bacteria.

Unit 2

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Real-World Biology: Lab

health organizations, or food manufacturers. To


become a dietician, a person needs a college degree.

Chapter 6

Teacher Guide and Answers

Provide students with the cost per pound of each


sample of ground beef. Have students use a calculator to find the beefs cost per 100 g by dividing
the price per pound by 454 and multiplying by
100. Then have students determine how to find
the cost of the ground beef left in each sample at
the end of the activity. (Divide the price per pound
by 454 and multiply by the number of grams of
ground beef left.)
Below Level: Ask students to explain what 80/20 on
the label of a package of ground beef means. (The
ground beef is 80 percent lean and 20 percent fat,
or it contains 80 percent meat and 20 percent fat.)
Above Level: Ask students, based on what they
know about different fats in foods and fat in
ground beef, what recommendations they would
make to someone about to shop for groceries.
(Answers will vary but could include buying foods
with lower amounts of fat, choosing unsaturated
fats instead of saturated and trans fats, and buying
lean ground beef.)

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Answers to Student Worksheet


Analyze and Conclude
1. Answers will vary. Student predictions could
have been relatively accurate or could have
greatly overestimated or underestimated the
amount of fat in the ground-beef samples. Even
if students were inaccurate in the predictions of
the specific percentages, they might have predicted the samples with the most and the least
fat correctly.
2. Answers will vary, but students should find that
the three ground-beef samples differ in their
fat content. The percentage of fat in the samples
might range from 10 percent to 30 percent.
3. The lower the percentage of fat is, the redder the
meat is.
Careers in Biology
A dietician might assess peoples nutritional needs,
plan nutrition programs and meals, recommend
dietary changes, teach people about nutrition, supervise the preparation of meals, analyze foods, and do
research.

Unit 2

Enrichment
Page 11 Just One of the Family
Organic Family

Alkanes

Functional Group

none

Alkenes

Aromatic
hydrocarbons

/(

Alcohols

/
Aldehydes

#
(
/

Ketones

#
/
#

Esters

#
/

Ethers

/
Carboxylic acids

#
/(

Amines

.(
/

Amides

#
.(

Student responses for the third and fourth columns


of the table will differ. Responses for the fourth column should state that the compounds exist in living organisms (such as pleasant-smelling esters in a
variety of fruits), are produced by living organisms
(such as carboxylic acids produced during cellular
metabolism), or have some effect on living organisms (such as alcohols).
CHAPTER 6 TEACHER GUIDE AND ANSWERS 151

Chapter 6

Teacher Guide and Answers

Concept Mapping

Page 15 Section 6.3

Page 12 Organic Macromolecules

1. slightly negative end


2. slightly positive end
3. hydrogen bond
4. covalent bond
5. true
6. false
7. false
8. true
9. false
10. acids
11. hydrogen ions
12. bases
13. biology
14. pH
15. neutral
16. Buffers

1. carbohydrates
2. lipids
3. nucleic acids
4. amino acids
5. DNA
6. (CH2O) n
7. fatty acid tails
8. nucleotides

Study Guide
Page 13 Section 6.1

Page 14 Section 6.2


1. 6
2. 6
3. 6
4. conservation of mass; Matter cannot be created
or destroyed.
5. the subscript number to the right of each
element
6. Student should draw a line indicating that less
activation energy is required.
7. C
8. D
9. A
10. B

152 CHAPTER 6 TEACHER GUIDE AND ANSWERS

Page 16 Section 6.4


1. true
2. false
3. false
4. true
5. false
6. saturated fat
7. unsaturated fat
8. Nucleic Acid
9. Lipid
10. Protein
11. Nucleic Acid
12. Protein
13. Carbohydrate
14. Lipid
15. Protein

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

1. proton
2. neutron
3. electron
4. nucleus
5. energy level
6. symbol
7. groups
8. true
9. true
10. half-life
11. compound
12. covalent bonds and ionic bonds

Gua de estudio
Pgina 17 Seccin 6.1
1. protn
2. neutrn
3. electrn
4. ncleo
Unit 2

Chapter 6

Teacher Guide and Answers

5. nivel de energa
6. smbolo
7. grupos
8. verdadero
9. verdadero
10. la media vida
11. un compuesto
12. los enlaces covalentes y los enlaces inicos

Pgina 18 Seccin 6.2

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

1. 6
2. 6
3. 6
4. conservacin de masa; La materia no se puede
crear ni destruir.
5. el nmero subndice a la derecha de cada
elemento
6. El estudiante debe trazar una lnea que indique
que se requiere menos energa de activacin.
7. C
8. D
9. A
10. B

Pgina 19 Seccin 6.3


1. extremo ligeramente negativo
2. extremo ligeramente positivo
3. enlace de hidrgeno
4. enlace covalente
5. verdadero
6. falso
7. falso
8. verdadero
9. falso
10. cidos
11. iones de hidrgeno
12. bases
13. biologa
14. pH
15. neutra
16. amortiguadores

Unit 2

Pgina 20 Seccin 6.4


1. verdadero
2. falso
3. falso
4. verdadero
5. falso
6. grasa saturada
7. grasa insaturada
8. cidos nucleicos
9. Lpidos
10. Protenas
11. cidos nucleicos
12. Protenas
13. Carbohidratos
14. Lpidos
15. Protenas

Section Quick Check


Page 21 Section 6.1
1. a bond that results from the electrical attraction
between two oppositely charged atoms or groups
of atoms
2. Proton are positive, neutrons are neutral, and
electrons are negative.
3. A carbon-12 atom is the most abundant form of
carbon. It has six protons and six neutrons in its
nucleus, making it stable. A carbon-14 atom is a
radioactive isotope found in all living things. It
has six protons and eight neutrons in its nucleus,
making it unstable.
4. In a neutral atom, the number of electrons
equals the number of protons, so there are
8 electrons. The isotope is named by combining
the number of protons and neutrons, so
16 8 = 8 neutrons.
5. Salt water is not a compound because a
saltwater solution can be produced by combining 200 mL water with 2.5 g sodium chloride
and by combining 100 mL water with 5 g sodium
chloride. There is no specific ratio of water to
sodium chloride involved. Also, salt water can
be separated by physical means; evaporating the
water will separate out the sodium chloride.

CHAPTER 6 TEACHER GUIDE AND ANSWERS 153

Chapter 6

Teacher Guide and Answers

Page 22 Section 6.2


1. activation energy
2. A substrate binds to an enzyme at the active site,
which has a complementary shape, and the substrate is converted to product.
3. reactants: PbO2 and HCl, products: PbCl2, Cl2,
H 2O
4. In an endothermic reaction, the energy of the
products is higher than the energy of the reactants. The reaction absorbs energy. In an exothermic reaction, the energy of the products is
lower than the energy of the reactants, and the
reaction releases energy.
5. 4H2O; 3O2

Page 23 Section 6.3

Page 24 Section 6.4


1. Polymers are molecules made from repeating
units of identical or nearly identical organic
compounds that are linked together by a series
of covalent bonds.
2. Carbon has four electrons in its outermost
energy level, so it can form four bonds with
other atoms or with itself to make compounds.
These compounds can be in the shape of chains,
branches, and rings.
3. Students answers will vary. Nucleic acids store
genetic information and are used to make copies
of proteins, which are involved in almost every
function of the body.

154 CHAPTER 6 TEACHER GUIDE AND ANSWERS

Chapter Test A
Page 25 Part A: Multiple Choice
1. B
2. C
3. A

Page 25 Part B: Matching


Matching Set 1
1. proton
2. electron
3. electron
4. neutron
Matching Set 2
5. B
6. C
7. A

Page 26 Part C: Interpreting Graphs


1. Hydrogen, carbon, and oxygen are the three
most abundant elements in living things.
2. 5730 years

Page 26 Part D: Short Answer


1. An element is a pure substance that cannot be
broken down into other substances by physical
or chemical means.
2. Enzymes are catalysts that speed up the rate of
chemical reactions in cells.

Unit 2

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

1. A solution is made by dissolving a solute in a


solvent.
2. Buffers keep the pH within a particular range,
and most biological processes require that the
pH be between 6.5 and 7.5.
3. Oxygen has a stronger attraction for the shared
electrons than hydrogen does, so the electrons
spend more time near the oxygen nuclei. The
bent shape of the molecule also contributes to
its polarity.
4. OH
5. salad dressing: heterogeneous mixture, carbonated water: solution. The oil and vinegar separate, but the carbon dioxide and water do not.

4. Both saturated fats and unsaturated fats


have fatty acid tails. Saturated fats have only
single bonds between all the carbons, and no
more hydrogen atoms can bond to the tail.
Unsaturated fats have at least one double bond
between carbon atoms, and at least one more
hydrogen can be added to the tail.
5. Student answers will vary. Proteins are involved
in almost every function of the body, and they
are all made from a combination of only
20 amino acids. The four different levels of
structure allow the amino acids to be combined
in a multitude of different orders and shapes to
form all of the different types of proteins with
different functions.

