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3/3/2015

Objectives
Identify the use, operations and applications

of hydrographic surveying.
Familiarize with different sounding methods.
Solve point fixing problems.
Perform volume and discharge computations.

Department of Geodetic Engineering


Training Center for Applied Geodesy and Photogrammetry

GE 12 General Surveying II

3/3/2015

Outline
Hydrography, Hydrographic Surveys, and Maps
Operations in Hydro-Survey
Tides, Tidal Datums, and Tide Stations
Soundings
Point Fixing
Volume Computation
Discharge Measurement

Department of Geodetic Engineering


Training Center for Applied Geodesy and Photogrammetry

GE 12 General Surveying II

3/3/2015

Hydrography
Hydrography the art and science of compiling and
producing charts/maps, of water-covered areas of the
Earths surface; includes charting of water column
parameters, geology of the seabed sediments and
positioning issues.
Hydrology - the study of the
movement, distribution, and
quality of water throughout
the Earth.
Hydraulics - deals with the
mechanical properties of liquids.
Department of Geodetic Engineering
Training Center for Applied Geodesy and Photogrammetry

GE 12 General Surveying II

Branch Overview
Nautical
Charting

Remote
Sensing

Military
Hydrography

Coastal Zone
Management
(dredging)

Offshore
Construction

Offshore
Seismic
Department of Geodetic Engineering
Training Center for Applied Geodesy and Photogrammetry

Inland Waters
Hydrography
(dredging)
GE 12 General Surveying II

3/3/2015

Hydrographic Surveys
Process that determines depths and terrain configuration
of the bottoms of water bodies, used to prepare
hydrographic maps.

Department of Geodetic Engineering


Training Center for Applied Geodesy and Photogrammetry

GE 12 General Surveying II

Hydrographic Surveying

Hydrographic surveys are those done on


bodies of water such as a rivers,
reservoirs, bay, harbor, lakes or oceans.
Department of Geodetic Engineering
Training Center for Applied Geodesy and Photogrammetry

GE 12 General Surveying II

3/3/2015

Purposes
1. Determination of channel
depths for navigation
2. Determination of
quantities of bottom
excavation
3. Location of rocks, sand
bars, wrecks, coral reefs
4. Measurement of areas
subject to silting
Department of Geodetic Engineering
Training Center for Applied Geodesy and Photogrammetry

GE 12 General Surveying II

Purposes
5. Offshore structure
positioning
6. Construction of water
supply, bridges,
pipeline crossings,
underground cable
crossings and water
storage
7. Flood control and
management

3/3/2015

Some Project Types Related to


Hydrography
1. Oil/Gas Development
2. Dredging
3. Sea Defences
4. Deep Sea Mining
5. Marinas
6. Outfalls
Department of Geodetic Engineering
Training Center for Applied Geodesy and Photogrammetry

GE 12 General Surveying II

Display of Hydrographic Data


Boat Sheets hydrographers
worksheet used in the field to
plot the details of the survey
while it is still in progress.
Smooth Sheets office plots
of all data gathered during
survey. These represent the
data after all corrections have
been applied.

Department of Geodetic Engineering


Training Center for Applied Geodesy and Photogrammetry

GE 12 General Surveying II

3/3/2015

Hydrographic Chart

Display of Hydrographic Data

Department of Geodetic Engineering


Training Center for Applied Geodesy and Photogrammetry

GE 12 General Surveying II

Bathymetric Map

Display of Hydrographic Data

Department of Geodetic Engineering


Training Center for Applied Geodesy and Photogrammetry

GE 12 General Surveying II

3/3/2015

Digital Elevation Models

Display of Hydrographic Data

Department of Geodetic Engineering


Training Center for Applied Geodesy and Photogrammetry

GE 12 General Surveying II

Operations in Hydro-Survey

Reconnaissance

Establishment
of Horizontal
Control

Establishment
of Vertical
Control

Topographic
Survey

Hydrographic
Survey

Hydrographic
Chart/Maps or
other products

Other products:
a. Water volume in a body of water
b. Amount of dredged material
c. Discharge of a stream
d. Fluctuation of level in a body of water
Department of Geodetic Engineering
Training Center for Applied Geodesy and Photogrammetry

GE 12 General Surveying II

3/3/2015

International Hydrographic
Organization (IHO)
Sets hydrographic
standards to be agreed
upon by the member
nations.
As these standards are
uniformly adopted, the
products of the world's
hydrographic and
oceanographic offices
become more uniform.

