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Lupang Hinirang (Chosen Land) is the national anthem of the Philippines. Its music was
composed in 1898 by Julin Felipe, and the lyrics were adapted from the Spanish poem Filipinas, written
by Jos Palma in 1899.
The Lupang Hinirang began as an instrumental march which Emilio Aguinaldo commissioned for use
in the proclamation of Philippine independencefrom Spain.
The title of this new march was Marcha Filipina Mgdalo ("Magdalo Philippine March"), and was later
changed to Marcha Nacional Filipina ("Philippine National March") upon its adoption as the national anthem
of the First Philippine Republic on 11 June 1898, a day before independence was to be proclaimed. It was
played by the San Francisco de Malabon marching band during the proclamation rite on 12 June.
In August 1899, Jos Palma wrote the poem Filipinas in Spanish. The poem was published for the
first time in the newspaper La Independencia on 3 September 1899. It was subsequently adopted as the
lyrics to the anthem
HIMNO NACIONAL FILIPINO - Known presently as Lupang Hinirang, the National Anthem of the
R.A. 8491 specifies that Lupang Hinirang "shall be in accordance with the musical arrangement and
composition of Julin Felipe. The original version was composed in duple time (i.e. in a time signature of
2/4) as compared to the present quadruple time (4/4). The NHI says that the proper tempo is a twofourths beat and 100 metronomes and that it should last 53 seconds
KUNDIMAN - Known as The Philippines signature love songs; it expresses messages of love
and sentiments of nationalism.
Example: Nasaan Ka Irog? - A kundiman in slow triple time composed by Nicanor
Abelardo in 1923.
BALLAD - A narrative song, ranging from indigenous forms to Hispanic-influenced themes.
Example: GAANO KO IKAW KAMAHAL? - A ballad composed by Ernani Cuenco in 197,
with lyrics by Levi Celerio. It was used as a movie theme for a 1980s movie
with the same title, starring Lito Lapid.
BALITAW is an extemporaneous exchange of love verses between a man and a woman.
HARANA is an old Filipino courtship in which a man woos a woman by singing underneath her
window at night.
Abelardo was born in San Miguel de Mayumo, Bulacan. His mother belonged to a family of artists
in Guagua, the Hensons. He was introduced to music when he was five years old, when his father
taught him the solfeggio and the banduria. At the age of 8, he was able to compose his estoryahe
first work, a waltz entitled "Ang Unang Buko," which was dedicated to his grandmother. At the age
of 13, he was already playing at saloons and cabarets in Manila. At age 15, he was already
teaching in barrio schools in San Ildefonso and San Miguel Bulacan
Among his works were "Nasaan Ka Irog," "Magbalik Ka Hirang," and "Himutok." He died in 1934 at
the age of 41, leaving a collection of more than 140 works.
Francisco Santiago (January 29, 1889 September 28, 1947), was a Filipino musician, sometimes
called The Father of Kundiman Art Song.
Santiago was born in Santa Maria, Bulacan, Philippines, to musically-minded peasant parents,
Felipe Santiago and Maria Santiago. In 1908, his first composition, Purita, was dedicated to the first
Carnival Queen, Pura Villanueva, who later married the distinguished scholar Teodoro Kalaw.
Santiago's masterpiece was the "Concerto in B flat minor" for pianoforte and orchestra. His most
famous piece "Kundiman, (Anak-Dalita)", was sung upon the may apat nah tanga pang lima ang
Born on November 5, 1883 in Bulacan, Buencamino, Sr. is a son of a musically inclined couple,
Fortunato Buencamino, a church organist and a band master and Luisa Beltran, a singer.
He also ventured into musical direction and scoring, composing music for Sampaguita Pictures,
LVN, and Excelsior.
Si Antonio Jesus Naguiat Molina, (1894-1980), Pambansang Alagad ng Sining sa Musika
ng Pilipinas, ay isang musikero, kompositor, at guro na kabilang sa triumvirate ng Pilipinong
kompositor na nanguna sa pagsusulong ng musikang Pilipino.
Antonio Buenaventura also known as Colonel Antonio Buenaventura, was born on 4 May 1904
in Baliuag, Bulacan. He inherited his interest in music and military from his father, Lucino
Buenaventura. He was born to a family of musicians and actively involved in the band.
He was the UP President's Committee on Folksongs and Dances when he composed the "Pandanggo
sa Ilaw", a dance accompaniment.