Chapter 6

Teacher Guide and Answers

3. Macromolecules include carbohydrates, lipids,


proteins, and nucleic acids.

Page 27 Part E: Concept Application


1. The cells of living things need many nutrients,
such as vitamins and minerals. Water dissolves
these nutrients so they can be transported into
cells. Cells use the nutrients to perform basic life
functions. Without the nutrients, cells would
die, eventually resulting in the death of the
organism.
2. Fats contain lipids, and lipids store energy. Lipids
are also a component of membranes and other
vital molecules used in the body. Small amounts
of fats provide the lipids necessary for repairing
and growing new cell membranes.

Chapter Test B
Page 28 Part A: Multiple Choice

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

1. D
2. D
3. A
4. B
5. A

Page 28 Part B: Matching and Completion


Matching
1. A
2. B
3. C
Completion
4. atoms
5. compound
6. ion
7. product
8. hydrogen ions

Page 29 Part C: Interpreting Graphs


1. A: hydrogen; B: carbon; C: oxygen
2. 25 percent

Unit 2

Page 29 Part D: Short Answer


1. All three particles make up an atom. Protons
and neutrons are located in the nucleus of the
atom, while electrons are constantly moving outside the nucleus. Protons have a positive charge,
electrons have a negative charge, and neutrons
have no charge.
2. Both types of bonds involve the electrons of
atoms. A covalent bond forms when atoms share
electrons, while an ionic bond is formed by the
attraction of two oppositely charged atoms or
groups of atoms.
3. The activation energy of a chemical reaction is
the minimum amount of energy needed for the
reactants involved in the reaction to form the
products. A catalyst, such as an enzyme, is a substance that lowers the activation energy needed
to start the reaction.

Page 30 Part E: Concept Application


1. The periodic table of the elements lists all the
elements in periods and columns, called groups,
based on their chemical and physical properties. Elements in the same column have similar
chemical and physical properties, and chemists
can use this information to determine how elements can be combined into new compounds.
Scientists can analyze the elements in natural
compounds and choose elements with similar
properties to form synthetic compounds with
predictable properties.
2. The chemical and physical properties of elements change when they combine to form a
compound. When sodium and chlorine combine
to form the compound table salt, their properties
change. Sodium no longer reacts violently with
water, and chlorine is no longer toxic to living
things.
3. Lipids do not dissolve in water. Similarly, water
cannot easily cross layers of lipid. The lipids in
human skin serve to keep water in our bodies
and prevent dehydration as well as preventing
skin from absorbing harmful chemicals which
might come in contact with our skin.

CHAPTER 6 TEACHER GUIDE AND ANSWERS 155

Chapter 6

Teacher Guide and Answers

Chapter Test C
Page 31 Part A: Multiple Choice
1. B
2. D
3. A
4. C
5. D
6. B

Page 31 Part B: Completion


1. protons
2. isotopes
3. BF3
4. covalent bonds
5. base
6. organic chemistry

Page 32 Part C: Interpreting Graphs

Page 32 Part D: Short Answer

Page 33 Part E: Concept Application


1. Hydrogen peroxide and water are different compounds with different chemical formulas. The
different molecular structure of hydrogen peroxide completely changes its physical and chemical
properties, and these different properties make
hydrogen peroxide toxic to living things.
2. The fibers of meat will break down naturally
causing the meat to become tender, but the
enzyme papain acts as a catalyst to speed up the
chemical reactions involved with breaking down
the meat fibers to make the meat more tender.
3. During the summer when temperatures are
high, water absorbs great quantities of heat without becoming too hot because it has a high specific heat index. This property of water protects
aquatic creatures from extreme heat. During
the winter, ice freezes on the surface of the pond
because solid water is less dense than liquid
water. The ice insulates aquatic creatures from
extreme cold temperatures. If ice were denser
than water, an ice layer would form on the bottom of the pond and freeze the aquatic creatures
hibernating in the ponds muddy bottom.

1. The box on the periodic table of the elements


that contains gold provides the elements name,
chemical symbol, and average atomic mass. The
chart also reveals the number of protons and
electrons in gold atoms. The location of gold on
the periodic table reveals other elements that
have similar physical and chemical properties as
gold.
2. Without slight positive and negative charges
around each molecule, there would be no
van der Waals forces to hold the molecules close
together. The molecules would more easily separate from each other to form water vapor and
most common ionic substances would no longer
be soluble in water.

156 CHAPTER 6 TEACHER GUIDE AND ANSWERS

Unit 2

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

1. A: hydrogen; B: carbon; C: oxygen; D: nitrogen


2. A 5000-year-old seed can be more accurately
dated because there is a greater quantity of
carbon-14 remaining. A 100,000-year-old bone
has little carbon-14 remaining in it, which
greatly reduces the possibility of calculating an
accurate age for the artifact. Too many half-lives
have passed for the 100,000-year-old bone to be
accurately dated using carbon-14 with a half-life
of only 5730 years.

3. Blood is a heterogeneous mixture called a suspension. A suspension has undissolved particles


that do not settle out of the liquid. Sugar water
is a homogenous mixture called a solution
because the sugar completely dissolves in the
water. The soil-water mixture is a heterogeneous
mixture because it forms two distinct layers of
substances.

Chapter 7

Teacher Guide and Answers

Diagnostic Test

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Page 41
1. The correct answer is D. Based on student
responses, use the list below to address
preconceptions.
Student is uncertain of the definition of a cell.
Direct student to the discussion on basic cell
types in Section 7.1.
Student thinks no organism is made of just one
cell. Explain to student that most organisms
from Kingdom Protista are unicellular organisms, which will be covered in Chapter 19. Direct
student to the discussion on basic cell types in
Section 7.1.
Student thinks genetic information is not
passed on to daughter cells after cell division.
Direct student to the discussion on the cell theory in Section 7.1.
Student thinks cells or unicellular organisms
can arise from a source other than preexisting
cells. Direct student to the discussion on the cell
theory in Section 7.1.
Student thinks atoms or molecules are the
building blocks of living things. Explain that
cells are made of atoms and molecules, but cells
are considered the building blocks of living
things because they are the smallest living unit
that still perform life functions.
2. The correct answer is C. Based on student
responses, use the list below to address
preconceptions.
Student thinks animal cells have a cell wall.
Direct student to the diagrams of plant and animal cells in Section 7.3.
Student thinks all cells have a round or oval
shape. Explain that cells have a variety of shapes
because there is a wide diversity of types of cells
designed for different functions. Explain that
most plant cells have a rectangular shape and
direct student to the diagrams of plant cells in
Section 7.3.
Student thinks animal cells have chloroplasts.
Direct student to the diagrams of plant and animal cells in Section 7.3.

Unit 2

Student thinks either plant or animal cell has


no nucleus. Direct student to the diagrams of
plant and animal cells in Section 7.3.
Student is confused about the structures that
separate plant and animal cells from their outside environments. Direct student to the diagrams of plant and animal cells in Section 7.3.
3. The food dye particles are constantly moving in
the water, and this random motion causes diffusion, which means the particles will move and
spread out into regions of the water where there
are fewer particles. Based on student responses,
use the list below to address preconceptions.
Student confuses the process of diffusion with
isotonic, hypotonic, or hypertonic solutions.
Direct student to the discussions of diffusion
and cells in isotonic solutions in Section 7.4.
Student lacks an understanding of diffusion.
Define diffusion for student and direct student to
the discussion of diffusion in Section 7.4.
Student confuses the processes of diffusion and
osmosis. Direct student to the discussions of diffusion and osmosis in Section 7.4.
Student thinks a chemical reaction has
occurred. Explain that the process of diffusion is
a physical change in which one substance is dissolved into and evenly distributed through water.
Student thinks the water molecules changed
color. Explain that the color change is due to the
dye being dissolved into the water and not from
a color change of the water molecules.

Launch Lab
Page 42 What is a cell?
Analysis
1. Accept all reasonable responses. Students should
note that the living samples had cells.
2. Accept all reasonable responses. The formal
definition of a cell is the basic structural and
functional unit of all living organisms.

CHAPTER 7 TEACHER GUIDE AND ANSWERS 157

Chapter 7

Teacher Guide and Answers

MiniLab

Real-World Biology: Analysis

Page 43 Discover Cells

Page 47 Extending Our Senses

Analysis
1. Accept any reasonable answer that illustrates an
understanding of cells and cell theory.
2. Answers might vary. Accept reasonable
responses. Using light and electron microscopes,
the student could show that Hookes observations are still valid.

Planning the Activity


This activity can be used with Chapter 7 to supplement the section on the history of the microscope
and its contributions to the development of cell
theory.