What do we do?
Hydrographic Procedures:
Determination of depths
Determination of positions
The techniques used for these tasks depend on the water
bodys size, required accuracy, equipment and personnel.
Department of Geodetic Engineering
Training Center for Applied Geodesy and Photogrammetry

GE 12 General Surveying II

3/3/2015

Equipment for Hydrography


Sounding Craft

Fathometer

Sounding Pole

Signals

Leadline

Tide Gauge

Sounding Machine

Sextant

Department of Geodetic Engineering


Training Center for Applied Geodesy and Photogrammetry

GE 12 General Surveying II

Equipment for Hydrography

launches,

Department of Geodetic Engineering


Training Center for Applied Geodesy and Photogrammetry

GE 12 General Surveying II

10

3/3/2015

Equipment for Hydrography

Department of Geodetic Engineering


Training Center for Applied Geodesy and Photogrammetry

GE 12 General Surveying II

Equipment for Hydrography

Department of Geodetic Engineering


Training Center for Applied Geodesy and Photogrammetry

GE 12 General Surveying II

11

3/3/2015

Equipment for Hydrography

Department of Geodetic Engineering


Training Center for Applied Geodesy and Photogrammetry

GE 12 General Surveying II

Equipment for Hydrography

Department of Geodetic Engineering


Training Center for Applied Geodesy and Photogrammetry

GE 12 General Surveying II

12

3/3/2015

Sounding Party
Chief of Party

Coxswain

Instrument Man Lookout


Recorder

Signalman

Leadsman

Fathometer Attendant

Range lines well-defined lines on courses whose position


are known and along which soundings are taken.
Department of Geodetic Engineering
Training Center for Applied Geodesy and Photogrammetry

GE 12 General Surveying II

13

3/3/2015

Tides

Department of Geodetic Engineering


Training Center for Applied Geodesy and Photogrammetry

GE 12 General Surveying II

Tidal Definitions
Tide

High Water

Tidal Current

Low Water

Flood Tide

Tide Range

Ebb Tide

Tidal Day

Slack Water

Stand

Set and Drift

Tidal Waves

Department of Geodetic Engineering


Training Center for Applied Geodesy and Photogrammetry

GE 12 General Surveying II

14

3/3/2015

Tides

Department of Geodetic Engineering


Training Center for Applied Geodesy and Photogrammetry

GE 12 General Surveying II

Types of Tides

Department of Geodetic Engineering


Training Center for Applied Geodesy and Photogrammetry

GE 12 General Surveying II

15

3/3/2015

Neap and Spring Tides


Minimum Tide Range

Maximum Tide Range

Department of Geodetic Engineering


Training Center for Applied Geodesy and Photogrammetry

GE 12 General Surveying II

Neap and Spring Tides

http://www.columbia.edu/itc/ldeo/v
1011x-1/jcm/Topic2/Topic2.html
Department of Geodetic Engineering
Training Center for Applied Geodesy and Photogrammetry

GE 12 General Surveying II

16

3/3/2015

Co-tidal Charts

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/5e/M2_tidal_constituent.jpg
Department of Geodetic Engineering
Training Center for Applied Geodesy and Photogrammetry

GE 12 General Surveying II

Tidal Datums
Specific tide levels used as surfaces of reference for
depth measurements in the sea and as a base for the
determination of elevation on land (localized).
a.
b.
c.
d.

e.

Mean lower low water (MLLW)


Mean low water (MLW)
Mean sea level (MSL)
Mean high water (MHW)
Mean higher high water (MHHW)

Department of Geodetic Engineering


Training Center for Applied Geodesy and Photogrammetry

GE 12 General Surveying II

17

3/3/2015

Tidal Datums

A tidal benchmark is
a fixed vertical
monument used to
reference a local
tidal datum.