In 1937, he was commissioned to the military service where he became a music instructor and
band conductor at the Philippine Military Academy in Baguio City in 1939.


Lucio San Pedro was a Filipino composer and teacher. He was born on February 11, 1913 in
Angono, Rizal, the Philippines. He is known in the Philippines as the composer of the popular lullaby
Sa Ugoy ng Duyan and the symphonic poem Lahing Kayumanggi.
Born: 15 May 1909 Philippines Died: 11 August 1991 USA
The Philipine composer Cornejo received his Teachers Diploma in piano (1930) and Teachers
Diploma in science and composition (1930) from the Conservatory of Music, University of the
Philippines. He received his Bachelor of Music major in piano and theory (1932) from the Chicago
Musical College of the Roosevelt University, Master of Music major in composition-conducting
(1933), and Doctor of Music (honoris causa, 1954). He received his Doctor of Philosophy major in
composition from the Neotarian College of Philosophy in Kansas City (1947). He served as pianistdirector of a USO concert unit that entertained the Allied Forces at the E.T.O., the Marianas, and
the Hawaiian Islands in World War II. Since 1978 he held concerts in the United States and
appeared as composer-conductor at the Seattle Opera House and the Seattle Playhouse.
He was a Filipino architect, teacher and a community leader. In 1973, he was named one of
the National Artists for architecture, and tapped as the Dean of Filipino Architects.
Among Nakpil's works are San Carlos Seminary, Geronimo de los Reyes Building, Magsaysay
Building, Rizal Theater, Capitol Theater, Captain Pepe Building, Manila Jockey Club, Rufino Building,
Philippine Village Hotel, University of the Philippines Administration and University Library, and
theRizal Shrine in Calamba, Laguna. He also designed the International Eucharistic Congress altar
and improved the Quiapo Church in 1930 by erecting a dome and a second belfry. He was hailed as
a National Artist for Architecture in 1973.Juan Napkil died in Manila, Philippines in 1986
She was a noted composer, educator, cultural and arts administrator, and performing artist. She
was named National Artist in Music in 1989. She pioneered the fusion of Filipino ethnic and Western
music. She dared to mix indigenous Filipino instruments with Western orchestra in her prizewinning "Toccata for Percussions and Winds, Divertissement and Concertante," and the scores of
the Filiasiana, Misang Pilipino and De Profundis. She was fondly called "Tita King".
She established in 1957 the Bayanihan Folk Arts Center to research Philippine music. Through her
efforts she made Bayanihan Philippine Dance Company the primary artistic and cultural ensemble
of the country.

He wrote 4000 songs and remained poor. But that is something every man of his kind takes pride
His name was placed in the Guinness Book of World Records for his leaf-playing feat.
He was known as the only man who could play music with a leaf.
YOYOY VILLAME King of Philippine Novelty Songs.
A stage persentation featuring various forms: musical, comedy and even magic acts, skits,
monologues and acrobatic.
OPM Original Pinoy Music or Original Philippine Music; a label used for original popular
songs by Filipino artists.
Different OPM Genres:
POP refers generally to music that is easily accessible by the public through mass media, and is
also subject to selling.
FUSION a style of music infusing World music elements.
NOVELTY SONG comical popular songs that may be for a current situation, holiday, or can just
be a dance fad.
HIP HOP a style of music incorporating stylized rhythms that is often accompanied by rapping. It
belongs to a subculture that also goes by the same name, hip hop.
FOLK ROCK a style of music combining folk and rock elements. It is a genre term that was
originally coined in the USA and/or UK, during the 1960s.
KOMEDYA - A Philippine theatrical tradition that was used by the Spaniards to indoctrinate the
early Filipinos on Christianity. Dialogues are spoken in lyrical poem form. This theatrical form
decreased its popularity as modern forms of theater emerged in the country.
MORO MORO A type of Secular Komedya that was popular in the 1600s. Stories revolved around
kings, queens, princes, princesses, animals and supernatural beings. It is believed to be an
offshoot of chivalric poem called awit and legendary religious poems called corrido. Most of the
time, the theme of the play depicts battles between the Christians and Moros.

CARILLO A shadow play using cardboard cut-outs projected on a white screen during moonlit
BODABIL A stage persentation featuring various forms: musical, comedy and even magic acts,
skits, monologues and acrobatic.
