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SOCIALIST REPUBLIC OF VIETNAM

Project Management Unit


Tra Vinh, Vietnam

Entwicklungsbank Frankfurt, Germany

WASTEWATER DISPOSAL IN PROVINCIAL TOWNS


PROGRAMME SOUTH: TRA VINH

TENDER DOCUMENTS
Tra Vinh
Construction of a
Wastewater Treatment Facility
Contract 2, Package 3

Volume 3 + 4

NAGECCO

March 2009

Wastewater Disposal in Provincial Towns


Programme South: Tra Vinh, Vietnam

Tender Documents
WWTP
III.1 Employers Requirements
General Information and Particular Requirements

GENERAL INFORMATION
AND PARTICULAR REQUIREMENTS

CES / NAGECCO
TV.TD.C23 - V3, S1 Particular Requirements (2008-07-31).doc

Wastewater Disposal in Provincial Towns


Programme South: Tra Vinh, Vietnam

Tender Documents
WWTP
III.1 Employers Requirements
General Information and Particular Requirements

TABLE OF CONTENTS
page
GENERAL INFORMATION ......................................................................................................1

1.
1.1.

Project Definition ................................................................................................................1

1.2.

General Information on the Project...................................................................................1

1.3.

Duration of the Project .......................................................................................................2

1.4.

Final Operator of Tra Vinh WWTP and Assistance to .....................................................2

1.5.

Licences and Permits .........................................................................................................3

1.6.

Scope of Works...................................................................................................................3

1.7.

Effluent Standards ..............................................................................................................4

1.8.

Process Approach and Design Life ..................................................................................4

1.9.

Standards and Codes of Practice .....................................................................................5

1.10.

Manuals and Programme ...................................................................................................6

1.11.

Technical Documentation required for Employer`s Taking Over ..................................8

1.12.

Operation of the Facilities..................................................................................................9

1.13.

Nuisance and Odour Control .............................................................................................9

1.14.

Documents to be submitted by the Contractor ...............................................................9

1.15.

Standardisation .................................................................................................................12

2.

BASIC INFORMATION.......................................................................................................... 13
2.1.

Site Location and Characteristic.....................................................................................13

2.2.

Subsoil Investigation........................................................................................................13

2.3.

Topographical Survey ......................................................................................................13

2.4.

Climate Conditions ...........................................................................................................13

2.5.

Tide Levels.........................................................................................................................13

2.6.

Rainfall Intensity ...............................................................................................................14

3.

PARTICULAR REQUIREMENTS.......................................................................................... 15
3.1.

Adopted Design Conditions.............................................................................................15

3.2.

Inlet Structure....................................................................................................................16

3.3.

Mechanical Treatment Chamber .....................................................................................17

3.3.1.
Screens ...........................................................................................................................17
3.3.2.
Sieves..............................................................................................................................18
3.3.3.
By-Pass ...........................................................................................................................19
3.3.4.
Transport Conveyors.......................................................................................................19
3.3.5.
Residues Production .......................................................................................................19
3.3.6.
Screenings and Sieving Dewatering ...............................................................................19
3.3.7.
Electrical Power and Control Equipment.........................................................................19
3.3.8.
Discharging Containers ...................................................................................................19
3.4.
Flow Measurement Channel ............................................................................................19
3.5.

Outlet Structure.................................................................................................................19

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Wastewater Disposal in Provincial Towns


Programme South: Tra Vinh, Vietnam

Tender Documents
WWTP
III.1 Employers Requirements
General Information and Particular Requirements

3.6.

page
Administrative and Operations Building ........................................................................19

3.7.

Ancillary Works.................................................................................................................19

3.8.

Facilities.............................................................................................................................19

3.8.1.
3.8.2.
3.8.3.
4.

Water Supply Systems ....................................................................................................19


Stormwater and Sewage Drainage System ....................................................................19
Power Emergency Generator..........................................................................................19

POWER SUPPLY AND CONTROL SYSTEM....................................................................... 19


4.1.

Electrical System ..............................................................................................................19

4.2.

Lightning Protection System and Earthing and Potential Equalizing System ...........19

4.2.1.
Lightning Protection and Earthing ...................................................................................19
4.2.2.
Reactive Power Regulation .............................................................................................19
4.3.
Control ...............................................................................................................................19
4.3.1.
4.3.2.
4.3.3.
4.3.4.
4.3.5.

Central Operation Panel..................................................................................................19


Local Switchboards .........................................................................................................19
Local Operation Unit........................................................................................................19
Option: Signal 0/4.20 mA ................................................................................................19
Overvoltage Protection....................................................................................................19

5.

LABORATORY...................................................................................................................... 19

6.

TRAINING OF THE EMPLOYER'S STAFF .......................................................................... 19

7.

COMMISSIONING AND TESTING........................................................................................ 19


7.1.

Inspection and Testing at the Contractor's or Manufacturers' Premises ...................19

7.2.

Inspection and Testing During Construction.................................................................19

7.3.

Tests on Completion ........................................................................................................19

7.4.

Tests after Completion (Process Guarantee Period) ....................................................19

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Wastewater Disposal in Provincial Towns


Programme South: Tra Vinh, Vietnam

1.

Tender Documents
WWTP
III.1 Employers Requirements
General Information and Particular Requirements

GENERAL INFORMATION

Present Employers Requirements represent only minimum requirements. The Contractor has to claim
full responsibility for the design, treatment process and a properly functioning WWTP with all
equipment and buildings.
1.1.

Project Definition

The overall project has been divided into two contracts having to be implemented by one Contractor:
Table 1:

The Two Works Contracts

Contract

Description

Contract 1.4

Sewerage Network Extension and Rehabilitation / WWTP (FIDIC Red)

Contract 2.3

WWTP, 1st Phase (FIDIC Yellow)

The content of the individual contracts are briefly described below under 1.2 General Information. Both
contracts have been prepared on the basis of a Final Design.
Contract 2, Package 3 prescribe the construction of wastewater treatment facilities for the first phase
of mechanical treatment of the municipal wastewater of Tra Vinh Town, which will reduce the pollution
of the discharge of raw sewage into Co Chien River. In the next future the plant will be extended for
full treatment.
In order to adapt the future treatment units to actual incoming pollution parameters the present WWTP
will account with an automatically sampler (24 h flow proportional) and a basic laboratory in order to
characterise incoming wastewater pollution in terms of BOD5, COD and SS.
1.2.

General Information on the Project

The Government of Vietnam, through the Ministry of Finance, and the Government of the Federal
Republic of Germany, through the KfW Entwicklungsbank (KfW), have agreed jointly to fund a project
to reduce pollution in the rivers and canals of the city by improvements to the sewerage systems. The
Tra Vinh Wastewater Disposal Project PMU has been granted a loan from the German Development
Bank (KfW Entwicklungsbank) towards the costs of a project to finance investments in Tra Vinh Town.
The loan covers 70 % of the investment costs, 30 % of the investment are local financial contribution.
The works under this contract comprise but are not limited to:
Contract 1, Package 4: Sewerage Network Extension and Rehabilitation (FIDIC Red):
(a)

(b)

Sewerage System

Some 4,775 m of gravity sewer lines, interceptors and laterals, reinforced concrete
pipes DN 600 to DN 2000 with approximately 106 manholes;

Some 9,440 m of reinforced concrete culverts with approximately 119 manholes;

Some 2,693 m of pressure mains of ductile iron pipe DN 200 to DN 600, incl. all
fittings and appurtenances;

45 Inspection chambers along pressure mains;

1 Combined Sewer Overflow (CSO) in reinforced concrete with flap gate valves
and outlet structure plus washout chamber;

4 outlet structures with flap gate valves and pipes;

2 river crossings incl. all fittings and appurtenances;

Some 3,240 m of connection sewers between connection manhole and sewer or


manhole (DN 300) including all fittings and appurtenances;

Some 149 connection manholes as connection to the existing sewer system;


Pumping Stations / Lifting Stations

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Wastewater Disposal in Provincial Towns


Programme South: Tra Vinh, Vietnam

Tender Documents
WWTP
III.1 Employers Requirements
General Information and Particular Requirements

3 submersible sewage lifting stations, incl. pumps, switch board, SCADA system
as described and all other mechanical, electro-mechanical equipment;

3 submersible sewage pumping stations incl. pumps, switch board, SCADA system
as described and all other mechanical, electro-mechanical equipment;
Contract 2, Package 3: WWTP, 1st Phase (FIDIC Yellow):
Present Tender Documents prescribe the construction of wastewater treatment facilities for the
first phase of mechanical treatment of the municipal wastewater of Tra Vinh Town.
The Works shall be offered and executed on the basis of the FIDIC regulations for a Contract
for Plant and Design Build for Electrical and Mechanical Plant and for Building and
Engineering Works designed by the Contractor (FIDIC Yellow Book, first edition 1999). All
works shall conform to Standards and Code of Practice set out in presently Employers
Requirements and to metric system.
Due to the limited funds, a reduced treatment plant with mechanical treatment is to be
implemented (see layout overview drawing attached in Volume 5). The project is divided into 2
parts, the sewer system and the treatment plant. Tenderers shall propose alone or as a
consortium, joint venture the entire works for both parts of the project. The separation between
the two parts is shown on the attached drawings, nevertheless, the Contractor is responsible
that the sewerage will be transported to the treatment facilities. For the preparation of this part
of the Tender, the Tenderer shall get familiarised with the relevant parts (pumping stations,
location and level of inlet etc.) of the sewer system part of the tender. All necessary information
and drawings are attached in the Tender Documents for Sewer System.
The boundary between both contracts is located 2 m for the fence of the WWTP. Due to the fact
that both Contracts will be implemented by the same Contractor the mentioned boundary has a
theoretical character and it shall serve as base for planning purposes between the 2 Contracts
i.e. all costs related to implementation of the pressure inlet pipe DN 600 shall to be allocated to
Contract 1, Package 4 Sewer Contract.
In following the term Project and Works designate Contract WWTP and the related Works.
An access road to the site will be constructed by the Employer. External power supply and
water supply will also be provided by the Employer up to the site boundary.
1.3.

Duration of the Project

It is foreseen that the total duration of the Project including Defects Notification Period will not exceed
845 days (approx. 28 Months) as depicted in the table below:
Phase

Duration

Design and Mobilisation

120 days

Construction and Commissioning testing

315 days

Period of Trial Operation of WWTP Facilities

30 days

Period for Performance Testing. Finalisation of Test on Completion

15 days

Time for Completion, acc. to General Conditions, Sub-Clause 1.1.3.3


(Period from Commencement Date to the Employer's Taking-Over)

480 days

Defects Notification Period acc. to General Conditions

365 days

1.4.

Final Operator of Tra Vinh WWTP and Assistance to

The Contractor shall arrange for suitable experts (Contractors Training Staff) to advise and to train the
Operators Staff appointed by the employers staff on how to manage the plant on a day-to-day basis
(training programme). In view of the large differences in climate between rain and dry period, this
technical assistance shall cover the Guarantee Period too on the basis of at least two periods of each
two weeks during 12 Months DNP (Performance Control Periods).
CES / NAGECCO
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Wastewater Disposal in Provincial Towns


Programme South: Tra Vinh, Vietnam

Tender Documents
WWTP
III.1 Employers Requirements
General Information and Particular Requirements

The CV's of the experts shall be subject to the approval of the Employer and have to be attached to
the Trainings Programme.
The Contractors Training Staff may include:
-

Process Expert or Design Engineer

No. 1

Laboratory Expert

No. 1

Electromechanical Expert

No. 1

E&I Expert

No. 1

The Contractor shall allow the representatives of the Employer and of the Municipality of Tra Vinh to
be present on the site during the implementation of the Project and especially attention shall be drawn
by the Employer to appoint the staff of the future Operator of the plant.
It is envisaged that the future Operator of the plant will be formed with staff of the Employer.
Latest 2 Months after Commencement Date of the implementation of the Works the Operator Staff
shall to be appointed by the Employer. The list including the Operators staff shall be submitted to the
Engineer and copied to KfW. Just the list approved by the Engineer will be submitted to the Contractor
for updating the Trainings Programme. Such staff shall include:
Operators Staff (minimum number):
-

WWTP Manager

No. 1

Deputy Manager

No. 1

Laboratory

No. 1

Electrical officer

No. 1

Mechanical officer

No. 1

Operators

No. 6

The appointed WWTP Manager will participate as authorised Employers Representative by the
inspections and testing activities at manufacturers premises.
As above mentioned, the Operators Staff will be trained by appointed Contractors Staff in a
theoretical and practical way. The Tenderer shall present in his proposal a Trainings Programme.
(Form 4.10.3, Schedule 10), on which basis latest 6 Months after Commencement Date, the
Contractor shall update the Trainings Programme according to the actual conditions arise during
implementation and shall submit to the Engineer for approval 2 Months before envisaged start of the
Trial Operation. The Contractor should consider training activities by elaboration of its Commissioning
and Testing Programme.
All assistance and training activities shall be held in English and simultaneously translated in
Vietnamese Language. Therefore, the Contractor has to consider enough qualified interpreters in its
Team.
1.5.

Licences and Permits

The Contractor shall serve the necessary notices and obtain all necessary permits to construct the
Works in public lands in accordance with the agreed programme of work and the Contractor shall not
enter on those lands until all permits have been received. The Contractor shall keep the Engineer
informed about the status of all permits. The Employer shall serve the necessary notices and obtain all
necessary permits to construct the Permanent Works in private lands and the Contractor shall not
enter on those lands until all permits have been received and confirmed by the Engineer. The
Contractor shall temporarily fence / protect the site where the works are to be or are being constructed
to the satisfaction of the Engineer and shall confine all the works, plant, labour, materials and transport
within the site so fenced. The Contractor shall use the site only for the construction of the Works.

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Programme South: Tra Vinh, Vietnam

1.6.

Tender Documents
WWTP
III.1 Employers Requirements
General Information and Particular Requirements

Scope of Works

The scope of works comprises:


-

Detailed design and construction for:

Inlet Structure including: inlet chamber and inlet channel. The boundary between the 2
contracts is located 2 m before WWTP fence but excludes incoming pressure pipe DN
600 (not part of the scope of Contract 2.3)

Mechanical Treatment Chamber including: bypass, mechanically cleaned screen units,


sieving units, residues transport conveyor units, manual cleaned coarse screen, wash
press units and 24 h flow proportional sampler

Flow Measurement Channel including Venturi flowmeter

Outlet Structure including outlet chamber, effluent pipe and outlet structure. The outlet
chamber shall be equipped with devices shut-off devices for future extension and the
outlet structure at Co Chien River with non-return flap

Administrative and Operation buildings including spaces for offices, laboratory, control
room, workshop and storage room

Ancillary Works including: the increasing of site elevation, entrance gate, site boundary
fence, internal roads, parking areas, guard room, containers station, site landscaping and
planting

Other Facilities including: low voltage distribution network, site lighting, site potable water
supply network, drainage works (storm and sanitary), site pipelines and chambers,
Industrial Water System including well and distribution network at main structures, power
emergency generator.

Preparation of all required Contractors documentation including Training Programme,


Commissioning and Testing Programme.

Commissioning including testing activities at manufacturers premises for equipment

Training activities for O&M and monitoring of the WWTP

Supervision of the operation of the WWTP during the Defects Notification Period.

1.7.

Effluent Standards

As minimum standard for simple mechanical treatment all visible coarse pollution as paper, plastics,
cotton buds, cigarette filters, condoms, vegetables etc. shall be removed from the incoming raw
sewage.
As for the sieving process very few research results are available no exact pollution reduction values
in terms of BOD5 and COD can be stated. In any case, it is clear that besides the effect of removing all
visible coarse pollution a BOD5 and COD reduction of the raw sewage will take place.
The screening and sieving (solid residues) should be dewatered together by means of a wash press.
The dewatered solid residues shall have a dry solids content of 25 % before evacuation of the Site.
1.8.

Process Approach and Design Life

Generally for all treatment facilities two parallel working lines shall be implemented. The process
approach foresees the construction of two screens followed by two sieving units. The screens and the
sieves shall be cleaned automatically. A By-Pass provided with a coarse screen manually cleaned has
been envisaged.
Screenings shall be disposed in an encapsulated transport conveyor belt which length has to cover
the manual coarse screen on the by-pass. Sieving shall be disposed in a spiral transport conveyor.
Both conveyors will dump the transported material in a hopper which ends in the wash press (1 in
operation and 1 as spare).

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Wastewater Disposal in Provincial Towns


Programme South: Tra Vinh, Vietnam

Tender Documents
WWTP
III.1 Employers Requirements
General Information and Particular Requirements

The dewatered and washed solid residues (screenings and sieving) will be delivered in 7 m
containers. The full containers shall be transported to the Containers Station for being transported by
the Employer to an approved legal solid waste dumping site.
The following table gives the minimum design lives for the various components of the treatment plant
before major refurbishment is required:
Design Life
[Years]

Description
Civil Works and Buildings
Process Structures

50

Buried Pipework

50

Buildings

50

Building Services (as Container Station)

20

Mechanical and Electrical Plant


Process Plant Equipment (screens, sieves, press, etc)

25

Pumps clean water, sewage and sludge

15

Containers, floor grating

15

Penstocks, Valves and Actuators

20

HV Switchgear and Transformers

40

LV Motor Control Centres

20

Electrical Installations

20

Instrumentation, Control and Automation Equipment

12

Venturi Flowmeter

20

24 h flow proportional sampler

12

Instrumentation for Sewage and Effluent (sensors etc)

12

Miscellaneous Analytical Laboratory and Process Instrumentation

12

Mechanical and electrical equipment shall be suitable for 24 hour per day continuous operation and
also under discontinuous operation under all local climatic conditions.
Wearing parts, other than consumable items, shall have a design life of at least 5 years assuming
continuous operation.
The design of the facilities shall be in accordance with best modern practice and shall be such as to
facilitate construction, operation, inspection and maintenance of all processes and equipment. All
mechanical and electrical equipment to be supplied shall have a proven reliability record in similar
works.
The standards of operators safety shall be in accordance with the current relevant Vietnamese and
international legislation, and shall cover but not be limited to the provision of good access, equipment
lifting devices, separate storage facilities for chemicals, adequate ventilation and lighting to all
operational areas, machinery guards, electrical insulation facilities, noise suppression and insulation,
suppression of vibrations, stairs, handrails, and covers. All open channels have to be covered with
floor grating (hatch grid).
1.9.

Standards and Codes of Practice

Reference is made throughout the Specifications to DIN, the German Standards published by the
"Deutsches Institut fr Normung e.V." and the international acknowledged Code of Practice ATV for all

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Wastewater Disposal in Provincial Towns


Programme South: Tra Vinh, Vietnam

Tender Documents
WWTP
III.1 Employers Requirements
General Information and Particular Requirements

construction, workmanship, materials and equipment and the design of the treatment facilities. Such
references shall be deemed to include the words "or equivalent standard subject to the prior
certification in writing by the Engineer". Wherever reference is made to part of a certain DIN, this DIN
shall apply in full, including all subsections of this DIN.
If the Contractor proposes the use of alternative standards he shall allow sufficient time for the
Engineer to check such standards and for carrying out any tests as directed by the Engineer in order
to confirm that materials to be supplied under alternative standards are of equivalent standard. The
alternative standard must be given to the Engineer free of charge by the Contractor. No claim with
respect to additional costs incurred by the contractor and / or extension of the related to any proposed
use of alternative standards will be entertained or accepted.
Design calculations related to process had preferably to be based on internationally accepted design
standards such as the ATV Standards (German Association for Water Pollution Control). In his
calculations he has to prove that the required standards will be fulfilled.
The Contractor has to state which standard he has selected, and must then comply with this standard
for the whole design.
Other internationally acknowledged standards and codes may be used if:
-

They are more or at least equally stringent to the respective specified standard or code, or

No applicable standards and codes exist for the specific case.

The use of other official standards that provide equal or better quality than the standards and codes
specified in the Tender Document can be accepted after a preliminary review by the Engineer and his
written approval. In this case the Constructor shall submit all necessary information in compliance with
the Engineers instructions. The Engineer shall issue his decision within one month of the receipt of
that information. If the Engineer decides that the standards and codes proposed by the Contractor do
not guarantee equivalent or better quality, the Contractor is obliged to apply the standards and codes
specified in the Tender Dossier.
Any materials and workmanship not fully specified herein, or covered by the Standards, Codes or
Manuals shall be of such type and quality so as to produce a first class work.
-

Standards on Site
The Contractor shall purchase and keep on site at least 1 copy of each of the relevant
Standards, Codes and Manuals. Copies of the standards shall be made available for reference
at all times at the office of the Engineer.
Should the Engineer require an English translation of any Standards, Codes or Manuals the
Contractor shall provide a typed copy of the translation within 7 days of receiving a written
request from the Engineer.

SI Units
SI units (Systme International d'Units) of measurement shall be used throughout this
Contract. All calculations and technical information shall be in SI units.
The Contractor shall transfer all information and data originating in another system into the SI
System.

1.10.

Manuals and Programme

The Contractor shall prepare and submit to the Engineer: Operation and Maintenance manual,
Training manual and a Commissioning and Testing Program.
The documentation in its final version must be in both English and Vietnamese. It should be submitted
in draft to the Engineer 2 months before envisaged start of Trial Operation. The draft version should
be in English language. After approval by the Engineer, the final version of the documentation may be
issued.
Not later than two weeks after successfully Test on Completion of the works, the draft copies,
including Engineers comments or amendments or results from commissioning and testing phase
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Wastewater Disposal in Provincial Towns


Programme South: Tra Vinh, Vietnam

Tender Documents
WWTP
III.1 Employers Requirements
General Information and Particular Requirements

where necessary, shall be assembled into their final version and shall be submitted to the Engineer as
part of the required documentation for taking over.
O&M Manual
Special attention needs to be given to the operation of plant as a whole rather than just providing
unconsolidated manufacturers manuals for individual pieces of equipment.
Operation and Maintenance Manual shall be prepared in sufficient detail for the Employer to operate,
maintain, dismantle, reassemble, adjust and repair the WWTP.
The Operation and Maintenance Manual shall be prepared in such a way as to provide a step by step
description of the preparation and setting to work of the whole of the plant and its shutting down.
The Operation and Maintenance Manual prepared by the Contractor including manuals relating to
plant by any subcontractors shall be printed (not duplicated) and shall be bound into suitable loose
leaf binders DIN A4 size.
The documentation contained in the Manual shall be arranged as follows:
-

Complete description of the plant and operation including calculations and details of
dimensioning

Flow diagrams (P&ID; Process measuring and control diagrams)

General / arrangement plans with legend, general assembly drawings (shop drawings) with item
Nos. of the parts

List of all technical data such as brand, type, size, dimensions, velocity through bars,
approximation velocities in the channels, delivery chute point, pumping medium, flow, delivery
head, flow velocity, loss of pressure with characteristic curves and operating point, temperature
level, rotational speed, power consumption, connection voltage etc.

Maintenance and Operation instructions including details on safety and failure in operation

Preventive, standstill and repair maintenance

Table of lubricants

List of spare parts (5 years operation), drawings of spare parts

Safety measures and instructions for avoiding any danger to persons and materials including a
graphic representation of the measures to be taken

Reasons for breakdown or failure including the necessary actions recorded in tabular form i.e.
failure, reason, remedial action with instructions and measures taken, i.e. switching off other
equipment or/and plants etc.

Training Manual shall be adapted to the prescriptions stated under Training of the Employers Staff.
Commissioning and Testing Programme
The Contractor has to include in the Commissioning and Testing Program all details for activities
related to: inspection, control and test procedures as well as sampling and analyses he proposes to
employ for the Technical Completion, Trial Operation and Performance Tests (Test after Completion
during Guarantee Period).
The Contractor has to include Plan and Check List for the activities related to Commissioning and
Testing.
Plan and Check lists include:
-

Outline of operative configuration of the Works for simulation of different operation loads,

Emergency operation shall be noticed:


1. Priority:

All electrical equipment which have to be supplied with electricity to ensure the
treatment standards of the WWTP;

CES / NAGECCO

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Wastewater Disposal in Provincial Towns


Programme South: Tra Vinh, Vietnam

2. Priority:

Tender Documents
WWTP
III.1 Employers Requirements
General Information and Particular Requirements

This priority class includes all equipment, which can be taken out of operation for a
longer period.

Linkages with training activities (Training Program),

Definition of sampling, operation and monitoring activities

All schedules or templates to be used by all testing activities foreseen during corresponding
Testing phase,

Procedures to be applied for testing and the results to be achieved for considering testing
passed and corresponding Performance Certificates,

Contractors staff, who will be in charge of the activities in caption,

Required materials, equipment, spare parts and consumables,

Therefore, the Commissioning and Testing Program should content:


-

Plan and check list for Technical Completion (Pre-Commissioning and Commissioning)
activities of the single facilities.

Plan and check list for Trial Operation activities of the WWTP including diversion of the raw
sewage, Start Up and Process Optimisation. Star Up of single units has to include the
manufacturers recommendations or instructions

Plan and check list for Performance Testing activities of the WWTP

Plan and check list for daily operation and monitoring of WWTP during trial operation and during
guarantee period (DNP).

Performance Certificates

1.11.

Technical Documentation required for Employer`s Taking Over

The Contractor shall submit a technical documentation including: maintenance and operating
instructions with the following contents to the Contract Authority for the handover of the WWTP:
1

General Information

O&M Manual

Commissioning and Testing Program

As-built drawings

Test Certificates

Surface Protection

A register for clarity shall separate the various sections. The numeration given above shall be strictly
adhered to. This applies even if individual sections are not used.
The following information shall be observed:
To 1: General Information
Numbering and arrangement of the documentation according to the Contractor's bid as well as
the Contractor's project number,
Characteristics of Plant,
Medium, capacity, delivery head etc.,
Details of calculation documents (Process, Structures, etc),
Maximum values for noise levels,
Energy consumption data,
Electrical / heating equipment (gas, oil etc.; mains voltage / frequency), max. power demand,
actual installed performance,
CES / NAGECCO
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Wastewater Disposal in Provincial Towns


Programme South: Tra Vinh, Vietnam

Tender Documents
WWTP
III.1 Employers Requirements
General Information and Particular Requirements

Industrial water, fresh water, heating, (quantity/ in and outlet temperatures),


Lists of measurement points, control points and instructions.
To 2: O&M Manual (as approved by the Engineer)
To 3: Commissioning and Testing Program (as approved by the Engineer)
To 4: As-Built drawings (as approved by the Engineer)
To 5: Test Certificates
A certificate from the Manufacturer shall be submitted for each machine. All test certificates
shall be submitted in this section (i.e. pressure tests for pipelines, concrete delivery notes or
tests, tightness, tests and loop impedance, lightning protection, potential equalizing and
earthing system etc.) together with the appropriate official test-, acceptance- and approval
documentation and approval permits (i.e. tests at factories premises, cranes, lifts, electrical
equipment etc.).
To 6: Surface Protection
The documentation shall include a workshop certification from the Manufacturer for the
corrosion prevention in areas above and below water levels:

1.12.

Type and composition of the coating,

Materials and manufacturer,

Processing details and recommendations,

Thickness of the individual coatings and the total thickness,

Reports of measurement of the coating thickness,

Manufacturer's tests,

Guarantee of endurance, service life


Operation of the Facilities

The Contractor shall guarantee the performance, efficiencies, power consumption and technical
details as specified in these bidding documents.
It is envisaged that the Facilities will be manned normally during 7 days per week and 8 hours per day.
The evacuation of the containers will occur 5 days per week.
1.13.