Department of Geodetic Engineering


Training Center for Applied Geodesy and Photogrammetry

GE 12 General Surveying II

Tide Stations
To facilitate the process
of establishing tidal
datums, tide stations
are operated at various
locations.

Department of Geodetic Engineering


Training Center for Applied Geodesy and Photogrammetry

GE 12 General Surveying II

18

3/3/2015

SOUNDING

Soundings
The process of measuring the depth of a body of water
at a particular point.

Department of Geodetic Engineering


Training Center for Applied Geodesy and Photogrammetry

GE 12 General Surveying II

19

3/3/2015

How Depth is Measured


A. Acoustic Techniques using Transducers
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Singlebeam Echosounder
Multichannel Echosounder
Scanning Sonar/Profiler
Side Scan Sonar
Multibeam Echosounder

B. Other Non-acoustic Inspection Techniques


1. Lead Line
2. Sounding Pole
3. Wire and Bar Sweeps
Department of Geodetic Engineering
Training Center for Applied Geodesy and Photogrammetry

GE 12 General Surveying II

Acoustic Techniques
using Transducers

20

3/3/2015

Transducers
The antenna in the
Sonar converts the
electric energy from
the transmitter to
high frequency
sound.
Sonar (SOund Navigation
And Ranging)
Department of Geodetic Engineering
Training Center for Applied Geodesy and Photogrammetry

GE 12 General Surveying II

Acoustic Techniques using


Transducers
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Singlebeam Echosounder
Multichannel Echosounder
Scanning Sonar/Profiler
Side Scan Sonar
Multibeam Echosounder

Department of Geodetic Engineering


Training Center for Applied Geodesy and Photogrammetry

GE 12 General Surveying II

21

3/3/2015

Singlebeam Echosounder

Department of Geodetic Engineering


Training Center for Applied Geodesy and Photogrammetry

GE 12 General Surveying II

Multichannel Echosounder

Department of Geodetic Engineering


Training Center for Applied Geodesy and Photogrammetry

GE 12 General Surveying II

22

3/3/2015

Scanning Sonar/Profiler

Department of Geodetic Engineering


Training Center for Applied Geodesy and Photogrammetry

GE 12 General Surveying II

Side Scan Sonar

Department of Geodetic Engineering


Training Center for Applied Geodesy and Photogrammetry

GE 12 General Surveying II

23

3/3/2015

Multibeam Echosounder

Department of Geodetic Engineering


Training Center for Applied Geodesy and Photogrammetry

GE 12 General Surveying II

Multibeam Echo Sounder


Applications:
1. Dredging for control on construction projects where a high
resolution combined with a 100% coverage is needed.

2. Offshore used for inspection of pipelines, fall pipe projects,


inspections of structures with ROVs.

3. Pre-design surveys associated with pipeline and cable


routes.
4. Charting used in areas where 100% coverage of the bottom is
needed.; required by IHO for harbors, shipping channels and
shallow areas with high traffic density.
5. Government used in inspection of dams, dikes and harbors. If
used for inspection works, the multi-beam is often used in surface
looking mode.
Department of Geodetic Engineering
Training Center for Applied Geodesy and Photogrammetry

GE 12 General Surveying II

24

3/3/2015

Non-acoustic Techniques

Lead Line

Department of Geodetic Engineering


Training Center for Applied Geodesy and Photogrammetry

GE 12 General Surveying II

25

3/3/2015

Sounding Pole

Department of Geodetic Engineering


Training Center for Applied Geodesy and Photogrammetry

GE 12 General Surveying II

Wire and Bar Sweeps

Wire Drag
Wire Sweep
Sweep Bar

To be continued next meeting


Department of Geodetic Engineering
Training Center for Applied Geodesy and Photogrammetry

GE 12 General Surveying II

26

3/3/2015

FW group designations

Department of Geodetic Engineering


Training Center for Applied Geodesy and Photogrammetry

GE 12 General Surveying II

LOCATING SOUNDINGS/
POINT-FIXING

27

3/3/2015

Locating Soundings
The process of measuring the horizontal position of a
depth of a body of water at a particular point.