SARSUELA/ZARZUELA Zarzuela is a Spanish lyric-dramatic genre that alternates between
spoken and sung scenes, the latter incorporating operatic and popular song, as well as dance. it is
often focused on a love story between members of the upper class, with comic love episodes
between servants. The zarzuela was made more relevant with satirical attacks on corrupt
politicians, oppressive landlords, and lazy husbands who are gamblers and alcoholics. Lately, the
theme focused on students hooked on drugs and Saudi recruiters, who take advantage of the
naive workers who want to go and work abroad.
1879 or 1880 Sarsuwela was introduced in the Philippines (Manila)
Jugar con Fuego (Play with Fire)- performed by the group of Dario de Cespedes
Dalagang Bukid 1919
- The most popular zarzuela of all time popularized by ATANG DE LA RAMA, who was referred to
as the Queen of Kundiman & Zarazuela
Walang Sugat 1902 Severino Reyes (Father of Tagalog Zarzuela)


EXPOSITION - Is an element of the story that tells about the background of the situation.
DEVELOPMENT - In a story refers to the succession of events and movements leading the
situation to its turning point.
TURNING POINT - In a story tells about the solutions employed for conflicts as a result of difficult
CLIMAX - Is the highest point of the story.
DENOUEMENT - Is the unraveling of the plot. In a story. It gives the idea of how the character is
discovered or how a mystery is resolved or how the unknown is revealed.
SAKUTING - dance in the south narrates a story of a princess, who in search for her prince
ventured into the dangerous forest passing through different obstacles along her way.
SANTACRUZAN - Dramatizes the search of Empress Elena for the Holy Cross.
LUTRINA - Is similar to Santacruzan but it is celebrated by the farmers asking for rains to water
their crops.
SUBLI - In Alitagtag and Bauan in Batangas which is set into dance and music narrating the search
for the Holy Cross.
SANTA CLARA DANCE - Dramatizes the desire for the gods to send or not to send rains for the
crops as well as the KARAKOL dance.
PUTONG - Dances of Marinduque and coastal municipalities of Quezon are actually forms of drama
set to music.
TOBONG - narrates how the three kings (Gaspar, Melchor, Baltazar) searched for the birthday
celebrant to give their felicitations and gifts which is similar to the story of the three kings during
the Yuletide season.
CENACULO - A drama about the life, passion, and death of Jesus Christ. It includes the PABASA
MORO-MORO- Is a bloody skirmish between the Christians and the Moslems.
DUPLUAN - A form of game can also be classified as drama because it narrates a story often of a
king seeking for something among his loyal servants.
Feast of the Black Nazarene (January 9-Quiapo, Manila)
This feast is celebrated at the heart of Manila- Quiapo. Devotees come from all over the metropolis to
participate in this annual event honoring the hundred-year-old statue of the Black Nazarene.
Sinulog Festival (January 15 or every second Sunday of January-Cebu City)
This is an annual festival held in Cebu, which commences nine days before the third Sunday of January.
Ati-Atihan Festival (3rd week of January-Kalibo, Aklan)
This is a celebration in honor of the Infant Jesus, the town's patron. Ati-Atihan, observed in honor of the
Child Jesus. Ati-atihan means 'making like Atis,' that is, pretending to be like the aboriginal natives that
once inhabited Aklan. This involves smearing oneself with soot to darken the skin and dressing up in tribal
finery. The start of the procession is signaled by drums and whistles, and later punctuated by shouts of
"Hala Bira!"
The Dinagyang Festival (4th week of January-Iloilo)
Dinagyang is a Hiligaynon word extrapolated from dagyang meaning "merrymaking" It celebrates the feast
of the Infant Jesus and the pact between the Datus and the locals.
Baguio Flower Festival/Panagbenga (February - Baguio City)

This is a relatively "new" event in the country's summer capital. Similar to the Rose Bowl Parade of the
U.S., this festival is highlighted by a parade of floats made entirely of fresh blossoms from local

Moriones Festival (Holy Week-Marinduque)

This is a week-long celebration participated in by male penitents in costumes who parade around town. On
Good Friday, they reenact the story of Longinus, a centurion, blind in one eye, who speared Jesus' side.
Christ's blood fell on his blind eye, miraculously restoring it, leading to his conversion.
Turumba (April - Pakil, Laguna)
This is a seven-day feast in honor of our lady of sorrows highlighted by a procession and a dance (to the
beat of a turumba song).
Flores de Mayo (May whole month-Catholic-wide event)
Literally translated, it means "Flowers of May"and highlights a procession honoring Virgin Mary. Coinciding
with it is the Santacruzan, re-enacting the search of Queen Elena for the cross upon which Jesus Christ
was crucified. The town or city's loveliest ladies grace the occasion.