MiniLab
Page 44 Investigate Osmosis

BioLab
Page 45 Selective Permeability of Membranes
Analyze and Conclude
1. Phospholipid, enzyme, DNA, and fat molecules
are all too large to pass through the membrane.
Oxygen and fructose should pass through easily.
2. Carrier proteins and protein pumps help move
molecules in a cell. The phospholipids bilayer
can engulf large molecules or groups of molecules in vacuoles to move them into and out of
the cell.
3. If bags are not rinsed thoroughly after filling
them with a solution, some of the solution might
remain on the outside of the bag and would be
present in the beaker without passing through
the dialysis membrane. Accept all reasonable
analyses.

158 CHAPTER 7 TEACHER GUIDE AND ANSWERS

Career Applications
A cell biologist investigates the organization and
function of molecules and organelles in cells to
understand the mechanisms by which cells function.
This job requires good powers of observation, use of
instrumentation, and familiarity with microscopes.
Teaching Strategies
This activity can be introduced with photos,
illustrations, or a biology film illustrating living
red blood cells and skin cells. If students do not
have access to a lab, it would be helpful to have
a compound microscope available for hands-on
examination.
Discuss the attitude of seventeenth-century society
toward scientific thinking and the effect that it had
on scientific progress.
For Part B, some students might need guided
practice before attempting to complete the table.
Review the material on the evidence board with
these students, and lead the group through the
column in the table for Suspect 1. Example: What
kind of debris might Suspect 1 have on her shoes?
What type of red blood cells does she have? What
type of red blood cells does her poodle have?
Would her skin cells be cancerous?
This activity works well with students in groups of
three or four.
Extension questions can include: What other
instruments do scientists use to extend their
senses? (telescopes, radar, sonar, CT Scan, MRI)
The Atomic Force Microscope can produce a threedimensional image of the topography of the surface
of a cell or molecule at the level of the atom. Sonar

Unit 2

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Analysis
1. Accept all reasonable answers.
2. On the control slide, no change is seen because
the concentration of water molecules inside the
cell and outside the cell is nearly the same. As
a result, there is no strong flow of water molecules into or out of the cells. However, on the
test slide, the number of water molecules outside
the cells in the strong salt solution is lower than
the number of water molecules inside the cells.
Consequently, a great deal of water begins to diffuse out of the cell due to osmosis, and the cell
contents begin to shrink away from the walls.

Purpose
Students examine the historic roots and a modern
application of the structure and function of the
microscope as a tool for extending the senses.

Chapter 7

Teacher Guide and Answers

produces an image of the topography of the ocean


floor. Do they both use the same process?
Below Level: To simplify Part A, question 1,
give students the formula for magnification:
magnification = objective magnification
eyepiece magnification.
Above Level: Have students calculate the total
magnifications if they were using the 4 objective
and if they were using the 10 objective.

Answers to Student Worksheets


Part A: Microscope Parts and Functions
Analyze and Conclude
1. 400
2.
Van
Leeuwenhoeks
Microscope

Modern
Compound
Microscope

Magnification

one lens; 200

eyepiece lens 10
plus choice of
objective lenses
4, 10, 40

Specimen
mounting

a sharp point
in front of the
lens

a slide placed on
the stage

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Function

Part B: Using Microscopes to Examine Evidence


Analyze and Conclude
1. Suspect 3 was the thief for the following reasons:
Debris from the floor: She had both sand and
hay on her shoes.
Blood sample: Her pet is not a mammal; the
blood cells found at the scene have nuclei and
therefore are from a nonmammal.
Skin sample: Her skin cells are not cancerous;
the cells found at the scene have contact inhibition and are oriented in a particular direction
and therefore are normal and not cancerous.
This suspect is the only one connected with all
three pieces of evidence.
Careers in Biology
A cell biologist investigates the organization and
function of molecules and organelles in cells to
understand the mechanisms by which cells function.

coarse and fine


two screws
adjustment knobs
Position/focus
moving up and
to move the stage
of specimen
down
up and down
sunlight and
Light source
electric lightbulb
candlelight

Unit 2

CHAPTER 7 TEACHER GUIDE AND ANSWERS 159

Chapter 7

Teacher Guide and Answers

Enrichment
Page 49 Practical Applications of Osmosis
Application

Explanation

Solution

Pickles are made by immersing cucumbers in


a concentrated saltwater solution.

Water passes out of cucumber cells more rapidly


than it passes into them, causing them to shrink
and the vegetable to shrivel.

hyper

Spraying plants with a solution that contains


too high a concentration of fertilizer might
cause them to dry out and die.

Water passes out of the plant cells, causing them


to shrink and become dehydrated (plasmolysis).

hyper

Patients undergoing surgery are given a 0.9%


saline (saltwater) solution.

The concentration of water, salts, and other


components of cells remains constant, and the
rate at which water passes in and out of cells
remains constant.

iso

Concept Mapping

Study Guide

Page 50 Cellular Structure

Page 51 Section 7.1

1. plasma membrane
2. prokaryotes
3. eukaryotes
4. bacteria
5. plants
6. animals
7. chloroplasts or a large central vacuole
8. a large central vacuole or chloroplasts

160 CHAPTER 7 TEACHER GUIDE AND ANSWERS

hyper

hyper

hypo

hyper

1. the microscope
2. The structures reminded him of the cells in
which monks live at a monastery.
3. compound light microscope
4. cell theory
5. cells
6. organisms
7. genetic material
8. daughter cells
9. Prokaryotes, Eukaryotes
10. Prokaryotes
Unit 2

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

One of the oldest methods of preserving foods


Water passes out of bacterial cells, causing them
is to pack them in saline solutions, which kill
to become dehydrated and die.
the bacteria that cause foods to spoil.
Organisms tend to lose water to the hypertonic
Organisms that live in seawater have
solution (seawater) in which they live and
specialized mechanisms that prevent them
develop mechanisms to replace or accommodate
from becoming dehydrated.
for the lost water.
Tap water has few or no dissolved salts, making
Florists store fresh flowers in cold water
it hypotonic to cellular fluids and causing water
to help the flowers keep their original
to flow into cells more rapidly than it flows out.
appearance . . .
The concentration of solutes within plant cells is
. . . although the flowers begin to wilt as soon
greater than that outside the cell, causing water
as they are taken out of the water for a period
to flow out more rapidly than it flows in (from
of time.
water vapor in the surrounding air).

Chapter 7
11. Prokaryotes
12. Eukaryotes
13. Prokaryotes
14. Eukaryotes
15. Prokaryotes, Eukaryotes

Page 52 Section 7.2

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

1. Homeostasis
2. Plasma Membrane
3. Selective Permeability
4. Plasma Membrane
5. Selective Permeability
6. Homeostasis
7. carbohydrate chain
8. transport protein
9. polar head
10. nonpolar tails
11. B
12. C
13. A
14. E
15. D

Page 53 Section 7.3


1. mitochondrion
2. cytoplasm
3. nucleolus
4. nucleus
5. microtubules
6. endoplasmic reticulum
7. Golgi apparatus
8. true
9. nucleus
10. ribosomes
11. Golgi apparatus
12. true

Page 54 Section 7.4


1. C
2. A
3. E
4. B
Unit 2

Teacher Guide and Answers


5. D
6. F
7. Isotonic Solution
8. Hypertonic Solution
9. Hypotonic Solution
10. Isotonic Solution
11. Hypotonic Solution
12. Hypertonic Solution

Gua de estudio
Pgina 55 Seccin 7.1
1. el microscopio
2. Las estructuras le recordaron las celdas en las
cuales viven los monjes en un monasterio.
3. microscopio de luz compuesta
4. teora de la clula
5. clulas
6. organismos
7. material gentico
8. clulas hijas
9. Procariotas, Eucariotas
10. Procariotas
11. Procariotas
12. Eucariotas
13. Procariotas
14. Eucariotas
15. Procariotas, Eucariotas

Pgina 56 Seccin 7.2


1. Homeostasis
2. Membrana de plasma
3. Permeabilidad selectiva
4. Membrana de plasma
5. Permeabilidad selectiva
6. Homeostasis
7. cadena de carbohidratos
8. protena de transporte
9. cabeza polar
10. colas apolares
11. B
12. C
CHAPTER 7 TEACHER GUIDE AND ANSWERS 161

Chapter 7

Teacher Guide and Answers

13. A
14. E
15. D

Pgina 57 Seccin 7.3


1. mitocondria
2. citoplasma
3. nucleolo
4. ncleo
5. microtbulos
6. retculo endoplsmico
7. aparato de Golgi
8. verdadero
9. ncleo
10. ribosomas
11. aparato de Golgi
12. verdadero

Pgina 58 Seccin 7.4

Section Quick Check


Page 59 Section 7.1
1. Robert Hooke made a simple microscope and
saw small, box-shaped structures, which he
called cells, in cork. Anton van Leeuwenhoek
saw living organisms in pond water, milk, and
other substances.