Department of Geodetic Engineering


Training Center for Applied Geodesy and Photogrammetry

GE 12 General Surveying II

Locating Soundings
1. Time Intervals Along a Range Line
2. Range Line and an Angle from Shore
3. Intersecting Range Lines
4. One Angle and Stadia Distance from Shore
Intersection Problem
5. Two Angles from Shore
Resection Problem
6. Two Angles from Boat
7. Distances Along a Cross Rope or Wire
8. Direction and Vertical Angle
9. Electronic Positioning Systems
10. Land-Based Positioning Systems
11. GNSS
Department of Geodetic Engineering
Training Center for Applied Geodesy and Photogrammetry

GE 12 General Surveying II

28

3/3/2015

Time Interval Along


a Range Line
Limited accuracy
Known range line length
Known, uniform speed of the boat
Soundings are taken at regular intervals (echosounder)
Locate positions of soundings by proportioning the
time intervals

Department of Geodetic Engineering


Training Center for Applied Geodesy and Photogrammetry

GE 12 General Surveying II

Range Line and an


Angle from Shore
flags

range line

range line

range line

range line

s h o r e a r e a

range line

For short range lines


(e.g. small lakes)
Theodolite/transit at
one end of the base
line on shore is used to
measure the angle from
the base line to the LOS
of the boat

base line

instrument

marker buoys
Department of Geodetic Engineering
Training Center for Applied Geodesy and Photogrammetry

GE 12 General Surveying II

29

3/3/2015

Intersecting Range Lines


flags

base line
s h o r e a r e a

base line

Department of Geodetic Engineering


Training Center for Applied Geodesy and Photogrammetry

GE 12 General Surveying II

One Angle and Stadia


Distance from Shore
Theodolite/transit
set up on shore, stadia
rod on the boat
Upper and lower
stadia hair readings
(HD)
Read the azimuth
from a reference line

Department of Geodetic Engineering


Training Center for Applied Geodesy and Photogrammetry

instrument
s h o r e a r e a

GE 12 General Surveying II

30

3/3/2015

Distances Along a
Cross Rope or Wire
(Tag-line Method)
Stretching a graduated
wire or cross rope along
a narrow stream (for
profiles)
Employs a calibrated
wire rope stretched
perpendicular from
hubs on a baseline to
the survey boat
Department of Geodetic Engineering
Training Center for Applied Geodesy and Photogrammetry

GE 12 General Surveying II

Direction and Vertical Angle


Observe the
depression angle from
the instrument on a
higher ground to the
boat
The horizontal
distance is computed
by using the
trigonometric formula

instrument
HD

DE

l a n d a r e a

Department of Geodetic Engineering


Training Center for Applied Geodesy and Photogrammetry

GE 12 General Surveying II

31

3/3/2015

Electronic Positioning Systems


Designed to measure the time of transit or difference

in transit times of electromagnetic waves in the


atmosphere
Consists of: transmitter from the ship; 3 triangulation
stations on the shore with known position; relay
station on the shore with a transmitter, receiver and
an amplifier; reference transmitter on the shore
EPS tradenames for hydrographic surveys:
Shoran, Loran, Raydist, Del Norte
Department of Geodetic Engineering
Training Center for Applied Geodesy and Photogrammetry

GE 12 General Surveying II

Short-range Navigation (Shoran)


Method of short range electronic positioning for

rapid determination of position even under adverse


weather conditions
Originally developed for blind bombing by the
military and aerial reconnaissance
Ships position is determined with respect to two
previously established shore stations which transmit
and receive signals simultaneously
80-120 km
Low frequencies
Department of Geodetic Engineering
Training Center for Applied Geodesy and Photogrammetry

GE 12 General Surveying II

32

3/3/2015

Long-range Navigation (Loran)


The principle employed in long range navigation,

similar to Shoran, except for the use and transmission


of high pulses electromagnetic energy
Follow curvature of the Earth better than low
frequency signals
Greater distances

Department of Geodetic Engineering


Training Center for Applied Geodesy and Photogrammetry

GE 12 General Surveying II

Electronic Position Indicator (EPI)