Pahiyas Festival (May - Lucban and Sariaya, Quezon)
This is a thanksgiving festival to San Isidro Labrador for the past year's bountiful harvest. The event is
popular for the elaborate edible decorations that cover entire houses like fruits and vegetables, most
prominent of which are the brightly colored rice wafers known as kiping. The image of the patron saint is
also paraded around town assuring the farmers of a bountiful harvest in the years to come.
Obando Festival (May 17 to 19-Obando, Bulacan)
This festival involves the different dance rituals held for three consecutive days honoring three patron
saints: May 17 for St. Paschal (for couples who want a male child), May 18 for St. Claire (for couples who
want a female child) and May 19 for the Our Lady of Salambaw (patroness of fishermen).
Parada ng mga Lechon (June 24-Balayan, Batangas)
Crisp, golden-brown roast pigs are paraded through the streets. As soon as the best decorated roasted pig
is announced, the eating commences.
Piat Sambali Festival (last week of June-Piat, Cagayan)
In Piat, Cagayan, the colorful celebration is highlighted by street dancing, cultural shows and a beauty
pageant. This festival commemorates the Christianization of the Ytawes region of Cagayan.
Sandugo Festival (July last week-Bohol)
Celebrated in Bohol, this festival commemorates the blood compact between Spaniard Legaspi and Filipino
Sikatuna. It includes an agro-industrial exhibit, a trade fair, a beauty contest, street dancing and a reenactment of the blood compact.
Kadayawan sa Dabaw Festival (August 3rd week-Davao City)
Dabaweños celebrate the annual Kadayawan - a colorful occassion that lasts for five days - as a
thanksgiving festival and a tribute to its indigenous peoples. Kadayawan is a native expression in
Dabawnon tongue, which means "anything excellent that brings great fortune" from "dayaw" (good),
describing a thing that is valuable and superior. Indeed, Davao teems with 'kadayawan,' from its delicious
durian to pomelos to waling-waling, to its people. Included in the program is a two-hour showcase
participated in by eighty (80) traditional artists belonging to the eight indigenous groups of Davao namely:
the Manobo-Ubo, Ata-Matigsalog, Bagobo-Tagabawa, Bagobo-Guiangan, Kalagan, Maguindanao, Maranao
and Tausug.
Higantes (August 19-Lucban, Quezon)
On August 19, in the town of Lucban, Quezon, townsfolk trot out their beloved gigantes or giants.
Measuring about 14 feet tall, the giants come in pairs, the mag-asawa or couple, a giant man dressed in
the peasant's camisa chino or undershirt, and his wife clad in the native patadyong and kimona, a loose
skirt topped with a flimsy blouse. Made from papier mache, the giants are borne on shoulders by those
who have made a panata (oath) made in return for a favor received. This festivity is shared by Lucban
with the town of Angono, Rizal, which holds it in November.
Masskara Festival (October 2nd week-Bacolod City)
This is a grand Bacoleño celebration marked by carnivals, fairs and masked street dancers.
Lanzones Festival (October 4th week-Mambajao, Camiguin Island)
The festival is held to celebrate the abundance of lanzones fruit in the island marked by a streetdancing
competition involving the youth all dressed up in lanzones leaves or fruits. The lanzones is one of the
island's most important crops.
Kawayanan Festival (November 3rd week-Capitol Complex, Pagadian, Zamboanga del Sur)
This celebrates the versatility of the Bamboo plant and its importance in the area.
San Fernando Giant Lantern Festival (December Month-long, San Fernando, Pampanga)
This is a lantern showcase where lanterns measuring 14 to 18 feet in diameter delight spectators with
their kaleidoscope patterns
Isabela Day: Bambanti Festival (Isabela | May 1-11)
Anniversary of the establishment of the civil government of Isabela in honor of Queen Isabela II.
Activities like agro-industrial trade and tourism fairs, parades, sports events, beauty pageant and others
are conducted to entertain visitors.
Pattaraday Festival - Araw Ng Santiago (Santiago City | May 1-5)
Pattaraday which means unity is an Ybanag word, it is celebrated on the occasion of the founding
anniversary of Santiago. It celebrates the unity of the ethno-linguistic groups that have merged in the
city to make it the melting pot of culture of Region 02 and contributed to the citys progress and

development-unity in action. Highlighted with the presentation of the Comedia a moro-moro dance
made famous by the Spaniards to stress the power of Christian Religion over the Moorish non-believers;
other activities include beauty pageant, grand batalla presentations and a grand street dancing parade
and exhibition with performers from other cities, provinces and regions.