162 CHAPTER 7 TEACHER GUIDE AND ANSWERS

Page 60 Section 7.2


1. cholesterol, proteins, and carbohydrates
2. A phospholipid is a molecule that has a glycerol
backbone, two fatty acid chains, and a phosphatecontaining compound. The plasma membrane
is made of two layers of phospholipids that are
arranged tail-to-tail.
3. The primary function of the plasma membrane
is to maintain homeostasis by providing a thin,
flexible boundary between a cell and its watery
environment. The plasma membrane allows
nutrients to enter the cell and allows waste and
other products to leave the cell.
4. If the plasma membrane of a cell lost its selective permeability, it would no longer be able to
control the movement of substances in and out
of the cell. Waste products might build up inside
the cell, the cell might not be able to take in
nutrients, and the cell might take in excess water
or harmful substances from its environment.
5. The surface of the plasma membrane can be
described as a mosaic because different substances float around within the plasma membrane, creating a pattern on the membranes
surface.

Unit 2

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

1. C
2. A
3. E
4. B
5. D
6. F
7. Solucin isotnica
8. Solucin hipertnica
9. Solucin hipotnica
10. Solucin isotnica
11. Solucin hipotnica
12. Solucin hipertnica

2. All living things are composed of one or more


cells. Cells are the basic units of structure and
organization of all living organisms. Cells arise
only from existing cells and pass copies of their
genetic material to their daughter cells.
3. All cells have a structure called a plasma membrane, genetic material that is used for making substances and reproduction, and a way of
breaking down molecules to generate energy for
metabolism.
4. The discovery of cells would not have been possible without microscopes. Early scientists used
simple magnifying instruments. These scientists
were able to see cells, but not the individual
structures within cells. Modern microscopes
enable scientists to study the structure and function of cells.
5. Prokaryotic cells are simple cells that do not
have specialized structures. Eukaryotic cells,
generally larger and more complex than prokaryotic cells, contain a nucleus and organelles.

Chapter 7

Teacher Guide and Answers

Page 61 Section 7.3


1. microtubules and microfilaments
2. Chloroplasts might be found in a plant cell and
are not found in an animal cell. Chloroplasts
capture light energy and convert it to chemical
energy through photosynthesis. Animal cells do
not perform photosynthesis to produce energy,
so they do not have chloroplasts.
3. Organelles perform protein synthesis, energy
transformation, digestion of food, excretion of
wastes, and cell division.
4. Mitochondria convert sugars into usable energy
to fuel movement of the muscle and the body, in
addition to providing the energy for the cells life
processes. Muscles require more mitochondria
than skin does, because muscles need energy to
move.
5. Lysosomes in a cell are like a cleanup crew in a
factory because lysosomes digest excess or wornout organelles and food particles as well as bacteria and viruses that enter the cell.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Page 62 Section 7.4


1. endocytosis and exocytosis
2. diffusion, osmosis, and facilitated diffusion
3. When a cell is in dynamic equilibrium with its
environment, there is continuous movement
across the plasma membrane with no overall
change in concentration. When the concentration of solutes outside the cell is the same as the
concentration of solutes inside the cell, the cell
solution is isotonic relative to its environment.
4. After 24 h, the egg will appear shriveled. The salt
water solution is hypertonic to the eggs interior
environment. The net movement of water by
osmosis is out of the cell because the concentration of the solute (salt) is higher outside the cell
than inside the cell.
5. Diffusion, the random movement of a substance
down its concentration gradient, uses no energy.
Active transport, the movement of particles
against their concentration gradient, requires
energy.

Unit 2

Chapter Test A
Page 63 Part A: Multiple Choice
1. C
2. D
3. A

Page 63 Part B: Matching


Matching Set 1
1. prokaryote
2. eukaryote
3. eukaryote
4. eukaryote
Matching Set 2
5. B
6. D
7. A
8. C

Page 64 Part C: Interpreting Drawings


1. A: water; B: oxygen or glucose; C: oxygen or
glucose; D: carbon dioxide or wastes; E: carbon
dioxide or wastes.
2. A: hypertonic solution; B: isotonic solution;
C: hypotonic solution.

Page 64 Part D: Short Answer


1. First, all living things are composed of one
or more cells. Second, cells are the basic unit of
structure of all living things. Third, cells only
arise from preexisting cells and pass on copies of
their genetic material to their daughter cells.
2. The membrane regulates the substances that
enter and exit the cell. The membrane allows
some substances to pass through but not other
substances.
3. The nucleus manages cell tasks. It contains
DNA for protein synthesis, and it is the center
for cell reproduction.

Page 65 Part E: Concept Application


1. The organelles and structures that are found
in plant cells but not in animal cells include
cell walls, chloroplasts, and nuclear pores. The
organelles found in animal cells but not plant

CHAPTER 7 TEACHER GUIDE AND ANSWERS 163

Chapter 7

Teacher Guide and Answers

cells include centrioles, lysosomes, and vesicles.


Vacuoles can be found in both cells, but they are
larger in plant cells.
2. The food dye particles are constantly moving
in the water, and this random motion causes diffusion, which means the particles will move and
spread out into regions of the water where there
are fewer particles.
3. A dynamic equilibrium has been reached
after 10 min when the water has a uniform, red
color.

Chapter Test B
Page 66 Part A: Multiple Choice
1. A
2. B
3. A
4. D
5. C

Page 67 Part B: Matching and Completion

Completion
6. Hooke
7. electron microscope
8. eukaryotic
9. transport proteins
10. cilia
11. osmosis

Page 67 Part C: Interpreting Drawings


1. A: water; B: oxygen or glucose; C: oxygen or
glucose; D: carbon dioxide or wastes; E: carbon
dioxide or wastes; F: transport protein.
2. A: hypertonic solution; B: isotonic solution;
C: hypotonic solution.

164 CHAPTER 7 TEACHER GUIDE AND ANSWERS

1. First, all living things are composed of one


or more cells. Second, cells are the basic unit of
structure of all living things. Third, cells only
arise from preexisting cells, and they pass on copies of their genetic material to their daughter cells.
2. The phospholipid tails in the two layers
comprising the plasma membrane face each
other end-to-end to make up the interior of the
membrane. The nonpolar tails repel water and
form a barrier to stop many water soluble substances. This separates the external environment
from the cell environment.
3. Organelles are supported inside the cell by a
network of long, thin protein fibers that form a
framework called the cytoskeleton. Microtubules
and microfilaments comprise the cytoskeleton.
Microtubules are long, hollow protein cylinders
that help transport substances in the cell, and
microfilaments are protein threads that give the
cell its shape.

Page 68 Part E: Concept Application


1. Endosymbiosis is the theory that eukaryotic
cells evolved from a symbiotic relationship in
which one type of prokaryotic cell lived inside
a larger prokaryotic cell. If the theory is true,
eukaryotic cells (and, consequently, higher
life forms) would never have evolved without
these symbiotic relationships among ancient
prokaryotes.

Chapter Test C
Page 69 Part A: Multiple Choice
1. B
2. A
3. B
4. D
5. A
6. A

Page 70 Part B: Completion


1. prokaryotic
2. transport proteins
3. nucleus
4. lysosomes
Unit 2

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Matching
1. F
2. E
3. D
4. A
5. B

Page 68 Part D: Short Answer

Chapter 7

Teacher Guide and Answers

5. diffusion
6. potassium

Page 70 Part C: Interpreting Drawings


1. A: water; B: oxygen or glucose; C: oxygen
or glucose; D: carbon dioxide or wastes;
E: carbon dioxide or wastes; F: transport
protein. Transport proteins span the length
of the membrane creating tunnels for specific
substances to travel in and out of the cell.
2. A: hypertonic solution; B: isotonic solution;
C: hypotonic solution.
3. Drawing C, representing the hypotonic
solution, would resemble the blood cell because
without salt added to the intravenous solution,
excess water would enter the blood cell causing it
to swell.

Page 71 Part E: Concept Application


1. The third principle states that cells can only
arise from preexisting cells, but the first cell
to have evolved must have arisen from organic
molecules and not from a cell. The original cell
could not have been a daughter cell that received
genetic material from a parent cell.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Page 71 Part D: Short Answer


1. Before the sixteenth century, scientists had
no knowledge of the microscopic world. In the
late sixteenth century, Dutch lens grinders Hans
and Zacharias Janssen invented the first compound microscope. In the seventeenth century,
Robert Hooke observed cork and named the
structures cells. Hooke published drawings of
cells and other microscopic objects. With his
own microscope, Dutch biologist Anton van
Leeuwenhoek discovered unicellular protozoan
in water and other substances during the late
seventeenth century.
2. Cells normally exist in a watery environment.
The phosphate groups are polar, which means
they are attracted to water. They face outward
because they are attracted to the water in the
outside environment and the interior of the cell.
The fatty-acid tails of the membrane are nonpolar, which means they repel water. The tails are
turned inward because they repel the water in
both the outside environment and interior of
the cell.
3. During endocytosis, a cell surrounds an
object outside of its environment with its plasma
membrane and pinches off the substance leaving
it inside the cell. During exocytosis, a cell surrounds a waste product inside the cell with its
plasma membrane and expels the waste from
the cell.

