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# LIMITATIONS

A)

B)

## Distortion by bending and torsion of the structure causing increasing

vibration in the resonance frequency

C)

D)

## A commercial jet aeroplane is performing a straight descent at a constant

Mach Number with constant weight. The operational limit that may be
exceeded is:
A)

VMO

B)

VD

C)

VNE

D)

MMO

VMO:
A)

B)

C)

D)

A)

B)

C)

D)

## A jet transport aeroplane is in a straight climb at a constant IAS and constant

weight. The operational limit that may be exceeded is:
A)

VMO

B)

MMO

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C)

MD

D)

VA

VMO:
A)

B)

C)

D)

A)

FL250

B)

350kts

C)

FL270

D)

M 0.8

A)

Both A and B.

B)

C)

D)

Neither A nor B.

A)

B)

C)

D)

## If climbing at VMO, Mach number is decreasing.

VA is:
A)
The speed at which a heavy transport aeroplane should fly in
turbulence.
B)
The maximum speed at which maximum elevator deflection up is
allowed.

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12

13

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C)

D)

A)

Vlof

B)

Vs1

C)

Vfe

D)

Vfc

A)

## The landing gear may collapse.

B)

Directional stability.

C)

Structural damage.

D)

Engine stall.

A)

Mass balancing.

B)

C)

A T-tail.

D)

## Powered flying controls.

An aircraft has a mass of 60,000kg and a limiting positive load factor of 2,5.
VA is calculated as the EAS at which full positive elevator deflection will give
the limiting load factor at the stall, and is 237kts. If the aircraft mass is
reduced to 40,000kg by fuel burn, what will be the new V A?
A)

194 kts

B)

375 kts

C)

150 kts

D)

237 kts

A)

VLO

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18

B)

VNE

C)

VA

D)

VSO

## A commercial jet aeroplane is performing a straight descent at a constant

Mach Number with constant weight. The operational limit that may be
exceeded is:
A)

VNE

B)

MMO

C)

VD

D)

VMO

A)

## Distortion by bending and torsion of the structure causing increasing

vibration in the resonance frequency.

B)

C)

D)

## Reduction of flutter may be achieved using:

A)
Frise ailerons lumped masses attached forward of the control surface
hinge line.

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B)

A horn balance.

C)

Frise ailerons.

D)

Lumped masses attached on the control surface hinge line to keep the
control surface centre of gravity aft of the hinge line.

## On airplane, the limit load factor in normal category is:

A)

4,4 G

B)

+3,2 G

C)

+3,8 G

D)

+6,0 G

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The positive manoeuvring limit load factor for a large jet transport aeroplane
with flaps extended is:
A)

2.0

B)

1.5

C)

3.75

D)

2.5

For an aeroplane with one fixed value of VA the following applies. VA is:
A)

## The speed at which unrestricted application of elevator control can be

used, without exceeding the maximum manoeuvring limit load factor

B)
The speed at which the aeroplane stalls at the manoeuvring limit load
factor at MTOW

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C)

D)

## Just another symbol for the rough air speed

The relationship between the stall speed V S and VA (EAS) for a large transport
aeroplane can be expressed in the following formula: (SQRT= square root)
A)

B)

C)

D)

## VS= VA SQRT (3.75)

VA is:
A)
The speed at which a heavy transport aeroplane should fly in
turbulance
B)
The maximum speed at which maximum elevator deflection up is
allowed

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C)

D)

## The maximum speed at which rolls are allowed

A)

1/Bank angle

B)

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C)

Lift/Weight

D)

Weight/Lift

The positive manoeuvring limit load factor for a light aeroplane in the UTILITY
CATEGORY in the clean configuration is:
A)

3.8

B)

4.4

C)

6.0

D)

2.5

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By what percentage does VA (EAS) alter when the aeroplane's weight
decreases by 19%?

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A)

10% lower

B)

No change

C)

19% lower

D)

4.36% lower

The positive manoeuvring limit load factor for a light aeroplane in the utility
category in the clean configuration is:
A)

4.4

B)

2.5

C)

6.0

D)

3.8

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By what percentage does VA (EAS) alter when the aeroplane's weight
decreases by 19%?

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A)

4.36% lower

B)

10% lower

C)

No change

D)

19% lower

A)

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VA?

B)

C)

D)

## Maneuvering flap limit load factor

What can happen to the aeroplane structure flying at a speed just exceeding
A)

B)

## It may suffer permanent deformation because the flight is performed at

too large dynamic pressure

C)

## It may break if the elevator is fully deflected upwards

D)
It may suffer permanent deformation if the elevator is fully deflected
upwards
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What is the limit load factor of a large transport aeroplane in the
manoeuvring diagram?