An indigenous or local dance in the Philippines is a dance that originates from a region and
expresses a theme or idea and has been transmitted through the common people. It also includes the
customs and traditional practices common among town folks. It is one way of paying tribute to our cultural
ETHNIC/INDIGENOUS DANCE Dances belonging to group without Western influences. In pre-colonial
days, pagan rites were practiced all over the islands. Animistic rituals to celebrate planting, harvest, birth,
death, and all kinds of community activity were common occurrences.
Ragragsakan the Kalinga borrowed the beautiful word ragragsakan from the Ilocano, which means
merriment. The two biggest occasions ofr a ragragsakan in a Kalinga village are for the homecoming of
successful head takers and the culmination of peace-pact between warring tribes. In this dance, Kalinga
maidens balance labba baskets on their heads, wave colorful blankets, and sing short salidumay songs as
they snake through the errace dikes and skip through breaks in the pat. This dance portrays the walk of
the industrious Kalinga women, carrying water pots on their heads and wearing the colorful hand-woven
blankets of life around their necks. Their wlak imitates the clomb up the Rice Terraces in the Mountain
Provinces of the Philippines.
Idudu is a tribal dance from the Abra province in Cordillera. This dance depicts a day in the family life
of the Itneg or Tinguian tribe. It tells the story of a father powing thr field as the mother cares for her
children. In time, the father and mother exchange duties as the mother finishes planting and other chores
in the field, and the father tends to the kids.
FOLK DANCE Community dances that emanates among the people of the area commonly with Spanish
and American Influences. These dances were introduced by Spain to replace ethnic dances in the different
festivities celebrated in the region.
I. These are dances that picture how Filipinos express love. From simple attraction and flirting that lead to
courtship then marriage, it manifests courtship and wedding as themes common in some Philippine folk
A. La Simpatika Simpatika means a lady who is demure, charming and lovable. In this dance from
Pangasinan, the context focuses on the male suitors who are after the love of their life. Towards the end of
the dance, the lady will select the right man who should win her heart.
B. Beneracion it is a religious dance performed during Easter Sunday and Ascension in Dumalag,
Capiz. It is the highest degree of respect and reverence given to the Supernatural being in dance form.
C. La Jota Moncadea La Jota dances were the most popular ones performed in any social gatherings
by the Spanish Seoritas and Caballeros. The La Jota Moncadea is an interpretation and adaptation of the
dance by the old people of Moncada, Tarlac. It is a combination of Ilocano and Spanish dance steps and
music in which the use of bamboo castanets make the dance lively, gay and delightful.
D. Jotabal The name of the dance is derived from the words Jota and valse. Jota is a dance introduced
in the Philippines by the Spaniards while valse is a step in time. This lively dance originated in
Camohaguin, Gumaca, Quezon.
E. Pandang-Pandang is a wedding dance in the province of Antique. It is performed by the bride and
the groom only during the wedding feast. According to stories, a newly married couple who, while dancing
this traditional wedding dance, a gecko (lizard) got into the trousers of the groom without the expectators
noticing it. The groom, in his attempt to drive the gecko away, hopped, moved about and hit his thighs
and buttocks in rhythms with the music so that nobody would notice what he was trying to do. From then
on, the dance became popular and spread throughout the province.
F. Habanera Botolea - a very colorful, gay and vivid dance, that originated from Botolan Zambales. It
was performed in honor of a departing parish priest. In time it became a festival dance performed in
wedding celebrations, baptismal parties, barrio fiestas and other social gatherings.
II. These dances illustrate the celebration and merry-making dances of the Filipinos. Usually performed
during thanksgiving rites in honor of the towns patron saint, the dance scene pictures the barrio people
extending their gratitude to their Hermana Mayor for the successful fiesta. This exciting event ends with a
joyful farewell and hopeful of another bountiful year ahead.
A. Tubong originated from Pangasinan and the natives there refer to tubong as bamboo tube about a
yard long. It is tied horizontally below the waist of the dancers and struck by two pieces of sticks to
produce rhythms. It is a ceremonial dance performed to drive evil spirits away.
B. Sayaw ed Tapew Na Bangko is a lively and unusual dance which originated from Pangasinan. It is
performed by a couple on top of a narrow bench, inching and hopping from one of the bench to the other.