Nuisance and Odour Control

To minimize odours and nuisance, the conveyance, dewatering and compaction zones shall be
completely enclosed. The containers shall be provided with covers and flexible connection to
discharge pipe of the press. Places foreseen for handling with container have to have at least 2 hose
connections facilities each and corresponding hoses.
According to operational requirements addition of lime can be required for odour and flies control. The
Tenderer has to include under consumables provisions related to.
The noise level at a distance of 1 m from each sound producing piece of mechanical equipment shall
not exceed 72 dB(A).
1.14.

Documents to be submitted by the Contractor

All indicated levels should be provided additionally to the Engineer and to the Client in GIS-format.

CES / NAGECCO
TV.TD.C23 - V3, S1 Particular Requirements (2008-07-31).doc

page VIII.1 - 9

Wastewater Disposal in Provincial Towns


Programme South: Tra Vinh, Vietnam

Tender Documents
WWTP
III.1 Employers Requirements
General Information and Particular Requirements

The documents shall include as a minimum the requirements stipulated in Volume 3. The schedule
below gives an overview of the main technical and planning documents that shall be submitted for the
approval of the Engineer in accordance with the contract.
The contractor shall submit a document submission programme to indicate the submission times of
these documents.
The schedule does not include any other formal documents that need to be submitted in accordance
with the Contract.
Item
A
A1

A1.1
A1.2

A1.3
A2

A3

A3.1

A3.2
A3.3
A3.4
A3.5
A3.6

Document
Design and
Drawings
Draft Design

Description

A3.7

Corrosion
protection
schedule

A4
A5

Detailed Design
Construction
Drawings
As Built Drawings

Programmes

B1

Programme

(in each
language)

Language

Timing

Applicable
CoC Clause

Including as a minimum:

Validate design criteria and


state design philosophy,
codes and standards,
drawings,
Equipment
Technical & performance
data
Geotechnical/
Report interpreting
Topographical
Employers data and any
Reports
additional surveys/reports
required
Power
Preliminary power
Requirements
requirements
Technical Design Site plans and general
for Building Permit arrangement drawings,
process & M&E design
drawings &calculations
Detailed Design
Final design details; Site
plans and general
arrangement drawings,
process & M&E design
drawings and calculations
Manufacturing
M&E, Instrumentation
drawings
Control
Philosophy
P&I / Process
Flow Diagrams
Instrument
Schedules
Electrical Single
Line Diagrams
Cable Schedules

Copies

Including alarms and trips

Giving details of corrosion


protection to permanent
materials under the
differing exposure
conditions
Construction drawings and
details

Detailed programme

CES / NAGECCO
TV.TD.C23 - V3, S1 Particular Requirements (2008-07-31).doc

2 hard
1 digital

English/
Vietnamese

CD + 45

2 hard

CD +45

2 hard
1 digital

English/
Vietnamese
English/
Vietnamese

2 hard
1 digital
2 hard
1 digital

English/
Vietnamese
English/
Vietnamese

CD +45

2 hard
1 digital

English/
Vietnamese

Approval of
A1 + 60
days

2 hard
1 digital

English/
Vietnamese

2 hard
1 digital
2 hard
1 digital
2 hard
1 digital
2 hard
1 digital
2 hard
1 digital
2 hard
1 digital

English/
Vietnamese
English/
Vietnamese
English/
Vietnamese
English/
Vietnamese
English/
Vietnamese
English/
Vietnamese

Prior to
manufacture
and
purchase
With A2/A3

2 hard
1 digital

English/
Vietnamese

4 hard
1 digital

English/
Vietnamese
English/
Vietnamese
English/
Vietnamese

4 hard
1 digital

CD +45

Approval of
A1 + 60
days

With A2/A3
With A2/A3
With A2/A3
With A2/A3
With A2/A3

To suit
construct-ion
programme
2 Months
Clause 5.6
prior TOp
CD +14

Clause 8.3

page VIII.1 - 10

Wastewater Disposal in Provincial Towns


Programme South: Tra Vinh, Vietnam

Item

Document

B2

Design

B3

Detailed
Construction
Programme
Manufacture &
delivery of plant &
equipment

B4

Tender Documents
WWTP
III.1 Employers Requirements
General Information and Particular Requirements

Description

Copies
(in each
language)

Language

Detailed design schedule


with milestones for
submissions and approvals
Implementation of
Construction works

4 hard
1 digital

English/
Vietnamese

CD +14

4 hard
1 digital

English/
Vietnamese

Approval A1
+ 60 days

Including brief description


of basic equipment
parameters, country of
origin, quantity, unit and
total price
Construction activities

2 hard

English/
Vietnamese

Approval A3
+ 30 days

2 hard

English/
Vietnamese
English/
Vietnamese

weekly

B5

Weekly

B6

Inspection and
testing schedule

Including methods of
testing of materials during
construction

B7

Commissioning
and testing

Technical completion, trial 2 hard


operation and Performance 1 digital
tests including Guarantee
period

QA & Safety

C1

QA Plan & Safety


Plan
Construction
Safety Plan

2 hard
1 digital
2 hard
1 digital

English/
Vietnamese
English/
Vietnamese
English/
Vietnamese

C3

Environmental
Plan

2 hard
1 digital

English/
Vietnamese

Reports

D1

Monthly

D2

Plant & Labour


Returns

4 hard
2 digital
1 hard

Construction

E1

F1

Method
Statements
O&M and
Training
O&M Manuals

F2

Training Plan

English/
Vietnamese
English/
Vietnamese
English/
Vietnamese
English/
Vietnamese
English/
Vietnamese
English/
Vietnamese
English/
Vietnamese

C2

Timing

CoC

Conditions of Contract

CD

Commencement Date

O&M

Operation & Maintenance

QA

Quality Assurance

P&I

Process & Instrumentation Diagram

CES / NAGECCO
TV.TD.C23 - V3, S1 Particular Requirements (2008-07-31).doc

2 hard
1 digital

2 hard

4 hard
4 digital
4 hard
4 digital

English/
Vietnamese

Applicable
CoC Clause

In
accordance
with
Contractors
programme
2 Months
prior TOp

CD +14
30 days
prior to start
construction
activities
CD +14

monthly

Clause 4.21

monthly

Clause 6.10

As required

As CoC

Clause 5.7

2 Months
prior TOp

Clause 5.5

page VIII.1 - 11

Wastewater Disposal in Provincial Towns


Programme South: Tra Vinh, Vietnam

1.15.

Tender Documents
WWTP
III.1 Employers Requirements
General Information and Particular Requirements

Standardisation

Standardisation of types of equipment should be adopted. Whenever possible, the Contractor shall
provide equipment of a similar nature from the same manufacturer e.g. electric motors, pumps, etc. As
far as practicable, the same approach shall be observed especially for delivering equipments as:
screens, sieves, conveyors and wash presses. They should be delivered as set from the same
manufacturer or supplier.
Before any equipment for the treatment plant is ordered the Contractor shall obtain the written
approval of the Engineer for each item.

CES / NAGECCO
TV.TD.C23 - V3, S1 Particular Requirements (2008-07-31).doc

page VIII.1 - 12

Wastewater Disposal in Provincial Towns


Programme South: Tra Vinh, Vietnam

Tender Documents
WWTP
III.1 Employers Requirements
General Information and Particular Requirements

2.

BASIC INFORMATION

2.1.

Site Location and Characteristic

The future site of the WWTP is located directly at the south-west bank of Co Chien River as indicated
in drawing TV-TD-17-01.
The existing area has an elevation of c.a. 1m above Vietnamese benchmark (maBM). The future site
level shall be formed by a platform at minimum + 2.5 maBM in order to prevent flooding of the site.
Increasing the site level by filling up with mineral material up to the mentioned level is an assumption
that has to be checked by the Contractor.
In the drawings are shown the minimal dimensions of the area to be filled up. The area can be
extended as it is no a limitation.
The contractor according to his design shall make provisions which allow access of heavy trucks to all
locations where operation and maintenance activities have to be performed. All structures concerned
shall to be located in this platform.
The site of the future mechanical-biological wastewater treatment plant will be 150 m x 250 m and
must be fenced completely as part of present tender.
An access road to the site will be constructed by the Employer. External power supply and water
supply will also be provided by the Employer up to the site boundary. Details about shall be clarified by
the Employer during the Site Visit.
2.2.

Subsoil Investigation

Attached soil investigation report in Volume 6 is to be considered only as information for the
Contractor to price his Tender.
The Contractor shall arrange -on his own cost- for further investigations and tests, if required for the
design and construction of the Wastewater Treatment Facilities. The foundation of the structures
means piling can not be excluded.
Ground water: The ground water level was encountered to be 50 cm below average ground level of
the site.
The soil is to be considered as not aggressive against cement concrete according to the DIN 4030.
2.3.

Topographical Survey

A topographical survey is available in Volume 5 drawing TV-TD-17-01. All levels mentioned in the
report are referenced to the national benchmark (Vietnamese Standard). The average actual level of
the ground is + 1.00 maBM.
2.4.

Climate Conditions

The rainfall data are being recorded by Cang Long Meteorological Station and are being processed by
the National Meteorological Centre in Hanoi City.
An analyse of the data from the last 26 years resulted in the following:
Table 2:

Average Maximum Rainfall Quantities

Rainfall duration [min]

15

30

180

Aver. max. Rainfall Quantities [mm]

33

56

94

The main wind directions and intensities are shown on the drawings.
2.5.

Tide Levels

The tide and rainfall data have been recorded by Cang Long Hydro-/ Metrological Station. The tide
levels are shown in the following table, whereof the average tidal range is 309 cm.
CES / NAGECCO
TV.TD.C23 - V3, S1 Particular Requirements (2008-07-31).doc

page VIII.1 - 13

Wastewater Disposal in Provincial Towns


Programme South: Tra Vinh, Vietnam

Tender Documents
WWTP
III.1 Employers Requirements
General Information and Particular Requirements

Under actual conditions of the ground, during extreme high tide of the Co Chien River flooding of the
site can not be excluded. As before mentioned the area shall be landfilled up to min. +2.5 msBM as
protective measure against flooding. The Contractor shall confirm the finishing level by hydraulic
calculation against up-lift pressure.
Table 3:

Tide Levels

Min. Low Tide Level

Average Mean Tide Level

Max. High Tide Level

-2.32 m

0.06 m

1.80 m

2.6.

Rainfall Intensity

For the calculation of storm water networks within the ground a rainfall intensity of 232 l/s/ha and
15 minutes duration has to be used.

CES / NAGECCO
TV.TD.C23 - V3, S1 Particular Requirements (2008-07-31).doc

page VIII.1 - 14

Wastewater Disposal in Provincial Towns


Programme South: Tra Vinh, Vietnam

3.

Tender Documents
WWTP
III.1 Employers Requirements
General Information and Particular Requirements

PARTICULAR REQUIREMENTS

The requirements described in this section shall be considered as minimum requirements, and the
Contractor has the full responsibility for the design and the treatment process for the period to the year
2020.
The WWTP and related structures shall be designed and constructed on a modular basis to permit
units to be taken out of use for operation and maintenance purposes and allowing operation with
different levels of flows and loads. Therefore, adequate standby facilities must be provided.
The Works shall be designed with a high degree of flexibility and reliability under all conditions and at
all times according to technical knowledge that provides following aspects:
-

appliance of safety factors wherever necessary in order to cover not predictable situations and
conditions especially concerning variations in wastewater flow and solid residues loads
(dewatering equipment),

construction safety, fire protection, user safety, proper hygienic, health conditions as well as
environmental protection, protection against vibration and noises

provision of alarm systems indicating at an early stage not predictable situations and conditions
like inflow of substances into the WWTP creating undesirable hydraulic conditions (overflow),

provisions to manage particular operation conditions like start-up, regular shut-down,


emergency shut-down, operation with reduced number of process units, etc. without any
deterioration of the effluent quality,

provision of by-passes of all principal process units,

provision of connection facilities for future extension of the WWTP.

provision of eliminating flotation/uplift at all times and under all operating or maintenance
conditions,

simplification and unification of makes and types to allow for utmost interchangeability of
pumps, machines, electrical motors, aggregates and to ease preventive maintenance,

observance of usage conditions according with the structure destination as illumination, water
supply, wastewater and waste removal, ventilation, air conditioned rooms and communication

provision of use safety conditions as handrails, access facilities, hatch grids etc

for all buildings shall be provided suitable conditions for structure access for disabled persons,
especially those on the wheelchairs

In Volume 5 Drawings an indicative layout of the WWTP is attached.


3.1.

Adopted Design Conditions

The population figures within the project area and corresponding domestic flow in dry weather
conditions are shown below:
Table 4:

Estimated Population

Year

Population
[inh]

Population
Equivalent
[inh]

P+PE
[inh]

20081

54,740

10,960

65,700

6,306

2020

69,420

23,600

93,020

12,000

Domestic Flow
[m/d]

The values for Population Equivalent were taken from Design Report and consider industrial and
commercial activities in the project area. No industry, which could have a negative impact to the works
1

The estimated values for 2008 are for tender evaluation purposes only.

CES / NAGECCO
TV.TD.C23 - V3, S1 Particular Requirements (2008-07-31).doc

page VIII.1 - 15

Wastewater Disposal in Provincial Towns


Programme South: Tra Vinh, Vietnam

Tender Documents
WWTP
III.1 Employers Requirements
General Information and Particular Requirements

or process have been stated in the mentioned report and therefore, no extra provisions have to be
taken into account for design purposes.
In the next table are shown the design flowrates for 2020:
Table 5:

Hydraulic Loads in 2020

Qmin

l/s

134

Qdes

l/s

295

Qmax

l/s

500

The maximal flowrate or peak flow, Qmax, is the result of the maximum pumping capacity and
corresponds to the maximal flow under wet conditions.
The particular design requirements that have to be observed are:

3.2.

A.-

The top water level (TWL) at Inlet Chamber is 8 maBM. This level is given by the
operation conditions of pumping station No. 3. Therefore, the maximal TWL calculated at
the worst hydraulic operative conditions shall be lower or equal to +8.00 maBM.

B.-

Lowest bottom or invert level of Flow Measurement Channel should coincide with the
maximal expected TWL at Outlet Chamber for future extension and it is 5.0 maBM.

C.-

TWL at outlet chamber by operating the outlet pipe should be lower than 5.0 maBM by
maximal flow rate and maximal water level at river.

D.-

Under normal operative conditions Qdesign (295 l/s) will flow through all designed lines. In
the case of the pre-design, 2 lines were assumed.

E.-

The maximal flow rate shall flow through all designed lines. The invert level of the bypass channel shall be located higher than the calculated water level.

F.-

The top level of the structures/channels (TLS) shall have a freeboard safety height of
minimal 30 cm from the estimated TWL at the hydraulic worst operative conditions and
maximal flow load as described in G.

G.-

The structures have to be hydraulic dimensioned for allowing a safety flow of Qmax
through n-1 operative lines, where n the number of implemented lines represents. In
the case of 2 implemented lines, as per pre-design, the peak flow Qmax (500 l/s) has to
flow through 1 operative line. For this operative condition, it has to be stated the
proportional overflow through the by-pass.

H.-

Penstocks and By-Pass(es) channel have to be dimensioned for admitting Qmax through
the by-pass(es) i.e. a complete isolation of designed lines have to be considered.

I.-

Before sieving, all hydraulic conductions should observe a minimum flow velocity of
50 cm/s at Qmin (i.e.: inlet channel) or by splitting of the flow at Qdes/n; otherwise the
Contractor shall make all necessary provisions for avoiding sedimentation. After sieving
the minimum flow velocity shall be higher than 40 cm/s.
Inlet Structure

As already stated, the Contract boundary between the two parts of the Contract, Sewer System and
WWTP is located 2 m for the fence of the WWTP. The new DN 600 pressure main from the sewer
Contract will be connected at the inlet chamber in the new WWTP. All works and costs related to the
pressure main are allocated in Contract 1, Package 4 Sewer Contract.
The inlet structure as considered in the pre-design is composed of inlet chamber and inlet channel.
The objective of the inlet channel is to allow a uniform flow approximation to mechanical treatment
chamber.
As open channel has to be designed observing the provisions stated in the particular requirements.

CES / NAGECCO
TV.TD.C23 - V3, S1 Particular Requirements (2008-07-31).doc

page VIII.1 - 16

Wastewater Disposal in Provincial Towns


Programme South: Tra Vinh, Vietnam

Tender Documents
WWTP
III.1 Employers Requirements
General Information and Particular Requirements

The channel has to be completely covered with steel floor grating. Handrails and access facilities have
to be provided.
3.3.

Mechanical Treatment Chamber

The proposed Mechanical Treatment Chamber shall consist of at least 2 lines each equipped with a
mechanically cleaned coarse screen followed by a sieve or a fine screen and required equipment for
conveyance, dewatering and compaction of the removed solid residues.
An overflow weir equipped with a manual raked coarse screen to allow emergency by-pass of the
screens and sieving units has to be provided. The complete chamber shall be covered by a roof as
well as the place above the containers.
The Tenderer is free to offer alternative solution of arrangement and type of equipment as hereby
described. Within his offer the Tenderer shall clearly demonstrate the technical equivalency.
The screens and the sieves shall be suitable for outdoor installation and for the retaining and removal
of coarse floating, particulate and fibrous materials -larger than the aperture width- from municipal and
industrial wastewater.
Screens, sieves, conveyors, pipes and accessories for, permanently or occasionally in contact with
wastewater shall to be fabricated of AISI 304 / 316 Ti stainless steel shapes or equivalent. The
manufacturer has to certify that all stainless steel equipment will be manufactured in a stainless steel
only factory unit and that the entire equipment will be passivated by submersion in an acid bath.
The distance between coarse screen and sieve/fine screen has to guarantee a uniform hydraulic
approximation of the equipment and has to allow manoeuvrability by lifting the equipment for
maintenance purposes.
Penstocks upstream and downstream of each line will be installed in order to allow taking out of
operation the lines for maintenance purposes of the screen and sieving units or for by-passing the
complete flow through the by-pass. Provisions have to be made for allowing manual operation of the
penstocks.
Following type of penstocks or flow cut-off devices shall be provided:
-

three-side leak proofed, assign to sewage cutting-off on reinforced concrete, rectangular


interception canal; frame will be mounted in walls and bottom furrows;

four-side leak proofed, wall mounted, fastened to reinforced concrete wall by strut pins, gasket
between frame and wall will be subject of agreed delivery, PN 0.6 bar;

The open channels of the lines and by-pass may be covered by concrete slab, steel floor grating or
both in order to create a working platform on which encapsulated transport conveyors have to be
placed.
Handrails, emergency switches, hoisting, illumination, industrial water connection and access facilities
have to be provided.
An automatic composite sampler -24 h flow proportional- has to be provided and located in such a way
that the samples can be taken after the sieves. The sampler has to be covered and protected for
avoiding violation of the content.
If the Contractor foresees in his Commissioning and Testing Program lag between sample collection
and analysis, provisions must be made for preserving 24-h composite samples. In addition, the
sampler has to be equipped for refrigerating the samples.
3.3.1.

Screens

Two coarse screens (one per line) should be provided. The bar screens shall be inclined and cleaned
mechanically. Screen bars shall be easily removable and made of steel sections. The screen shall be
delivered and installed with all safety equipment, such as covers, guards, hand railings, emergency
stop.

CES / NAGECCO
TV.TD.C23 - V3, S1 Particular Requirements (2008-07-31).doc

page VIII.1 - 17

Wastewater Disposal in Provincial Towns


Programme South: Tra Vinh, Vietnam

Tender Documents
WWTP
III.1 Employers Requirements
General Information and Particular Requirements

The space between bars shall be in the range 30 to 50 mm. Screenings production has to be defined
by the Contractor.
The screen width should be dimensioned so that at maximum flow rate (Qmax) the water velocity
through the unclogged screens (all lines in operation) does not exceed 1.0 m/s. The dimensioning of
each line has to consider the fact that one screen is followed by one sieve. Therefore, design
parameters for most unfavourable hydraulic conditions have to be considered for both equipments.
The Contractor has to define the maximal clogged rate for the screens for Qdes and follow the design
requirements as stated under 3.1.
The screenings will be lifted means automatic raking systems, water-level controlled, and through a
transfer system discharged in a transport conveyor. Screens which operate continuously or via timer
only will not be acceptable.
The raking system shall be powered by a drive unit with the following features:
-

three-phase asynchronous gear motor according to IEC-standard

protection type IP 54

insulation class F

external cooling

thermo element in coil for motor protection

For information: It was estimated according German standards a daily screening production of 1 m.
The gear reducer shall be driven by a 3 phase, 60 Hertz, 230/460 Volt, continuous-duty, totallyenclosed, fan-cooled motor which leads to a conduit box for outdoor operation.
3.3.2.

Sieves

Two sieve units or alternative two fine screens (one per line) have to be provided. The sieves or
screens shall be cleaned automatically and shall remove floating, particulate and fibrous material for
discharging the sieving residues in a transport conveyor.
The sieves shall have a mash of 1 mm or the screens a space of 1 mm between bars. This space
shall be the clear opening between adjacent wedge wires or bars. Independently of the pre-connection
of coarse screens, the screen of the sieves or fine screens shall be able to process and discharge
solids with a diameter of 100 mm.
As per pre-design sieves with cylindrical wedge wire screen were considered, these units will be
considered in the following.
The sieves shall have a rotating screen basket and shall be cleaned with a brush and spray water
(spray bar). The spray wash system shall be enclosed such that spray water, aerosols or leakage do
not contaminate the operating floor.
The wedge wire screen shall be designed to handle the flow under the operative conditions specified
in clause 3.1 and 3.3.1 of this chapter.
Rotation and cleaning mechanism shall be automatically initiated at a preset high upstream liquid level
pre-defined according performance of the screens. Screens and sieves which operate continuously or
via timer only will not be acceptable.
The control system shall be designed such that the cleaning characteristics of the screen and wash
system can be changed via the programmable controller. Systems which do not offer this feature will
not acceptable for this project.
To minimize odours and nuisance, the conveyance, dewatering and compaction zones shall be
completely enclosed.
For Information: It was estimated according German standards a maximal sieving production of 1.80
m/h referred to peak flow. The average production was estimated to daily volume of 11 m.

CES / NAGECCO
TV.TD.C23 - V3, S1 Particular Requirements (2008-07-31).doc

page VIII.1 - 18

Wastewater Disposal in Provincial Towns


Programme South: Tra Vinh, Vietnam

Tender Documents
WWTP
III.1 Employers Requirements
General Information and Particular Requirements

The gear reducer shall be driven by a 3 phase, 60 Hertz, 230/460 Volt, continuous-duty, totallyenclosed, fan-cooled motor which leads to a conduit box for outdoor operation.
3.3.3.

By-Pass

For the coarse screens and the sieving units a by-pass shall be constructed and shall be equipped
with a hand raked screen. This hand raked screen shall have a distance between bars of 50 mm. The
screen must be easily accessible for cleaning purposes and for discharging of the hand-rakedscreening in the transport conveyor.
The by-pass channel has to be dimensioned for an emergency case for a flow of 500 l/s.
Provisions in the concrete have to be made upstream and down stream of the coarse screen for
installation of wood stop-logs. The stop logs have to have a dimension of 10 cm per all the length to
be covered with. They have to be designed for an easy collocation and retiring. They will be used just
for maintenance purposes of the by pass.
3.3.4.

Transport Conveyors

Considered are conveyor belt and screw conveyor. Conveyor belt may just be used for screenings and
its length has to cover all screens, hand or mechanical cleaned. There will be one hopper and one
down pipe dimensioned for transporting the jointly residues of the screening and sieving and
discharging in the compactor / press located at the +2.5 maBM platform. Leachate coming during
transport towards the press shall return to the system.
All transport conveyors have to be encapsulated, for minimizing odours and nuisance, with threaded
drain connection and designed for continuous and interrupted operation.
Each feed / discharge point from the equipment to the conveyor or from conveyor to other installation
has to be provided with chutes of baffles adequately adapted.
Conveyor components permanently or occasionally in contact with wastewater or screening and
sieving as well supports/stiffening plates and housing or trough shall be fabricated of stainless steel
AISI 304 / 316 Ti or equivalent.
3.3.5.

Residues Production

The residues production in 2020 is made up from screening and sieving process units. The daily
average production was estimated to 12. The stated value is for information only. It is stressed again
that Residues production has to be defined by the Contractor.
3.3.6.

Screenings and Sieving Dewatering

The estimated daily production of 12 m shall be dewatered in a compactor to a dry matter content of
25%. For dewatering purposes 2 wash-press units (1+1 stand-by) shall to be provided. Each press
shall be able to handle at least 2.0 m/h. The Contractor has to make all required provisions for
switching between the units.
The discharging pipe onto the container has to be provided with a flexible connection in order to allow
the discharge of the residues through the socket located on the containers cover.
The washing-press units and containers will be located on a discharging place 25 cm above the +2.50
platform. The complete area shall to be covered. The roof has to be provided with downspouts. The
downspouts shall to be connected with the storm water system. The bottom of the whole discharging
place shall be of concrete and provided with slopes for drainage of the Leachate or washing water
which have to return to the waste water plant. The Contractor has to provide at least 2 industrial water
connections.
The material employed for encapsulating the transport conveyors, hopers, connections between
conveyors as well as all piping for transporting the residues have to be from stainless steel.

CES / NAGECCO
TV.TD.C23 - V3, S1 Particular Requirements (2008-07-31).doc

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Wastewater Disposal in Provincial Towns


Programme South: Tra Vinh, Vietnam

3.3.7.

Tender Documents
WWTP
III.1 Employers Requirements
General Information and Particular Requirements

Electrical Power and Control Equipment

The electrical power and control equipment has to be installed in accordance with the General
Specifications, Electrical and Instrumentation Works and shall comprise:
3.3.7.1.

Screen and Sieves

screen and sieves completely cabled

operation of screen and sieves through differential level measurement (air bubble system) as
well as through time-control in case of low screen loading

power input components for all electrical consumers

all required switch and control equipment including fastener and accessories, continuous
measurement of process data. Exit 4 - 20 mA

potential-free contact points for all operational, fault and emergency-stop messages

emergency stop push button

local key-operated switch for "manual-0-automatic" operation

switches or push buttons for all screen functions for "manual" operation mode

all required ancillaries, such as limit/overload switches, alarms, indication lamps, running-hour
meter, time switch for automatic sequence control, etc.

switch and control board including all equipment, for instance circuit breakers, contactors,
relays, current transformers, transducers, meters, timers, wiring, terminals etc.

connections

3.3.7.2.

Transport Conveyors

conveyors completely cabled

power input components for all electrical consumers

all required switch and control equipment including fastener and accessories, continuous
measurement of process data. Exit 4-20 mA

potential-free contact points for all operational, fault and emergency- stop messages

emergency stop push button

all required ancillaries, such as limit/overload switches, alarms, indication lamps, running-hour
meter, time switch for automatic sequence control, etc.

switch and control board (section) including all equipment, for instance circuit breakers,
contactors, relays, current transformers, transducers, meters, timers, wiring, terminals, etc.

3.3.8.

Discharging Containers

The Contractor shall supply skip containers for the disposal of dewatered residues each having a
capacity and be equipped with devices to facilitate handling with a lorry-mounted lifting device. The
containers shall be of all welded construction, fabricated from mild steel with substantial R.S. angle
and channel reinforcement. The containers shall be coated in accordance with Employers
Requirements and shall be equipped with steel covers and a socket on the cover.
The container shall be equipped with appropriate fitting for the carting off the screenings by the truck.
The loading mechanism should be a heavy-duty hydraulic hoisting system with two boom arms and
containers lifting chains
After dewatering approx. 3.5 m/d or 4 t/d shall be transported outside the plant.
According to the required volume of residues estimated, the capacity of the containers and number of
units considered necessary by the Contractor, Container Station has to be designed.