Method in hydrography which combines the principle

of Shoran and Loran


Developed by USCGS
500-800 kms
Accuracy of Shoran

Department of Geodetic Engineering


Training Center for Applied Geodesy and Photogrammetry

GE 12 General Surveying II

33

3/3/2015

Radio Acoustic Ranging (RAR)


The method of control used to determine the position

of survey vessels
Time of the subaqueous sound from the ship to reach
2 receiving stations of known position is used to
determine the position
Can be used during night time
and even with low visibility

Department of Geodetic Engineering


Training Center for Applied Geodesy and Photogrammetry

GE 12 General Surveying II

Land-Based Positioning Systems


All these systems use time difference and trilateration

techniques to determine a position.


Modulated light wave and
infrared spectrum electronic
distance measurement
instruments can be used over
relatively limited distances,
usually less than 3 to 5 miles
offshore.

Department of Geodetic Engineering


Training Center for Applied Geodesy and Photogrammetry

GE 12 General Surveying II

34

3/3/2015

GNSS
Global Navigation Satellite
System (GNSS) is a real-time,
all-weather, 24-hour,
worldwide, 3-dimensional
absolute satellite-based
positioning system
Two positioning services:
- Precise Positioning Service
- Standard Positioning Service
Department of Geodetic Engineering
Training Center for Applied Geodesy and Photogrammetry

GE 12 General Surveying II

Two Angles from Shore


(Intersection Problem)
An offshore vessel or
platform can be
triangulated by transit
or theodolite angles
observed from base
line points on shore

instrument A

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Training Center for Applied Geodesy and Photogrammetry

instrument B

s h o r e a r e a

GE 12 General Surveying II

35

3/3/2015

Two Angles from Shore

Department of Geodetic Engineering


Training Center for Applied Geodesy and Photogrammetry

GE 12 General Surveying II

Intersection Problem
Given the ff. data for an intersection problem, compute for the coordinates of A:
STA.
EASTING (m)
NORTHING (m)
B
3,369.287
2,890.836
C
3,300.259
3,082.183
C
STA OCC.
STA. OBS
HOR. ANGLE (clockwise)
B
A
0 0010
C
811748
C
B
0 0010
A
643238

B
A
Department of Geodetic Engineering
Training Center for Applied Geodesy and Photogrammetry

GE 12 General Surveying II

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3/3/2015

Intersection Problem
Steps in solving the intersection problem:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

B
A
Using the geometric property of triangles, the angles A, B and C
should have a total of 1800. Solve for the unknown angle at A.
Using the coordinates of the given points B and C, compute for the
length of the baseline.
Use sine law to determine the lengths of the other side/s.
Compute for the azimuth of line BC given their coordinates.
Given the interior angles, solve for the azimuths of the other line/s.
Determine the coordinates of A using the length and azimuth of a
line with one endpoint with known coordinates.
Use the other side to compute for the coordinates of A as a check.
***Refer to FOOTE and DAVIS to find the direct (but long)
formula for the intersection problem
Department of Geodetic Engineering
Training Center for Applied Geodesy and Photogrammetry

GE 12 General Surveying II

Two Angles from Boat


(Resection Problem)
Involves simultaneous
observation of two
horizontal angles
between three known
objects from which the
position of an offshore
platform is resected

target A

D1

target B
target C

s h o r e a r e a

boat with sextant


Department of Geodetic Engineering
Training Center for Applied Geodesy and Photogrammetry

GE 12 General Surveying II

37

3/3/2015

Two Angles from Boat

Department of Geodetic Engineering


Training Center for Applied Geodesy and Photogrammetry

GE 12 General Surveying II

Three-point Resection
Principles of the Three-Point Fix:
1. The circumference of the circle can be described through any three
given points.
2. If two of the given points are fixed in position, the angle between
them measured at a third point will be the same for all points on
that part of the circumference of the circle on the same side of a
line joining the two fixed points.
3. If, in addition to the first angle, a second angle is measured from
the same unknown point to two points, one of which always, and
both of which occasionally, differ from the first two, the position of
the unknown point will also be defined by a second circle. Since
the unknown point lies on the circumference of two circles, its
position will be defined by their intersection.
Department of Geodetic Engineering
Training Center for Applied Geodesy and Photogrammetry

GE 12 General Surveying II

38

3/3/2015

Three-point Resection
Strength of Three-Point Fix:

Depends on the angle of intersection of the two circumferences


defined by the two angles and the three known points.
Stronger fix if the intersection nearly approaches 90o.