The dancers show their skills in balancing while keeping up the bench as they exchange places by jumping
around or as the girl is thrown in the air, the boy moves fast toward the other end of the bench.
C. Binislakan originated from Lingayen, Pangasinan. In this dance, the dancers use two sticks to
produce rhythms imitating the two chopsticks used by the Chinese in dining. Binislakan means with the
use of sticks.

D. Subli is performed in nearly all the barrios in Bauan, Batangas as a devotion to the Holy Cross. In
this dance, the male dancers are in stooped position, stamping the ground while clicking a pair of bamboo
castanets. The ladies wear a hat on their head, move their hands gracefully and mince swiftly to and from
in an almost tip-toe manner.
E. Abaruray is a contraction of the words aba which is equivalent to Hey! in English and ruray, a
nickname for Aurora. This dance originated from Tayabas, Quezon. It tells the story of a girl who, while
offering a glass of wine, picks out a young man from among the guests and offer him a drink, signifying
her intent to dance with him. The girls shows her skills and ability to keep the glass of wine on her head
while whirling and waltzing around as she is chased by the young man. The cheering crowd makes the
dance even more interesting.
F. Tinikling considered as one of the most popular Philippine folk dances and a favorite in the province
of Leyte, Tinikling requires skill and agility from its dancers. The dancers leap in, out, and turn in between
and alongside rapidly beaten bamboo poles imitating the tikilng bird as it hops to escape the bamboo
traps laid out rice fields.
G. Pandanggo Sta. Clara is one of many variations of the famous street dance in Obando, Bulacan.
The folk colors of Obando come to life vividly in the month of May when its fishing town pays hoage to
Sta. Clara, the patron saint of a lover in search of a wife or a husband.
III. Filipinos living in the lowland areas enjoy life and work with simple merriments. Dancing in colorful
styles characterize their leisure hours. These dances showcases the dances of ordinary folks in the rural
A. Maglalatik with coconut shells as implements, the people of Loma and Zapote in Bian, Laguna
danced the Maglalatik or Magbabao. It is a war dance depicting a fight between the Moros and the
Christians over the latik. Latik is the residue left after the coconut milk has been boiled. This dance is
usually performed during the town fiesta. The dancers go from house to house for money or a gift. It is
also performed in the religious procession as an offering to the patron saint of the farmers, San Isidro de
B. Binoyugan this dance originated from Estanza, Pangasinan. This is a dance of skill in which the
dancer has to display good posture and graceful movements as she attempts to balance a big pot half-full
with water on her head. Boyug is a big clay pot used by the women of this barrio for different purposes.
Binoyugan means with the use of the big pot.
C. Tiklos for centuries, tiklos has been a very important factor in the social life of the peasants of Leyte.
Tiklos refers to a group of peasants who agree to work for each other one day each week on the farm.
During rest period, tiklos music is played with a flute accompanied by a guitar and the guimbal or the
tambora. The peasants then dance the tiklos.
D. Cariosa means affectionate, lovable or amiable. With a fan and a handkerchief, the dancers go
through hide-and-seek movements and other flirting acts expressing tender feelings for one another.
There are many versions of this dance throughout the Philippines, but the hide-and-seek movements are
common in all.
E. Ilocana a Nasudi this festival dance is a favorite of the people of Dingras, Ilocos Norte. Originally,
this dance was accompanied by kutibeng (a five-stringe instrument), by the dancers of barrio Naglayaan
in Dingras where this dance originated.
F. Kuratsa this dance is popular in the Visayan Islands. In kuratsa dances, the number of steps and
figures are unlimited. The dancers make and select their own dance steps so that everything depends on
the ability, inclination and mood of the dancers at the time of the performance. This version of Kuratsa is
found and originated in Leyte.
G. Itik-Itik at one baptismal party in Lanuza, Surigao, a young lady considered the best dancer and
singer of her time was asked to dance the Sibay, the origin of the dance itik-itik. During the performance,
she became so enthusiastic that she improvised movements similar to the movements of ducks. The
people around who saw her dance liked the performance so much that they started to imitate her. The
dance has since been called itik-itik from the word itik, which means duck.
The dance fundamentals are important in learning actual dances. They become the basis for
interpreting dance figures easily. The dance positions are followed with the hands executed first then the
feet. The combination of this will test the individuals body coordination.