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Tender Documents
WWTP
III.1 Employers Requirements
General Information and Particular Requirements

Same requirements as above-mentioned for the discharging place are valid for the Container Station.
The dewatered residues should be disposed on a solid waste dumping site. The transport of the
residues will be assumed by the Employer considering 6 working days per week.
3.4.

Flow Measurement Channel

The Flow Measurement Channel begins after the contraction of the Mechanical Treatment Chamber
and ends at the outlet chamber. The channel has to be provided with hatch grids in all its length.
Handrails and access stairs have to be installed.
In this channel a Venturi Flowmeter with a plain bottom will be installed according to the provisions of
the manufacturer. The materials of the flowmeter will be stainless steel or PE or equivalent. No
Parshall Flume or self made or concrete poured device will be accepted.
Flowmeter jointly with ultrasonic level sensor, transducer, transmitter, graph recorder, suiting software
and all required accessories or devices has to be delivered by the same manufacturer. The equipment
has to be manufactured for a flow of 550 l/s.
The system accuracy shall be within + 1.0% of the instrument span over the range 5% to 100% flow
(550 l/s).
Ultrasonic level sensor shall be installed at a robust and rigid structure. The structure shall include a
means of levelling the sensor so that the transmitted beam is perpendicular to the liquid surface and
shall provide a safe and easy access to the sensor for servicing and maintenance. It is
recommendable to provide a canopy above the sensor for protecting it for direct sunlight.
Graph recorder will be located in the administration building.
It is recommended that the 24 h flow proportional sampler is delivered by the same manufacturer of
the flow measurement equipment. In other case the Contractor shall guarantee that the provided
equipment is perfectly compatible for working together.
3.5.

Outlet Structure

The outlet structure comprises: outlet chamber, effluent pipe and outlet structure at Co Chien River.
The outlet chamber has to be designed including shut-off devices and connection facilities for future
extension. Details about the extension will be fixed with the Engineer. For the effluent pipe a penstock
has to be provided.
The effluent pipe has to be designed for a max. flow of 500 l/s. The pipe diameter shall be
dimensioned for a maximal velocity flow of 1 m/s. The pipe material shall be ductile iron or GRP.
At the discharge point of the river bank of the Co Chien River an outlet structure in concrete shall be
designed and constructed. The outlet structure has to be provided with a flap gate in the
corresponding diameter.
3.6.

Administrative and Operations Building

An operation building shall be designed and constructed which shall contain office space for the
operation staff, laboratory, central control room, medium and low voltage switchboards (Electrical
Room), sanitary rooms as changing room, showers, toilets and connecting floors. As necessary space
is recommended:
Office spaces

30 m

First aid room

10 m

Changing room, showers, toilets, cloth washing

40 m

Laboratory (acc. To 5)

30 m

Electrical + control

- Central control room

20 m

- Medium / low voltage switchboards

60 m

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Tender Documents
WWTP
III.1 Employers Requirements
General Information and Particular Requirements

Emergency generator room

10 m

Connecting floors

20 m
Total = 220 m

AC installation is necessary for office, laboratory and central control room.


The A/Cs shall be wall mounted split units. The building shall apply normal industrial design standard.
All rooms and the laboratory shall be equipped and furnished. An additional room for placing the
emergency generator has to be constructed; the generator shall be in compliance with clause 3.8.3
hereunder.
The buildings shall be equipped with water supply, power supply, fire-fighting and telephone / internet
connection.
The workshop which has to be designed and constructed by the contractor shall be fully equipped with
all tools which are required for operation and maintenance of the mechanical end electrical equipment
offered by the contractor and shall provide a minimum space of 30 m.
3.7.

Ancillary Works

Ancillary Works include:


-

The increasing of site elevation for keeping WWTP free of flooding. Proposed elevation +2.50
maBM.

Entrance gate for allowing a controlled access and exit of persons and vehicles including trucks.

About 900 m site boundary fence all around the WWTP border (2.5 m height, concrete posts at
maximum 4.00 m, hot-dip galvanized wire mesh.

About 1,500 m asphalted internal roads, parking areas and accesses

10 m guard room at entrance gate provided with a raised floor.

About 120 m covered containers station provided with bottom drains for Leachate and washing
connections points

About 1,100 m site landscaping (roads, yards, slopes and erosion protection, footways,
fencing, illumination) and green areas (planting of bushes, trees, grass).

3.8.

Facilities

The Contractor shall design, deliver, install, construct and test, but not limited to, following facilities:
low voltage distribution network, site lighting, earthing, site potable water supply network, drainage
works (storm and sanitary), site pipelines and chambers, industrial water system including well and
distribution network at main structures, power emergency generator
3.8.1.

Water Supply Systems

The Contractor has to make all necessary provisions for supplying the operation building with drinking
water and with process water for washing of container areas and for all other required process uses.
The Employer will provide the Treatment Plant with drinking water connection. The exact location of
the connection point will be defined during the Site Visit. The Contractor will provide a water meter and
required piping according to Vietnamese standards.
An industrial water system including an -at least 20 m excavated- production well, HDPE or similar
storage tank (5 m), booster pump (1 + 1) including switchboard and HDPE distribution pipeline
(50 mm, 120 m) has to be designed, installed, constructed and tested. The diameter of the borehole
may not be less than 300 mm. Well pipework has to be from PVC or similar, no galvanised steel. The
well pump has to be dimensioned according to the real requirements and has to be from stainless
steel. Each washing point shall be provided with all required connections, fittings and tubes / hoses.

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3.8.2.

Tender Documents
WWTP
III.1 Employers Requirements
General Information and Particular Requirements

Stormwater and Sewage Drainage System

Design of slopes, surfaces and ditches shall be arranged in such way that all stormwater will be led
away from structures.
All paved and areas shall have sufficient slope in order to allow for quick runoff of surface water.
The Contractor shall design, construct and test a stormwater sewerage containing gully, inlets,
manholes and pipework (HDPE, PVC, GRP) according to the general specifications and Vietnamese
standards and subject to the Engineer's approval. 200 mm will be the minimum acceptable pipe
diameter.
Moreover, the Contractor shall design, construct and test a sanitary sewerage system for recollection,
transport and disposal in the outlet chamber of all sewage coming from operation building, washing
activities and Leachate from spilling or drainage of the containers.
3.8.3.

Power Emergency Generator

The Contractor shall estimate the power of a diesel generator unit for power supplying of one screen,
one sieve (one line of the mechanical treatment plant), one wash-press, all transport conveyors, flow
measurement device, sampler, industrial water system, lighting of building (excluding air conditioning).
The diesel generator, ancillary equipment, noise clamping and diesel storage tank for 6 h continuous
operation shall be located in a building designed for the effect. The generator shall to start
automatically by power cut.
The generator and ancillary equipment shall be designed, constructed and tested in compliance with
German regulations related to Safety regulations concerning internal combustion fuel engines coupled
to electric generators.
The diesel-electric sets shall conform to the following main specifications:
a.

Net power at the terminals:

as per estimate

b.

Voltage at the terminals:

380 - 220 Volt

c.

Power factor:

0.8 lagging

d.

Frequency:

50 Hz

e.

Maximum voltage variation:

+5%

f.

Maximum frequency variation: +1%

g.

Number of terminals:

4 (3 phases + neutral)

h.

Installation:

indoor or weatherproof housing, max. ambient temperature


45C

Automatic and manual starting shall be provided via an electric starter, consisting of a motor, dynamo
and (lead) storage battery, having sufficient capacity for 6 consecutive start-ups without recharging.
The supply shall also include an automatic self-regulating battery charger, installed in the control
panel.

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4.

Tender Documents
WWTP
III.1 Employers Requirements
General Information and Particular Requirements

POWER SUPPLY AND CONTROL SYSTEM

The scope of work for Power Supply and Control System include the design, delivery, erection, putting
into operation, spare parts, and documentation for the following:
1.

Medium / low voltage power supply system, completely.

2.

Distribution switch boards and main control panel for the following mechanical equipments and
plants as described. The Employers pre-design is only indicative.
-

Mechanical Treatment Chamber (screens, sieves, conveyors, presses, sampler)

Flow Measurement Channel

Industrial water supply system

Power emergency generator

3.

Power and signal cabling including cabling and earth works

4.

Lighting and socket installation

5.

Complete site lighting

6.

Lightning protection system for works and plant

7.

Remote control system (push buttons, indicators lights etc.)

8.

Process signalling system including the hardware (programmable logic control PLC, USP, etc.)
and the software (operation software, mimic diagrams)

All equipment shall be suitable for sewage treatment plant environment and duties. Particular attention
has to be paid to any kind of corrosion caused by the plant environment (e.g. to switch contacts and
other materials).
The Contractor is responsible to calculate the connected load of the electrical consumers. The result
has to be increased by 30 % for future extension.
He is also responsible to calculate the short circuit capacity of all components.
4.1.

Electrical System

The high voltage switch gear rooms and the low voltage switch rooms and control rooms shall be
provided with spare floor space for future installations and a raised floor system. A programmable
logic control which should be located in the central control room of the plant is responsible for
monitoring of all drives and indicating plant.
Medium Voltage System
There is a 22 kV overhead transmission lines at the WWTP site available. The Contractor has to
supply and connect a 400 kVA, 22/04kV, 50 Hz out door oil transformer cast resin type. Due to
ambient conditions a proper ventilating or cooling system has to be planned and considered in the
Contractor's offer in order to guarantee a continuous uninterruptedly operation of the transformer.
Low Voltage System
The low voltage main switchgear (630A), the graph recorder from Venturi and the control panel (Mimic
Panel) shall be installed in the control room of the operation building. It has a switch over feeding
system. The arrangement of the LV Main switchgear has to be constructed in accordance with the
single line diagram (minimum requirements).
Emergency power supply switch has to be delivered (see also 3.8.3).

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Tender Documents
WWTP
III.1 Employers Requirements
General Information and Particular Requirements

4.2.

Lightning Protection System and Earthing and Potential Equalizing System

4.2.1.

Lightning Protection and Earthing

The buildings and all structures of the plant shall be equipped with a lightning protection system in
accordance with the German standards General Conditions for Lightning Protection and VDE 0185 or
international equivalent standards.
The transfer resistance of all the earthing systems (measured during the dry period) shall be 2 Ohm.
The connection between the earthing protection system and the potential equalizing bar of the main
distribution board must be kept as short as possible. At least one connection is to be established for
each building.
The earthing system consists of a steel galvanized strip with dimension 30 x 3.5 mm and shall be
provided in the cable trenches and building rings up to the main distribution boards. If the specified
value of 2 Ohm is not obtained by this system, deep earth rods shall be used in addition.
-

The following equipment is to be connected to the earthing system:


Medium voltage equipment

Neutral of transformer Neutral of generator

Low voltage main distribution board (Potential equalizing bar)

Domestic water line

Waste water line

The outdoor equipment:

The lighting poles

The tanks

The lightning protection

Base slab with Concrete Columns Connection to the telephone system

All 400 V and 230 V convenience receptacles, shall have a separate protective conductor
and a neutral conductor

Every building and steel construction shall be connected to the Potential Equalizing System

All sheet steel encased equipment shall be effectively grounded via a separate protective conductor.
At each new main distribution panel, the system neutral wire shall be connected to the grounding strip.
All major metal structures such as machines, metal tubes, and equipment installed in the halls shall be
connected to the potential equalizing bars.
4.2.2.

Reactive Power Regulation

The scope of work is an automatic reactive power regulation, consisting of switchboard with fusing and
switching facilities, power capacitors and regulator. This equipment must guarantee a power factor of
a minimum of 0.95.
4.3.

Control

All control must be built in a conventional way using relays, timers, contacts, etc. The use of a
programmable logic control (PLC) is only permitted as an option in the central control room in order to
gather all sewage plant signals in order to view the plant condition using a PC.
4.3.1.

Central Operation Panel

The central operation panel in the central control room shall allow for remote operation of all
wastewater treatment facilities.

CES / NAGECCO
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Tender Documents
WWTP
III.1 Employers Requirements
General Information and Particular Requirements

The scope of work includes the panels mounted on existing cable duct system. All measuring,
signalling and control cables shall fitted from below. For connecting the instrumentation and light
indicators, an adequate number of terminal strips shall be installed at the rear of the diagram. The
complete wiring of the whole system with the required cables, plugs and distributors is included in the
scope of work.
Operational signals shall be indicated by steady lights, alarm signals by flashing lights and an acoustic
signal (buzzer). After accepting an alarm, the flashing light shall turn into a steady light and the buzzer
shall be switched off. For signalling lights LED indicators shall be used. Colours for light indicators
shall agree with VDE 0113.
For giving an acoustic alarm signal, a buzzer or a small alarm horn shall be installed in.
Outside the operational building a large signal horn shall give acoustic alarm signals. In addition a red
flashlight shall indicate alarms from the process control system. The scope of work shall, includes
complete delivery and mounting with all fittings and mounting material.
Option: A process viewing system and its complementary PLC-system (programmable logic control
system) shall be located in the central control room. The central control room panel shall be designed
and executed in such a manner that it is possible to receive process operational data from the 10
pumping stations.
4.3.2.

Local Switchboards

A switch cabinet, protection class IP 55 shall be mounted in the vicinity of each motor or group of
motors.
The switchboard has to be mounted inside a protective cubicle and should be provided with:
-

Main switch

A lightning protection device

Control circuit with control transform

Circuit breakers

Air main contactor or relays

Potential free contacts for signalling

Interlocking circuits of motors

Volt and Ampere meters

Selector switches: LOCAL / OFF / REMOTE

Set of push buttons for ON / OFF for each motor

Set of relays for remote Start / Stop

Set of illuminated Diodes mounted in the panel door for viewing the motor or equipment state
(failure, ready, operation, remote operation, etc.)

Set of terminal strips

In general each local control board shall be mounted on suitable brackets, vibration proof, equipped
with mushroom emergency switch. All wiring shall be terminated on the terminal strips.
4.3.3.

Local Operation Unit

A local operating unit with On, Off, emergency-stop push buttons and key selector switches for locally
operation shall not be needed if the control board is mounted next to the driver. The drive units shall
also be controllable from the central control room as mentioned before.
Local operation shall always have priority over remote operation.

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4.3.4.

Tender Documents
WWTP
III.1 Employers Requirements
General Information and Particular Requirements

Option: Signal 0/4.20 mA

By means of the PLC, various monitoring functions shall be executed:


For all basic switching arrangements and all switch-on controls equipped with a power-measuring
transducer of 4 to 20 mA, monitoring of the nominal current shall be provided in the PLC in order to
indicate if a given limit value and the 4 mA value are exceeded or not reached.
4.3.5.

Overvoltage Protection

Due to the high lightning hazard in wastewater treatment plants, overvoltage protection shall be
provided also for the PLC system in accordance with IEC 1024-1 and IEC 1312-1.The measured
values shall be protected by surge protectors.

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5.

Tender Documents
WWTP
III.1 Employers Requirements
General Information and Particular Requirements

LABORATORY

The Contractor has to foresee laboratory rooms in the administrative and operation building. One
laboratory room will be for physical-chemical analyses and the other for biological analyses. In the
frame of the present Contract has to be deliver laboratory equipment for the first one. Notwithstanding,
all provisions for future installations of full equipped physical-chemical and biological laboratory have
to be made.
Laboratory rooms shall be designed and constructed following safety and technical conditions:
finishing of walls and floor surfaces, electrical installation, ventilation and air conditioning.
Laboratory rooms shall be equipped with the following utilities and facilities:
-

Hot and cold water,

Sewerage,

Power supply,

Lightening protection,

Fire protection,

Ventilation and air conditioning.

Installations shall be carried to the following devices and equipment:


-

Laboratory tables with installation attachments; to the attachments following installations shall
be joined: cold water installation, canalisation outflows, electrical installation 230 V.

Mechanical ventilation of air amount 650 1/h,

Table for titration equipped with electrical installation 230 V,

Laboratory post for washing and drying of laboratory glass, equipped with one-bowl sink with
work table and dryer,

Dryers and heaters tables,

Anti-vibration table for analytic scale placement,

ceramic table, equipped with stoneware sink with waste waters outflow, for placement of
laboratory distillatory (cold water installation).

Half-automatic set for fat extraction shall work under digestory, and shall have inflow and
outflow of water and power supply 230 V

After the WWTP has been extended, laboratory equipment will be destined for laboratory analyses:
Temperature, pH, turbidity, conductivity, putrescibility, alkalinity, BOD5, CSB, suspended solids,
volatile solids, dissolved substances, settleable solids, chlorides, sulphates, ammonium nitrogen, Total
Kjedahl Nitrogen (TKN), total nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen, total phosphorus, inorganic phosphorus, ether
extract (tats marking), titration, dry matter content, sludge concentration, sludge indexes, total
coliforms, fecal coliforms, helminths.
In the frame of this Contract, laboratory Equipment with corresponding spare parts has to be delivered
for following tests:
Temperature (water and air incl. max/min register), pH, O2-meter, DOB5 (type oxitop), CSB
(Photometer), analytic scales for weighting, solids (suspended solids, volatile solids, dry matter
content), alkalinity.
The Contractor has to prepare the personal in the use of the equipment and register of the results of
the analyses. On his own expense has to compare the results obtained with the results of a qualified
laboratory. If applicable, calibrations shall be undertaken or correlations between qualified and
delivered laboratory.

CES / NAGECCO
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Tender Documents
WWTP
III.1 Employers Requirements
General Information and Particular Requirements

The Contractor has to include in its costs all consumables related with the operation of this equipment
according to his Commissioning and Testing Program. Operation costs related to power consumption,
water consumption, etc are borne by the Employer during the DNP.

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6.

Tender Documents
WWTP
III.1 Employers Requirements
General Information and Particular Requirements

TRAINING OF THE EMPLOYER'S STAFF

The Contractor shall carry out on-the-job theoretical and practical training for the Employer's staff and
shall last minimum one month.
All training - practical training and the seminar - shall be held in Vietnamese Language. The
Contractor is free to employ competent interpreters.
The Contractor shall update the Trainings Programme of the proposal according to the actual
conditions arise during implementation and shall submit to the Engineer for approval 2 months before
envisaged start of Trial Operation. The Contractor should consider training activities by elaboration of
its Commissioning and Testing Programme.
The training courses shall cover but not be limited to the following:
-

Theoretical issues of wastewater treatment and of mechanical treatment,

Sampling and monitoring,

Laboratory analyses and recording,

Mechanical equipment start-up, operation and maintenance,

Electrical equipment start-up, operation and maintenance,

Control and measurement equipment start-up, operation and maintenance,

Troubleshooting,

Emergency cases,

Health and safety issues,

Administrative issues,

etc.

The Contractor shall distribute Handouts (manuals) to the trainees and to the Engineer / Employer at
the beginning of the training. The Handouts shall base on the Trainings Programme.
The Contractor shall report to the Engineer in writing in weekly intervals detailing the activities,
attendance, performance and ability of each member of the team. At the End of the Program the
Contractor has to define the activities to be covered by the Operator during Guarantee Period.
Operators Staff (minimum number and requirements):
-

WWTP Manager

No. 1 (Engineer degree)

Deputy Manager

No. 1 (Engineer degree, Preference Sanitary Engineer)

Laboratory

No. 1 (Technician degree)

Electrical officer

No. 1 (Technician degree)

Mechanical officer

No. 1 (Technician degree)

Operators

No. 6 (Skilled labour)

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7.

Tender Documents
WWTP
III.1 Employers Requirements
General Information and Particular Requirements

COMMISSIONING AND TESTING

The Contractor shall perform all necessary tests to demonstrate compliance of the Works with the
specifications, performance criteria and guarantees.
During the tests the Contractor shall demonstrate to the satisfaction of the Engineer that the plant
operates satisfactorily and:
-

The Works is capable of producing the required standard of final dewatered solid residues
products as specified;

The Works complies fully with the Specification.

The tests shall include, but not be limited to:


-

Inspection and testing at the manufacturers' premises

Inspection and testing during construction

Tests on Completion (Technical Completion and Trial Operation)

Tests after Completion (Guarantee Tests)

If no different elsewhere required, a minimum of 21 days notice in writing shall be given to the
Engineer and the Employer prior to carrying out any inspection or testing.
The Contractor shall submit to the Engineer 2 Months before envisaged start of the Trial Operation
Phase a Commissioning and Testing Program, training program updated to the actual conditions and
draft versions of the O&M manual and of the As-Built drawings.
The Commissioning and Testing program has to include details of activities, inspection, control and
test procedures as well as sampling and analysing he proposes to employ for the Technical
Completion, Trial Operation and Performance Tests (Test after Completion). Special attention has to
be drawn to the activities related to the diversion of the raw sewage to the plant and start-up of the
Works.
Although procedures and work processes for the recording of test results shall be set out in the
Contractors Quality Plan the test results shall be reported in writing to the Employer by the Contractor
with the comments and endorsement of the Engineer.
Where specialised test equipment is supplied, the Contractor shall provide the associated test sheets,
which shall be submitted to the Engineer for review prior to the tests being carried out.
All tests specified herein shall be carried out at the risk and expense of the Contractor including
temporary erection, materials, labour, instrumentation, stores, water, lubricants, fuel and power used.
7.1.

Inspection and Testing at the Contractor's or Manufacturers' Premises

All major items of plant, including but not limited to screens, sieves, control panels and press /
compactor, shall be subject to testing by the Contractor and inspection by the Engineer and 2
authorised representatives of the Employer before dispatch from manufacturers' premises, with all
tests arranged to represent the working conditions as closely as possible.
Approved test certificates shall be endorsed by the Engineer and Employers representatives. Data
from manufacturers catalogues will not be acceptable in lieu of test certificates or characteristics for
the supplied particular items.
7.2.

Inspection and Testing During Construction

Tests during construction shall include but not be limited to the following:
-

All specified tests and sampling for materials to be incorporated into the permanent works.

All water retaining structures including roofs to buildings, gravity pipelines and manholes shall
be tested to prove the water tightness in accordance with the corresponding Specification. It is
stressed that for testing just clean water shall be used.

All pipelines shall be pressure tested in accordance with the Specification.

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Tender Documents
WWTP
III.1 Employers Requirements
General Information and Particular Requirements

All electrical works shall be tested accordance with the corresponding Specification. All circuit
breakers shall be subject to an insulation tests to establish that the insulation resistance
between phase conductors and earth shall not be less than the minimum requirements set forth
in the applicable regulations and codes of practice.

All Materials supplied for incorporation in the Works shall be new and subject to Quality Assurance
inspection, certification and where appropriate destructive testing in order to demonstrate compliance
with the requirements of the Specification and the purpose for which they are employed. Where quality
assured Materials are not readily available the Contractor shall submit to the Engineer test certificates
furnished by the supplier or manufacturer of the Materials indicating their compliance with the relevant
Specification.
7.3.

Tests on Completion

Tests on Technical Completion include pre-commissioning and commissioning testing activities:


-

Pre-commissioning tests, under dry conditions, carried out on all civil, mechanical, electrical and
control components to obtain the acceptance of the Engineer.

Commissioning tests of all civil, mechanical, electrical and control components under wet
conditions to obtain the approval of the Engineer for diversion of the raw sewage. The tests
shall be carried out using clean water. Remedial works found after pre-commissioning have to
be corrected as well as calibration of the equipment as result of Functional tests have to be
carried out in this phase.

On completion of construction, internal surfaces of pipework, tanks and sumps etc. shall be cleaned
thoroughly in such a way as to remove all oil, grit and other deleterious matter.
Inspections and technical completion tests shall include but not limited to:
-

Inspections of concrete works.

All circuit breakers shall be subject to an insulation tests to establish that the insulation
resistance between phase conductors and earth shall not be less than the minimum
requirements set forth in the applicable regulations and codes of practice.

Dry-running of all process Plant and equipment.

Testing of each item of plant to ensure correct rotation.

Testing of each valve and penstock to ensure correct operation, including the setting of torque
and limit switches.

Testing of each instrumentation device to ensure correct operation.

Setting to work of new treatment units.

Trial Operation
The Trial Operation phase shall last at least 1 month after passed Tests on Technical Completion and
consists of the following main activities:
-

Start-Up: Diverting the sewage into the plant, starting operation of mechanical and electrical
equipment.

Optimisation: calibration of the equipment under normal operational conditions, simulation of


different hydraulic loads, optimising the operation with regard to the economical aspect.

Prior beginning with performance testing activities, the wastewater treatment facilities shall run under
stable conditions for a period of 2 consecutive weeks. This condition should be proved based on the
daily running journal and other automatically operation parameters and certified by the Engineer.
Performance Tests
It shall last 2 weeks. During performance testing, it shall be demonstrated that the plant's components
operate satisfactorily under operating conditions.

CES / NAGECCO
TV.TD.C23 - V3, S1 Particular Requirements (2008-07-31).doc

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Tender Documents
WWTP
III.1 Employers Requirements
General Information and Particular Requirements

Tests on completion shall be deemed to have been satisfactorily completed if the dewatering process
of the actual screening and sieving residues 25% of DM (Dry Matter) in 80% of 28 samples (2 daily
samples taken in 14 consecutive days) are achieved.
If the tests fail due to non-compliance with the above criteria, or do not attain the specified minimum
process requirements or the Engineer is not satisfied that the operational parameters can be
maintained, the Contractor shall:
-

identify the reason for the failure,

put forward written proposals for rectification,

obtain written approval from the Engineer for these proposals,

rectify the problem and re-test for a period of 2 weeks.

If the test results show that the requirements stated have been met, the Contractor has fulfilled the
Tests on Completion and the plant will be assessed as completed in respect of the process functioning
and can be taken over.
7.4.

Tests after Completion (Process Guarantee Period)

The objective of the Performance Testing will be to confirm that the Works will fully meet the
performance requirements of the project.
The Defects Notification Period is 12 months. Contractor is required to complete any minor work or
remedy defects as instructed by the Engineer. The Process Guarantee Period runs parallel with the
DNP. All costs falling during this period shall be borne to the Employer / Beneficiary.
During this period, the Operator shall regularly (several times a week according to approved
Commissioning and Testing Program) carry out sampling (24 h flow proportional samples) and
analyses for characterisation of the raw sewage and treated effluent as well as for the solid residues
production and dewatering.
The efficiency of the plant shall be controlled by recording electronically the incoming flow and power
consumption of the installed equipments. The staff of the Operator shall record all other values with
regard to consumption items (lime consumption, screenings, sieving residues production and DM
content of residues, oil and lubricants) for computing the actual running costs. All the results shall be
sent to the Contractor on a monthly basis. The Contractor has to submit to the Employer copied to the
Engineer his Acknowledge of Receipt.
The Employer shall immediately inform the Contractor when a result indicates that the guaranteed
values are not being met to provide the Contractor the possibility of immediate remedial
arrangements.
Until the Performance Certificate is issued for the WWTP the Contractor will perform Performance
Tests for two control periods of 2 weeks each over the 12 Months: first control, 2 weeks, during the dry
period and second control, 2 weeks, during the rain period. During these periods, the Operator will
carry out sampling and analyses with daily frequency. All costs related to Contractors staff shall be
borne by the Contractor himself. Minimum Staff requirements during the performance control periods
are: Process or Design Engineer, Electromechanical Engineer. Special analyses requested by the
Contractor will be performed on his own expenses.
If the Plant guarantee standards are met during the Defects Notification Period the Performance
Certificate shall be issued at the end of the period.

