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HTTP Routing
# Basic Routing
# Route Parameters
# Required Parameters
# Optional Parameters
# Regular Expression Constraints

# Named Routes
# Route Groups
# Middleware
# Namespaces
# Sub-Domain Routing
# Route Prefixes

# CSRF Protection
# Introduction
# Excluding URIs
# X-CSRF-Token
# X-XSRF-Token

# Route Model Binding


# Form Method Spoofing
# Accessing The Current Route

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# Basic Routing
All Laravel routes are defined in the
routes simply accept a URI and a

app/Http/routes.php

Closure

file, which is automatically loaded by the framework. The most basic Laravel

, providing a very simple and expressive method of defining routes:

Route::get('foo', function () {
return 'Hello World';
});

The Default Routes File


The default

routes.php

file is loaded by the

RouteServiceProvider

and is automatically included in the

web

middleware group, which

provides access to session state and CSRF protection. Most of the routes for your application will be defined within this file.

Available Router Methods


The router allows you to register routes that respond to any HTTP verb:

Route::get($uri, $callback);
Route::post($uri, $callback);
Route::put($uri, $callback);
Route::patch($uri, $callback);
Route::delete($uri, $callback);
Route::options($uri, $callback);

Sometimes you may need to register a route that responds to multiple HTTP verbs. You may do so using the

match

method. Or, you may

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even register a route that responds to all HTTP verbs using the

any

method:

Route::match(['get', 'post'], '/', function () {


//
});

Route::any('foo', function () {
//
});

# Route Parameters
Required Parameters
Of course, sometimes you will need to capture segments of the URI within your route. For example, you may need to capture a user's ID
from the URL. You may do so by defining route parameters:

Route::get('user/{id}', function ($id) {


return 'User '.$id;
});

You may define as many route parameters as required by your route:

Route::get('posts/{post}/comments/{comment}', function ($postId, $commentId) {

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//
});

Route parameters are always encased within "curly" braces. The parameters will be passed into your route's

Closure

when the route is

executed.
Note: Route parameters cannot contain the

character. Use an underscore (

) instead.

Optional Parameters
Occasionally you may need to specify a route parameter, but make the presence of that route parameter optional. You may do so by
placing a

mark aer the parameter name. Make sure to give the route's corresponding variable a default value:

Route::get('user/{name?}', function ($name = null) {


return $name;
});

Route::get('user/{name?}', function ($name = 'John') {


return $name;
});

Regular Expression Constraints


You may constrain the format of your route parameters using the

where

method on a route instance. The

where

method accepts the

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name of the parameter and a regular expression defining how the parameter should be constrained:

Route::get('user/{name}', function ($name) {


//
})
->where('name', '[A-Za-z]+');

Route::get('user/{id}', function ($id) {


//
})
->where('id', '[0-9]+');

Route::get('user/{id}/{name}', function ($id, $name) {


//
})
->where(['id' => '[0-9]+', 'name' => '[a-z]+']);

Global Constraints
If you would like a route parameter to always be constrained by a given regular expression, you may use the
define these patterns in the

boot

method of your

RouteServiceProvider

pattern

method. You should

/**
* Define your route model bindings, pattern filters, etc.
*
* @param \Illuminate\Routing\Router $router
* @return void

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*/
public function boot(Router $router)
{
$router->pattern('id', '[0-9]+');

parent::boot($router);
}

Once the pattern has been defined, it is automatically applied to all routes using that parameter name:

Route::get('user/{id}', function ($id) {


// Only called if {id} is numeric.
});

# Named Routes
Named routes allow the convenient generation of URLs or redirects for specific routes. You may specify a name for a route using the

as

array key when defining the route:

Route::get('user/profile', ['as' => 'profile', function () {


//
}]);

You may also specify route names for controller actions:

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Route::get('user/profile', [
'as' => 'profile', 'uses' => 'UserController@showProfile'
]);

Alternatively, instead of specifying the route name in the route array definition, you may chain the

name

method onto the end of the route

definition:

Route::get('user/profile', 'UserController@showProfile')->name('profile');

Route Groups & Named Routes


If you are using route groups, you may specify an

as

keyword in the route group attribute array, allowing you to set a common route

name prefix for all routes within the group:

Route::group(['as' => 'admin::'], function () {


Route::get('dashboard', ['as' => 'dashboard', function () {
// Route named "admin::dashboard"
}]);
});