Unit 2

CHAPTER 7 TEACHER GUIDE AND ANSWERS 165

Chapter 8

Teacher Guide and Answers

Diagnostic Test
Page 79
1. The correct answer is A. Based on student
responses, use the list below to address
preconceptions.
Student thinks energy can be created. Direct
student to the transformation of energy discussion in Section 8.1.
Student thinks energy or matter can be
destroyed. Explain that neither energy nor matter can be created or destroyed under ordinary
circumstances.
Student thinks entropy adds usable energy to a
system. Direct student to the transformation of
energy discussion in Section 8.1.
Student thinks objects, such as the log, do not
contain stored energy. Explain to student that
gasoline, wood, and other materials have chemical energy stored within them.

3. Cellular respiration is the process used by all


organisms to break down organic molecules in
the presence of oxygen to generate energy, water,
and carbon dioxide. Based on student responses,
use the list below to address preconceptions.
Student thinks cellular respiration is the same
as breathing. Direct student to metabolism discussion in Section 8.1.

166 CHAPTER 8 TEACHER GUIDE AND ANSWERS

Launch Lab
Page 80 How is energy transformed?
Analysis
1. Graphs should show that the temperature of the
solution increased after CaCl2 was added. The
temperature of the solution with Epsom salts
decreased over time.
2. Energy transformation occurred when the anhydrous calcium solution was added because thermal energy was released. When Epsom salts were
added, thermal energy was absorbed.

MiniLab
Page 81 Relate Photosynthesis to Cellular
Respiration
Analysis
1. The tube wrapped in aluminum foil as a control
demonstrates that carbon dioxide is used by the
plant only when in the light and therefore able to
perform photosynthesis.
2. In photosynthesis, plants take in CO2 and convert it, using light energy, to sugars and oxygen. Plants and animals both perform cellular
respiration, which uses oxygen to burn carbohydrates, producing carbon dioxide. The two
processes are interdependent.

MiniLab
Page 82 Observe Chloroplasts
Analysis
1. Chloroplasts vary in size and shape from spherical or oval to irregular. Chloroplasts vary from
light to dark green and can contain different
amounts of chlorophyll.
Unit 2

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

2. The correct answer is B. Based on student


responses, use the list below to address
preconceptions.
Student thinks autotrophs ingest food. Direct
student to autotrophs and heterotrophs discussion in Section 8.1.
Student thinks heterotrophs are organisms
that use photosynthesis to make food. Direct
student to autotrophs and heterotrophs discussion in Section 8.1.
Student thinks the function of photosynthesis
is to create energy. Direct student to autotrophs
and heterotrophs discussion in Section 8.1.
Student thinks photosynthesis creates organic
molecules other than glucose. Direct student
to autotrophs and heterotrophs discussion in
Section 8.1.

Student confuses the reactants needed for


photosynthesis. Direct student to metabolism
discussion in Section 8.1.
Student confuses the products produced
during photosynthesis. Direct student to
metabolism discussion in Section 8.1.
Student confuses the processes of photosynthesis and respiration. Direct student to metabolism
discussion in Section 8.1.

Chapter 8

Teacher Guide and Answers

2. Answers will vary, but there are different types


of chlorophyll, which have different colors, and
there are other pigments that also contribute to
photosynthesis.

BioLab: Design Your Own

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Page 83 Do different wavelengths of light affect


the rate of photosynthesis?
Analyze and Conclude
1. Controls may include equal volumes of water
and of sodium bicarbonate solution, and white
light. Variables might include the wavelengths of
light from colored cellophane.
2. Answers will depend on how students measure
oxygen production. Photosynthesis rate is measured by measuring oxygen production.
3. Graphs should show greatest photosynthesis in
red and violet light and little or none in other
wavelengths.
4. Photosynthesis rate will be greatest in white and
violet light. There should be little or none in
blue, green, yellow, and orange light.
5. Answers will depend on data and students
predictions.
6. Stirring plants in the beaker or leaving portions
of plants out of the water affects oxygen production. Other errors might include not completely
covering the lightbulb with cellophane or leaving
air at the top of the test tube.
7. Take care in handling.

Real-World Biology: Analysis


Page 85 Bioluminescence and Behavior
Planning the Activity
Use this activity with Chapter 8 of the text after
students have been introduced to the relationship
between stored energy, ATP, and ADP.
Purpose
Students evaluate information from a series of experiments and draw conclusions about the nature and
uses of bioluminescence. The activity gives students
an opportunity to employ critical thinking skills as
they draw conclusions based on research data.

Unit 2

Career Applications
The critical thinking skills reinforced in this activity
are directly related to the skills used in biochemistry.
Biochemical technicians often assist biochemists
in the study of the chemical structure and function
of living things at the molecular level. The goal is
to understand the complex chemical combinations
and reactions involved in metabolism, reproduction,
growth, and heredity. Successful biochemical technicians are likely to be graduates of science technician
training programs or applied science technology
programs and are well trained on equipment used in
laboratories and production facilities. They help biochemists analyze substances and run tests. They use
laboratory equipment and perform procedures such
as cell cultures and bacterial fermentation.
Teaching Strategies
After students have read the introduction, review
the role of ATP in storing chemical energy in a cell.
Ask students what form of energy characterizes
bioluminescence (light). Invite students to discuss
how a cell or an organism might change chemical
energy to light energy.
It might be useful to review how to formulate
a hypothesis to answer a question or solve a
problem.
Have students infer why bioluminescence is common in organisms that live in deep-ocean water.
(Light from the surface does not travel to great
depths.)
Have students communicate examples of bioluminescent organisms they have seen or know about
and any technology that uses bioluminescent
organisms or products from them.
Below Level: Have students experiment with light
sticks and compare the luminescence of light sticks
to the bioluminescence of organisms. Point out
that in both cases, the light is a product of a chemical reaction.
Above Level: Ask students to research the colors of
light produced by bioluminescence and the connection between an organisms habitat and the
color of light it produces.

CHAPTER 8 TEACHER GUIDE AND ANSWERS 167

Chapter 8

Teacher Guide and Answers

Answers to Student Worksheet

Concept Mapping

Part A: Producing Light


Analyze and Conclude
1. Luciferin, luciferase, and oxygen are needed for
bioluminescence to occur.
2. Answers will vary. A possible hypothesis is that
the different chemical compositions of luciferin and luciferase might be responsible for
the different colors of the bioluminescent light
produced.
3. The amount of bioluminescent light produced
increases in direct proportion to the amount of
ATP present.

Page 88 Photosynthesis and Respiration

Part B: Using Light


Analyze and Conclude
1. Student hypotheses will vary but should reflect
an understanding of controls and dependent and
independent variables.
2. Student responses will vary but should indicate
an understanding of which variables should be
changed to test their hypotheses.

Enrichment
Page 87 Many Kinds of Chlorophyll
Students should identify the porphyrin ring with
its central magnesium atom as common to all natural forms of chlorophyll, with the various forms of
the compound differing primarily in side chains
attached to that ring. They should also recognize
that chlorophyll a is present in all green plants and
all green algae, chlorophyll b occurs primarily in
land plants, chlorophyll c occurs in various types of
algae, and chlorophyll d occurs in cyanobacteria.

168 CHAPTER 8 TEACHER GUIDE AND ANSWERS

Study Guide
Page 89 Section 8.1
1. C
2. E
3. F
4. A
5. H
6. I
7. B
8. J
9. G
10. D
11. Group B
12. autotrophs
13. Group A
14. heterotrophs
15. chemoautotrophs

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Careers in Biology
The responsibilities of a biochemical technician
include assisting a biochemist in the study of the
chemical structure and function of living things at
the molecular level, helping a biochemist analyze
substances and run tests, using laboratory equipment, and performing procedures such as cell cultures and bacterial fermentation.