CES / NAGECCO
TV.TD.C23 - V3, S1 Particular Requirements (2008-07-31).doc

page VIII.1 - 33

Wastewater Disposal in Provincial Towns


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Tender Documents
WWTP
III.2 Part A: Civil Works and Buildings

PART A: CIVIL WORKS AND BUILDINGS

CES / NAGECCO
TV.TD.C23 - V3, S2 Part A Civil Works (rev. 2008-07-31).doc

Wastewater Disposal in Provincial Towns


Programme South: Tra Vinh, Vietnam

Tender Documents
WWTP
III.2 Part A: Civil Works and Buildings

TABLE OF CONTENTS
page

PREAMBLE TO TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS .................................................................. 1


1.

EARTHWORKS .............................................................................................................. 2
1.1.

Clearing of the Site .................................................................................................................2

1.2.

Excavation Method Statement................................................................................................2

1.3.

Notice of Commencement ......................................................................................................3

1.4.

Definitions ...............................................................................................................................3

1.5.

Inspection by the Engineer .....................................................................................................3

1.6.

Trial Holes...............................................................................................................................4

1.7.

Formation Level......................................................................................................................4

1.8.

Surface Soil ............................................................................................................................4

1.9.

Demolitions and Alteration......................................................................................................4

1.10.

Programme for Demolitions and Alterations...........................................................................5

1.11.

Right of Way ...........................................................................................................................5

1.12.

Soiling of Side Slopes and Verges .........................................................................................5

1.13.

Classification of Excavation....................................................................................................6

1.14.

Storage and Handling of Explosives and Blasting .................................................................9

1.15.

Excavation General .............................................................................................................9

1.16.

Existing Public Services .......................................................................................................10

1.17.

Mechanical Excavation.........................................................................................................11

1.18.

Cutting of Road Surface .......................................................................................................11

1.19.

Trench Excavation................................................................................................................11

1.20.

Excavation for Foundations ..................................................................................................13

1.21.

Excavation of Shafts for Pipe Jacking ..................................................................................13

1.22.

Excavation in Excess............................................................................................................13

1.23.

Forming of Embankments ....................................................................................................13

1.24.

Side Slopes...........................................................................................................................14

1.25.

Compaction of Soil ...............................................................................................................14

1.26.

Excavation Below Embankment in Materials Unsuitable for Construction...........................15

1.27.

Excavations for Foundation Pits and Trenches....................................................................16

1.28.

Foundation Pits and Trenches of Greater Width and Depth Than Necessary.....................16

1.29.

Completion of Earthworks ....................................................................................................16

1.30.

Supporting Excavation..........................................................................................................16

1.31.

Open Ditches........................................................................................................................16

1.32.

Crossing Watercourses ........................................................................................................16

1.33.

Disposal and Storing of Excavated Material.........................................................................17

1.34.

Road Approaches and Access Roads..................................................................................17

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Tender Documents
WWTP
III.2 Part A: Civil Works and Buildings
page

2.

1.35.

Pipe Bedding and Embedment.............................................................................................17

1.36.

Refilling of Sewer Trenches....................................................................................................1

1.37.

Making Good Subsidence After Refilling................................................................................1

1.38.

Reinstatement of Surfaces .....................................................................................................1

1.39.

Forming Banks and Filled Areas ............................................................................................2

1.40.

Earthworks to be Kept Free of Water .....................................................................................3

1.41.

Supports for Foundation Pits and Trenches...........................................................................3

1.42.

Refilling of Foundation Pits and Trenches and Removal of Excavation Supports .................4

1.43.

Use of Vibratory Compaction Plant ........................................................................................4

1.44.

Provision of Spoil Heaps ........................................................................................................4

1.45.

Topsoiling ...............................................................................................................................4

1.46.

Grassing .................................................................................................................................4

1.47.

Measurement of Topsoiling and Grassing..............................................................................5

1.48.

Formation of Footpaths ..........................................................................................................5

1.49.

Rubble ....................................................................................................................................5

PILING ............................................................................................................................ 6
2.1.

General ...................................................................................................................................6

2.2.

Types of Piles .........................................................................................................................6

2.3.

Concrete (Pre-Cast) Piling......................................................................................................6

2.3.1.

Design of Piles ................................................................................................................6

2.3.2.

Preliminary Test Piles .....................................................................................................7

2.3.3.

Lengths and Tolerances .................................................................................................8

2.4.

3.

2.3.3.1.
Sequence for Constructions .................................................................................8
2.3.3.2.
Driving Piles..........................................................................................................8
2.3.3.3.
Repair and Lengthening of Piles ..........................................................................9
2.3.3.4.
Reinforcement ......................................................................................................9
2.3.3.5.
Pile Shoes...........................................................................................................10
2.3.3.6.
Records ..............................................................................................................10
2.3.3.7.
Pre-cast Reinforced Concrete Piles ...................................................................11
2.3.3.8.
Cast-In-Situ Piles................................................................................................11
2.3.3.9.
Pile Load Tests ...................................................................................................11
2.3.3.10.
Piles in Compression..........................................................................................15
2.3.3.11.
Piles in Tension ..................................................................................................17
2.3.3.12.
Supervision of Construction................................................................................18
Timber Piling with Cajuput Tree-Piles ..................................................................................19

CONCRETE, REINFORCEMENT & SHUTTERING..................................................... 20


3.1.

Organisation .........................................................................................................................20

3.2.

General .................................................................................................................................20

3.3.

Materials for Concrete ..........................................................................................................21

3.3.1.

Steel Reinforcement .....................................................................................................21

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WWTP
III.2 Part A: Civil Works and Buildings
page

3.3.2.

Water for Use in Concrete ............................................................................................21

3.3.3.

Cement .........................................................................................................................21

3.3.4.

Sand..............................................................................................................................23

3.3.5.

Coarse and Fine Aggregates........................................................................................23

3.4.

3.3.5.1.
Grading of Aggregates .......................................................................................24
3.3.5.2.
Storage of Aggregates........................................................................................24
3.3.5.3.
Preliminary Tests on Aggregates .......................................................................24
3.3.5.4.
Works Tests on Aggregates ...............................................................................24
Delivery of Samples..............................................................................................................25

3.5.

Concrete Mixes.....................................................................................................................25

3.5.1.

Composition of Concrete ..............................................................................................25

3.5.2.

Cement Content and Water-Cement Ratios.................................................................25

3.5.3.

Design Mix ....................................................................................................................26

3.5.4.

Trial Mixes.....................................................................................................................26

3.5.5.

Mixing of Concrete ........................................................................................................26

3.5.6.

Weighing, Batching and Mixing ....................................................................................26

3.6.

Class and Strength of Concrete ...........................................................................................27

3.7.

Tests for Crushing Strength..................................................................................................28

3.8.

Compaction and Slump Tests ..............................................................................................29

3.9.

Central Batching Plant..........................................................................................................29

3.10.

Hand Mixing..........................................................................................................................29

3.11.

Transporting and Placing of Concrete..................................................................................29

3.12.

Compaction of Concrete.......................................................................................................30

3.13.

Hot Weather Concreting .......................................................................................................31

3.14.

Wet Weather Concreting ......................................................................................................32

3.15.

Protection and Curing of Concrete .......................................................................................32

3.16.

Loading .................................................................................................................................32

3.17.

Placing of Concrete in Foundations .....................................................................................32

3.18.

Placing of Concrete in Water................................................................................................33

3.19.

Bending, Placing and Fixing of Steel Reinforcement ...........................................................33

3.20.

Forms and Formwork for Concrete: Definitions....................................................................34

3.21.

Formwork..............................................................................................................................34

3.21.1.

Forms and Formwork for Concrete: Construction ........................................................34

3.21.2.

Formwork for Mould Vibrated Pre-cast Concrete .........................................................35

3.21.3.

Preparation of Forms Before Concreting......................................................................35

3.21.4.

Forms for Construction Joints.......................................................................................35

3.21.5.

Formwork Left In ...........................................................................................................35

3.21.6.

Removal of Forms.........................................................................................................35

3.22.

Special Methods of Working.................................................................................................36

3.23.

Making Good ........................................................................................................................36

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III.2 Part A: Civil Works and Buildings
page

4.

3.24.

Protection of Concrete After Removal of Shuttering ............................................................36

3.25.

Removal and Replacement of Unsatisfactory Concrete ......................................................36

3.26.

Construction Joints ...............................................................................................................37

3.27.

Water Tightness ...................................................................................................................37

3.28.

Faulty Work...........................................................................................................................37

3.29.

Rates of Concrete.................................................................................................................37

3.30.

Pre-cast Concrete.................................................................................................................38

3.30.1.

Concrete Quality and Tests on Concrete .....................................................................38

3.30.2.

Cast-in Parts .................................................................................................................38

3.30.3.

Transport, Storage and Erection...................................................................................38

3.30.4.

Installation of Pre-cast Concrete...................................................................................39

3.30.5.

Manufacturing in a Factory ...........................................................................................39

3.30.6.

Work Programme and Method Statement ....................................................................39

3.31.

Rates for Pre-cast Concrete .................................................................................................39

3.32.

Concrete Work Tolerances................................................................................................39

3.33.

Water Bars............................................................................................................................40

3.34.

Admixtures to Mortar or Concrete ........................................................................................40

3.35.

Sampling and Testing...........................................................................................................40

3.36.

Testing of Concrete During Production ................................................................................40

3.37.

Frequency of Tests...............................................................................................................41

3.38.

Cover to Reinforcement........................................................................................................42

3.39.

Reference and Record Books to be Kept on Site ................................................................42

3.40.

Testing Equipment................................................................................................................42

3.41.

Reinforcement ......................................................................................................................42

3.42.

Connections to Concrete Structures, Temporary Holes and Openings ...............................43

3.42.1.

General .........................................................................................................................43

3.42.2.

Building-in Pipes and other Items .................................................................................43

3.42.3.

Cutting or Displacement of Reinforcement...................................................................43

3.42.4.

Cleaning........................................................................................................................44

3.42.5.

Grouting in Narrow Spaces...........................................................................................44

3.42.6.

Joint between Old and New Concrete ..........................................................................44

3.42.7.

Grouting under Hand-railings........................................................................................44

SEWERS AND PIPEWORK ......................................................................................... 45


4.1.

General .................................................................................................................................45

4.2.

Laying of Sewers ..................................................................................................................46

4.3.

Jointing .................................................................................................................................47

4.4.

Site Connections and Branchlines .......................................................................................48

4.5.

Packing for Transport from Abroad ......................................................................................48

4.6.

Manufacturing of Pipes and Culverts ...................................................................................49

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Wastewater Disposal in Provincial Towns


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WWTP
III.2 Part A: Civil Works and Buildings
page

4.7.

Manufacturers Certificate .....................................................................................................49

4.8.

On-Site Inspection ................................................................................................................49

4.9.

Handling from Storage to Trench .........................................................................................49

4.10.

Testing of Pipelines / Sewers ...............................................................................................49

4.11.

Measurement for Sewer- and Pipelaying .............................................................................51

4.12.

Support of Pipework and Valves ..........................................................................................51

4.13.

Flushing and Cleaning..........................................................................................................51

4.14.

Ductile Iron Pipes, Laying and Testing.................................................................................51

4.14.1.

Norms and Standards...................................................................................................51

4.14.2.

Thickness of Pipes and Fittings ....................................................................................53

4.14.3.

Quality of Pipes, Fittings and Accessories ...................................................................53

4.14.4.

Socket and Spigot Pipes and Fittings ...........................................................................53

4.14.5.

Coatings and Linings ....................................................................................................53

4.14.6.

Transport and Storage..................................................................................................53

4.14.7.

Laying and Jointing .......................................................................................................53

4.14.7.1.
Re-rounding and Cutting of Pipes ......................................................................53
4.14.7.2.
Excavation of Trenches ......................................................................................53
4.14.7.3.
Bedding of Pipes ................................................................................................53
4.14.7.4.
Laying and Jointing of Pipes...............................................................................53
4.14.7.5.
Thrust and Anchor Blocks ..................................................................................54
4.14.7.6.
Locking Joints .....................................................................................................54
4.14.7.7.
Surround to Pipes...............................................................................................55
4.14.7.8.
Pipe Supports .....................................................................................................56
4.14.7.9.
Backfilling............................................................................................................56
4.14.7.10. Accessories ........................................................................................................56
4.14.7.11. Testing of Pipelines ............................................................................................56
4.15. Plastic Pipes, Laying and Testing ........................................................................................57
4.15.1.

Pipes for Pressure Applications....................................................................................57

4.15.2.

HDPE-Pipes..................................................................................................................57

4.15.3.

GRP Pipes ....................................................................................................................57

4.15.4.

General Requirements..................................................................................................58

4.15.5.

Pipe Laying and Testing ...............................................................................................58

4.15.5.1.
Excavation of Trenches ......................................................................................58
4.15.5.2.
Bedding of Pipes ................................................................................................58
4.15.5.3.
Thrust and Anchor Blocks, and Locking Joints ..................................................58
4.15.5.4.
Surround and Protection to Pipes ......................................................................58
4.15.5.5.
Pipe Supports .....................................................................................................59
4.15.5.6.
Backfilling............................................................................................................59
4.15.5.7.
Testing of GRP Pressure Pipelines....................................................................59
4.15.5.8.
Testing of Thermoplastic Pressure Pipelines (HDPE) .......................................59
4.16. Concrete Pipes, Laying and Testing ....................................................................................59
4.16.1.

General .........................................................................................................................59

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WWTP
III.2 Part A: Civil Works and Buildings
page

4.16.2.

Pipe Laying and Testing ...............................................................................................60

4.16.2.1.
Excavation of Trenches ......................................................................................60
4.16.2.2.
Bedding of Pipes ................................................................................................60
4.16.2.3.
Surround to Pipes...............................................................................................60
4.16.2.4.
Pipe Supports .....................................................................................................60
4.16.2.5.
Backfilling............................................................................................................60
4.16.2.6.
Testing ................................................................................................................60
4.17. Alternative Pipe Laying Methods (Pipe Jacking, Flushing) ..................................................60
4.17.1.

General .........................................................................................................................60

4.17.2.

Material of Jacking Pipes / Reinforced Concrete Jacking Pipes ..................................61

4.17.3.

Construction Methods of Pipe Jacking .........................................................................61

4.17.3.1.
Thrust and Reception Shafts ..............................................................................61
4.17.3.2.
Pipe Jacking Operation ......................................................................................62
4.17.3.3.
Sealing and Packing...........................................................................................62
4.17.3.4.
Monitoring and Instrumentation ..........................................................................62
4.17.3.5.
Tolerances ..........................................................................................................62
4.17.3.6.
Disposal of Spoil.................................................................................................63
4.17.3.7.
Connection with Manholes and Chambers.........................................................63
4.18. Manholes and Chambers .....................................................................................................63

5.

6.

4.18.1.

General .........................................................................................................................63

4.18.2.

Testing of Manholes and Inspection Chambers ...........................................................63

BLOCKWORK AND MORTAR .................................................................................... 64


5.1.

Concrete Blockwork..............................................................................................................64

5.2.

Cement Mortar......................................................................................................................65

5.3.

Mortar Plasticizers ................................................................................................................65

5.4.

Sand for Mortar.....................................................................................................................65

5.5.

Lime for Mortar .....................................................................................................................65

5.6.

Chemical Resistant Mortar ...................................................................................................65

5.6.1.

General .........................................................................................................................65

5.6.2.

Information to be Submitted by the Contractor.............................................................66

5.6.3.

Material and Properties Description..............................................................................66

5.6.4.

Testing ..........................................................................................................................67

5.6.5.

Storage and Application................................................................................................67

ROADWORKS.............................................................................................................. 69
6.1.

Clearing and Grubbing .........................................................................................................69

6.2.

Earthworks for Roads ...........................................................................................................69

6.3.

Finish and Protection of Subgrade .......................................................................................69

6.4.

Material and Construction of Sub-base ................................................................................69

6.5.

Requirements for Compaction..............................................................................................70

6.6.

Material and Construction of Base .......................................................................................70

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III.2 Part A: Civil Works and Buildings
page

6.7.

7.

Bituminous Surface Course / Asphalt Pavements ...............................................................71

6.7.1.

Material and Construction.............................................................................................71

6.7.2.

Asphalt Overlay Pavements .........................................................................................73

6.7.3.

Hot-Mix Asphalt Bituminous..........................................................................................73

6.7.4.

Weather Limitations ......................................................................................................73

6.7.5.

Preparation ...................................................................................................................74

6.7.6.

Transportation...............................................................................................................74

6.7.7.

Placing ..........................................................................................................................74

6.7.8.

Compaction of Mixtures ................................................................................................74

6.7.9.

Kerb Stones Laying ......................................................................................................75

6.7.10.

Footpaths ......................................................................................................................76

6.7.11.

Testing ..........................................................................................................................76

MISCELLANEOUS ITEMS ........................................................................................... 77


7.1.

Paving...................................................................................................................................77

7.2.

Entrance Steps .....................................................................................................................77

7.3.

Plasterwork ...........................................................................................................................77

7.4.

Carpentry ..............................................................................................................................77

7.5.

Joinery ..................................................................................................................................77

7.6.

Ironmongery .........................................................................................................................78

7.7.

Painting.................................................................................................................................78

7.8.

Electrical Installations ...........................................................................................................79

7.9.

Metalwork .............................................................................................................................79

7.10.

Painting of Metalwork ...........................................................................................................79

7.11.

Hot Dip Galvanizing..............................................................................................................80

7.12.

Step Irons .............................................................................................................................80

7.13.

Ladders and Stairs ...............................................................................................................80

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Programme South: Tra Vinh, Vietnam

Tender Documents
WWTP
III.2 Part A: Civil Works and Buildings

PREAMBLE TO TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS


Scope of Work of the Contract
(1)

The scope of work comprises the supply, construction, installation, and testing of sewerage
facilities in Tra Vinh, Vietnam. The works shall incorporate, but not necessarily be limited to, the
following elements:
(a)

(b)

Sewerage System

Some 4,775 m of gravity sewer lines, interceptors and laterals, reinforced concrete
pipes DN 600 to DN 2000 with approximately 106 manholes;

Some 9,440 m of reinforced concrete culverts with approximately 119 manholes;

Some 2,693 m of pressure mains of ductile iron pipe DN 200 to DN 600, incl. all
fittings and appurtenances;

45 Inspection chambers along pressure mains;

1 Combined Sewer Overflow (CSO) with flap gate valves and outlet structure;

4 outlet structures with flap gate valves and pipes;

2 river crossings incl. all fittings and appurtenances;

Some 3,240 m of connection sewers between connection manhole and sewer or


manhole (DN 300) including all fittings and appurtenances;

Some 149 connection manholes as connection to the existing sewer system;


Pumping Stations / Lifting Stations

3 submersible sewage lifting stations, incl. pumps, switch board, SCADA system
as described and all other mechanical, electro-mechanical equipment;

(b)

3 submersible sewage pumping stations incl. pumps, switch board, SCADA system
as described and all other mechanical, electro-mechanical equipment;
Wastewater Treatment Facility

(2)

The Contractor shall be deemed to have taken into account while preparing his Tender and
work programme the religious festivals, Vietnamese national holidays and the rainy season in
Tra Vinh, Vietnam.

(3)

The unfavourable geological conditions and limited access in many parts of the project area as
well as the high groundwater level and flooding require special precautions by the Contractor,
particularly during excavation and backfilling works, in terms of shoring of trenches,
safeguarding of adjacent structures and ensure safe public access.

(4)

Reference is made to the soil investigation report provided in Part III of these Specifications.
This is provided for information and clearly illustrates the wide range of ground conditions that
are to be expected. However, it in no way represents a complete or comprehensive assessment
of the ground conditions that will encountered and the Contractor is deemed to have carried out
his own assessment of the Site conditions in preparation of his Tender.

(5)

The Contractor must considerer and compensate by adequate structural measures uplift
pressure resulting from high groundwater level or from flooding.

(6)

Furthermore, the works shall be executed in existing, working sewage system which has to be
kept in operation during the entire construction period until the new systems are put into
operation and parts of the existing system may be taken out of service.

(7)

All provisions necessary to execute the Works are deemed to be included in the rates given in
the Bill of Quantities and the Contractor will not be entitled to any additional payment
whatsoever in respect of these working conditions.

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Programme South: Tra Vinh, Vietnam

1.

Tender Documents
WWTP
III.2 Part A: Civil Works and Buildings

EARTHWORKS

Excavation, embedment and support, dewatering, foundation, pipe bedding, backfilling, compaction
generally shall follow the European Standard EN 1610 Construction and Testing of Drains and
Sewers.

1.1.

CLEARING OF THE SITE

The Contractor shall remove overburden and vegetation, fell trees cut down hedges and bushes and
grub up roots, together with all other obstructions on the Sites of the roads, sewers, drains, water
mains and structures all as directed by the Engineer. All rubbish and material unsuitable for re-use
must be removed from the site to an approved disposal area provided and paid for by the Contractor
and all work that has been disturbed must be made good. All disposal of material shall be carried out
in accordance with the environmental legislation in effect in Vietnam and to the approval of the
relevant environmental authorities.
The limits of clearing on this project shall extend 3 m outside the net area of the Permanent Works
unless otherwise specifically stated or directed by the Engineer.
Trees and/or other vegetation directed by the Engineer for preservation shall be kept free from
clearing operation and be protected from injury during execution of the Works. It is strictly prohibited to
cut any tree without previous permission of the local Authorities and directed by the Engineer. In the
event that roots of trees are within the trench, and therefore are considered as obstacle, the
responsible local Authority must be informed and an acknowledge specialist shall be employed by the
Contractor to cut, treat and protect the roots. In the event trees have to be cut, all roots must be
uprooted and holes shall be filled with approved material and well compacted. Removal shall allow for
haulage.
The Contractor shall re-install any road furniture (such as street lighting, traffic signs or traffic lights)
that has to be removed during the progress of the Works.
Installation of the road furniture shall take place at its original location, in a condition at least equal to
that prior to removal and as soon as practicable after completion of pipe laying at a particular location.

1.2.

EXCAVATION METHOD STATEMENT

The Contractor shall prepare a methodology of his proposed earthworks operation for each particular
part of the Works, detailing the location, the programme of excavation, the temporary supports and the
placing and handling of spoil.
The Contractor shall submit for the Engineers approval his proposed method statement at least 14
days before his intended date to commence earthworks on each particular part of the Works. Such
method statements shall include, but not be limited to the following:

Equipment to be used
Materials to be procured and their sources and properties
Haul routes
Stock pile areas
Safety measures to be taken
Detailed Drawings of all temporary works with particular attention given to the shoring of
trenches and deep excavations for the sewer line construction and for the pumping / lifting
station
Computations to support the design of temporary works
Dewatering methods
Lighting and ventilation to be used in deep excavations and confined spaces
Measures to be taken to ensure no restraints for the public and traffic
Proposed working hours.

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1.3.

Tender Documents
WWTP
III.2 Part A: Civil Works and Buildings

NOTICE OF COMMENCEMENT

The Contractor shall give to the Engineer at least seven days written notice of his intention to
commence earthworks on any part of the Site and shall furnish the Engineer with all ground levels and
other particulars he may require for the purpose of carrying out measurements.
Earthworks shall not be commenced until written approval has been received by the Contractor from
the Engineer.

1.4.

DEFINITIONS

(1)

"Excavation" shall for the purpose of the Contract be deemed to refer to the excavation of all the
materials of whatever geological formation, quality, consistency or description. Excavation shall
be carried out neatly to the lines and levels which are specified on the drawings or as instructed
by the Engineer.

(2)

Excess excavation beyond the specified lines and levels shall be limited to an absolute
minimum making due allowance for working space and the necessary temporary works. The
Contractor shall take all possible precautions to prevent slips in excavations and embankments
and to protect and support structures which may be endangered.

(3)

Any excess excavation, over break or slip beyond the limits of the specified excavation shall be
removed and made good at the Contractor's expense with such material as directed by the
Engineer.

(4)

Excavation shall be carried out manually if excavation by mechanical means is not reasonably
practicable or may endanger or damage structures or property.

(5)

Excavated material shall, if in the opinion of the Engineer suitable and required for use on site,
be stockpiled or, if possible, immediately placed or shall, if not suitable or required, be removed
immediately from site at the Contractors expense.

(6)

The word "rock", wherever used as the name of a material to be excavated, shall mean only
boulders and pieces of concrete or masonry exceeding 0.3 m in volume, or solid ledge material
which, in the opinion of the Engineer, requires for its removal drilling and blasting, wedging,
sledging, barring, or breaking up with a power-operated tool and cannot be excavated with a
standard mechanical back hoe excavator.

(7)

Soft or disintegrated material which can be removed with a hand pick (pick axe) or poweroperated excavator or shovel, no loose, shaken, or previously blasted material or broken stone
in material fillings or elsewhere, and no material exterior to the maximum limits of measurement
allowed, which may fall into the excavation, will be measured or allowed as "material".

(8)

If rock is excavated beyond the limits of payment indicated on the drawings, specified, or
authorised in writing by the Engineer, the excess excavation, whether resulting from over break
or other causes, shall be backfilled, by and at the expense of the Contractor.

1.5.

INSPECTION BY THE ENGINEER

(1)

When the specified levels or limits of any excavation are reached, the Engineer will inspect the
ground exposed and if he considers that any part of the ground is by its nature unsuitable he
may direct the Contractor to excavate further. Such further excavation shall be refilled to the
specified levels or limits with selected approved material or concrete.

(2)

In the event that material forming the bottom or sides of any excavation subsequently becomes
unacceptable due to exposure to weather conditions or due to groundwater, flooding or have
become puddle, soft or loose during the progress of the Works, even when previously accepted
by the Engineer, the Contractor shall remove by approved methods such damaged, softened or
loosened material and excavate further to a sound ground. Such further excavation shall be
held to be Excess Excavation and material emanating there from shall be removed from the Site
on the Contractors costs.

(3)

All trenches, pits and other excavations shall be inspected and tested as described and the
Contractor shall include in his rates for all costs thus incurred. Any defects found shall be made

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Tender Documents
WWTP
III.2 Part A: Civil Works and Buildings

good and the test shall be repeated at the expense of the Contractor until a satisfactory result is
obtained.
(4)

1.6.

All tests shall be witnessed by the Engineer. Test results shall be recorded on an approved test
data sheet, countersigned by the Contractor and the Engineer, and copies shall be provided for
the Engineer's use.

TRIAL HOLES

The Contractor shall excavate, refill and restore in advance of his programme all trial holes as he may
require for locating existing services (water and other pipes, cables, etc.) in the path of sewers. Only
trial excavations specifically ordered by the Engineer will be paid for at the Contractor's rate per m.

1.7.

FORMATION LEVEL

Formation level on embankments and in trenches shall be the surface level of the ground obtained
after completion of the earthworks. Any excess depth unnecessarily excavated below formation level
shall be backfilled with approved selected material and compacted as directed by the Engineer. No
payment shall be made for the excess excavation or for its filling and compacting.

1.8.