Generating URLs To Named Routes


Once you have assigned a name to a given route, you may use the route's name when generating URLs or redirects via the global

route

function:

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// Generating URLs...
$url = route('profile');

// Generating Redirects...
return redirect()->route('profile');

If the named route defines parameters, you may pass the parameters as the second argument to the

route

function. The given

parameters will automatically be inserted into the URL in their correct positions:

Route::get('user/{id}/profile', ['as' => 'profile', function ($id) {


//
}]);

$url = route('profile', ['id' => 1]);

# Route Groups
Route groups allow you to share route attributes, such as middleware or namespaces, across a large number of routes without needing
to define those attributes on each individual route. Shared attributes are specified in an array format as the first parameter to the
Route::group

method.

To learn more about route groups, we'll walk through several common use-cases for the feature.

Middleware
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To assign middleware to all routes within a group, you may use the

middleware

key in the group attribute array. Middleware will be

executed in the order you define this array:

Route::group(['middleware' => 'auth'], function () {


Route::get('/', function ()

// Uses Auth Middleware


});

Route::get('user/profile', function () {
// Uses Auth Middleware
});
});

Namespaces
Another common use-case for route groups is assigning the same PHP namespace to a group of controllers. You may use the

namespace

parameter in your group attribute array to specify the namespace for all controllers within the group:

Route::group(['namespace' => 'Admin'], function()


{
// Controllers Within The "App\Http\Controllers\Admin" Namespace

Route::group(['namespace' => 'User'], function() {


// Controllers Within The "App\Http\Controllers\Admin\User" Namespace
});
});

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Remember, by default, the

RouteServiceProvider

routes without specifying the full


comes aer the base

includes your

App\Http\Controllers

App\Http\Controllers

routes.php

file within a namespace group, allowing you to register controller

namespace prefix. So, we only need to specify the portion of the namespace that

namespace.

Sub-Domain Routing
Route groups may also be used to route wildcard sub-domains. Sub-domains may be assigned route parameters just like route URIs,
allowing you to capture a portion of the sub-domain for usage in your route or controller. The sub-domain may be specified using the
domain

key on the group attribute array:

Route::group(['domain' => '{account}.myapp.com'], function () {


Route::get('user/{id}', function ($account, $id) {
//
});
});

Route Prefixes
The

prefix

group attribute may be used to prefix each route in the group with a given URI. For example, you may want to prefix all route

URIs within the group with

admin

Route::group(['prefix' => 'admin'], function () {


Route::get('users', function ()

// Matches The "/admin/users" URL

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});
});

You may also use the

prefix

parameter to specify common parameters for your grouped routes:

Route::group(['prefix' => 'accounts/{account_id}'], function () {


Route::get('detail', function ($accountId)

// Matches The "/accounts/{account_id}/detail" URL


});
});

# CSRF Protection
Introduction
Laravel makes it easy to protect your application from cross-site request forgery (CSRF) attacks. Cross-site request forgeries are a type of
malicious exploit whereby unauthorized commands are performed on behalf of an authenticated user.
Laravel automatically generates a CSRF "token" for each active user session managed by the application. This token is used to verify
that the authenticated user is the one actually making the requests to the application.
Anytime you define a HTML form in your application, you should include a hidden CSRF token field in the form so that the CSRF protection
middleware will be able to validate the request. To generate a hidden input field
csrf_field

_token

containing the CSRF token, you may use the

helper function:

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// Vanilla PHP
<?php echo csrf_field(); ?>

// Blade Template Syntax


{{ csrf_field() }}

The

csrf_field

helper function generates the following HTML:

<input type="hidden" name="_token" value="<?php echo csrf_token(); ?>">

You do not need to manually verify the CSRF token on POST, PUT, or DELETE requests. The
in the

web

VerifyCsrfToken

middleware, which is included

middleware group, will automatically verify that the token in the request input matches the token stored in the session.