1. absorbs
2. chlorophyll
3. Calvin cycle
Note: Student answers for questions 4 and 5 are
interchangeable.
4. H2O
5. CO2
6. releases
7. mitochondria
8. Krebs cycle

Page 90 Section 8.2


1. 4
2. 3
3. 1
4. 6
5. 2
6. 5

Unit 2

Chapter 8

Teacher Guide and Answers

7. Pigments differ in their ability to absorb specific


wavelengths of light. Different types of pigments
enable plants to trap energy from a wide range of
visible light.
8. chlorophyll b
9. Calvin
10. C4, CAM
11. CAM
12. Calvin
13. Calvin, C4, CAM
14. CAM

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Page 91 Section 8.3


1. cellular respiration
2. glucose
3. ATP
4. energy
5. glycolysis
6. anaerobic
7. cytoplasm
8. NADH
9. Aerobic
10. mitochondria
11. oxygen
12. 4
13. 2
14. 1
15. 3
16. four
17. Although there are four ATP molecules produced by the glycolysis of one molecule of glucose, it takes two ATP molecules to provide the
energy for the glycolysis reactions to occur.
18. 2, 2, 32
19. 36
20. aerobic pathway
21. true
22. false
23. false
24. true
25. false
26. true
Unit 2

27. false
28. true
29. false

Gua de estudio
Pgina 93 Seccin 8.1
1. C
2. E
3. F
4. A
5. H
6. I
7. B
8. J
9. G
10. D
11. grupo B
12. auttrofos
13. grupo A
14. hetertrofos
15. quimioauttrofos

Pgina 94 Seccin 8.2


1. 4
2. 3
3. 1
4. 6
5. 2
6. 5
7. Los pigmentos difieren en su capacidad de
absorber longitudes de onda de luz especficas.
Diferentes tipos de pigmentos permiten a las
plantas atrapar energa de una amplia gama de
luz visible.
8. clorofila b
9. Calvin
10. C4, CAM
11. CAM
12. Calvin
13. Calvin, C4, CAM
14. CAM

CHAPTER 8 TEACHER GUIDE AND ANSWERS 169

Chapter 8

Teacher Guide and Answers

Pgina 95 Seccin 8.3

Section Quick Check


Page 97 Section 8.1
1. an adenine base, a ribose sugar, and three
phosphate groups
2. Student answers will vary. The amount of energy
stays the same. Energy can change forms but it
cannot be created or disappear.
170 CHAPTER 8 TEACHER GUIDE AND ANSWERS

Page 98 Section 8.2


1. 6CO2 + 6H2O C 6H12O6 + 6O2
2. Light energy is absorbed and stored as ATP and
NADPH, which are used to make glucose.
3. Pigments are light-absorbing colored molecules;
chlorophyll, carotenoids
4. Light is not directly a part of the Calvin cycle.
The Calvin cycle uses ATP and NADPH,
which store energy from light during the light
reactions.
5. The cells of an organism that carries out photosynthesis would contain chloroplasts.

Page 99 Section 8.3


1. glycolysis, Krebs cycle (TCA cycle/the citric acid
cycle), electron transport
2. C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O + energy
3. Photosynthesis produces simple carbohydrates,
and the products are oxygen and glucose, the
reactants for cellular respiration. Cellular respiration breaks down simple carbohydrates, and
the products, carbon dioxide and water, are the
reactants for photosynthesis.
4. Two phosphate groups from two ATP molecules
are joined to glucose. A 6-carbon molecule is
broken down into two 3-carbon molecules.
Two NADP+ molecules are converted into two
NADH molecules. Two 3-carbon molecules are
converted into two molecules of pyruvate as four
molecules of ATP are produced.
5. Student answers will vary. Exercise requires
energy from stored molecules, and to break
down these molecules oxygen is needed.
Breathing deeply and quickly supplies more
oxygen.
Unit 2

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

1. respiracin celular
2. glucosa
3. ATP
4. energa
5. gliclisis
6. anaerbico
7. citoplasma
8. NADH
9. aerbica
10. mitocondria
11. oxgeno
12. 4
13. 2
14. 1
15. 3
16. cuatro
17. Aunque hay cuatro molculas de ATP producidas por la gliclisis de una molcula de glucosa,
se necesitan dos molculas de ATP para suministrar la energa para que ocurran las reacciones
de la gliclisis.
18. 2, 2, 32
19. 36
20. la ruta aerbica
21. verdadero
22. falso
23. falso
24. verdadero
25. falso
26. verdadero
27. falso
28. verdadero
29. falso

3. Catabolic pathways release energy by breaking


down larger molecules into smaller molecules.
Anabolic pathways use the energy released by
catabolic pathways to build larger molecules
from smaller molecules.
4. Plants convert light energy from the Sun into
chemical energy, and heterotrophs eat either
plants or animals that got their energy from eating plants.
5. It is anabolic because a larger molecule is being
built from smaller ones.

Chapter 8

Teacher Guide and Answers

Chapter Test A
Page 100 Part A: Multiple Choice
1. A
2. C
3. A

Page 100 Part B: Matching


1. C
2. A
3. B

Page 100 Part C: Interpreting Graphs and Formulas


1. photosynthesis
2. 425 nm and 675 nm

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Page 101 Part D: Short Answer


1. The first law of thermodynamicsthe law of
energy conservationstates that energy can be
converted from one form to another, but it cannot be created or destroyed.
2. The second law of thermodynamics states that
systems spontaneously change from orderly to
disorderly states.
3. During the Calvin cycle, energy absorbed during the first phase of photosynthesis is stored in
organic molecules such as glucose.
4. Aerobic processes require the presence of oxygen, while anaerobic processes do not require
oxygen.

Page 102 Part E: Concept Application


1. An oak tree is an autotroph that converts
solar energy from the sun into chemical
energy through the process of photosynthesis.
Heterotrophs, such as squirrels, must ingest food
to obtain the energy they need.
2. Chloroplasts are organelles that contain lightcapturing pigments used for photosynthesis. If
the chloroplasts are damaged, the cells ability to
perform photosynthesis would be affected.

Chapter Test B
Page 103 Part A: Multiple Choice

3. B
4. C
5. C

Page 103 Part B: Matching and Completion


Matching
1. photosynthesis
2. cellular respiration
3. cellular respiration
4. photosynthesis
Completion
5. energy
6. adenosine triphosphate
7. chloroplasts
8. 3-phosphoglycerate

Page 104 Part C: Interpreting Graphs and Formulas


1. A: C6H12O6, B: 6O2 (Note: Student answers for A
and B are interchangeable.)
2. Chlorophyll a: 425 nm; chlorophyll b: 460 nm

Page 105 Part D: Short Answer


1. The first law of thermodynamicsthe law of
energy conservationstates that energy can be
converted from one form to another, but it cannot be created or destroyed. The second law of
thermodynamics states that systems spontaneously change from orderly to disorderly states.
2. Catabolic pathways break down larger molecules
into smaller molecules to release energy, while
anabolic pathways use energy released by catabolic pathways to build large molecules from
small molecules.
3. The formula for cellular respiration is C 6H12O6
+ 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O + energy. This is the
opposite of the formula for the process of photosynthesis. During the overall process of cellular respiration, glucose is broken down in the
presence of oxygen to release and store energy
in the form of ATP. Because the process requires
oxygen, it is called an aerobic process. Water and
carbon dioxide are formed as waste products
during the reaction.

1. A
2. C
Unit 2

CHAPTER 8 TEACHER GUIDE AND ANSWERS 171

Chapter 8

Teacher Guide and Answers

Page 105 Part E: Concept Application


1. During the summer, the tulip tree leaves have
an abundance of chlorophyll, a strong green pigment, and the chlorophyll masks other pigments
present in the leaves. Before winter, deciduous
trees prepare to lose their leaves, and as a result,
the chlorophyll in the leaves breaks down revealing the yellow pigments in the leaves.
2. Lactic-acid fermentation results in the production of several foods, such as cheese, yogurt,
and sour cream. Alcohol fermentation results in
the reproduction of alcoholic beverages, such as
wine and beer.

Chapter Test C
Page 106 Part A: Multiple Choice
1. B
2. C
3. B
4. A
5. D
6. A

Page 106 Part B: Completion

Page 107 Part C: Interpreting Graphs and Formulas


1. A: 6H2O; B: C6H12O6 ; C: 6O2 (Note: Student
answers for B and C are interchangeable.)
2. 420490 nm

Page 107 Part D: Short Answer


1. According to the first law of thermodynamics,
the original energy stored as chemical energy
inside the wood is conserved. As the log burns,
the chemical energy is converted into heat and
light energy. The second law of thermodynamics
explains why energy is released from the wood
as it transforms from an organized log to a disorganized pile of ash and escaping gases.

172 CHAPTER 8 TEACHER GUIDE AND ANSWERS

Page 108 Part E: Concept Application


1. Black-smoker ecosystems depend on chemoautotrophic bacteria to convert hydrogen sulfide
originating from the vents into nutrients.
2. Northeastern states could plan a tourist industry centered on the changing colors of leaves
during the autumn. Large tracks of deciduous
forests would need to be preserved, and a system
of trails for biking, hiking, and other outdoor
activities could be created. Hotels, restaurants,
and other tourist necessities could be planned
and built while maintaining the integrity of the
forests, and new forests with trees that produce
brilliant colors could be planted to restore logged
or developed land.
3. During strenuous activity, skeletal muscles produce excess lactic acid when the body cannot
accumulate enough oxygen to break down the
acid. The player must play with less vigor or rest
completely to allow his or her bodys oxygen
supplies to replenish and break down the excess
lactic acid.

Unit 2

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

1. heterotroph
2. thylakoids
3. mitochondria
4. rubisco
5. electron transport

2. Adenosine triphosphate is the most important


energy-carrying molecule in cells. It is composed
of an adenine base, a ribose sugar, and three
phosphate groups. ATP releases energy when the
bond between the second and third phosphate
groups is broken. When this bond is broken,
ADP and a free phosphate group are formed,
and energy is released.
3. NADP+ is the primary electron carrier involved
in the electron transport process of photosynthesis. This molecule picks up electrons that
have been excited by energy collected from sunlight and moves the electrons along a series of
molecules. Without NADP+ carrier molecules,
the photosynthesis process would shut down
because energy from sunlight would not be
transported through the thylakoid membrane.