First position of the arms and feet
Second position of the arms and feet

Third position of the arms and feet

Fifth position of the arms and feet

Fourth position of the arms and feet


Environmental health is concerned with everything in the natural and man-made environment that might
affect our health. The natural environment includes land and water forms while man-made environment
includes houses, buildings, bridges, neighborhoods, cities and provinces and the like.
The Central Intelligence Agency (2012) identified the most pressing environmental problems in the
Philippines as follows:
1. Uncontrolled deforestation, especially in watershed areas
2. Soil erosion
3. Air and water pollution in major urban centers
4. Coral reef degradation
5. Increasing pollution of coastal mangrove swamps that are important breeding grounds of fish
Deforestation is the destruction of big areas of our forests and this has been going on for many years.
We are losing our forests because of Agriculture, Urbanization, Illegal logging, Mining, Forest fires
Trees are cut down for the forests to become farms and to become towns and cities. These need
lumber for houses, furniture, and many other necessities. We also export lumber to other countries, which
necessitates cutting of trees.
What is the effect of deforestation on our health? The International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) in
Los Banos, Laguna estimates that it takes more than 4,000 liters of water to produce one kilo of rice (Imagine
Echo Projects, 2008). Most of our freshwater comes from watersheds found in our forests. Deforestation has
resulted in the decrease of freshwater for our farms. So, loss of forests means loss of food. It also means loss
of other health products that come from the forestsclothing and medicines. Many of our people rely on
traditional medicines, and most of them are forest products.
Forests help prevent the appearance of communicable diseases. There are communicable diseases
that result from deforestation, like dengue. These communicable diseases are usually transmitted by insect
vectors, which in the case of dengue, are mosquitoes. When forests are lost, insect vectors and rodents who
live in them lose their habitat, so they look for places where they can settle. If they cannot find other forests,
then they settle in places where there are people. Smoke from forest fires and the burning of fields for planting
(kaingin) causes respiratory problems. Smoke from forest fires can travel hundreds of kilometers and can
threaten not only the health of people but can also cause death. There are laws and regulations that protect
our forests, but these laws are either weakly enforced or not enforced at all. This is the reason for the
existence of illegal logging practices. To maintain our forests, new trees are supposed to be planted to take
the place of trees that have been cut down. Unfortunately, lack of funds makes reforestation difficult to sustain.
Soil erosion happens when soil and rock are moved from one place to another by wind, water, and
gravity. It is brought about by natural and human activities. Strong winds and heavy rains cause soil erosion.
Peoples activities also cause soil erosion, likeDeforestation, Building of roads, Agriculture, Urbanization
creation of towns and cities, Mining.
Soil erosion is a result of deforestation. The forest floor is covered by fallen and dead leaves and
humus or natural compost made up of plant and animal matter. The leaves of trees serve as umbrellas and the
forest floor serves as a mat that both protect the soil from the rain, such that rainwater is slowly absorbed by
the soil. The roots of trees and plants in the forest likewise hold the soil together and prevent it from being
washed away. Deforestation therefore exposes the soil to wind and water.
Soil erosion affects our health because most of our food comes from plants and our farmlands are, like
our forests, fast disappearing at the rate of more than 10,000,000 hectares a year because of soil erosion,
while more than 3.7 million people are malnourished (Pimentel as cited in Lang, 2006). Our nutrient-rich topsoil
is lost when it is carried away by either wind or water. Soil also loses its fertility when the forest or farm is
As a result of erosion over the past 40 years, 30 % of the world's farmland has become unproductive.
About 60 % of soil that is washed away ends up in rivers, streams and lakes, making waterways more
prone to flooding and to contamination from soil's fertilizers and pesticides.
Soil erosion also reduces the ability of soil to store water and support plant growth, thereby reducing
its ability to support biodiversity.
Erosion promotes critical losses of water, nutrients, soil organic matter and soil biota, harming forests,
rangeland and natural ecosystems.
Erosion increases the amount of dust carried by wind, which not only acts as an abrasive and air
pollutant but also carries about 20 human infectious disease organisms, including tuberculosis.

The Philippines is spending billions of pesos in income and time loss and health care expense because
of air pollution (World Bank, 2009). According to World Bank, 1.5 million Filipinos of different ages are suffering
from respiratory illness due to outdoor air pollution in urban areas, while almost a third of that number suffer
from illnesses due to indoor air pollution.