SURFACE SOIL

Unless otherwise directed by the Engineer all surface soil shall be removed from the area to be used
for roads, structures, cuttings and embankments and stockpiled for re-use for any purposes such as
the soiling of slopes of cuttings and embankments and the preparation of beds for the cultivation of
trees and shrubs.
Surface soil shall be regarded as soil which on visual examination can be seen to have been broken
down by natural processes, agricultural cultivation and/or is seen to be capable of supporting
vegetation growth.
Surface soil shall be removed to an average depth as shown on the Drawings or as specified in the
Bills of Quantities.
The Contractor shall make his own arrangements for temporary storage sites for heaps of surface soil
either inside or outside the site of the Works to suit his convenience. The cost of all operations needed
in excavation, loading, carting, depositing and stacking together with arranging for the storage Sites,
the hire or purchase of land therefore and all necessary access roads for this purpose is to be
included in the item in the Bills of Quantities for stripping surface soil and is to be quoted whatever the
nature of the underlying sub-soil.
All unsuitable soil comprising of underlying surface soil shall be excavated and run to spoil in
accordance with the appropriate Clause.

1.9.

DEMOLITIONS AND ALTERATION

(1)

The work shall be carried out in such a manner as to cause as little inconvenience as
practicable to the occupants of the premises and adjoining premises and the public.

(2)

The debris shall be sprinkled with water to prevent dust arising and all proper screens and
protection shall be provided to the satisfaction of the Engineer.

(3)

The Contractor must provide all necessary requisite shoring, needling and strutting or other
supports incidental to the demolition and / or alteration work and alter and adapt all such
temporary works as may be necessary from time to time, and finally clear away and make good
all that which is disturbed.

(4)

Where materials from the demolitions and dismantling are described as "remove from site" they
shall become property of the Contractor. He shall include in his rates for the disposal of such
materials together with all associated costs and he shall adjust his rates for any credit which he
is prepared to allow on such materials.

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Programme South: Tra Vinh, Vietnam

Tender Documents
WWTP
III.2 Part A: Civil Works and Buildings

(5)

Cesspits, septic tanks, pools, pits, chambers and tanks (out of any material) to be demolished
shall be taken down to a depth of 1 metres below the respective ground or formation level,
properly cleaned out and filled in compacted layers with approved material.

(6)

Used septic tanks to be demolished shall be replaced by temporary tanks or removed partially
only, thus the remaining part / temporary tank guarantees the functionality until finalising of the
network. After completion of the sewage network the remaining septic tanks shall be cleaned,
removed and backfilled with appropriate material and compacted.

1.10.

PROGRAMME FOR DEMOLITIONS AND ALTERATIONS

A programme of the demolitions and alterations shall be drawn up by the Contractor and agreed by all
parties affected by the works. Any divergence from this programme requires prior agreement from
these parties and close liaison shall be maintained through the Engineer.

1.11.

RIGHT OF WAY

(1)

Right of way shall be the area(s) allocated to the Contractor to enable execution of the works in
accordance with the Contract. Due to physical statutory or other special conditions, the working
width of right of way may be restricted (including restricted access to working sites). The
Contractor is deemed to have included in his Contract Price all costs encountered for complying
with such restrictions.

(2)

In general, the maximum working width (Right of Way) for any section of trench work for sewers
and/or pressure mains in agricultural land, garden, etc. shall be not more than 8 meters. For
access to the site the working width shall be not more then 4 m. For isolated compact sites an all
around width of 8 m beyond the net sizes of the units will be allowed, unless the area is
otherwise defined by the Engineer or constrained by site conditions.

(3)

In case the Contractor requires areas outside the allocated right of way he may, with the prior
agreement of the Engineer, negotiate these on his own behalf and shall be responsible for all
costs involved and for the reinstatement after completion of permanent works.

(4)

Prior to commencement of works, the Contractor shall record on drawings the location and
dimensions of any channels, buildings, structures, walls, fences located within an area of 20 m
measured from the centre line of pipes or from the outer edge of structures to be executed.
These drawings together with a written description of the condition of such structures shall be
submitted in duplicate to the Engineer 14 days before start of excavation works.

(5)

All fences, walls, buildings, structures, buildings, etc. affected by the Contractor's work shall be
reinstated to the satisfaction of the owners and the Engineer.

(6)

Trees within the right of way shall only be cut down only after having received the owners and
the Engineer's permission. Any damage to trees, whether accidental or otherwise, shall be
reported to the Engineer and are to be made good by the Contractor.

(7)

The Completion Certificate, as per Clause 48 of the Conditions of Contract, for any section of
works will only be issued if the Contractor submits together with his application a written
statement of the owner confirming that reinstatement of land, roads, etc. has been carried out to
the owners satisfaction.

The Contractor is deemed to have included in his Contract price all costs encountered for complying
with such restrictions, especially in the old towns and old quarters.

1.12.

SOILING OF SIDE SLOPES AND VERGES

Soiling and compacting of side slopes to cuttings and embankments shall be carried out to an even
surface with a thickness within the range of 10 cm - 20 cm, or in the case of verges as stated in the Bill
of Quantities with surface soil as previously stockpiled or from an approved source.

CES / NAGECCO
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Programme South: Tra Vinh, Vietnam

1.13.

Tender Documents
WWTP
III.2 Part A: Civil Works and Buildings

CLASSIFICATION OF EXCAVATION

Excavation shall be paid in metres of trench length for all classes at the same price mentioned in the
Bill of Quantities. Excavation in Class I shall be paid as extra over the excavation prices. The latest
shall be in m. The definitions of Classes II and III do not have any influence on the BoQ and they are
understood to mean general excavation. The difference is mentioned here only for other purposes.
Class I:
"Rock" or "Hard Material" shall include all material which, in the opinion of the Engineer, requires
blasting or the use of metal wedges and sledge hammers or the use of compressed air drilling for its
removal or cannot be extracted by ripping with a tractor of at least 180 hp and rear-mounted heavyduty ripper. Individual boulders greater than 0.2 m in volume shall be included in this class when their
nature and size are such that they cannot be removed without recourse to one of these methods.
Where a portion of excavation contains 50% or more by volume of boulders of this order, such portion
shall be considered as Class 1 material throughout.
Class II:
"Compacted Gravel", "Slightly Decomposed" or "Altered Rock" shall include all material such as
consolidated murram and altered or stratified rock, stones, or boulders less than 0.2 m in volume,
which are harder than "normal" or "soft" material in that they may be extracted by ripping, as defined in
Class 1, or in confined spaces, by hand excavation by using compressor tools, providing all
reasonable steps to the satisfaction of the Engineer, have been taken to facilitate the removal of the
material by other methods.
Class III:
"Normal" or "Soft Material" shall include weathered or decomposed rock and all material which, in the
opinion of the Engineer, does not require blasting or metal wedges and sledge hammers or
compressed air drilling, ripping or rooting.
A detailed summary to aid this classification is given in Table III.3-1
No additional allowances will be made for any material being wet or dry.
The Engineer or his representative and the Contractor or his representative shall be present during
classification of material in question for excavation.
All necessary precautions shall be taken to preserve the excavation material below and beyond the
lines of all excavation in the soundest possible condition.
All damage to the Works due to the Contractors operations shall be repaired by and at the expense of
the Contractor except when over excavation is ordered in writing by the Engineer.
In excavation of Class 1 (hard) material isolated edges of undisturbed material may extend up to
15 cm within the prescribed lines.
Excavation of Class 1 - Material beyond the established lines shall be re-filled with approved selected
material or plain concrete at the expense of the Contractor.
All excavation shall be classified either as unsuitable material or as suitable material.
Unsuitable material shall comprise:
(ii)

Material from swamps or marshes, silt, perishable material, slurry or mud, or

(iii)

Any Material:
(a)

which is a highly organic clay or silt,

(b)

which is clay having a liquid limit exceeding 80 and or a plasticity index exceeding 55;

(c)

which is outside the limits of moisture content specified in the earthworks series of
Clauses either when excavated or thereafter;

(d)

which is susceptible to spontaneous combustion;

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(e)

Tender Documents
WWTP
III.2 Part A: Civil Works and Buildings

consisting of such domestic refuse which by virtue of its physical or chemical


composition or moisture content will not compact to form a stable fill.

Suitable material shall comprise all that are acceptable in accordance with the requirements of the
Specification for use in the Works, whether obtained from within or without the Site. Any reference in
this Specification to suitable material and unsuitable material, shall have the meanings defined above.
For the purpose of selection for use in earthworks all common excavation shall be classified as either
plastic or non-plastic. Non-plastic materials shall be those on which it is impossible to carry out a
plasticity index test and shall include "coarse grained non-cohesive material" shown in Table III.3-2,
silts and other materials which in the opinion of the Engineer are readily self- draining.
Plastic materials shall be all other materials included in the above mentioned Table as "fine grained
cohesive materials".
TABLE III.2-1: Material Classification
Description

Class I

Class II

Class III

Typical Material

Black volcanic rocks


Trachyte, Phonolyte and
Ignimbrite

Altered rocks
Agglomerate and Tuff

Weathered rock and


Soils

Hammer Blow

Solid note from ringing


to a dully sound

Drummy noise or
crushes pieces

Dents sample

Pliers Crushing

Not possible for Grani


fracture

Fractures or crushes
small piece

50 mm dia. Core in
Hand

Cannot break 500 mm


long piece

Can break 300 mm


piece

Can be crushed into


pieces

Soaked in water for


One hour

No change

Some change on
weaker pieces

Disintegrates in the
hand after soaking

Expected Crushing
Strength

Above 40 N/mm

1.5 to 40 N/mm

Below 1.5 N/mm

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Programme South: Tra Vinh, Vietnam

Tender Documents
WWTP
III.2 Part A: Civil Works and Buildings

TABLE III.2-2: Identification of Soil Types


Basic Soil
Type

Particle size
(mm)

Very
coarse
soil

BOULDERS

Visual Identification

Nature and
Plasticity

Only seen complete in pits or exposure

Scale of Secondary Constituents


with coarse soils

200
COBBLES

Composite Soil Types


(mixture of basic soil types)

Often difficult to recover from boreholes


60

Term

Particle shape:

% of clay or silt

Angular
Subangular
coarse

Easily visible to naked eye; particle shape


can be described; grading can be described
20

slightly clayey

GRAVEL

Subrounded
Rounded

or
slightly silty

under 5%

SAND

Flat
Elongate
- clayey

Coarse Soils
Over 65% sand and gravel sizes

GRAVELS

medium

GRAVEL

Well graded: wide range of grain sizes, well

or

distributed. Poorly graded: not well graded.


6

5 to 15%

- silty

SAND

very clayey

GRAVEL

(May be uniform: size of most particles lies


between narrow limits; or gap graded; an
intermediate size of particle is markedly

fine

under represented)

or
Texture:

very silty

15 to 35%

SAND

2
coarse

Visible to the naked eye; very little or no

Rough

cohesion when dry; grading can be described

Smooth

0.6

Polished

Sandy GRAVEL

Sand or Gravel and


Important second constit-

Gravelly SAND

uent of the coarse fraction

Well graded: wide range of grain sizes, well


SANDS

medium

distributed. Poorly graded: not well graded.


0.2

(May be uniform: size of most particles lies


between narrow limits; or gap graded; an

fine

intermediate size of particle is markedly


0.06

coarse

Fine Soils
Over 35% sand and clay sizes.

0.02

under represented)
Only coarse silt barely visible to naked eye;

Non plastic

exhibits little plasticity and marked dilatancy;

or low

slightly granular or silky to the touch.

plasticity

Term

% of sand

Disintegrates in water; lumps dry quikly;


SILTS

medium

or gravel

looses cohesion but can be powdered


0.006 easily between fingers.

sandy

CLAY

0.002

gravelly

SILT

fine

or
Dry lumps can be broken but not powdered

plasticity

under water but more slowly than silt; smooth

(Lean clay)

to the touch; exhibits plasticity but no dilatancy;


CLAYS

- CLAY SILT

under 35%

Examples of composite types

sticks to the fingures and dries slowly; shrinks


appreciably on drying usually shows cracks.
these properties to a moderate to high degree
respectively.

ORGANIC

Loose, brown, subangular very sandy,


High plasticity
(Fat clay)

fine to coarse GRAVEL with small


pockets of soft clay.
Medium dense, light brown, clayey, fine
and medium sand.

CLAY-SILT or Varies
SAND

Contains substantial amounts of organic

Stiff, orange brown, fissured sandy CLAY.

vegetable matter.
Predominantly plant remains usually dark

PEATS

35 to 65%

Intermediate

between the fingers; they can also disintegrate

Intermediate and high plasticity clays show

Organic Soils

Scale of secondary constituents with fine soils

Varies

Firm, brown, thinly laminated SILT and CLAY

brown or black in colour, often with distinctive


smell; low bulk density.

CES / NAGECCO
TV.TD.C23 - V3, S2 Part A Civil Works (rev. 2008-07-31).doc

Plastic, brown, amorphous PEAT

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Wastewater Disposal in Provincial Towns


Programme South: Tra Vinh, Vietnam

1.14.

Tender Documents
WWTP
III.2 Part A: Civil Works and Buildings

STORAGE AND HANDLING OF EXPLOSIVES AND BLASTING

According to Vietnamese regulations.

1.15.

EXCAVATION GENERAL

(1)

The excavation shall be taken out as nearly as possible to exact dimensions and shape so that
the minimum of filling in will afterwards be necessary. The Contractor shall keep the sides of
excavation true by struts, waling, poling-boards, sheeting, bracing or otherwise and the
supporting timbering shall be of sound construction and be sufficiently watertight to permit the
excavation, concreting, etc. being carried out satisfactorily.

(2)

The Contractor shall plan and organise his work in such a way that all excavations in a section
of street or alleyway are carried out in a coordinated manner and in the shortest reasonable
time. All works to be carried out in a section shall be reviewed and identified and a detailed
programme prepared for approval. The programme shall take into account to carry out the
works requiring the deepest excavation first, then the next deepest and so on until the work is
completed. The need to re-excavate for different parts of the work shall be avoided.

(3)

The Contractor shall be responsible for the stability of all excavations and trenches.

(4)

The Contractor shall examine the site and familiarise himself with the nature of the ground,
excavations methods to be applied and physical obstructions and conditions on site that may
affect his work and prices. Claims due to lack of knowledge of site conditions will not be
entertained.

(5)

The Contractor shall not execute any earthwork or excavation without having the Engineers
prior approval of the methods which he proposes to employ. He shall not thereafter modify any
such methods without the Engineers consent.

(6)

No section of trench longer than 100 m or the length between two manholes in public roads and
alleyways shall be open at any one time without the approval of the Engineer.

(7)

Once any excavation in roads and alleyways has been opened, the work shall continue without
interruption until the excavation is backfilled. If, for any reason, the work is interrupted for more
than three days, the Engineer may instruct that the excavation be temporarily backfilled until the
works recommences. If the Contractor fails to backfill the excavation within two days, the
Engineer may arrange for the excavation to be backfilled by others at the Contractors cost.

(8)

No excavations shall be opened before public holidays unless the work can be finished and the
excavation backfilled before the holiday. All works shall be tidied and left secure for the duration
of the holiday period.

(9)

It is to be expected that all excavations left unattended in public areas, even over night, will
accumulate rubbish bumped by the public. This rubbish shall be removed by the Contractor as
excavated material and it shall be in the Contractors best interest to keep the periods when
excavations are open and unattended to the minimum reasonably possible.

(10)

The rates for excavation shall include for:


(a)

Excavation in any material other than rock;

(b)

Bulking of excavated material which is suitable for backfilling (structures only);

(c)

Temporary shoring-up of pipe trenches and other excavations;

(d)

Safeguarding of adjacent buildings, structures against any damages;

(e)

Additional excavation to accommodate the temporary supports and all working space
necessary to carry out the work together with all subsequent backfilling and compaction
using approved excavated material;

(f)

Keeping the excavations clear of all type of water (rain, groundwater, sewage etc.) and all
dirt at all times;

(g)

Trimming, compacting and protecting the formation level;

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(11)

1.16.

Tender Documents
WWTP
III.2 Part A: Civil Works and Buildings

(h)

Formation of all temporary spoil heaps and all double handling necessary, and carting
away excess material to tip;

(i)

Protection of the works;

(j)

Safety measures to keep unauthorised people away from the construction site.

All surface areas for which items for stripping turf and top soil have not been included in the Bills
of Quantities and which have been disturbed by the Contractor's work or operations shall be
reinstated to the original condition including providing and laying top soil to a minimum
thickness of 150 mm, all at the Contractor's expense where directed by the Engineer.

EXISTING PUBLIC SERVICES

(1)

The Contractor shall at his costs obtain all information and data regarding all existing public
services, such as power cables, telephone cables, gas-, water and sewage pipes, and other
utilities in the contract area. These costs are deemed to be included in the Contract Price.
Notwithstanding any relevant information furnished by the Employer or the Engineer or any
public Authority, the Contractor shall be solely responsible for ascertaining from his own
inspection of the site the position of all pipes and cables within the site.

(2)

Existing pipes and services affected by the construction activities have to be adequately
secured in coordination with the respective entities. Where such pipes, cables, etc. are
damaged the Contractor shall arrange and pay for any repair works, replacement or costs
resulting from such damages.

(3)

Where in the drawings any crossing or parallel services are shown, their location and size are
approximate only; the indicated services do not necessarily represent all the existing services.

(4)

Unrecorded services, both formal and informal, might exist in the Contract area. The Contractor
shall inspect all working areas before commencing excavations to identify the presence and
location of all services within the excavations as far as possible. Other services may be
encountered during excavation. All services encountered shall be protected.

(5)

The Contractor shall before the start of excavation and upon the approval of the Engineer
establish by means of trial excavations the location and dimensions of crossing service lines.

(6)

In all instances where existing services are encountered which obstruct the Permanent Works,
the required measures to deviate the services or amend the design shall be agreed with the
Employer and/or Engineer and confirmed by Site Instruction.

(7)

If services are to be crossed at the same level as water supply pipes, then the existing service
line can be passed over by means of deviations in the joints up to a deviation of 15 cm,
provided this does not result in a high point in the water pipeline. In the case of passing below
existing services, this can be done up to a deviation of 45 cm by the same method. For greater
deviations from the indicated levels, the existing service lines have to be passed in adequate
depth by means of installing bends, as far as the installation of water supply pipes is concerned.

(8)

As far as the implementation of gravity sewer lines is concerned, the Contractor to deviate all
existing services crossing at the same level, or within a range up to 0.50 m (measured from the
invert level of the gravity sewer pipe) from the projected sewer pipes. All costs for deviating
existing services in this respect are deemed to be included in the rates.

(9)

The Contractor shall allow in his rates for careful dismantling, temporary storing and, upon
inspection and decision of the relevant utility company, discarding of existing water installations
(pipes, fittings) encountered in the course of excavation works.

(10)

Where in the opinion of the Engineer construction of the works cannot be reasonably carried out
unless the sewer, pipe, cable, other service is permanently severed or permanently diverted or
permanently supported, he will instruct the Contractor to provide all necessary facilities and
access for the Government Department or public utility company which shall carry out such
works or shall instruct the Contractor to execute these works.

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1.17.

Tender Documents
WWTP
III.2 Part A: Civil Works and Buildings

MECHANICAL EXCAVATION

(i)

A mechanical excavator shall be employed by the Contractor only if the sub-soil is suitable
and will allow the timbering of the trenches or other excavations to be kept sufficiently closed
up to ensure that no slips fall or disturbance of the ground takes place or there are no pipes,
cables, mains or other services or property which may be disturbed or damaged by its use.

(ii)

When mechanical excavators are used, a sufficient depth of materials shall be left over the
bottom of the excavations to ensure that the ground at finished excavation level is not
damaged or disturbed in any way. The excavations shall then be completed by hand to the
finished levels required.

1.18.

CUTTING OF ROAD SURFACE

The Contractor shall carry out the cuttings of road surface in accordance with drawings.
Road surface cutting shall be performed prior excavation works in a careful manner in order to avoid
any damages to the remaining parts of the road; cut road surface shall be removed immediate to an
approved dump site by the Contractor on his own costs.

1.19.

TRENCH EXCAVATION

(1)

The line and level of trenches shall be as shown on the Contractors shop drawings or as
directed by the Engineer.

(2)

Before commencing excavation, the alignment of the trench shall be pegged out accurately and
the ground level shall be agreed to with the Engineer. Strong safety sight rails shall be then
fixed and maintained at each change of gradient and at a distribution board distance not
exceeding 25 m.

(3)

No length of trench excavation shall start until pipes, pre-cast culverts, pre-cast manholes,
fittings etc. to be laid in that length are available on site.

(4)

Any widening or deepening of trench necessary to accommodate curves, bends, joints, etc.
shall be considered as over break.

(5)

Trenches shall be excavated to the depth as indicated in the section drawing for excavation, to
ensure, after consolidation of the backfilling, a minimum cover of 500 mm, measured from
ground level to the top of the pipe shall be ensured. Depending on the static calculation for
pipes and culverts additional practical measures shall be proposed by the Contractor.

(6)

The excavation shall be made in open cutting unless tunnelling or heading is specified or
approved by the Engineer.

(7)

Trench excavation shall be carried out by such methods and to such lines, dimensions and
depth as required for the proper construction of the works. Trenches for sewers shall be
excavated to the lines and depths shown on the Drawings, or as directed by the Engineer, and
shall be of sufficient width to give an equal clearance on both sides of the barrel of the pipe or
pipes such that the total trench width is 3/2 'D' where 'D' is the outside diameter of the pipe or
the average outside diameter of the group of sewers or will be equal to the outside diameter or
the sewer plus 30 cm on each side, whichever is bigger. For sewers bedded in concrete
sections, the breadth of concrete bedding for the pipes will be equal to the width of the trench.
Excavation for manholes, inspection chambers or any other water works structure shall be
carried out to the levels and outlines of such structures, and the rates shall include for any
additional excavation or other temporary Works required.

(8)

If in the opinion of the Engineer due to the fault of the Contractor the ground becomes
weathered prior to the construction of sewers and/or other structures, the Contractor shall
remove the weathered soil and replace it with suitable compacted material to the original
formation level at his own expense.

(9)

Where sewers are not laid on concrete the bottoms of the trenches as excavated, shall be
smooth and shall be free from stones or other projections. Holes cut out at the joints shall be of
as small a size as possible throughout their entire length. The trench shall be dug to within

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15 cm of its formation and proper grade pegs shall then be set in the bottom of the trench by the
Contractor for the accurate taking out of the rest of the excavation. Grooves about two inches
deep shall be cut across the trench at the required positions to enable the easy removal of pipe
slings.
(10)

The trench shall be excavated to the depth as indicated in the detailed excavation drawing and
be refilled (according to drawings) with approved sand.

(11)

The materials excavated from trenches shall be laid completely and neatly on the sides of the
trench except where in the opinion of the Engineer's Representative this would so obstruct a
road or footpath as to prevent the passage of traffic or pedestrians. In such cases the
Contractor must dig out the sewers trench in such lengths as directed and keep his excavated
material at such a distance as may seem advisable, and the rates shall be deemed to cover for
this.

(12)

No sewers shall be laid and no excavation filled in or covered with concrete until the formation
has been inspected and the permission to proceed with the Work obtained.

(13)

Where sewers are to be laid under a road formation or in open country, or in cutting, trenches
shall generally be excavated after the earthwork is completed. The Engineer may permit these
pipe trenches to be excavated before the earthwork is complete.

(14)

The unit of measurement for the excavation of trenches shall be per linear metre, and the
average depth of excavation. No allowance will be made for bulking. Unless otherwise
indicated, for manholes and inspection chambers and other structures, the unit of excavation
will be per number. No allowance will be made for bulking.

(15)

The rates for excavation of trenches in "normal" material shall include removal of all material
except "rock", selecting and segregating material to be backfilled in special layers, supporting or
sheeting, shoring and strutting, any additional working space or room for timbering or sheeting
required, dealing with surface water, maintenance of the trench, and all labour, tools, materials,
plants, supervision, overheads and profit.

(16)

The provisions of above Clause shall apply to the rates of excavation in "rock" and in addition
the Contractor shall also allow in his rates for back-filling the invert with Class 15 concrete or
other materials as directed by the Engineer and removing to a spoil dump all "rock" excavated.

(17)

The rates for trench excavation shall include for working along the line of existing water pipe
trenches or in close proximity to existing water pipes as the case may be. Rates should include
for excavations encroaching on or adjacent to service trenches.

(18)

Subject to any specific requirements of the Contract the backfilling and temporary surface
reinstatement of trench excavation shall be commenced and be completed as soon as
reasonably practicable after the pipes have been laid and joined. Pipe laying shall follow closely
upon the progress of trench excavation and the Contractor shall not permit unreasonably
excessive length of trenches to be open while awaiting testing of lines. Further, the Contractor
shall keep open only such trench lengths as are required to maintain his progress of Works,
which shall generally not exceed 150 m in any one work section.

(19)

If the Engineer considers that the Contractor is not complying with any of the foregoing
requirements, he may prohibit further trench excavation until he is satisfied with the progress of
laying and testing of sewers and backfilling of trench excavation.

(20)

All trench excavation and other work carried out within the limits of any roadway shall be
completed as rapidly as possible and not more than half the width of the carriage way shall be
obstructed at one time. The Contractor shall provide maintain and operate temporary traffic
controls of a type approved by the Engineer.

(21)

The rates for trench excavation shall include for working along the line of old pipe trenches or in
close proximity to old pipe trenches as the case may be. Rates should also include for
excavations encroaching on and adjacent to service trenches.

(22)

Trench excavations in roads and at thrust blocks in all locations shall have vertical sides and be
supported as required to ensure safe working.

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(23)

The Contractor shall at all times take special precautions to prevent settlement in the vicinity of
the trenches. The Contractor shall make good any settlement and repair any damage resulting
from such settlement at his own cost and all to be to the satisfaction of the Engineer, the land
owner and/or the related local Authority.

(24)

Road Authority shall mean the authority responsible for road construction and maintenance.

(25)

All top soil shall be carefully placed aside (but not in the road / alleyway etc) and afterwards
replaced in its original position.

(26)

Accurate records shall be kept by the Contractor of all services crossed in the course of work.
The Contractor shall prepare record drawings showing the location, level and details of the
services crossed, and such records shall be given daily to the Engineer.

1.20.

EXCAVATION FOR FOUNDATIONS

(i)

Foundations shall be excavated to such depths as the Engineer may direct and no concrete or
other material shall be placed until the foundations have been examined and approved. Due
notice shall be given to the Engineer's Representative to enable him to examine foundations
well in advance.

(ii)

The Engineer may direct that a layer of excavation of not less than 75 mm thickness shall be left
undisturbed and subsequently taken out by hand immediately before the concrete or other work
is placed.

(iii)

If in the opinion of the Engineer due to the fault of the Contractor the ground becomes
weathered prior to the placing of concrete or other material the Contractor shall remove the
weathered soil and replace it with concrete Class B 15 (C10/15) to the original formation level at
his own expense.

(iv)

The Contractor shall draw the attention of the Engineer's Representative to any patches of soft
ground in the excavations and he shall excavate to such extra depth as the Engineer may direct
and fill up with concrete Class B 15 (C10/15). Payment for this Work will be made at the rates
tendered.

1.21.

EXCAVATION OF SHAFTS FOR PIPE JACKING

Excavation of shafts for pipe jacking shall be carried out with the same provisions as specified in
generally specified and as follows.
No excavation for shafts for pipe jacking shall be commenced until the Contractors method statement
for pipe jacking, has been approved by the Engineer. Approval of the Contractors method statement
shall not relieve the Contractor of his obligations or liabilities under the Contract.
The method statement shall include those items listed in Clause 1.2 and, in addition, the method of
ground treatment for the floor of shafts and for the driving/receiving face where jacking pipes are to
penetrate through sheeting.
All excavation for shafts for pipe jacking shall be carried out in accordance with the approved method
statement.