Chapter 9

Teacher Guide and Answers

Diagnostic Test
Page 115

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

1. The correct answer is C. Based on student


responses, use the list below to address
preconceptions.
Student thinks cancer is caused by a pathogen.
Direct student to the abnormal cell cycle: cancer
discussion in Section 9.2.
Student thinks cancer is a communicable
disease. Direct student to the abnormal cell
cycle: cancer discussion in Section 9.2.
Student thinks some cancer cells are normal
and complete body functions. Explain to student that all cancer cells are abnormal and are
incapable of performing body functions. Cancer
cells are always harmful to an organism.
Student thinks cancer does not originate in
cells. Direct student to the abnormal cell cycle:
cancer discussion in Section 9.2.
Student thinks cancer cells cannot divide.
Direct student to the abnormal cell cycle: cancer
discussion in Section 9.2.
2. The correct answer is C. Based on student
responses, use the list below to address
preconceptions.
Student thinks large cells become cancerous. Explain to student that cell size is limited
by other factors, and there is no relationship
between cell size and cancer.
Student thinks rapid cell division prevents cell
growth. Direct student to the limits of cell size
discussion in Section 9.1.
Student thinks a cell does not need to transport
nutrients throughout its cytoplasm. Direct
student to the limits of cell size discussion in
Section 9.1.
3. Stem cells are unspecialized cells that have the
potential of developing into a wide variety of cell
types. Based on student responses, use the list
below to address preconceptions.
Student thinks stem cells are only present in
embryos. Direct student to the discussion on
stem cells in Section 9.3.

Unit 2

Student thinks stem cells are only involved


in cloning. Direct student to the discussion on
stem cells in Section 9.3.
Student thinks stem cell research requires the
abortion of fetuses. Explain to students that
stem cells can be grown in a lab after a human
egg cell has been artificially fertilized, and adult
stem cells can be harvested from adults.
Student thinks stem cells perform specific
functions. Direct student to the discussion on
stem cells in Section 9.3.
Student thinks stem cells are specialized.
Direct student to the discussion on stem cells in
Section 9.3.

Launch Lab
Page 116 From where do healthy cells come?
Analysis
1. Answers will vary depending on the types of
cells viewed. Plant cells will be rectangular in
shape, animal and protist cells might have variable shapes, and algae cells may be round or
rectangular.
2. Answers will vary. Cells had different appearances and structures because they came from
different organisms and could perform different functions within the organism. Diseased
cells may look misshapen, and they may appear
different compared to healthy cells in the same
organism.

MiniLab
Page 117 Investigate Cell Size
Analysis
1. physically: cells become too heavy; metabolically: limited surface area does not allow substances in and waste out at a high enough rate
2. more standard-sized cells

CHAPTER 9 TEACHER GUIDE AND ANSWERS 173

Chapter 9

Teacher Guide and Answers

MiniLab
Page 118 Compare Sunscreens
Analysis
1. Zinc oxide completely blocks sunlight, so it is a
control to which results of other sunscreens can
be compared.
2. Sunscreens with higher SPF numbers should
block more light. There may be differences
between sunscreens that have the same SPF
number but different active ingredients.

BioLab
Page 119 Does sunlight affect mitosis in yeast?

Real-World Biology: Analysis


Page 121 Examining and Reducing the Risks
of Cancer
Planning the Activity
Have students complete this activity after they have
studied cancer in Chapter 9 of the text.
Purpose
Students will examine the effects of three carcinogens and learn lifestyle choices for reducing the risks
of cancer.
Career Applications
An interest in preventing and curing cancer can lead
to a career in cancer research. Scientists with diverse
backgrounds work together in cancer research. They
can be biologists, chemists, physicists, or engineers.

174 CHAPTER 9 TEACHER GUIDE AND ANSWERS

Teaching Strategies
Ask students: How does using tobacco affect the
risk of cancer? What organs are most affected?
Have students discuss other known or possible
carcinogens they have read about or heard about
on news reports.
Below Level: Go over the tables to make sure students understand the information presented.
Above Level: Have interested students research
other types of cancer and how the risk of getting
them can be reduced. If time allows, students can
present their findings to the class.

Answers to Student Worksheet


Part A: Examining the Risks
Analyze and Conclude
1. Tobacco, alcohol, and ultraviolet radiation are
listed as carcinogens because they cause cancer.
2. Both tobacco and alcohol are known to cause
cancer of the esophagus.
3. People who work outdoors are exposed to more
UV radiation from sunlight.
Part B: Reducing the Risks
Analyze and Conclude
1. The lifestyle choices either limit a persons exposure to a carcinogen or help maintain a healthy
body, which protects the person from cancer.
2. A person with a family history of cancer should
get regular checkups. This helps reduce the risk
of dying from cancer because many kinds of
cancers can be treated successfully if they are
detected early.
3. A diet with lots of fat and few vegetables, fruits,
and whole grains would give a person a higher
risk of cancer.

Unit 2

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Analyze and Conclude


1. If there was an average of 100 colonies on the
control plates and 50 colonies on the exposed
plate, the survival rate would be 50 percent.
2. Student graphs should indicate that the survival
rate was greater on the plates with the sunscreen
than without the sunscreen.
3. Answers will vary but should take into account
the protective effect of the sunscreen.
4. Possible sources include contamination by
fungal spores and bacteria in the air and on
the skin; errors in counting; prior exposure of
colony to sunlight.

They can specialize in molecular biology, biomedical engineering, genetics, or many other areas. Their
research ranges from studying the effects of different
substances on cells to designing a better tool to focus
treatment at the site of cancer cells. Regardless of
what individual scientists in cancer research do, they
all must work together and communicate.

Chapter 9

Teacher Guide and Answers

Careers in Biology
A scientist who works in cancer research could be a
biologist, a chemist, a physicist, or an engineer. The
research ranges from studying the effects of different
substances on cells to designing a better tool to focus
treatment at the site of cancer cells.

Enrichment
Page 123 Protecting Against Carcinogens
Lists of carcinogens compiled in the United States, in
other nations, and by the United Nations are available
in various print references. For example, read the
most recent edition of the Handbook of Chemistry and
Physics, Section 16, Health and Safety Information, or
the most recent edition of the Report on Carcinogens
of the National Toxicology Program of the U.S.
Department of Health and Human Services.

Concept Mapping

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Page 124 The Cell Cycle


1. cell
2. nuclear membrane
3. Metaphase
4. poles
5. nucleoli
6. Cytoplasm

Study Guide
Page 125 Section 9.1
1. Cells will stop growing.
2. Cells will divide.
3. The cycle should be indicated by a circle with
arrows, and all three stages and three substages
should be labeled correctly.
4. B
5. C
6. A
7. F
8. E
9. D

Unit 2

Page 126 Section 9.2


1. true
2. true
3. false
4. true
5. false
6. true
7. false
8. false
9. true
10. false
11. true
12. true
13. metaphase
14. anaphase
15. telophase
16. prophase
17. sister chromatids
18. centromere
19. spindle fibers
20. centrioles
21. In animal cells, cytokinesis is accomplished by
using microfilaments to pinch the cytoplasm in
two, as shown in the diagram of an animal cell.
22. Instead of cytokinesis, prokaryotic cells divide
by binary fission. Both copies of the prokaryotic
DNA attach to the plasma membrane. As the
plasma membrane grows, the attached DNA
molecules are pulled apart, and the cell completes fission.
23. Instead of plant cells pinching in half, a new
structure called a cell plate forms between the
two daughter nuclei. Cell walls then form on
either side of the cell plate. Student drawings
should be similar to the illustration on the page
and should include correctly labeled structures.

Page 128 Section 9.3


1. cells
2. genetic changes
3. DNA damage
4. spindle fiber failure
5. carcinogens
CHAPTER 9 TEACHER GUIDE AND ANSWERS 175

Chapter 9

Teacher Guide and Answers

6. cell cycle
Note: Student answers for questions 7 and 8 are
interchangeable.
7. tobacco
8. the Suns ultraviolet rays
9. Stem cells
10. Apoptosis
11. Apoptosis
12. Stem cells
13. Apoptosis

Gua de estudio
Pgina 129 Seccin 9.1

Pgina 130 Seccin 9.2


1. verdadero
2. verdadero
3. falso
4. verdadero
5. falso
6. verdadero
7. falso
8. falso
9. verdadero
10. falso
11. verdadero
12. verdadero
13. metafase
14. anafase

176 CHAPTER 9 TEACHER GUIDE AND ANSWERS

Pgina 132 Seccin 9.3


Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

1. Las clulas dejarn de crecer.


2. Las clulas se dividirn.
3. El ciclo debe indicarse con un crculo con
flechas, y las tres etapas y sub-etapas se deben
identificar correctamente.
4. B
5. C
6. A
7. F
8. E
9. D

15. telofase
16. profase
17. cromtidas hermanas
18. centrmero
19. fibras del huso
20. centriolos
21. En las clulas animales, la citoquinesis se logra
mediante el uso de microfilamentos para partir
el citoplasma en dos, como se muestra en el diagrama de una clula animal.
22. En vez de citoquinesis, las clulas procariticas se dividen mediante fisin binaria. Ambas
copias del ADN procaritico se unen a la membrana del plasma. A medida que la membrana
del plasma crece, las molculas de ADN unidas
se despegan, y la clula completa la fisin.
23. En vez de que las clulas de las plantas se partan
en dos, se forma una nueva estructura llamada
placa celular entre los dos ncleos hijos. Las
paredes celulares se forman posteriormente en
los dos lados de la placa celular. Los dibujos
de los estudiantes deben ser similares a la ilustracin de la pgina y deben incluir las estructuras correctamente identificadas.