Department of Geodetic Engineering


Training Center for Applied Geodesy and Photogrammetry

GE 12 General Surveying II

Three-point Resection
General rules:
a.

The stronger fix is when the observer is inside the triangle formed
by three objects. In such case, the fix is strongest when the three
objects form an equilateral triangle, the observer is at the center,
and the objects are close to the observer.
C

B
O

A
Department of Geodetic Engineering
Training Center for Applied Geodesy and Photogrammetry

GE 12 General Surveying II

39

3/3/2015

Three-point Resection
General rules:
b. The fix is strong when the sum of the two angles is equal to or
greater than 180o and neither angle is less than 30o. The nearer
the angles equal each other, the stronger will be the fix.
c. The sum of the angles should not be less than about 50o.

B
A
Department of Geodetic Engineering
Training Center for Applied Geodesy and Photogrammetry

GE 12 General Surveying II

Three-point Resection
General rules:
d. The fix is strong when the three objects are in a straight line, or
the center object lies between the observer and a line joining the
other two and the center object is nearest to the observer.

C
A
B

O
Department of Geodetic Engineering
Training Center for Applied Geodesy and Photogrammetry

GE 12 General Surveying II

40

3/3/2015

Three-point Resection
General rules:
e.

The fix becomes weaker as the two circles approach tangency.


There will be an indeterminate fix when:
Angle BAC + Angle BOA + Angle COA = 180o

C
Danger Circle

O
Department of Geodetic Engineering
Training Center for Applied Geodesy and Photogrammetry

GE 12 General Surveying II

Three-point Resection

Department of Geodetic Engineering


Training Center for Applied Geodesy and Photogrammetry

GE 12 General Surveying II

41

3/3/2015

Three-point Resection

Department of Geodetic Engineering


Training Center for Applied Geodesy and Photogrammetry

GE 12 General Surveying II

Three-point Resection

Department of Geodetic Engineering


Training Center for Applied Geodesy and Photogrammetry

GE 12 General Surveying II

42

3/3/2015

Three-point Resection
Outline of solution for three-point resection problem:
1. Check for strength of fix and compute for R. ( + + ) >> 180o
Case I: R = 360o ( + + )
Case II: R = 360o ( + + )
Case III: R = ( - )
2. Compute for .
cot = cot R + [(b sin ) / (c sin sin R)]
3. Compute for .
=R
4. Solve for AO using b, and .
5. Solve for Angle CAO or BAO to determine the direction of AO.
6. Solve for OC and OB and determine the direction of CO and BO.
7. Compute for the coordinates of point O and perform a check.
Department of Geodetic Engineering
Training Center for Applied Geodesy and Photogrammetry

GE 12 General Surveying II

Resection Problem
Given the ff. data for a three-point resection, compute for the unknown
quantities to locate point O. Since A, B, C are control points, set-up
the equations needed to compute for the coordinates of O.

c
B

b = 3805.40 m
c = 2034.30 m
= 152-23-22
= 20-05-53
= 35-06-08

O
Department of Geodetic Engineering
Training Center for Applied Geodesy and Photogrammetry

GE 12 General Surveying II

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3/3/2015

References
Anderson, James & E. Mikhail (1998), Surveying: Theory

and Practice 7th Edition, McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


Davis, Raymond E., et.al. (1981), Surveying: Theory and

Practice 6th Edition, McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


La Putt, Juny P. (1987), Higher Surveying 2nd Edition,

Cacho Hermanos Inc.

Department of Geodetic Engineering


Training Center for Applied Geodesy and Photogrammetry

GE 12 General Surveying II

Thank you for listening to the


1st PART of our Hydrographic
Surveying lecture!

Department of Geodetic Engineering


Training Center for Applied Geodesy and Photogrammetry

GE 12 General Surveying II

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