Excluding URIs From CSRF Protection


Sometimes you may wish to exclude a set of URIs from CSRF protection. For example, if you are using Stripe to process payments and are
utilizing their webhook system, you will need to exclude your webhook handler route from Laravel's CSRF protection.
You may exclude URIs by defining their routes outside of the
adding the URIs to the

$except

property of the

VerifyCsrfToken

web

middleware group that is included in the default

routes.php

file, or by

middleware:

<?php

namespace App\Http\Middleware;

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use Illuminate\Foundation\Http\Middleware\VerifyCsrfToken as BaseVerifier;

class VerifyCsrfToken extends BaseVerifier


{
/**
* The URIs that should be excluded from CSRF verification.
*
* @var array
*/
protected $except = [
'stripe/*',
];
}

X-CSRF-TOKEN
In addition to checking for the CSRF token as a POST parameter, the Laravel
X-CSRF-TOKEN

VerifyCsrfToken

middleware will also check for the

request header. You could, for example, store the token in a "meta" tag:

<meta name="csrf-token" content="{{ csrf_token() }}">

Once you have created the

meta

tag, you can instruct a library like jQuery to add the token to all request headers. This provides simple,

convenient CSRF protection for your AJAX based applications:

$.ajaxSetup({
headers: {

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'X-CSRF-TOKEN': $('meta[name="csrf-token"]').attr('content')
}
});

X-XSRF-TOKEN
Laravel also stores the CSRF token in a

XSRF-TOKEN

cookie. You can use the cookie value to set the

X-XSRF-TOKEN

request header. Some

JavaScript frameworks, like Angular, do this automatically for you. It is unlikely that you will need to use this value manually.

# Route Model Binding


Laravel route model binding provides a convenient way to inject model instances into your routes. For example, instead of injecting a
user's ID, you can inject the entire

User

model instance that matches the given ID.

Implicit Binding
Laravel will automatically resolve type-hinted Eloquent models defined in routes or controller actions whose variable names match a
route segment name. For example:

Route::get('api/users/{user}', function (App\User $user) {


return $user->email;
});

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In this example, since the Eloquent type-hinted

$user

variable defined on the route matches the

{user}

segment in the route's URI,

Laravel will automatically inject the model instance that has an ID matching the corresponding value from the request URI.
If a matching model instance is not found in the database, a 404 HTTP response will be automatically generated.

Customizing The Key Name


If you would like the implicit model binding to use a database column other than
getRouteKeyName

id

when retrieving models, you may override the

method on your Eloquent model:

/**
* Get the route key for the model.
*
* @return string
*/
public function getRouteKeyName()
{
return 'slug';
}

Explicit Binding
To register an explicit binding, use the router's
bindings in the

RouteServiceProvider::boot

model

method to specify the class for a given parameter. You should define your model

method:

Binding A Parameter To A Model

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public function boot(Router $router)


{
parent::boot($router);

$router->model('user', 'App\User');
}

Next, define a route that contains a

{user}

parameter:

$router->get('profile/{user}', function(App\User $user) {


//
});

Since we have bound the


request to

profile/1

{user}

parameter to the

will inject the

User

App\User

model, a

User

instance will be injected into the route. So, for example, a

instance which has an ID of 1.

If a matching model instance is not found in the database, a 404 HTTP response will be automatically generated.

Customizing The Resolution Logic


If you wish to use your own resolution logic, you should use the

Route::bind

method. The

Closure

you pass to the

bind

method will

receive the value of the URI segment, and should return an instance of the class you want to be injected into the route:

$router->bind('user', function ($value) {


return App\User::where('name', $value)->first();
});

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Customizing The "Not Found" Behavior


If you wish to specify your own "not found" behavior, pass a

Closure

as the third argument to the

model

method:

$router->model('user', 'App\User', function () {


throw new NotFoundHttpException;
});

# Form Method Spoofing


HTML forms do not support

PUT

PATCH

form, you will need to add a hidden

or

_method

DELETE

actions. So, when defining

PUT

PATCH

field to the form. The value sent with the

or

_method

DELETE

routes that are called from an HTML

field will be used as the HTTP request

method:

<form action="/foo/bar" method="POST">


<input type="hidden" name="_method" value="PUT">
<input type="hidden" name="_token" value="{{ csrf_token() }}">
</form>

To generate the hidden input field

_method

, you may also use the

method_field

helper function:

<?php echo method_field('PUT'); ?>

Of course, using the Blade templating engine:

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{{ method_field('PUT') }}

# Accessing The Current Route


The

Route::current()

method will return the route handling the current HTTP request, allowing you to inspect the full

Illuminate\Routing\Route

instance:

$route = Route::current();

$name = $route->getName();

$actionName = $route->getActionName();

You may also use the

currentRouteName

and

currentRouteAction

helper methods on the

Route

facade to access the current route's name or

action:

$name = Route::currentRouteName();

$action = Route::currentRouteAction();

Please refer to the API documentation for both the underlying class of the Route facade and Route instance to review all accessible
methods.

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