1. clulas
2. cambios genticos
3. dao al ADN
4. falla de las fibras del huso
5. carcingenos
6. ciclo celular
Nota: Las respuestas de los estudiantes a las
preguntas 7 y 8 son intercambiables.
7. el tabaco
8. los rayos ultravioletas del sol
9. Clulas madre
10. Apptosis
11. Apptosis
12. Clulas madre
13. Apptosis

Unit 2

Chapter 9

Teacher Guide and Answers

Section Quick Check


Page 133 Section 9.1
1. Mitosis is the second stage of the cell cycle,
during which the cells nucleus and nuclear
material divide.
2. The first stage of interphase is G1, when a cell
grows and carries out normal cell functions.
During the S stage, the cell copies its DNA.
During the G2 stage, the cell prepares for nuclear
division and makes microtubule proteins.
3. Chromosomes are the structures that contain
DNA. Chromatin is relaxed DNA in the cells
nucleus.
4. Mitosis is division of the nucleus, and
cytokinesis is division of the cells cytoplasm.
5. surface area = 100 m 100 m 6
= 60,000 m
volume = 100 m 100 m 100 m
= 1,000 000 m
surface-area-to-volume ratio = 60,000:1,000,000
= 3:50

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Page 134 Section 9.2


1. The chromatin condenses into chromosomes,
the nuclear envelope and nucleoli disappear, and
spindle fibers form.
2. The chromosomes are shaped like an X. Two
sister chromatids are joined at the center at the
centromere.
3. A cell plate forms between the two daughter
nuclei, and cell walls form on either side of it.
4. The spindle apparatus of an animal cell has a
pair of centrioles. The spindle apparatus of a
plant cells does not have centrioles.
5. Student answers will vary. Sample answers:
prophasepreparation, metaphasemiddle,
anaphaseaway, telophasetwo nuclei.

Page 135 Section 9.3


1. Apoptosis of cells with DNA damage helps
prevent cancer. When apoptosis does not occur,
damaged cells can multiply and lead to cancer.
2. Cells that are growing normally respond
to cell cycle control mechanisms. Cancer is
uncontrolled growth and division of cells that

Unit 2

results when cells do not respond to cell cycle


control mechanism. Cancer cells can crowd out
normal cells, causing loss of tissue function.
3. A cyclin and cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)
combination is important in controlling the
cell cycle. Student answers for the processes
that are controlled will vary. Answers may
include controlling the start of the cycle, DNA
replication, protein synthesis, nuclear division,
and the end of the cycle.
4. Stem cells can be stimulated to develop into
specialized cells.
5. Student answers will vary. Sample answer: The
chromosomes might not divide evenly between
the daughter cells.

Chapter Test A
Page 136 Part A: Multiple Choice
1. D
2. B
3. A

Page 136 Part B: Matching


1. abnormal cycle
2. normal cycle
3. abnormal cycle
4. normal cycle

Page 137 Part C: Interpreting Drawings and Graphs


1. A: metaphase; B: prophase; C: anaphase;
D: telophase
2. 40 per 100,000
3. males 7579 years old

Page 138 Part D: Short Answer


1. The three stages of the cell cycle are interphase,
mitosis, and cytokinesis.
2. Both types of stem cells are unspecialized cells
and can grow into specialized cells such as tissues and organs. Researchers hope to use stem
cells to repair damaged organs and tissues.

Page 138 Part E: Concept Application


1. Secondhand smoke from people who are smoking tobacco products is a known carcinogen,
which means it can cause cancer. By banning
CHAPTER 9 TEACHER GUIDE AND ANSWERS 177

Chapter 9

Teacher Guide and Answers

smoking in pubs, the law protects workers and


customers who do not smoke from the risks of
secondhand smoke.
2. Researchers believe that changes occur in a
persons DNA over time, and these DNA changes
can result in the growth of cancer cells.

Chapter Test B
Page 139 Part A: Multiple Choice
1. B
2. D
3. A
4. B
5. D

Page 139 Part B: Matching and Completion


Matching
1. D
2. E
3. C
4. B

Page 140 Part C: Interpreting Drawings and Graphs


1. B: prophase; A: metaphase; C: anaphase;
D: telophase
2. males: 50 per 100,000; females: 40 per 100,000
3. 035

Page 141 Part D: Short Answer


1. One factor is called contact inhibition, which
prevents cells from dividing once they touch
each other. A second factor is the absence of
cyclin/CDK units that start the cell cycle.
2. The controversy centers on the source of the
cells. Embryonic stem cells could be taken from
human embryos that have been aborted or left
unused in fertilization clinics. Many Americans
believe human embryos should be accorded full
rights as United States citizens and should not be
used to further medical research.
178 CHAPTER 9 TEACHER GUIDE AND ANSWERS

1. The liver cell relies on the process of diffusion


to move substances such as nutrients and wastes
through its cytoplasm. The process of diffusion is slow and inefficient. As the size of a cell
increases, its volume increases and creates a
lower surface area-to-volume ratio. As the cells
volume increases more rapidly than its surface
area, it cannot supply nutrients and expel wastes
quickly enough to sustain itself.
2. The restaurant waiter can choose smoke-free
restaurants to avoid the risk of secondhand
smoke, which is a known carcinogen. The
restaurant waiter can also choose a restaurant
that does not have exposed asbestos covering its
floor or ceiling.

Chapter Test C
Page 142 Part A: Multiple Choice
1. B
2. C
3. A
4. A
5. D
6. B

Page 142 Part B: Completion


1. centromere
2. metaphase
3. binary fission
4. cyclins
5. cancer
6. carcinogen

Page 143 Part C: Interpreting Drawings and Graphs


1. A: metaphase; B: prophase; C: anaphase;
D: telophase. Chromosomes line the equator
during metaphase. Spindle fibers form, and
centrioles move apart during prophase. Spindle
fibers move chromatids toward centrioles during
anaphase, and two new cells begin to form
during telophase.
2. males: 79; females: 73

Unit 2

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Completion
5. cytokinesis
6. interphase
7. carcinogen
8. stem cells

Page 141 Part E: Concept Application

Chapter 9

Teacher Guide and Answers

3. Men over age 80 do not fit the pattern because


the incidences of pancreatic cancer suddenly
drop for this age group instead of steadily
increasing.

Page 144 Part D: Short Answer


1. During interphase, the cell grows and develops
into a mature cell. Also during interphase, the
cell copies its DNA in preparation for cell division, and the cell prepares for mitosis. During
the four stages of mitosis, the cells nuclear material divides and separates to opposite ends of the
nucleus. During cytokinesis, the cell divides into
two daughter cells with identical nuclei.
2. Changes in abnormal cell DNA lead to a cancerous cell, and DNA changes become more frequent as a person ages.
3. After fertilization, a mass of cells forms by cell
division until 100150 unspecialized cells are
created. These unspecialized cells are called stem
cells, and they have the potential for developing
into a wide variety of specialized cells such as
nerve, blood, or muscle cells.

2. Those in favor of stem cell research argue the


medical possibilities of using unspecialized stem
cells. Stem cell research could lead to medical
procedures that repair tissues and organs, such
as a damaged heart or spinal cord. Opponents
to the research cite ethical concerns. Embryonic
stem cells could be taken from human embryos
that have been aborted or discarded by fertilization clinics. Many Americans believe human
embryos should be accorded full rights as United
States citizens and should not be used to further
medical research.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Page 144 Part E: Concept Application


1. A cell with a 40-m diameter will have a much
lower surface area-to-volume ratio than the typical cell with a diameter of 20 m. The process
of diffusion moves nutrients throughout the
cell and expels wastes through the selectively
permeable membrane, but diffusion is a slow,
inefficient process. The diffusion process in the
large cell will occur more slowly because there is
a greater volume of space for the random movement of molecules and ions. Cell functions in
the large cell would be impractical, and the cells
ability to communicate cell functions would be
impaired. The large cell would not be able to
sustain itself.

Unit 2

CHAPTER 9 TEACHER GUIDE AND ANSWERS 179