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A)

3.75

B)

2.5

C)

1.5

D)

A)

B)

C)

D)

## An aircraft in straight and level flight has a CL of 0.35, and a 1s increase in

angle of attack would increase the CL by 0.079. If a vertical gust increased
angle of attack from the 1g value by 2s, what load factor would result?
A)

0.45

B)

1.45

C)

4.43

D)

5.08

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35

36

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The distribution of ... and ... in a structure determine natural frequencies and
modes of vibration.
A)

Flaps, slats

B)

C)

Mass, stiffness

D)

Stringers, longerons

A)

B)

C)

D)

## Gust load factor at 66 ft/sec gust.

What is the positive limit load factor for large jet transport aircraft?
A)

n = 3.75

B)

n = 1.0

C)

n = 2.5

D)

n = 1.5

## The lift coefficient (CL) of an aeroplane in steady horizontal flight is 0.4.

Increase of angle of attack of 1 degree will increase CL by 0.09. A vertical up
gust instantly changes the angle of attack by 5 degrees. The load factor will
be:
A)

2.13

B)

2.0

C)

3.18

D)

1.09

## The lift coefficient (CL) of an aeroplane in steady horizontal flight is 0.42,

increase in angle of attack of 1 degree increases CL by is 0.1. A vertical up
gust instantly changes the angle of attack by 3 degrees. The load factor will
be :
A)

2.49

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B)

1.71

C)

0.74

D)

1.49

## The lift coefficient (CL) of an aeroplane in steady horizontal flight is 0.35.

Increase in angle of attack of 1 degree will increase CL by 0.079. A vertical up
gust instantly changes the angle of attack by 2 degrees. The load factor will
be :
A)

0.45

B)

0.9

C)

1.45

D)

1.9

Which statement regarding the gust load factor on an aeroplane is correct (all
other factors of importance being constant)?
1
Increasing the aspect-ratio of the wing will increase the gust load
factor
2

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A)

## 1 and 2 are correct

B)

1 is correct, 2 wrong

C)

## 1 and 2 are wrong

D)

1 is wrong, 2 correct

A)

## Through extension of the flaps in severe turbulence the centre of

pressure will move aft which will increase the margins to the structural
limits

B)

By increasing the flap setting in severe turbulence the stall speed will
be reduced and the risk for exceeding the structural limits will be
decreased

C)

## Through extension of the flaps in severe turbulence it is possible to

reduce the speed and increase the margins of the structural limits

D)

## Limiting factors in severe turbulence are the possibility of a stall and

the margin to the structural limitations

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Which combination of speeds is applicable for structural strentgh in gust
(clean configuration)?

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44

45

A)

50ft/sec

B)

55ft/sec

C)

D)

66ft/sec

## The lift coefficient (CL) of an aeroplane in steady horizontal flight is 0.4,

increase in angle of attack of 1 degree increases CL by 0.09. A vertical up
gust instantly changes the angle of attack by 5 degrees. The load factor will
be:
A)

2.0

B)

3.18

C)

2.13

D)

1.09

The shape of the gust load diagramm is also determined by the following
three vertical speed in ft/s (clean configuration):
A)

15, 56, 65

B)

25, 55, 75

C)

35, 55, 66

D)

25, 50, 66

The extreme right limitation for both V-n (gust and manoeuvre) diagrams is
created by the speed:
A)

VD

B)

VC

C)

Vflutter

D)

VMO

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Which has the effect of increasing load factor? (all other relevant factors
being constant)
A)

Vertical gusts

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B)

C)

## Increased air density

D)

Rearward CG location

## What wing shape or wing characteristic is the least sensitive to turbulence:

A)

Wing dihedral

B)

Straight wings

C)

Winglets

D)

Swept wings

Which statement is correct about the gust load on an aeroplane (IAS and all
other factors of importance remaining constant)?
1

A)

## 1 and 2 are correct

B)

1 is correct, 2 wrong

C)

## 1 and 2 are wrong

D)

1 is wrong, 2 correct

The shape of the gust load diagram is also determined by the following three
vertical speed in ft/s (clean configuration):
A)

15, 56, 65

B)

25, 55, 75

C)

35, 55, 66

D)

25, 50, 66

What effect will gusts and turbulence have on the load factor of an airplane
when it changes its airspeed?
A)

## Load factor decreases as airspeed increases.

B)
The load factor can increase or decrease, depending on the weight of
the aircraft.
C)

D)

## Load factor increases as airspeed increases.

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Which combination of speeds is applicable for structural strength in gust
(clean configuration) ?

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A)

B)

C)

D)