Outdoor air pollution (OIP) is caused mostly by exhaust from vehicles, especially jeepneys and
tricycles, and factories. Smog (smoke+fog=smog) is caused by chemical reactions of pollutants, mainly
exhaust from vehicles exhaust and factories. It is largescale outdoor pollution. Urban areas where there are
different kinds of vehicles and where there are many industrial establishments are often darkened by smog
even during daylight, especially during the dry season.
Particulates or Particulate matter (PM) is composed of tiny particles that pollute the air, including dust,
dirt, soot, smoke, and liquid droplets. Some particulates are large and can be seen; others are so small that
they can only be seen through the microscope. Particulates can stay in the air for a long time. When we
breathe them in, they can cause respiratory diseases. Smoke coming from our activitiesburning fuel, using
gasoline for our vehicles, burning coal, oil and gas in factories and in generating electricity release gases
(carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, water vapor, chlorofluorocarbons or CFC, and others) in the atmosphere
that add to global warming or warming of the Earth. The gases released in the atmosphere act like a blanket
that traps the heat, making our temperature rise, thus warming the Earth.
On the other hand, indoor air pollution (IAP) is common among poor families because they use
firewood, dried animal manure and coal in cooking and their kitchen is poorly ventilated. Indoor smoke contains
carbon monoxide and soot that have bad effects on the respiratory system when inhaled. Women and young
children are the most affected by indoor air pollution because they are the ones who usually cook food and
stay in the kitchen. Deaths due to indoor air pollution (IAP) are usually due to chronic obstructive pulmonary
disease or COPD (for example, chronic bronchitis), pneumonia and lung cancer. Men, on the other hand,
likewise suffer from respiratory disease but is made worse if they smoke, which makes indoor air pollution
worse. If there is a smoker at home, all the members of the household sill suffer from indoor air pollution due to
second-hand smoke (inhaling the smoke from the smoker) and third-hand smoke (inhaling smoke from clothes,
bed sheets, curtains, and other things that absorb cigarette smoke. Other conditions and illnesses related to
indoor air pollution are low birth weight, tuberculosis, heart disease, and cancer of the respiratory organs
Our country, the Philippines, will not be called Pearl of the Orient Seas for no reason. The Philippines is
blessed with rich and beautiful natural resources that are the envy of other countries--land forms and water
forms essential for our nation to live in comfort and for our country to progress economically. Our water
resources include freshwater from our rivers, waterfalls, brooks, springs, lakes, and groundwater. Then we
have saltwater from our coasts, seas, and oceans. There is water everywhere, our country being an
archipelago, and it is sufficient for everyone except in urban and coastal areas, which are highly populated.
So many people are using water for so many purposeshousehold and industrial, such that much of
the waste water is no longer treated or disposed properly. They become pollutants in the process. These
pollutants are in different forms from different sources: sewage, detergents, fertilizer, heavy metals, chemical
products, oils, and even solid waste. It needed water treatment. About 31% of illnesses reported were waterborne, including gastro-enteritis, diarrhea, typhoid, cholera, dysentery, hepatitis, and severe acute respiratory
syndrome (SARS).
Our growing population has likewise resulted in the urbanization of coastal areas. About 62% of our
population lives in coastal areas. The urbanization of these areas is damaging our marine resourcescoral
reefs, mangroves and sea grasses. Gathering of corals has become a source of livelihood even if they are
protected by environmental laws. Mangroves have been destroyed to give way to housing in coastal areas.
Coral reefs and mangroves are home to our fish. Climate change caused by air pollution and resulting in rise in
sea temperature has likewise destroyed our marine resources. The rising sea temperature has brought about
fish kills and red tides, which happen during El Nino period. These events have resulted in the decreasing fish
supply. We are a fish-eating people, and time will come when we might not have even fish to eat, if we do not
do something about our present situation.
Community health is concerned with maintaining, protecting and improving the health of people living in
their immediate geographic area, while environmental health is concerned with all aspects of the natural and
man-made environment that might affect human health.
A community is made up of people who live in the same neighborhood, barangay or city-- people with
the same interests or background, or even organizations that have something in common. You and your family
are members of a community and your health is affected by other members as well as by the community itself.
Your health problem can become a community health problem and the other way around. You and your family
must therefore be responsible members of your community and be actively involved in solving community
health problems.
Health problems are solved and health status improved once there is a joint effort that brings the school
and the community together. This necessitates a school to be health-promoting. To be effective, it has to
recognize the potential of working closely with the community and to tap its resources, since the school is also
part of the community. One of the key features of health-promoting schools is to strive to improve the health of
the community by focusing on community health concerns and participating in community health projects