1.22.

EXCAVATION IN EXCESS

If any part of a trench or foundation is by Contractor's error excavated deeper and/or wider than is
required, the extra depth and/or width shall be made good at the Contractor's expense with Class B15
concrete or otherwise as the Engineer may require.

1.23.

FORMING OF EMBANKMENTS

The Contractor shall carry out the forming of embankments in accordance with the Drawings and shall
adhere to the slopes, level, depths and heights shown thereon.
Unless otherwise directed or permitted by the Engineer, all suitable excavated materials shall be used
to form embankments. All such excavated material which is surplus to this requirement, shall be
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disposed off in tips to be provided in accordance with appropriate Clause. Any material which
according to the Specification requirements is unsuitable for forming embankments, shall be similarly
disposed off.
All filling material other than rock in embankments or below formation level in cuttings shall be
deposited in layers not exceeding 30 cm loose depth unless as a result of compaction trials the
Engineer approves spreading to a greater depth up to a maximum of 35 cm loose depth, each layer
being well compacted, to ensure that a value of 95% Proctor is achieved. Each layer shall extend over
the full width of the embankment and shall be completed in accordance with the requirements of this
Specification.
Rock used in rock-fill embankment shall be of such size that it can be deposited in horizontal layers
each not exceeding 45 cm loose depth and extending over the full width of the embankment except for
any specified external cover to slopes or new formation level. The materials shall be spread and
levelled by a crawler tractor weighing not less than 15 tons. Each layer shall consist of reasonably well
graded rock and all large voids shall be filled with broken fragments before the next layer is placed.
The top surface and side slopes of embankments formed shall be thoroughly blinded with approved
fine graded material to seal the surface. Such material may be surface soil on side slopes.
During the construction of embankments the Contractor shall control and direct constructional traffic
uniformly over their full width.
Fill material shall not be stock-piled on embankments, unless this is permitted by the Engineer.
Should the quantity of excavation from the Works, including that from any widened cuttings, be
insufficient to make up the embankments, the deficiency shall be made good by approved imported
suitable material and the Contractor shall be responsible for locating and obtaining such material.
Where materials of different characteristics are readily available those of relatively high-bearing
capacity shall be placed in the top-most (60 cm) below formation level.
The completion of embankments shall unless otherwise permitted by the Engineer, be undertaken in
two stages. First the area shall be brought up to a level of 15 cm above formation level whereupon
constructional traffic may continue to be allowed to use the surface so formed. Secondly, when it is
necessary to complete to formation level, this excess of material shall be trimmed off as a single
operation and disposed off either elsewhere in the Works if regarded by the Engineer as suitable
material or if not, run to spoil.
When the height above formation level has been reduced below 15 cm the movement and use of
construction Plant other than that used to complete this operation, shall be in accordance with the
requirements of the Engineer.
This trimming operation shall be regarded for access roads as the commencement of construction of
the pavement.

1.24.

SIDE SLOPES

Should the slopes of any cutting be excavated beyond the widths shown on the Drawings or directed
by the Engineer, the Contractor shall make good each affected area in a manner satisfactory to the
Engineer.

1.25.

COMPACTION OF SOIL

All filling material used in earthworks shall be compacted to specification by plant approved by the
Engineer for that purpose.
The Contractor shall submit to the Engineer for approval his proposals for the compaction of each
main type of material to be used in the embankments, including those in relation to the types of Plant,
the number of passes and the loose depth of layer. The Contractor shall carry out compaction trials,
supplemented by any necessary laboratory investigations as required by the Engineer, using the
procedure proposed by the Contractor for the earthworks, and shall satisfy the Engineer that all the
specified requirements regarding compaction can be achieved. Compaction trial with the main types of
material likely to be encountered shall be completed before the Works with the corresponding
materials will be allowed to commence.
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Compaction works in embankments shall be carried out only when the material has such a moisture
content as it is within the range from 1 per cent wetter to 2 per cent drier than the moisture content of
the material in cuttings or borrow pits when measured on samples obtained from at least 30 cm above
the level of the water table as indicated by the presence of free water in the excavation. Nevertheless,
if with any material the Engineer doubts whether satisfaction will be obtained within the above
moisture limits, he may require compaction to proceed only when the limits of moisture content for the
compaction are within the range of the optimum moisture content as determined by the laboratory
compaction test method.
If any such material on excavation is too wet for satisfactory compaction and the Engineer orders the
moisture content to be lowered or raised, such Work shall be treated as included in the rates. All
adjustments of moisture content shall be carried out in such a way that the specified moisture content
remains uniform throughout compaction.
If the Contractor allows the moisture content of suitable non-plastic materials to change after
excavation to a value unsuitable for compaction, he shall raise or lower the moisture content as
required above, or the Contractor shall, if so directed by the Engineer, run the material to spoil and
replace it with an equal quantity of material suitable for compaction.
Work shall be continued until a state of compaction is reached throughout the embankments, including
especially the slopes of embankments (and the immediate approaches to bridge abutments) such that
at least 9 out of every 10 consecutive samples taken of the compacted material have a relative
compaction determined of at least the following percentage of the maximum density of optimum
moisture content:
(a) For the first 15 cm below formation level a maximum density of 100 per cent.
(b) For the remainder below formation a density of at least 95 as mentioned in the Bills of Quantities
and as directed by the Engineer.
If with non-plastic material, the compacted material has become dry in the interval between the
completion of compaction and the measurement of the state of compaction, then the moisture content
to be used for the calculation of the air content shall be the mean moisture content for the compaction
of such materials as specified above.
If ordered by the Engineer, materials proposed for use as compacted fill (other than the suitable
materials eventually extracted at the same location on the Site) shall be tested on Site in accordance
with the procedures described in DIN 18196 or other internationally recognised procedures to
determine its characteristics and suitability.
Compacted fill shall consist of approved material, spread and compacted in layers approximately
horizontal and of uniform thickness with a slight outward slope and of a compacted depth not
exceeding 0.20 metres after compaction.
Soil lumps larger than 0.10 m in size shall be broken before compaction. The moisture content of the
soil shall be carefully controlled either by natural drying or wetting with a fine spray before filling.
Compaction shall be carried out by mechanical rollers, power rammers, vibrotampers, vibrating plate
compactors or other approved plant so as to produce a dry density not less than 100% of the
maximum dry density determined in accordance with DIN 18126 or such other minimum dry density as
may be otherwise specified or ordered by the Engineer.

1.26.

EXCAVATION BELOW EMBANKMENT IN MATERIALS UNSUITABLE FOR


CONSTRUCTION

Before forming the embankment any unsuitable material naturally occurring on the Site shall be
removed to such depths and over such area as may be directed by the Engineer and shall be run to
spoil. The resultant excavation shall be backfilled with suitable material deposited and compacted as
specified for the forming of embankments. Nevertheless, where in these circumstances such backfill
has to be deposited below standing water, compaction may be omitted provided that the material used
is completely free draining.
Where unsuitable material is encountered in the sub-grade it shall be excavated to such depths and
over such area as the Engineer shall direct and be run to spoil. The resultant excavation shall be
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backfilled with suitable material deposited in layers each not exceeding 25 cm loose depth and
compacted in the manner specified for the forming of embankments. Nevertheless, where in these
circumstances such backfill has to be deposited below standing water, compaction may be carried out
if the material used is completely free draining.

1.27.

EXCAVATIONS FOR FOUNDATION PITS AND TRENCHES

Pits and trenches for foundations shall be taken out to the levels and dimensions shown on the
Drawings or to such other levels and dimensions as the Engineer may direct. The bottoms of all
excavations shall be carefully levelled and if necessary stepped or benched horizontally. Any pockets
of soft material or loose rock and fissures in the bottoms of pits and trenches shall be removed and the
cavities so formed, filled with concrete of the appropriate Class. When any excavation has been taken
out and trimmed to the levels and dimensions shown on the Drawings or directed by the Engineer, the
Engineer shall be informed accordingly so that he may inspect the completed pit or trench and no
excavation shall be filled in or covered with concrete until it has been authorised to proceed with the
work. All surplus excavated materials from such excavations not required for refilling shall be
deposited in embankments, or otherwise disposed off, as directed. All excavations shall be kept dry,
and all bailing and pumping, timbering, shoring and supporting of sides that may be required, and any
refilling, ramming and disposal of surplus materials necessary in carrying out the excavations for
foundation pits and trenches shall be included in the prices for excavation.

1.28.

FOUNDATION PITS AND TRENCHES OF GREATER WIDTH AND DEPTH THAN


NECESSARY

The Contractor shall not be entitled to payment in respect of excavation to any greater extent, whether
horizontally or vertically, than is necessary to receive any structure for which the excavation is
intended, except where a separate item is provided for additional excavation for Working Space,
timbering or other temporary work. Excavation to a greater depth or width than is directed shall be
made good with concrete of the appropriate Class as determined by the Engineer who may allow
excavation to a greater width than is necessary to be filled and tightly packed with suitable material.

1.29.

COMPLETION OF EARTHWORKS

The formation shall be properly shaped and regulated and compacted. When completed the formation
shall be at the required level and generally parallel to the required finished surface.

1.30.

SUPPORTING EXCAVATION

If required or instructed by the Engineer, all sides of excavation shall be supported to prevent
settlement or slip falls of ground, structures, and services adjacent to the excavation. Excavation
required providing space for supports and working area as well as slip falls and settlement of ground
adjacent to excavation are to be considered as over break. Remedial measures, repairs and related
costs encountered due to settlement, slip falls, damages are to be carried out and paid for by the
Contractor.

1.31.

OPEN DITCHES

Open ditches for drainage purposes shall be cut where and of such cross section as the Engineer
shall direct and where so required by him they shall be constructed before the cuttings are opened or
the embankments begun. The sides shall be dressed fair throughout and the bottoms accurately
graded so as to carry off the water to the outlet to be provided. The material excavated from the
ditches shall be disposed off as directed by the Engineer.

1.32.

CROSSING WATERCOURSES

Where the excavation crosses streams, ditches, culverts and other watercourses the Contractor shall
be deemed to have allowed for all the additional measures necessary for the proper construction of
the Works at these crossings including maintaining the full flow of water.

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1.33.

Tender Documents
WWTP
III.2 Part A: Civil Works and Buildings

DISPOSAL AND STORING OF EXCAVATED MATERIAL

(1i)

All surplus material arising from excavation shall be disposed off to a tip or tips to be provided
by the Contractor unless otherwise stated. The disposal tip and manner of disposal shall be to
the approval of the Engineer's Representative.

(2)

Where spoil from excavation is required for re-use as refill or for the formation of embankments,
the various types of material shall be kept separately and stored in convenient and approved
places.

(3)

Excavated material which is not required immediately or is unsuitable for reuse in the works
shall be disposed of as directed by the Engineer. The Contractor shall give the Engineer
adequate notice of his intention to spoil. Material ordered to be disposed of shall remain the
property of the Employer and shall be deposited at places designated by the Engineer.

(4)

Subject to any specific requirements of the Contract, the disposal of excavated material within
the site shall be at the Contractor's discretion but shall be arranged as to be acceptable to the
Engineer and to suit the overall requirements for the construction of the works. The Contractor
shall ensure that no excavated material which is suitable for and is required for reuse in the
works is disposed of outside the site.

(5)

The term "excavation" shall be deemed to include for disposing of excavated material in any of
the following ways:
(a)

Backfilling to excavation and completed structures, other than trench excavation, using
suitable excavated material and including placing in temporary spoil tips and any double
handling required;

(b)

Transporting selected excavated material to locations within the site where embankments
are to be constructed or where filling around structures is specified to be constructed as
embankment including tipping ready for spreading and compacting;

(c)

Disposal of surplus excavated material outside the site;

(d)

Top soil and excavated material suitable for grassing shall be deposited in temporary
separate spoil tips within the site;

(e)

Unsuitable material shall be disposed off as approved by the Engineer.

1.34.

ROAD APPROACHES AND ACCESS ROADS

The excavations and embankments in road approaches, junctions, access roads and fringe lands,
shall be of such form and dimensions as the Engineer may direct, and in all respects finished as
specified for those of the main carriageway. The materials arising from such excavation shall be
disposed off as directed by the Engineer.

1.35.

PIPE BEDDING AND EMBEDMENT

The bedding is defined as that portion of pipe zone between the trench sub-grade and the bottom of
the pipe. The embedment is defined as that portion of the pipe zone between the bedding and the top
of pipe zone at 300 mm above the top surface of the pipe.
Generally, sand bedding shall be to the dimensions given in the drawings and the Bill of Quantities.
The bedding material shall be clean hard coarse sand with the following grain size distribution:
TABLE III.2-3: Grain Size Distribution for Sand Bedding
Sieve Size
Passing
Sieve No.
Sieve No.
[mm]
[% by Weight]

Sieve Size
[mm]

Passing
[% by Weight]

15

9.510

100

30

0.707

35 59

19

4.760

90 100

34

0.354

8 30

22

2.830

75 100

38

0.177

0 10

26

1.410

55 90

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After trench excavation to the levels necessary, sand or crushed stone layer of minimum thickness of
100 mm shall be laid. The bedding shall be evenly spread and carefully compacted up to the level of
the underside of the pipe barrel and the surface worked to correct gradient.
After compacting the bedding, the Contractor shall perform a final trim using a string line for
establishing grade, such that each section when first laid will be continually in contact with the bedding
along the extreme bottom of the pipe.
After laying the sewer the embedment shall be brought up evenly on each side of the sewer in
carefully compacted layers not exceeding 150 mm thickness, to the required level.

1.36.

REFILLING OF SEWER TRENCHES

(i)

The soil filled around and over the top of the sewers as shown in the drawings shall be of sand
and/or sandy material free from stones. The filling shall be carried out with utmost care, special
attention being paid to tamping or material around the sewers and to joint holes so as to obtain
the greatest possible compactness and solidity. The soil shall if necessary, be screened to
exclude material which would damage the pipes. The backfill soil shall be replaced in layers of
not more than 15 cm thickness when compacted with hand (20 cm by mechanical compaction)
and where hand ramming is employed the number of men filling shall not be more than half the
number of men ramming. Where mechanical-ramming of the fill is employed, the machines shall
be to the approval of the Engineer and soil shall be replaced and well rammed down by hand for
a depth of not less than 60 cm to give sufficient cover to the sewers and obviate risk of damage
to them before the mechanical rammer is brought into operation. The rammer shall not cease to
be used on any length of trench until thorough compaction has been obtained. Compaction shall
be carried out such to ensure that value of 95% of maximum dry density is achieved. Trench
supports shall be carefully removed as the filling proceeds. The removal of such supports shall
not relieve the Contractor from his responsibility for the safety and stability of the works.

(ii)

The Contractor in excavating shall ensure that materials from strata containing no stones and
suitable for filling around the pipes as described above, shall be kept separately and used for
this purpose. The Contractor shall not be entitled to claim for any extra costs (as provided for
below) for screening if this requirement is not complied with. If no such strata occurs in the
excavation, the excavated material shall either be screened or suitable material transported to
the Site from other excavations as the Engineer shall direct. The cost of such work shall be
included in the rates for excavation in the Bills of Quantities.

1.37.

MAKING GOOD SUBSIDENCE AFTER REFILLING

All refilling whether over foundations or in trenches shall be thoroughly compacted by ramming and
any subsidence due to consolidation shall be made up by the Contractor at his own expense with
extra compacted material. Should subsidence occur after any top soil has been replaced, the top soil
shall first be removed before any hollows are made up before being re-laid.

1.38.

REINSTATEMENT OF SURFACES

(i)

All surfaces of roads, fields, paths, gardens, verges, etc. whether public or private which are
affected by the operations of the Contractor shall be temporarily restored by him in the first
instance and permanently reinstated in the second instance when the ground has consolidated
fully.

(ii)

The Contractor shall be responsible for the temporary reinstatement and permanent
reinstatement of all surfaces whether or not the area requiring restoration is within the limits of
his excavations if the necessity for the restoration arises from causes due to the operations of
the Contractor. The Contractor's prices shall include for restoring all surfaces so damaged to
their original condition as no extra payment will be made for any such work. The Contractor
shall take all necessary measures to ensure that no toxic materials which may cause damage to
vegetation or livestock or pollute streams or water-courses are used in any temporary
restoration or permanent reinstatement and shall indemnify the Employer against any claims
arising out of the use of such materials.

CES / NAGECCO
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(iii)

Tender Documents
WWTP
III.2 Part A: Civil Works and Buildings

Temporary restoration shall be carried out immediately after the excavations have been refilled
by returning the excavated material to the position from which it was removed and adding such
suitable materials as may be required and consolidating the various materials as the Work
proceeds in order to provide a surface that is adequate for the purpose that the original surface
fulfilled. Approved base course material shall be placed and compacted to 95% density 200 mm
in the top of all trenches and roadways.
Temporary surfaces shall be maintained in a condition satisfactory to the Engineer and/or
responsible Authority until the permanent reinstatement is made. In the case of roads and
streets the surface shall be necessary to consolidate the filling and keep the surface fit for
traffic, suitable material being added to all placed which have sunk or become rough.

(iv)

Permanent reinstatement shall not be made until the ground has consolidated permanently and
until sanction to do so is received from the Engineer. It shall be carried out with materials similar
to those which were used in the original Work to the entire satisfaction of the Engineer and/or
responsible Authority.

(v)

In grass surfaces the top soil shall be removed, stored and replaced after consolidation of the
filling and planted or seeded with approved grass. Should subsidence occur, it shall be made
good with additional top-soil and be replanted with grass or re- seeded. New grass shall be
planted if for any reason the grass fails to grow or is destroyed.

(vi)

The trenches, channels, gutters and kerbs shall be reinstated to the condition in which they
were before excavation was commenced. The final surface of the trench shall be flush with the
surrounding ground.

(vii)

If the work of restoration or reinstatement as carried out by the Contractor is not to the
satisfaction of the Engineer and/or the responsible Authority and should the Contractor not
remedy the defect forthwith, any remedial work considered necessary may be undertaken by
the Engineer and/or the responsible Authority and the cost thereof shall be borne by the
Contractor.

(viii)

If at any time any trench becomes dangerous, the Engineer shall be entitled to call upon the
Contractor to restore it to a proper condition at three hours' notice and should the Contractor fail
to carry out the work, have it done at the Contractor's expense.

(ix)

The Contractor shall include in his price for all materials and labour which he may have to
employ in reinstating the trenches and surfaces to their original condition to the satisfaction of
the responsible Authority.

1.39.

FORMING BANKS AND FILLED AREAS

(i)

Banks and filled areas shall be made and built up to the levels, dimensions and shapes shown
on the Drawings or as may be subsequently directed by the Engineer.

(ii)

Before any filling is started, the ground on which embankments are to be sited, shall be stripped
of all grass and topsoil and all roots, vegetable matters and other unsuitable substances
removed.

(iii)

The soil to be used in the banks and fill areas as shown on drawings shall be approved material
either borrowed or arising surplus from the excavations, the material being placed according to
its nature as shall be directed. Usually, coarse hard material shall be placed at the bottom of the
pile with the fine material and/or soil at the top or at the surface. Should there be insufficiency of
such material arising from the Works, the Contractor shall supply other approved material for
this purpose and shall be deemed to have included for such supply in his prices for filling. Any
subsidence shall be the Contractor's liability and he shall forthwith make them good to the
satisfaction of the Engineer.

(iv)

The filling shall be placed in layers not more than 15 cm thick, each layer being thoroughly
compacted to the satisfaction of the Engineer.

CES / NAGECCO
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1.40.
(1)

Tender Documents
WWTP
III.2 Part A: Civil Works and Buildings

EARTHWORKS TO BE KEPT FREE OF WATER


The Contractor shall arrange for the rapid disposal of water shed onto or entering the
earthworks from any source at any time during Construction, or of water which is shed onto the
completed subgrade, whether above or below the groundwater table, at all times, free from
flooding by storm water, percolating water, subsoil water, sewage water or sewage effluent by
pumping, bailing or other means. He shall provide within the Site where necessary, temporary
water-courses, ditches, drains, pumping or other means of maintaining the earthworks free from
standing water. Water discharged from the Site, shall not be run into a road but be carried direct
to an approved sewer, ditch or river through troughs, chutes or pipes.
Such provision shall include carrying out the work of forming the cuttings and embankments in
such a manner that their surfaces have at all times a sufficient minimum crossfall and where
practicable, a sufficient longitudinal gradient to enable them to shed water and prevent ponding.

(2)

In pumping out of water from excavations and in any lowering of the water tables, the
Contractor shall pay due regard to the stability of all structures. The Contractor shall at all times
provide on site sufficient pumping equipment for the needs of the Works.

(3)

The cost of compliance with the requirements of this Clause shall be covered in the rates for
earthworks. If the Engineer is dissatisfied with the measures taken by the Contractor to keep the
Works free of water, the Engineer shall be free to instruct the Contractor to adopt what
measures the Engineer may require. The cost of this Work shall be deemed to have been
included in the rates in the Bills of Quantities.

(4)

No water or sewage effluent shall be discharged into any water course, onto roads, tracks,
footpaths, yards or any other area used by vehicular or pedestrian traffic, unless approved by
the Engineer. Such permission shall not be granted unless the Contractor has provided efficient
settling basins or sand traps to retain all sand and other solids likely to settle. The permission to
discharge liquids shall be liable to be withdrawn at any time in the event of circumstances
arising and which in the opinion of the Engineer shall make such a discharge undesirable. The
Contractor shall have no right to claim in respect of withdrawal of such permission.

(5)

The Contractor shall take all precautions to avoid undermining of any part of the works or other
properties by pumping or else, but should undermining occur, he shall make good same to the
satisfaction of the Engineer at the Contractor's expenses.

(6)

In all cases where permission to use existing water courses, sewers, pipes for the discharge of
liquids has been granted, it will be under the condition that the Contractor cleans out such
facilities after completion of the works at the respective site.

(7)

It shall be considered whether the adopted dewatering scheme allows the sides of the
excavation to remain stable at all times and that excessive heave or rupture of the base does
not occur. Furthermore, care should be taken to prevent that the return of the groundwater
results in collapse of soils having sensitive structure e.g. loose sand.

(8)

The method of keeping excavation clear of water, dewatering and disposal of water, shall be
subject to the approval of the Engineer.

(9)

Where a structure is subject to uplift the Contractor shall reduce the ground water pressures so
that the structure is stable for the whole period of the construction.

(10)

The Contractor shall ensure that sufficient stand-by plant is available on Site at all times to
avoid any interruption to continuous dewatering. The equipment employed shall be such as to
provide the necessary data.

1.41.

SUPPORTS FOR FOUNDATION PITS AND TRENCHES

The sides of pits and trenches shall where necessary, be adequately supported to the satisfaction of
the Engineer by timber, sheet piling or other approved means. The costs of this work shall be included
in the rates inserted in the Bills of Quantities.
Details for sheet piling, where required, are to be submitted to the Engineer for approval. DIN 1054,
1055, 4017, 4026, and 4124 shall apply.

CES / NAGECCO
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1.42.

Tender Documents
WWTP
III.2 Part A: Civil Works and Buildings

REFILLING OF FOUNDATION PITS AND TRENCHES AND REMOVAL OF EXCAVATION


SUPPORTS

Refilling of foundation pits and trenches shall be carried out only after the foundation and structural
works within the excavation have been inspected and approved by the Engineer. Unless otherwise
directed by the Engineer, all filling shall consist of approved excavated materials which shall be
deposited and compacted, using approved Plant, in layers not exceeding 25 cm loose depth, to a dry
density not less than that of the adjoining soil. Timber sheeting and other excavation supports, shall be
carefully removed as the filling proceeds except as otherwise specified, but the removal of such
supports will not relieve the Contractor of his responsibility for the stability of the Works.
The number of separate layers deposited and compacted at any one time shall be subject to the
approval of the Engineer.

1.43.

USE OF VIBRATORY COMPACTION PLANT

Where vibratory rollers or other vibratory compaction Plant are used, the mechanism and vibration
shall be kept working continuously during compaction operations, except during period when the
Engineer permits or directs discontinuance of vibration.
Unless otherwise permitted by the Engineer, the frequency of vibration shall be maintained within the
range of amplitude and frequency recommended by the manufacturers of the Plant for the material to
be compacted.
The frequency shall be recorded by a tachometer indicating speed of rotation of any shaft producing
vibration.

1.44.

PROVISION OF SPOIL HEAPS

The Contractor shall provide spoil heaps at his own expense for the disposal of surplus materials and
all rubbish collected when clearing the site and during the Construction of the Works.

1.45.

TOPSOILING

Topsoil for planting grass shall be selected topsoil from approved stockpiles or materials from
excavation for embankment foundations or from stripping from borrow areas or other approved
sources.
The material shall contain the most fertile loam available and shall be free from excessive quantities of
grass, roots, weeds, sticks, stones or other objectionable materials.
Areas to receive the topsoil shall be brought to within 100 mm of the prescribed final cross-section at
all points and finished smooth and uniform before topsoil is applied.
Topsoil shall be evenly placed and spread over the graded area in one layer and shall be placed at
locations shown on the Drawings or designated by the Engineer.

1.46.

GRASSING

It is expected that it will be necessary to water the areas with new planted grass to ensure germination
and establishment of plants.
The Contractor shall provide for a temporary irrigation system to the approval of the Engineer and
shall irrigate the new planted grass at such times as the Engineer instructs.
The Contractor shall repair at his own expense any damage to the slopes or any part of the work
caused by excessive or irregular application of irrigation water.
Planting shall consist of ground preparation, furnishing approved grass, planting and covering the
planted grass and shall be completed on areas shown on the Drawings or as designated by the
Engineer.
All grass shall be of the creeping type at not greater than 200 mm grid spacing and shall be subject to
approval of the Engineer.

CES / NAGECCO
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Tender Documents
WWTP
III.2 Part A: Civil Works and Buildings

When the topsoil has been placed on the areas to be planted with grass, levelled and compacted to
finished grade, it shall be brought to a friable condition by harrowing or otherwise loosening to a depth
of maximum 100 mm. All lumps and clods shall be thoroughly broken by approved means.

1.47.

MEASUREMENT OF TOPSOILING AND GRASSING

Measurement for topsoiling and grassing shall be made according to the amount of square metres of
topsoiled areas measured in place to the lines and grades on the Drawings or as established by the
Engineer, and paid for at the rates per m tendered in the Bills of Quantities, which rate shall include
for all as specified, including supplying the grass seeds or sprigs.

1.48.

FORMATION OF FOOTPATHS

The ground under footpaths shall be trimmed to formation level and 5 cm thick pre-cast concrete
paving slabs shall be bedded on 5 cm thick layer of fine sand unless the Engineer directs otherwise.

1.49.

RUBBLE

Rubble for use in drains and backing to walls shall be of durable natural stone or large sized gravel. It
shall be of a size that will pass a 5 cm mesh-sieve and retained on a 2.5 cm mesh-sieve and it shall be
free from earth clay vegetation or other organic matter and shall contain no rubbish.

CES / NAGECCO
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2.

PILING

2.1.

