Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 3

DAR Y PREGUNTAR DIRECCIONES

GRAMTICA
Command forms
Command forms in Spanish may be challenging because they differ depending on five possible
intervening factors:
whether the command is given informally (with "t") or formally (with "usted")
whether the command is negative or positive
whether the command is given to one person or many people
whether the verb is reflexive
whether there are direct or indirect object pronouns
Each of these five factors can be mixed together to create a wide variety of possibilities.

Positive formal commands.

DIRECT COMMANDS

To form postive formal commands, start with the form of the verb that goes with the pronoun
"yo" (e.g., abro, muevo, vengo, etc.). Then take the "-o" off of that verb ending. If the verb is
an AR verb, replace the "-o" with "-e" If the verb is an ER or IR verb, replace the "-o" with "-a"
If the command is given to more than one person, the endings are "-en" and "-an" respectively.
If the verb is reflexive, put the reflexive pronoun "se" after the verb form. If there are object
pronouns (it, them) put them after the verb too. The following examples help to clarify.
Examples:
INFINITIVE

"YO" FORM

SINGULAR

PLURAL

acostarse "to lie down"

me acuesto

acustese

acustense

calmarse "to be calm"

me calmo

clmese

clmense

escribir "to write'

escribo

escriba

escriban

explicar "to explain'

explico

explique

expliquen

sentarse "to sit down'

me siento

sintese

sintense

Note: There are some irregular forms as well because the "yo" form does not end in an "-o" as
follows:
dar "to give"

doy

dn

estar "to be"

estoy

est

estn

irse "to go away"

voy

vyase

vyanse

saber "to know"

sepa

sepan

soy

sea

sean

ser "to be"


Negative formal commands.

The negative formal commands are similar to the positive ones. The difference is that the word
"no" goes before the verb and reflexive pronouns and object pronouns also go before the verbs.
No escriba.
No se calme.
No se vaya.
INDIRECT COMMANDS
Given the difficulty and the variety of direct command forms, one solution is to use indirect
command forms. These are easier to form and do not involve as many choices. There are three
phrases that are helpful in giving indirect commands: "hay que..." (one must), "favor de..."
(please do the favor of...) and "usted tiene que...." (you have to...). Each of these phrases is
followed by a verb in the infinitive. As such, it is not necessary to know the verb conjugation. Be
aware, however, sometimes the regular command form sounds much better.

DAR Y PREGUNTAR DIRECCIONES

Examples:
Hay que escucharme primero.

You must listen to me first.

Hay que explicar todo.

You must explain everything.

Hay que levantar el pie.

You must raise your foot.

Favor de mostrarme los papeles.

Do the favor of showing me the papers.

Favor de ayudarme con esto.

Do the favor of helping with this.

Usted tiene que sacar las manos.

You have to take your hands out.

Usted tiene que dejarlo aqu.

You have to leave it here.

Usted tiene que salirse ya.

You have to go away now.

VOCABULARIO
avenida (f)

avenue

izquierda (f)

left

calle (f)

street

prolongacin (f)

continuation

camin (m)

bus, truck

salida (f)

exit

camioneta (f)

pick-up truck

seguir

to follow / to continue

cuadra (f)

block

vecindario (m)

neighborhood

derecha (f)

right

voltear

to turn

doblar

to turn

vuelta (f)

turn

esquina (f)

corner

DAR Y PREGUNTAR DIRECCIONES

FRASES
De la esquina, d vuelta a la derecha.

Turn right at the corner.

En la prxima avenida, dobla a la


izquierda.

On the next avenue turn left.

En esta zona est prohibido dar vuelta en


U.

In this area it is illegal to make a U-turn.

Si el semforo est en rojo, no cruce la


calle.

If the stop light is red don't cross the street.

Ponga atencin cuando el semforo est


en mbar.

Pay attention when the traffic light is yellow.

Busco la direccin de la Embajada de


Estados Unidos en Mxico.

I'm looking for the address of the United States


Embassy in Mexico.

Qu tan lejos est el hospital de la Cruz


Roja de tu casa?

How far is the Red Cross hospital from your


house?

El estadio "Azteca" est ms cerca de la


estacin del tren que la Avenida de las
Amricas.

The stadium "Azteca" is closer to the train


station than the Avenue of the Americas.

Antes de tomar un taxi, busque la


direccin en el mapa.

Before taking a taxi look for the address on a


map.

No voltee a la izquierda, siga derecho


hasta que vea la seal.

Don't turn left, continue straight until you see


the sign.