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Mass Source.

Choose how to define the mass of the structure using either or both of the
following options:

Element Self Mass and Additional Mass option. This is the default. With this option,
mass is calculated from the following specifications:

Mass density specified for materials.

Mass specified for link properties.

Additional mass assigned directly to the joints.

Additional line mass assigned to frame or cable objects.

Additional area mass assigned to area objects.

Specified Load Patterns option. With this option, mass is calculated from a scaled
combination of load patterns (see Define Mass Multiplier for Loads, below). The net load
acting downward (in the negative global Z direction) on each element is divided by the
acceleration due to gravity, in the current units, and is used for the mass in the three
translational directions. See "Detailed Calculations" below. Load patterns should
generally represent weight, and should not contain self-equilibrating loads, such as
temperature and prestress.

If both options are selected, the total mass is the sum of the mass from each option. Be
careful not to include load patterns containing self-weight when using the Element Self
Mass, or the mass may be double-counted.

Response-spectrum and modal time-history load cases use the Mass Source of their
corresponding modal load case.
Note:
1. Have you considered zero live load for terraces for seismic load
combos? please check.
2. Floor finishing load taken by you (1.0 kN/sq.m) seems to be slightly
on lower side. It depends upon the actual floor finishing material used.
Please revisit.
3. The base shear coefficient used by use is 0.076 while it is 0.08 for
buildings with time period upto 1 second as per NNBC 205. Also, the
formula T=0.09H/(sqrt(D)) is preferable for buildings with infill wall.
Please check.

2.

Mass source is meant for auto-generation of


seismic load in SAP2000. As per IS 1893-2002
and NNBC 105, you have to consider dead
load+ specified percentage of live load while
calculating seismic weight of a building. So,
Mass source should be given accordingly. For
example, while giving mass source from loads,
factor should be 1 for each of the dead load
items and 0.25 or 0.5 depending upon live
load intensity for live load items. One may use
separate live load for roof so that it may not
be included in mass source since live load is
to be taken as zero for roof as per codal
provision. As said above, be sure of the
meaning of each command before using
them.<o></o> Mass source is meant for
auto-generation of seismic load in SAP2000.
As per IS 1893-2002 and NNBC 105, you have
to consider dead load+ specified percentage
of live load while calculating seismic weight of
a building. So, Mass source should be given
accordingly.

While I appreciate your eagerness to learn design and


analysis of a building, it appears from your queries that
you are not sure about your modeling. Hence, I
personally feel that following points should be kept in
mind by all learners of structural analysis and design.
These are my personal feelings. Fellow Sefians may
add their views to guide youngsters.<o></o>
1.
Analysis and design software is a tool which has
to be used judiciously. Wrong input may not be notified
by the software and it may give output which may not
be correct at all. Bear in mind the saying- Garbage InGarbage Out (GIGO). Thus one has to be cautious
while modeling a structure in a software. The only way
is more study and more learning. You need to study
tutorials and examples first and then venture out into
real problem. A senior in this field may be of immense
help to you.<o></o>
2.
Tutorial examples are available in SAP2000 itself
including help which can be accessed inside

SAP2000 after installation is complete. Please study


them thoroughly. In that way, you will be able to
interpret the results or output given by the program.
Similarly, you have to be aware of limitations of the
software-what can be modeled and what cannot be
modeled or designed by the particular software. If you
are not sure about a command in the software, it is
better not to use it. Many resources are available in the
web too. You can use Watch and learn videos from
CSI website.<o></o>
3.
Regarding your query on staircase modeling, one
way is using the shell element which you seem to have
used in your model. Other way is the simplified version
of taking loads from staircase onto the frame without
using the shell element (i.e. not actually modeling the
staircase but taking loads from staircase only). Of
course the latter approach will not model the strut
effect of the staircase.<o></o>
4.
Push-over analysis is an advanced topic for a
beginner. You are advised to enter into it when you are
familiar with ordinary linear static/dynamic
method.<o></o>
5.
Mass source is meant for auto-generation of
seismic load in SAP2000. As per IS 1893-2002 and
NNBC 105, you have to consider dead load+ specified
percentage of live load while calculating seismic
weight of a building. So, Mass source should be given
accordingly. For example, while giving mass source
from loads, factor should be 1 for each of the dead load
items and 0.25 or 0.5 depending upon live load
intensity for live load items. One may use separate live
load for roof so that it may not be included in mass
source since live load is to be taken as zero for roof as
per codal provision. As said above, be sure of the
meaning of each command before using
them.<o></o>
6.
Defining load type as reducible live load alone
wont automatically reduce live load in
SAP2000.<o></o>
7.
When applying load to area elements, if you use
area load to shell, it will be applied at nodal points of
the shell and for this, you have to mesh the area
element in appropriate way. If you use area load to

frame, the same load will be shown as triangles and


trapezoids onto the frame elements. You can search
the SEFI forum for more materials on this topic. If there
are beams on all sides of the slab, you have to use
two way distribution so that load is distributed to the
supporting beams in one way or two way depending
upon the aspect ratio of the slab.<o></o>
8.
Regarding your query on practical
reinforcement, how do you arrive at it? Is it from some
thumb rule? If you do correct modeling, there is no
question of wrong output or results. I rely on the results
but sometimes, you may wish to verify some elements
through manual checking.<o></o>
9.
After analysis is complete, element design can be
done. For this you have to define which load
combinations to take. Otherwise, SAP2000 will take
some default load combos for designing which may not
be what you want as per the codal provision. So go to
the design menu and choose appropriate load combos
which you have defined before executing design
command. Of course, SAP2000 automatically designs
for the worst load combos at each section of beam
after preparing envelope internally. You can view every
detail of element design meaning that which combo is
maximum at left end at top, at left end at bottom, and
so on. For column, each set of PU, Mux and MUy has to be
individually considered for each load
combos.<o></o>
10. You are requested to start with a simple model,
say a simply supported beam, then a continuous
beam , then a simple 2D-frame so that you fully
understand the basics. You can take a solved example
from a RC book to model in SAP2000 and compare the
result from SAP2000 with the manual
solution<o></o>
Please keep on your efforts to learn more.