GENERAL

Tender Documents
WWTP
III.2 Part A: Civil Works and Buildings

Pile foundation is required for supporting structures where the subsoil is considered to have
insufficient bearing capacity. The Contractor shall review the detailed design of these structures in
accordance with the Contract Conditions and Specification and the latest site investigation results
(provided as Annex to the Tender Documents) and shall determine the type of foundation required, the
number of piles and their working loads and the optimum arrangement of piles required for supporting
the structures.
Excavation, concrete, steel reinforcement, and steel casing where applicable shall conform to the
relevant Clauses of the Specification (reinforcement steel bars / concrete specifications). At least 21
days before the Contractor intends to commence piling work on the Site the Contractor shall submit for
the Engineers approval full details of his proposed piling system including the type and dimensions of
piles, reinforcement details and full design and driving calculations. The details to be submitted shall
include the Contractors proposals for equipment, temporary works and construction methods.
No work on piling shall commence on the Site until the Engineers approval to the Contractors
proposal has been received.
Notwithstanding the requirements outlined in this section, the design shall be entirely the Contractors
responsibility.

2.2.

TYPES OF PILES

Bearing piles shall be driven reinforced concrete, pre-cast concrete or cast in-situ concrete piles. For
the foundation of the sewers, manholes and all chambers timber-piling shall be used.
All concrete for piles shall be in sulphate resisting concrete.

2.3.

CONCRETE (PRE-CAST) PILING

2.3.1.

Design of Piles

Piles shall be generally designed in accordance with DIN and the materials and work shall conform to
the requirements of the Specification. Where there may be any conflict of the requirements between
the Specification and the DIN, the Specification shall take precedence.
Piles shall be designed to sustain the specified loads with settlements not exceeding those specified.
Allowance shall be made in the design for the incidence of negative skin friction where appropriate
and for resisting the necessary tensile forces due to the swelling and heave of any soil stratum.
Piles shall be designed to have a bearing capacity of at least 2.5 times the working load (working load
= design load).
The permissible loading of piles shall be modified where necessary to allow for particular conditions:
piles in close proximity or in groups, soil strength, groundwater level, and other relevant factors.
The piles shall be of sufficient cross-section and length, and configured in such a way to sustain the
loads designed or specified without settlement (of single piles combined with additional settlements
due to group action) exceeding the following:

Working load
1.5 working load
2 working load

allowable settlement 8 mm
allowable settlement 10 mm
allowable settlement 12 mm

These settlements shall include both permanent and elastic deflections. Measurement of the
settlement shall be made on first achieving the specified load. Measurement of the settlement shall be
made at the point of application of the load.
Where piles in place are subjected to handling, stacking and pitching or bending moments and/or
shear forces, these shall be combined with the vertical loads (either in compression or tension) to
satisfy the design requirements of DIN.

CES / NAGECCO
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Tender Documents
WWTP
III.2 Part A: Civil Works and Buildings

The average compressive stress in the concrete of bearing piles under working load shall not exceed
25% of the characteristic cube strength at 28 days, calculated on the total cross sectional area of the
pile shaft.

2.3.2.

Preliminary Test Piles

After the Engineer has approved the Contractors proposal and calculations for the proposed piling
system, preliminary test piles shall be constructed as instructed by the Engineer.
Static load tests shall be carried out in accordance with the DIN or ISSMFE Subcommittee on Field
and Laboratory Testings recommended procedure, Axial Pile Loading Test, Suggested Method,
published in the ASTM Geotechnical Testing Journal, June 1985, pp.79-90.
These shall be loaded to 2.0 times the working load to prove the design and system and to
demonstrate that the safe load requirements can be achieved by the piling method proposed.
The preliminary test piles shall be located in places proposed by the Contractor and approved by the
Engineer. The Engineer shall be given at least 48 hours notice of commencement of construction of
the preliminary pile which is to be test-loaded.
The preliminary test piles shall be constructed / installed in a manner similar to that to be used for the
construction of the working piles by the use of similar equipment and materials. Any variation will only
be permitted with the prior approval of the Engineer.
For the preliminary piles that are to be test loaded a detailed record of the progress during
construction / installation shall be made and submitted to the Engineer daily.
The pile shafts shall be terminated at the normal cut-off level or at some other level as required by the
Engineer.
The pile shafts shall be extended where necessary above the cut-off level or working piles so that
gauges and other apparatus to be used in the testing process will not be damaged by water or falling
debris and to permit exposure of the reinforcement.
Where the pile shaft is extended above the cut-off level of the working piles in soils that would
influence the load bearing capacity of the pile a sleeve shall be left in place during testing to eliminate
friction that would not arise in working piles.
If the cut-off level is below ground level and the shaft is not extended and there is a risk of the
borehole collapsing, a sleeve shall be left in place or inserted above the pile shaft or other means
satisfactory to the Engineer shall be employed. Adequate clearance shall be given between the top of
the pile shaft and the bottom of the sleeve to permit unrestricted movement of the pile.
For a pile that is tested in compression, the pile head or cap shall be formed to give a plane surface,
which is normal to the axis of the pile and sufficiently large to accommodate the loading and
settlement measuring equipment. The pile head or cap shall be adequately reinforced or protected to
prevent damage due to the concentrated application of load from the loading equipment.
The pile cap shall be concentric with the test pile and the joint between the cap and the pile shall have
a structural strength equivalent to that of the pile.
A sufficient clear space shall be made under any part of the cap projecting beyond the section of the
pile so that at the maximum anticipated settlement, load is not transmitted to the ground except
through the pile.
The connection between the pile and the loading equipment shall be constructed in such a manner as
to provide strength equal to the maximum load that is to be applied to the pile during the test with an
appropriate factor of safety on the structural design.
If the preliminary test pile fails to meet the requirements of the Specification, the piling system
proposed will be considered unsatisfactory. The Contractor shall then submit revised proposals and
calculations for the approval of the Engineer. Unless otherwise agreed by the Engineer any test pile
that has failed the preliminary test will be rejected and the Engineer may instruct the Contractor to
provide one or more further test piles and tests to prove his modified system, at the Contractors cost.

CES / NAGECCO
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2.3.3.

Tender Documents
WWTP
III.2 Part A: Civil Works and Buildings

Lengths and Tolerances

The Contractor shall determine the approximate lengths of piles by examination of the available
geotechnical information.
In case the available geotechnical information does not describe the ground conditions to a sufficient
depth to ensure safety additional soil investigations shall be suggested by the Contractor and initiated
on the Engineers approval.
Piles shall be constructed within the following tolerances:

in plan, at the working level of the piling rig 0.15 B in any direction from the designed position;
B = pile dimension (diameter or side);
1 in 75 from the vertical for a vertical pile;

The cross-sectional dimensions of the pile shall not be less than those proposed by the Contractor nor
should they exceed them by more than 0.015 B (B = pile dimension, diameter or side).
No face of a pre-cast pile shall deviate by more than 6 mm from a straight edge 3 m long joining two
points on that face, nor shall the centre of area of the pile at any cross section deviate more than
1/500 of the pile length from a line joining the centres of area of the ends of the pile.

2.3.3.1.

Sequence for Constructions

The sequence of construction of piles shall be to the approval of the Engineer and shall be arranged
so as to minimise the vertical and lateral displacement of piles already installed. Levels of the tops of
adjacent piles or the structures founded upon them or any other structures shall be measured at
intervals while a pile is being installed. Driven piles driven which have risen, shall be re-driven or
forced down to the original resistance.

2.3.3.2.

Driving Piles

The Contractor shall submit for the Engineers approval details regarding the suitability, efficiency and
energy of his driving equipment.
Pre-cast concrete piles shall not be driven until the concrete has achieved the specified characteristic
strength.
Cast-in-situ piles driven with steel casing shall be bottom driven using a casing that shall not distort or
buckle during driving. Concrete casing shall be driven on the pile shoe using a mandrel.
Each pile shall be driven continuously until the approved set and/or depth has been reached except
that the Engineer may permit the suspension of driving if he is satisfied that the rate of penetration
prior to cessation of driving will substantially re-established on its resumption or if he is satisfied that
the suspension of driving was beyond the control of the Contractor.
A follower (long dolly) shall not be used except with the approval of the Engineer who will then require
the set to be revised to take into account the reduction in the effectiveness of the hammer blow.
The final set of each pile shall be recorded either as the penetration in millimetres per 10 blows or as
the number of blows required to produce a penetration of 25 mm.
When a final set is being measured the following requirements shall be met:
1.

The exposed part of the pile shall be in good condition without damage or distortion

2.

The dolly and packing if any shall be in sound condition

3.

The hammer blow shall be in line with the pile axis and the impact surfaces shall be flat and at
right angles to the pile and hammer axis

4.

The hammer shall be in good condition, delivering adequate energy per blow, and operating
correctly

5.

The temporary compression of the pile shall be recorded if required by the Engineer.

CES / NAGECCO
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Tender Documents
WWTP
III.2 Part A: Civil Works and Buildings

The Contractor shall give adequate notice and provide all facilities to enable the Engineer to check
driving resistances. A set for purposes of the Contract shall only be taken in the presence of the
Engineer unless otherwise agreed.
At the start of the work and in new areas or sections a detailed driving record shall be obtained over
the full length of the first pile and during the last 3 m of driving of subsequent piles to establish the
behaviour of the piles.
The Contractor shall inform the Engineer without delay if an unexpected change in driving
characteristics is noted. A detailed record of driving resistance over the full length of the nearest
available pile shall be taken.
Re-drive checks if required shall be carried out by a procedure to be agreed by the Engineer.
Piles shall be driven in an approved sequence to minimise the detrimental effects of heave and lateral
displacement of the ground.
Measurements shall be taken to determine the movement of ground or any pile resulting from the
driving process when required by the Engineer.
Where piles have risen as a result of driving adjacent piles the Contractor shall submit to the Engineer
his proposals for correcting detrimentally affected piles and for avoidance or control of heave effects in
subsequent work
Jetting may be carried out only when approved by the Engineer and the Contractor shall submit
detailed proposals and it shall not normally be undertaken over the last 3 m of penetration.

2.3.3.3.

Repair and Lengthening of Piles

In preparation for repairing the head of a pile the concrete shall be cut off square at sound concrete to
expose the reinforcement and all loose particles shall be removed by wire brushing followed by
washing with water.
If the pile is to be subjected to further driving the head shall be replaced with concrete of an approved
class.
If the pile has been completely driven but the sound concrete is below cut-off level the pile shall be
made good to cut-off level with concrete of a class not inferior to that of the concrete of the pile.
In preparation for lengthening a normal reinforced pile the concrete shall be cut off square to expose a
sufficient length to ensure that the full strength of the bars will be developed across the joint.
Welded joints shall be made in accordance with DIN 1910 and before welding the main longitudinal
reinforcing bars in the head of the pile shall be exposed for at least 300 mm below the position of the
weld.
For lap or splice joints sufficient link bars shall be provided to resist eccentric forces.
If the pile is to be subjected to further driving the additional length shall be of an approved grade of
concrete.
Other methods of lengthening shall be subject to approval by the Engineer.
Repaired or lengthened piles shall not be driven until the added concrete has reached the specified
characteristic strength of the concrete of the pile.

2.3.3.4.

Reinforcement

Unless otherwise dictated by the design, cast in situ piles shall be reinforced over the whole of their
length.
The minimum longitudinal reinforcement shall be 1.0% of the gross concrete area in the top 3 m of the
pile and 0.8% of the gross concrete area in the remainder of the pile. Lateral ties shall be provided to
maintain the alignment of the longitudinal reinforcement at centres not closer than 150 mm.
Unless otherwise dictated by the design, reinforcement in pre-cast concrete piles shall comply with the
following minimum requirements:
CES / NAGECCO
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Tender Documents
WWTP
III.2 Part A: Civil Works and Buildings

Area of longitudinal reinforcement of 12 mm diameter minimum shall be at least 1% of the gross


concrete area (cast in-situ and pre-cast concrete piles);
Lateral reinforcement shall be in the form of hoops or links not less than 6 mm diameter. Over a
distance of 3 times the width of the pile measured from each end of the pile the volume of lateral
reinforcement shall be not less than 0.6% of the gross volume. In the body of the pile, the lateral
reinforcement shall not be less than 0.4% spaced at nor more than half the width of the pile. The
transaction between the close spacing near the ends and the maximum spacing shall be made
gradually over a length equal to 3 times the width.
Piles of rectangular cross section shall have a minimum of 4 No. longitudinal reinforcement bars and
piles of circular cross section shall have a minimum of 6 No. longitudinal reinforcement bars. Bars
shall be 12 mm diameter minimum. The main longitudinal bars shall be level at the top of the pile and
fit tightly into the shoe if one is used.
Hoops and links shall fit tightly against longitudinal bars and be bound to them by welding or soft iron
wire with the free ends turned inwards. The longitudinal bars shall be held apart by spreader forks not
more than 1.5m apart.
The main longitudinal reinforcing bars in piles not exceeding 12 m in length shall be in one continuous
length unless otherwise specified elsewhere. In piles exceeding 12 m in length joints will be permitted
in main longitudinal bars at 12 m nominal intervals. Joints in adjacent bars shall be staggered at least
1 m apart along the length of the pile. Joints shall be such that the full strength of the bar is effective
across the joint.
The cover to the outermost reinforcement, including binding wire shall not be less than 60 mm
measured to the inside of the casing. Lap or splice joints shall be provided with sufficient link bars or
other elements to resist eccentric forces. Laps shall have a minimum length of 40 times the diameter
of the main longitudinal reinforcement.
Main longitudinal reinforcement shall project a minimum of 40 times the bar diameter above the cut-off
level of the pile. For pre-cast piles, compliance with this requirement will necessitate breaking down of
the pile head after driving.

2.3.3.5.

Pile Shoes

Driven piles shall be provided with flat or pointed co-axial shoes of cast iron if driving is liable to
damage the concrete at the tip of the pile.

2.3.3.6.

Records

The Contractor shall maintain a complete record of all piling works that shall include the following
where relevant:

pile type and number


nominal diameter or dimension, pile length
date of casting and date driven
depth from ground level to toe of pile
depth from ground level to bearing stratum
set of pile or pile tube in mm per 10 blows or blows per 25 mm of penetration for first piles in
new areas or sections, sets taken at intervals during the last 3 m of driving for subsequent piles
final set, weight and drops of hammer
details of any obstructions observed
ground level at pile position at commencement of pile installation
pile cut-off level
length of temporary or permanent casing
length and details of reinforcement
concrete mix
volume of concrete supplied to pile where this can be measured in practice.

All records shall be accurately kept in duplicate as the work proceeds and one copy shall be handed to
the Engineer at the completion of each days work.
CES / NAGECCO
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2.3.3.7.

Tender Documents
WWTP
III.2 Part A: Civil Works and Buildings

Pre-cast Reinforced Concrete Piles

Pre-cast reinforced concrete piles shall be designed cast and cured to develop the strength necessary
to withstand the transporting, handling and driving stresses without damage. Square piles shall have
chamfered corners.

2.3.3.8.

Cast-In-Situ Piles

Driven or Bored Cast in-situ Piles


Driven or bored cast-in-situ piles shall comprise a temporary or permanent casing of steel, or a
permanent casing of pre-cast concrete, augured or driven to a set and completely filled with dense
concrete reinforced with steel bars.
All joints in the casing and between the casing and shoes where applicable shall be watertight during
driving and completion of driven cast-in-situ piles. Permanent casing shall be inspected, e.g. by using
a light lowered from the top after installation to ensure that the casing is neither damaged nor
deformed and that all loose soil has been removed from the bottom of bored piles.
Drilling mud shall not be used unless otherwise approved by the Engineer.

Casing for Cast in-situ Piles


The casing shall be suitable for the method of installation and for the purpose of jointing piles. The
casing shall either be permanent or temporary.
Steel casing shall be delivered to Site in as long lengths as can be conveniently handled. Ends shall
be prepared for butt-welding and designed to maintain true alignment of the pile.
Joints between steel casings shall be made by butt-welding to DIN 1910 or BS 5135 so that the full
strength of the original section is developed. Welded joints shall be watertight.

Concreting Cast in-situ Piles


Concrete in cast-in-situ piles shall be in accordance with the requirements of the Specification section
3.10. The slump for the concrete shall be agreed with the Engineer prior to concreting preliminary test
piles. Concrete filling in cast-in-situ piles shall be placed continuously. Removal of temporary casings
must be complete before the placed concrete loses its workability to ensure that the concrete is not
lifted, but placing of concrete shall keep in advance of withdrawal of casing to prevent necking.
Pile heads shall be stripped down and bonded into the pile caps as specified for pre-cast concrete
piles.

2.3.3.9.

Pile Load Tests

General
Pile load tests shall be carried out in the following situations:

when using a type of pile or installation method that is outside comparable experience and
which has not been tested under comparable soil and loading conditions
when using a piling system which is outside the experience of the operatives carrying out the
work.
when the piles will be subject to loading for which theory and experience do not provide
sufficient in the design. The pile testing procedure should then provide loading similar to the
anticipated loading.
when observations during the process of installation indicate pile behaviour that deviates
strongly and unfavourable from the behaviour anticipated on the basis of the site investigation
or experience when additional ground investigations do not clarify the reasons for this deviation.

Load test can be as a static test or a dynamic test.


If one pile load test is carried out, it shall normally be located where the most adverse ground
conditions are believed to occur. If this is not possible, an allowance shall be made when deriving the
characteristic value of the bearing resistance.

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If load tests are carried out on two or more test piles, the test location shall be representative of the
site of the site of the pile foundations, and one of the test piles shall be located where the most
adverse ground conditions are believed to occur.
Between the installation of the test pile and the beginning of the load test, adequate time shall be
allowed to ensure that the required strength of the pile material is achieved and the pore pressures
have regained their initial values.

Static Load Tests


a)

Loading procedure
The pile load test procedure, particularly with respect to the number of loading steps, the
duration of the loading steps and the application of load cycles, shall be such that conclusions
can be drawn about the deformation behaviour, creep and rebound of a pile foundation from the
measurements on the pile. For trial piles, the ultimate loading shall be such that conclusions can
also be drawn about the ultimate failure load.
Static load tests shall be carried out in accordance with the DIN or ISSMFE Subcommittee on
Fields and Laboratory Testings recommended procedures, Axial Pile Loading Test, Suggested
Method, published in the ASTM Geotechnical Testing Journal, June 1985, pp 79-90.
In case of different wording the text in the Specification shall be valid prior to the abovementioned recommended procedure.
Devices for the determination of forces, stresses or strains and displacements shall be
calibrated prior to the test.
The direction of the applied force to compression or tension pile tests shall coincide with the
longitudinal axis of the pile.
In general, pile load tests for the purpose of designing a tensile pile foundation should be
carried out to failure. Extrapolation of the load-displacement graph for tension tests should
normally not be used, especially in the case of transient loading.

b)

Trial piles
The number of trial piles required to verify the design shall be selected on the following aspects:

the ground conditions and their variability across the site,


type of structure,
documented evidence of the performance of the same type of pile in similar ground
conditions,
the total number and types of piles in the foundation design.

The ground conditions at the test site shall be investigated thoroughly. The depth of borings or
files tests shall be sufficient to ascertain the nature of the ground both around and beneath the
pile tip. It shall include all strata likely to contribute significantly to pile deformation behaviour, at
least 5 times the diameter beneath the pile tip, unless sound rock or very hard soil is found at a
lesser depth.
c)

Working piles
The number of working pile load testes shall be selected on the basis of the recorded findings
during construction.
The selection of the working test piles shall be prescribed in the contract documents.
The load applied to working test piles shall be at least equal to the design load governing the
design of the foundation.

Dynamic Load Tests


a)

General
Dynamic load tests shall be carried out in accordance with DIN.

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The results of dynamic load tests may be used for design provided an adequate site
investigation has been carried out and the method has been calibrated against static load tests
on the same type of pile of similar length and cross-section, and under comparable soil
conditions.
Dynamic test results shall always be considered in relation to each other.
Dynamic load tests may be used as an indicator of the consistency of the piles and to detect
weak piles (integrity testing).
In a dynamic load test the pile is instrumented with accelerometers and strain gauges within two
pile diameters of the top of the pile.
The gauges are connected to a recording and data processing device. During blows on the pile
signals from the gauges are recorded and processed for assessment of pile bearing capacity.
The data processing will be of two kinds: one simple (CASE or likewise method) and one more
exact method based on signal matching (CAPWAP or likewise program). The simple method
gives instant results while signal matching is more time consuming (hours).
In CASE method or likewise the following data shall be registered and reported:

bearing capacity,
toe resistance and skin friction,
maximum compression stress, acceleration, velocity and displacement,
maximum tension stress in pile,
pile structural integrity; extent and location of damage,
maximum energy transferred to the pile,
blows per minutes for hammer check,
blow number,
input and reflection of force, velocity, upward and downward force waves,
load versus deflection of cushions and of pile toe bearing,

CAPWAP or likewise program determines that set of soil resistance parameters, which
produces the best match between, measured and computed pile top force and velocity. After
CAPWAP analysis additional information than above for CASE is accomplished as:

deformation properties, ultimate capacities and soil damping parameters for each soil
segment of normally 1 m length,
unit skin friction for each segment and end bearing,
maximum of tension and compression forces and stresses,
pile structural damping,
dynamic pile toe displacement,
graph on bearing capacity and pile stresses versus blow count.

An introductory programme (WEAP) can be utilised before pile driving to assess preliminary
combinations of sets and bearing capacities for specified pile, driving equipment and soil
conditions.
Well-experienced experts shall carry out the data processing.
The piles to be tested shall be selected as in clause static load tests.
b)

Dynamic load test procedure


The Contractor shall notify the Engineer at least two weeks prior to dynamic testing
The Contractor shall submit a qualified testing Consultant and his experience to the Engineer
for approval.
The Engineer shall determine if the test is to be performed or if some pile waiting periods at the
proposed site is required before a decision will be made.
The Engineer will establish a date for the tests and will also determine the location of all piles to
be dynamically load tested.

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c)

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III.2 Part A: Civil Works and Buildings

Dynamic load test procedure on driven piles


The Contractor shall supply all personnel and equipment needed to strike the test pile with the
hammer.
The Contractor shall provide the hammer (drop, diesel, etc.) or the mobile crane to lift a steel
ram weight by a single non-twisting cable and be able to strike to the pile top by mean of fullgravity-fail.
The instrument for the dynamic load test shall conform to the relevant DIN.
Approximately two driven piles will be tested in one day. The testing Consultant personnel will
drill holes into the pile to be tested so that transducers (two accelerometers and two strain
gauges) can be attached. Testing procedures shall conform to DIN.
When the transducers have been placed in position and the recording and processing
equipment has been made ready to receive the acceleration and strain measurement, the
Engineer will instruct the Contractor regarding the drop height and the Contractor shall strike the
driven pile with the hammer as many times as is required to obtain adequate measurements as
determined by the Engineer.
The Engineer may ask the Contractor to provide surveying instrument to monitor the pile set
after each strike.
After the dynamic testing measurements have been obtained and analysed and a report has
been submitted, the Engineer will provide instructions for the results.

d)

Dynamic load test procedure on bored piles


The Contractor shall prepare the pile top and if necessary improve the structural integrity of the
pile top to resist a sharp impact force. All loose concrete at the pile top shall be removed. The
top portion of the bored pile shall be extended a length of at least two times the diameter of the
bored pile with the same diameter as the bored pile. The extended portion of the bored pile shall
be cast with concrete having a minimum compressive strength of 40 MPa.
Additional shear reinforcement such as spiral hoop at the pile top is recommended for the
impact force. The Contractor shall provide the windows for the installation of instrument by
mean of burring 0.35 0.35 m to the steel casing using a cutting torch.
On top of the bored pile a timber cushion under steel plate as a hammer cushion shall be
mounted. Adhesive material may be applied between the pile top and the timber.
The Contractor shall provide an additional steel casing inserted into the pile top. This casing is
acting as a guide for the steel ram weight, having the length not less than the summation of the
drop height and the length of the steel ram weight. It is important to secure and stabilise the
steel casing by mean of a vibratory hammer.
The Contractor shall supply all personnel and equipment needed to strike the test pile with the
steel ram weight. The Contractor shall provide a mobile crane which has the capability to lift the
steel ram weight by a single non-twisting cable and be able to strike to the pile top by mean of
full-gravity-fail.
The instrument for the dynamic load test shall conform to the relevant DIN.
Approximately one bored pile will be tested in one day. The testing Consultant personnel will
drill holes in the windows of the left-in-place steel casing into the pile to be tested so that
transducers (two accelerometers and two train gauges) can be attached.
Testing procedures shall conform to DIN.
When the transducers have been placed in position and the recording and processing
equipment has been made ready to receive the acceleration and train measurements, the
Engineer will instruct the Contractor regarding the drop height and the Contractor shall strike the
bored pile with the steel ram weight as many times as is required to obtain adequate
measurements as determined by the Engineer.

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The Engineer may ask the Contractor to provide surveying instrument to monitor the pile set
after each strike.
After the dynamic testing measurements have been obtained and analysed and the report has
been submitted, the Engineer will provide instructions for the results.

Load Test Report


The Contractor shall, within 24 hours of the completion of the tests, submit to the Engineer a
complete record of each pile test. Where appropriate, this report shall include:

a description of the site,


the ground conditions with reference to ground investigations,
the pile type,
a description of the loading and measuring apparatus and the reaction system,
calibration documents of the load cells, the jacks and the gauges,
the installation record of the test piles,
photographic records of the pile and the test site,
test results in numerical form,
time settlement plots for each applied load when a step loading procedure is used,
the measured load-settlement behaviour,
justification of the reasons for any departures from the recommendations.

2.3.3.10.

Piles in Compression

Ultimate bearing resistance from static pile load tests


The manner in which load tests are carried out shall be in accordance with clause 2.1.5.9. Pile Load
Tests.
Trial piles to be tested shall be installed in the same manner as the piles that will form the foundation
and shall be founded in the same stratum.
In the case of a very large diameter pile, it is often impractical to carry out a load test on a full size trial
pile. Load tests on smaller diameter trial piles may be considered provided that:
the ratio of the trial pile / working pile diameter is not less than 0.5
the smaller diameter trial piles are fabricated and installed in the same way as the piles used for
the foundation
the trial pile is instrumented in such a manner that the base and shaft resistance can be derived
separately from the measurements.
In the case of a pile foundation subjected to down drag, the pile resistance at failure or at a
displacement which equals the criterion for the verification of the ultimate limit state determined from
the load test results shall be corrected by subtracting the measured or the most unfavourable design
positive skin friction force in the compressible stratum from the forces measured at pile head.
When deriving the ultimate characteristic bearing resistance Rcc from values Rcms measured in one
or several static pile load tests, an allowance shall be made for the variability of the ground and the
variability of the effect of pile installation. As a minimum, both conditions a) and b) of Table III.3-2
below shall be satisfied using the equation:

R
Rcc cms

ns
Factors ns to derive Rcc :
Number of load tests
1
2
ns on average Rcms
1.5
1.35

1.3

ns on lowest Rcms

1.1

Table III.2-4:

1.5

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In order to derive the ultimate design bearing resistance, the characteristic value, Rcc, should be
divided into components of base resistance, Rcbc, and shaft resistance, Rcsc, such that

Rcc Rcbc Rcsc


The design bearing resistance, Rcd, shall be derived from

R
R
Rcd cbc csc
bs
ss
where

bs and ss are taken from Table III.3.3

Table III.2-5:

Values of

bs , ss and ts :

Component factors

bs

ss

ts

Driven piles

1.3

1.3

1.3

Bored piles

1.6

1.3

1.5

CFA piles

1.45

1.3

1.4

Normally the load test only provides the pile load test versus settlement and time versus settlement
diagrams without distinction between point and shaft resistance. Therefore, it is often not possible to
distinguish between partial factors for the assessment of the design value of base resistance and shaft
resistance. Instead a partial factor on the ultimate characteristic pile resistance Rcc may be taken as
the ts values given in Table III.3-3.

Ultimate bearing resistance from pile driving formulae


If pile-driving formulae are used to assess the ultimate bearing resistance of individual compression
piles in a foundation the validity of the formulae shall have been demonstrated by previous
experimental evidence of good performance or static load tests on the same type of pile of similar
length and cross-section and in the similar ground conditions.
Pile driving formulae shall only be used if the stratification of the ground has been determined.
In the design, the number of piles to be re-driven shall be specified. If re-driving gives lower results,
these shall be used as basis for ultimate bearing resistance assessment. If re-driving gives higher
results, these may be taken into consideration.
Re-driving should usually be carried out in silt soils, unless local comparable experience has shown it
to be unnecessary.

Ultimate bearing resistance from dynamic load tests


Dynamic load tests and their evaluation can be used to assess pile-bearing resistance of individual
compression piles. The validity of the evaluation shall have been demonstrated by previous evidence
of acceptable performance or static load tests on the same pile type of similar length and crosssection and in similar soil conditions. The input energy level during the dynamic load testing shall be
high enough to allow for an appropriate interpretation of the pile capacity at a correspondingly high
enough strain level.
When deriving the ultimate characteristic bearing resistance Rcc from values Rcmd measured in two or
several dynamic pile load tests, an allowance shall be made for the variability of the ground and the
variability of the effect of pile installation. As a minimum, both conditions a) and b) of Table III.3-4
below shall be satisfied using the equation:

R
Rcc cmd
nd
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Factors

Table III.2-6:

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III.2 Part A: Civil Works and Buildings

nd to derive Rcc

Number of load tests


a)

nd on average Rcmd
b)
nd on lowest Rcmd

>4

1.5

1.35

1.3

1.5

1.25

1.1

In order to derive the ultimate design bearing resistance, the characteristic value, Rcc, should be
divided into components of base resistance, Rcbc, and shaft resistance, Rcsc, such that

Rcc Rcbc Rcsc


The design bearing resistance, Rcd, shall be derived from

R
R
Rcd cbc csc
bd
sd
where

bd and sd are taken from Table III.3-5


Values of

Table III.2-7:

bd , sd and td

Component factors

bd

sd

td

Driven piles

1.4

1.4

1.4

Bored piles

1.7

1.4

1.6

In case Rcbc and Rcsc are not known the design bearing resistance Rcd is derived from

R
Rcd cc .
td
2.3.3.11.

Piles in Tension

Ultimate tensile resistance from static pile load tests.


Pile load tests to determine the ultimate tensile resistance Rtc of an isolated pile shall be carried out in
accordance with clause 2.1.5.9 Pile Load Test.
When deriving the ultimate characteristic resistance Rtc from values Rtm measured in one or several
static pile load tests, an allowance shall be made for the variability of the ground and the variability of
the effect of pile installation. As a minimum, both conditions a) and b) of Table III.3.-6 shall be satisfied
using the equation:

R
Rtc tms .
nt
Table III.2-8

Factors nt to derive Rtc

Number of load tests

>2

a) nt on average Rtms

1.5

1.35

1.3

b) nt gnt on lowest Rtms

1.5

1.25

1.1

Normally when piles are loaded in tension, more than one pile shall be tested. In the case of a larger
number of tension piles, at least 2% shall be tested.
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The design tensile resistance, Rtd, shall be derived from

R
Rtd tc
m
where m 1.6 .

2.3.3.12.

Supervision of Construction

A pile installation plan shall be the basis for the construction work.
The plan should give the following design information:

the pile type with designation if standardised or technical approval otherwise


the location and inclination of each pile and tolerances on position
pile cross-section
pile length
number of piles
required pile load carrying capacity
pile toe level or the required penetration resistance
installation sequence
known obstructions
any other constraints on piling activities.

The installation of all piles shall be monitored and records shall be made at site and as the piles are
installed. A record signed by the supervisor of the work and the pile manufacturer shall be kept for
each pile.
The record for each pile shall include the following, where appropriate:

pile type and installation equipment


pile number
pile cross-section, length and (for concrete piles) reinforcement
data and time of installation (including interruptions to the construction process)
concrete mix, volume of concrete used and method of placing for cast-in-situ piles
pumping pressures of the grount or concrete, internal and external diameters, pitch of screw
and penetration per revolution (for continuous flight auger piles or other injection piles)
for driven piles, the values of driving resistance measurements such as weight and drop or
power rating of hammer, blow frequency and number of blows for at least the last 0.25 m
penetration
the power take-off of vibrators (where used)
the torque applied to the drilling motor (where used)
for bored piles, the strata encountered in the borings and the condition of the base, if the
performance of the base is critical
obstructions encountered during piling
deviations of positions and directions and as-built elevations.

Records shall be kept for at least a period of five years after completion of the works. As-built record
plans shall be compiled after completion of the piling and kept with the construction documents.
If site observations or inspection of records reveal uncertainties with respect to the quality of installed
piles, additional investigations shall be carried out to determine the as-built conditions of the piles and
whether remedial measures are necessary. These investigations shall include either re-driving or pile
integrity tests, in combination with soil mechanics field tests adjoining the suspected piles, and static
pile load tests.
Tests shall be used to examine the integrity of piles for which the quality is sensitive to the installation
procedures if the procedures cannot be monitored in a reliable way.
Dynamic low-strain integrity tests can be used for a global evaluation of piles that might have severe
defects or that may have caused a serious loss of strength in the soil during construction. Since

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defects like insufficient quality of concrete and thickness of concrete cover, affecting the long-term
performance of a pile, often cannot be found by dynamic tests, other tests such as sonic tests,
vibration tests or coring may be needed in supervising the execution.

2.4.

TIMBER PILING WITH CAJUPUT TREE-PILES

1.

Timber Piles (Wooden Piles) shall be cut from straight and fresh Cajuput tree, subject to the
Engineers approval, is suitable for the intended application. Piles shall be of single length, not
shorter than 4.80 m, and with diameter not less than 42 mm at the smaller end and with
diameter not less than 80 mm at the bigger end. The diameter should not be greater than
150 mm and shall be straight to a tolerance of 20 mm over their full length, stripped of any
branches and of sound condition. Splicing shall not be permitted.

2.

The cajuput tree-piles shall be driven into the soil by manual-handled means: cylinder-shaped
rammers. These rammers of the weight from 15 kg to 30 kg shall be applied to drive the piles
into the ready excavated sub-grade of soil.

3.

As shown on the layouts, the cajuput tree-piles shall be optionally located one by one in the
spiral order from outside to inside for higher compression of the sub-grade or in row order from
two sides successively to the centre () of the excavated hole of the foundation.

4.

The cajuput tree-piles shall be driven with the density of minimum 25 to 35 trees /m, to depths
such that the pile heads, after allowing for trimming off the top 100 mm correspond to the lines
and levels 100 mm below the underside of the upper surface of the sand layer. Piles shall be
driven true and plumb and spacing shall be regular. Any pile which is split, broken, or is more
than 300 mm out of position shall be replaced at the Contractors expense.

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3.

CONCRETE, REINFORCEMENT & SHUTTERING

3.1.

ORGANISATION

At the commencement of the Contract the Contractor shall submit for the approval of the Engineer a
Method Statement detailing with regard to the requirements of this Specification his proposals for
organisation of concreting activities at the Site.
The Method Statement shall include the following items:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Plant proposed
Location and layout of concrete production facility
Proposed method of organisation of the concrete production facility
Quality control procedures for concrete and concrete materials
Transport and placing of concrete
Details of formwork including striking times and procedure for temporary support of beams and
slabs
Protection and curing.

3.2.
(i)

GENERAL
The standard of materials and of workmanship shall be not inferior to the recommendations of
the current:
(a)

DIN 1045, DIN 1048, DIN 4226 and DIN 4227 or EN 1990, EN 1991, EN 1992 or
equivalent.

(b)

A code of practice dealing with the Design and Construction of Reinforced Concrete
Structures for the storage of liquids, and appropriate standard specifications herein
referred to.

The requirements outlined in the above documents must be read with those of this section of
the Specification and where any conflict exists between the recommendations of the above and
of this Specification, the requirements of this Specification shall prevail.
(ii)

As and when required by the Engineer, the Contractor shall prepare and submit, before
commencing the work, a Time Chart (additional to the General Programme) detailing the
various operations for concrete work.

(iii)

No material shall be used in the work until prior approval for its use has been given by the
Engineer; neither shall any change in the nature, quality, kind, type, source of supply or
manufacture be made without the Engineer's permission.

(iv)

Names of manufacturers and test certificates shall be supplied as soon as possible to the
Engineer.

(v)

The prices inserted in the Bill of Quantities shall include for the provision of all samples and for
all costs incurred in the execution of the tests specified or referred to herein in accordance with
the General Conditions of Contract; the prices shall include also for transport of samples of
cement, sand, concrete, aggregates, and similar materials to his own laboratory and to the
Laboratory of the Department of Construction. Results of laboratory and Site tests shall be kept
on Site and copies of all test Reports shall be forwarded in duplicate to the Engineer's
Representative.
Frequency of tests and number of samples required will be governed by the results of previous
tests, the quality of the materials revealed during the tests and the uniformity of that quality.
Should it become evident that the quality of the concrete is deteriorating the Engineer may
require additional samples to be taken and test cubes to be made and tested to determine the
cause.

(vi)

During the progress of the works, consignment notes shall be supplied to the Engineer giving
details of each consignment of each concreting material.

(vii)

The use of the word "approved" in this Specification refers to the no objections by the
Engineer.

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3.3.

MATERIALS FOR CONCRETE

3.3.1.

Steel Reinforcement

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The reinforcement steel shall be based on the specifications for BSt 420 S as indicated in DIN 488 or
equivalent. Minimum yield strength of 390 N/mm is acceptable, due to the availability in the local
market. See below table from the DIN 488 in German as reference:
Table III.2-9

Reinforcement Steel acc. to DIN 488 (German Language)

3.3.2.

Water for Use in Concrete

All water used in mixing concrete shall be obtained by the Contractor and shall comply with DIN
24226, DIN 4030 or equivalent.
The water for each batch shall be just sufficient to ensure the production of concrete of the required
consistency and shall be measured in a small tank, and the quantity shall be varied from time to time
as required by the Engineer.

3.3.3.

Cement

Before any cement is ordered in quantity or delivered to the Site, the Contractor shall submit to the
Engineer for his approval a detailed list of the sources, country or countries of origin and
manufacturers brand names of the types of cement which he proposes to use.
The Contractor shall submit to the Engineer, free of charge, test certificates relating to each
consignment of cement. Each certificate shall show that a sample of the consignment has been tested
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by the manufacturer or by an approved laboratory and that it complies in all respects with the
requirements of the Specification.
When required by the Engineer, the Contractor shall supply samples of cement taken on delivery to
Site, or during storage on the Site, for testing at a nominated laboratory free of charge.
No cement from any consignment shall be used without the approval of the Engineer and the
Contractor shall maintain a record of the locations of the concrete made from each consignment which
record shall be available for inspection by the Engineer.
If for any reason the Contractor shall decide to vary the source of supply, country or manufacture in
respect of any type of cement already approved by the Engineer at any time during the Contract, he
shall give adequate notice of every such variation to the Engineer and shall carry out all the tests
called for by the Engineer's written approval of such variation before ordering any material from the
new source or supplier.
If cement has been stored on the site for more than 40 days or in the opinion of the Engineer is of
doubtful quality, new tests may be required, at the Contractor's expense, to check whether the cement
is still conforming to the requirements.
(i)

Portland Cement
All cement used for surfaces that are not in contact with sewage (unless otherwise mentioned)
shall be ordinary Portland Cement or if required or allowed by the Engineer, rapid-hardening
Portland Cement of the best quality and of a brand or brands to be approved by the Engineer and
shall comply in every respect with the conditions, analyses and tests laid down in DIN 1164 for
Portland Cement or equivalent.

(ii)

Sulphate Resisting or High Alumina Cement


Cement to be used in contact with sewage can be sulphate-resisting Portland cement (structures
in contact with sewage and/or exposed to sewage emissions with possibility resulting sulphate
acid attack shall be made with sulphate resistant concrete. To achieve this different methods are
feasible, one is to use sulphate resisting cement, type MS. The cement shall be of the best quality
and of brand or brands approved by the Engineer. The cement shall comply in every respect with
DIN 1164 or equivalent.

(iii) Cement Storage


The cement shall be delivered on the site of the works in such consignments as shall ensure
satisfactory progress of the work, each bag or container being sealed to the satisfaction of the
Engineer. Cement shall not be delivered in bags of less than 50 kg. The cement shall be stored
on the Site in a dry store or in approved bulk containers, large enough to contain the required
quantities. The store shall be provided by the Contractor and shall have sufficient sub-division of
such sizes as the Engineer may approve, it shall be properly roofed and perfectly watertight, and
it shall have a dry wooden floor above ground level with an air space at least 15 cm in depth
below it. The cost of all work specified in this Clause shall be borne by the Contractor.
(iv) The cement shall be used, as far as possible, in the order in which it has been delivered and put
into store.
(v) The Engineer may cause samples to be taken from any consignment of cement for testing by the
Engineer's Representative at the Department of Construction laboratory. If the results of these
tests show that the samples do not conform to this Specification, the whole consignment will be
rejected as unfit for use, and must forthwith be removed from the Site by the Contractor at his
own expense. The various consignments must be brought to the Site in ample time to allow the
above tests to be carried out before the cement is required for use.
(vi) Later Tests
Although the Engineer may have passed any consignment of cement, he shall nevertheless, have
the power at any subsequent time to reject such consignment if he finds that any deterioration in
the quality thereof has taken place. Any package of cement in which there are hardened lumps or
cakes of cement shall be rejected.

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(vii) Cement Containing Hardening or Waterproofing Compounds


No cement containing hardening or waterproofing compounds shall be used nor shall calcium
chloride or other chemicals be added to cements or to concrete except on the instructions of the
Engineer. Any cement so treated shall be stored separately and clearly marked and shall only be
used in accordance with the requirements of the Engineer.
All cement used in the Works shall be measured by weight. Cement from partly filled or unsealed bags
shall not be used. Notwithstanding the receipt of the test certificate required above and the approval of
the Engineer, the Engineer may reject any cement as a result of further tests. The Engineer may also
reject cement which has deteriorated owing to inadequate protection or other causes, or in any other
case where the cement is not to his satisfaction. The Contractor shall remove all rejected cement from
the Site without delay and at the Contractors expense.

3.3.4.

Sand

Sand used for mortar shall comply with DIN 4226 and sand for rendering with DIN 1084 or equivalent.

3.3.5.

Coarse and Fine Aggregates

(i)

Mixed ballast for mass concrete shall comply with the requirements for "all-in" aggregates of
40 mm maximum size according to DIN 1045 and DIN 4226 or equivalent unless otherwise
specified by the Engineer.

(ii)

All aggregates for graded concrete, except granolithic and fine concrete, shall comply with
DIN 1045 and DIN 4226. Coarse aggregate shall be "graded aggregates" of 20 mm to 5 mm
nominal size as specified in Table III.2-3 unless otherwise ordered.
Fine aggregates shall be natural sand, in grading zone 2, as specified in Table III.2-3.
Approved coarse and fine aggregates, mixed before the addition of cement, in volumes to be
approved by the Engineer, may be used in lieu of "all-in" aggregates for mass concrete.
They shall conform to the moisture absorption requirements of DIN 7420. Otherwise the
Contractor shall prove the durability of the finished concrete by approved tests when used for
making concrete required for liquid retaining structures.
Aggregates of rounded shape or otherwise capable of procuring a concrete of good workability
with the minimum addition of water, shall be preferred.
The Contractor shall ensure that the nature and grading of aggregates remain reasonably
consistent, and shall, if necessary, stockpile and include different grading to ensure that the
overall grading remains constant for each section of the work.
Dust or flour resulting from crushing the aggregate shall not be allowed to contaminate the
stockpiles. When, in the opinion of the Engineer such contamination has taken place to the
detriment of the finished concrete, it shall be removed by an approved means, otherwise the
aggregate shall be rejected.
For mass concrete, dust or flour resulting from crushing the aggregate may be included in
controlled quantities to supplement the fine aggregate in order to improve the consistency of the
mix.

(iii) Aggregates for Fine Concrete


Coarse aggregate for fine concrete shall comply with DIN 4226, but shall have a grading which
shall be 10 mm to No. 7 sieve size. Fine aggregates shall be as specified in (ii).
(iv) Source of Supply of Aggregates
Aggregates shall be obtained from a source to be approved by the Engineer. Coarse and fine
aggregates shall be delivered and stored separately on to a clean, hard base, in separate
compartments or into approved hoppers.

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(v) Samples of Aggregates


Samples of aggregates and sand for use on the works shall be submitted to the approved
laboratory, for approval of the Engineer and no materials will be accepted for use unless they
comply with the requirements stated.
(vi) Defective Aggregates
If any aggregate is defective in grading or other respect, the Contractor shall remedy the defect at
his own expense and to the satisfaction of the Engineer.

3.3.5.1.

Grading of Aggregates

The combined grading of aggregates shall be a smooth curve approximately parallel to the grading
envelope limits, given in the following Table, and to the approval of the Engineer.
Table III.2-10: Combined Grading Curves for Concrete
Sieve
Sizes
1

3/8
3/16
No. 7
No. 14
No. 25
No. 52
No. 100

3.3.5.2.

Percentage by Weight Passing Sieve


Nominal Maximum Size of Aggregate [mm]
40
20
10
100
--50 75
100
-36 60
45 75
100
24 47
30 48
30 75
18 38
23 42
20 60
12 30
16 34
16 46
7 23
9 27
4 20
3 15
2 12
4 20
05
02
06

Storage of Aggregates

Each size of fine and coarse aggregate shall be stored in separate bins or on areas covered with steel
plate, concrete other hard and clean surface, which shall be self draining and protected from
contamination by earth or other deleterious matter.
Fine and coarse aggregates shall be stored in such a way so as to avoid the two materials from
becoming intermixed.

3.3.5.3.

Preliminary Tests on Aggregates

The Contractor shall submit to the Engineer samples of the fine and coarse aggregates proposed for
use in the Works. Sampling and testing shall be carried out in accordance with the methods described
in the specifications. Samples shall be of a size sufficient to carry out all preliminary tests specified
which the Engineer may order in addition to the concrete tests and to provide the 50 kg sample for
comparison purposes described below. The samples shall then be tested in the presence of the
Engineer by the Contractor in accordance with the Specification or as the Engineer may direct.
If the source of aggregates is changed at the Contractor's request and with the approval of the
Engineer at any time during the course of the Works, all sampling and testing described in the relevant
Clauses shall be repeated at the Contractors expense.
After approval has been given for any particular aggregate, a sample weighing at least 50 kg of the
approved aggregate shall be retained by the Engineer as a standard against which all future samples
shall be compared.

3.3.5.4.

Works Tests on Aggregates

During the course of the Contract, fine and coarse aggregates shall be tested at Site as often as
required by the Engineer and at the Contractor's expense.
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3.4.

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DELIVERY OF SAMPLES

Samples of cement, water and fine and coarse aggregates called for in the foregoing Clauses shall be
delivered to the Engineer for testing by the Contractor before concreting is due to start so that the
necessary tests on the materials and the preliminary concrete cube tests specified below can be
completed before work is due to start.

3.5.

CONCRETE MIXES

3.5.1.

Composition of Concrete

All concrete shall be dense, impermeable, durable, consistent and cast accurately to the lines and
dimensions shown on the drawings and shall present a uniform surface free from blemishes, cracks
and honeycombing, resistant to wear, mild chemical attack and exposure to sewage. Concrete mixes
are to be such as to enable the concrete to fill the form-work completely with intimate contact between
concrete and reinforcement and the concrete is to be thoroughly and uniformly vibrated throughout.
The cement, aggregates and water for concrete shall be as specified. Samples of cement and
aggregate shall be submitted to the Engineer for testing as early as possible prior to the
commencement of concreting works.

3.5.2.

Cement Content and Water-Cement Ratios

Notwithstanding the strength requirements of this Specification, in order to ensure adequate durability
of the finished concrete while at the same time limiting the shrinkage characteristics, the following
limits shall not be exceeded:
Table III.2-11: Water-Cement Ratio
Class of
Concrete
B 15 (C10/15)
B 20 (C15/20)
B 25 (C20/25)
B 30 (C25/30)
B 35 (C30/37)

Maximum Total
Water-Cement
Ration by Weight
0.60
0.55
0.50
0.45
0.45

Cement in kg/m Finished Concrete


Maximum
356
415
475
534

Minimum
252
296
341
385

In all cases of mix proportioning, the added water shall be included with due allowance for the
moisture contained in the aggregates, and shall be the minimum consistent with the workability
requirements.
Where aggregates do not conform to the moisture requirements of DIN 7420 but are permitted for use,
the above maximum water cement ratios shall be reduced by 0.05 (or 2.25 litres of water per 50 kg of
cement).
Where the concrete is to be used in structures, protected from the elements, or not exposed to
constant wetting and drying, the above maximum water-cement ratios may be increased by 0.05 (or
2.25 litres of water per 50 kg of cement).
The water used for mixing or curing of concrete and washing the aggregates shall be clean and free
from injurious amounts of oil, acid, alkali, organic matter, or other deleterious substances. No salty
water shall be used. DIN 4030 shall apply.
A thorough chemical water analysis shall be done before using a certain water source for concrete
mixing and test certificates from an approved laboratory shall be approved by the Engineer.
When comparative tests are done with distilled water of known quality, any indications of
unsoundness, marked change in time of set, or reduction of more than 10% in mortar strength shall be
sufficient cause for the rejection of the water under test.
The Contractor shall not take water for use in concrete from shallow, muddy or marshy sources.

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3.5.3.

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Design Mix

The mix should be designed for a mean strength that exceeds the specified works Cube Strength plus
30%.
The mix design shall follow the method explained in DIN 1045.
For the purpose of determining the "design strength" of the concrete, an allowance shall be added to
the works Cube Strength indicated in Table III.3-8 for the particular Class of concrete. This allowance
shall be assessed on the degree of control reasonably to be expected in manufacturing the concrete
and shall not be less than twice the Standard Deviation as defined in DIN 1045. Until such time as it
has been determined, the Standard Deviation shall be assumed to be not less than 7 N/mm.
Details of the design mix shall be forwarded to the Engineer for his approval. However, such approval
by the Engineer, shall not relieve the Contractor of his obligations.

3.5.4.

Trial Mixes

Trial mixes of the proposed design shall be made on site in the presence of the Engineer or his
Representative under full scale conditions, i.e. of quantities of similar sized batches as will be used in
the works, the costs of the trial mixes being borne by the Contractor. As a preliminary guide a
sufficient quantity of each material may be submitted to the approved Laboratory, as accepted by the
Engineer, for the preparation of preliminary trial mixes and recommendations to the Contractor. The
cost of such tests at the laboratory shall also be borne by the Contractor.
The workability of the trial mixes shall be recorded and three mixes shall be prepared on three
separate days. Nine test cubes shall be made from each mix, and six tested at 7 days and 3 at 28
days.
For the trial mix to be acceptable, the workability must be adequate for acceptable placement and the
average strength of the test cubes made in any one day must exceed the specified works cube
strength plus 30%. No result may fall below the works Cube Strength.
Trial mixes may be used in the Permanent Works as blinding, and will be paid for at the rates for
blinding.

3.5.5.

Mixing of Concrete

The concrete shall only be mixed in approved power-driven concrete mixers for all Classes of
Concrete, except that small batches of Class 12/15 and Class 8/10 may be mixed by hand with the
approval of the Engineer.
The concrete shall be mixed continuously in the mixer for not less than 2 minutes after the whole of
the ingredients are present in the drum. When a concrete mixer has been out of use for more than 20
minutes, or when the type of cement is changed, the mixer shall be thoroughly cleaned before a fresh
batch of concrete is made in it.
The Engineer may prohibit concreting if in his opinion the number and/or sizes of the mixers available,
or the quantity of materials in stock, is insufficient; or where he feels that the haulage of concrete from
the mixer to the point of application of concrete is not near enough to guarantee quality.
Truck mixtures can be used if authorised by the Engineer. They shall be of revolving type, water tight
and shall assure a uniform distribution.
No concrete shall remain in a revolving truck mixture more than 1.5 hours.

3.5.6.

Weighing, Batching and Mixing

Aggregates and cement shall be proportioned by weigh-batching and water shall be proportioned by
volume. Subject to the prior approval of the Engineer, volume-batching of aggregates may be used
when weigh-batching is not possible, but volume- batching of cement will in no case be accepted. The
contractor may, however, so mix his concrete that such batch shall use a whole bag or bags of
cement, the weight of which is known precisely.

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Gauge boxes for volume-batching shall be strongly constructed and where necessary due allowance
shall be made for bulking of the aggregates.
The aggregates and the cement shall be thoroughly mixed in a clean mechanical mixer for a period of
time agreed with the Engineer and the water added on the basis of the approved design.
The amount of water added shall conform to the requirements as given in Table III.3.9.
Batch-mixing machines shall comply with the requirements of DIN 1045. They shall be provided in
such numbers and of such capacity as to ensure a continuous supply of freshly mixed concrete at all
times during construction.
Continuous mixing machines shall be used only with the written permission of the Engineer.
When small quantities of concrete are to be mixed the Engineer may approve hand-mixing. In such
cases, the cement content for all mixes shall be increased by 10% and the Contractor shall allow for
this in his rates and prices.
Where concrete is mixed by hand, the fine aggregate and the cement shall be thoroughly mixed first
and the coarse aggregate added. Mixing in the dry shall be carried out at least twice then water be
added and the concrete again thoroughly mixed.

3.6.

CLASS AND STRENGTH OF CONCRETE

The concrete shall be of the Classes shown on the Drawings, described in the Bills of Quantities or
ordered by the Engineer, which will be one or more of the Classes described and tabulated below,
with the appropriate specified maximum size of aggregate.
Description
The concrete mixes, as described, are "guaranteed strength" mixes in the sense that no proportions
are given but the required concrete strength is shown and the Contractor will be required to design a
suitable mix with the given grading to fulfil the requirements as laid down hereunder for relevant
Classes shown.
The mixes will be composed of the following Classes: C8/10, C12/15, C16/20, C20/25, C25/30 and
C30/37. These figures represent the minimum 28-day strength in N/mm of the Works Cubes (see
table below).
The maximum size of aggregate shall be as shown on the Drawings or as ordered by the Engineer,
and may be indicated in brackets after the mix Class, for example 'Class 30(20)'.
All reinforced and graded concrete shall be composed of cement and fine and coarse aggregates
gauged separately and in the following proportions:
Before any concreting commences, trial mixes shall be made and cube tests performed as described
in the Specification and these cubes shall obtain strengths at least 30% greater than the works cubes
shown in Table 3 -2 before the mix is approved by the Engineer.
If required or allowed by the Engineer, the relative proportions of fine and coarse aggregates shall be
varied to obtain a denser mixer and to reduce shrinkage and such change shall not affect the price so
long as the sum of the volumes of fine and coarse aggregates remain unchanged. Where sulphateresisting cement is used, the water cement ratio shall not exceed 0.55.
Table III.2-12: Strength Class of Concrete (extract of DIN 1045 Concrete and Reinforced Concrete)
Concrete
Strength
Class

Minimal Nominal
Compressive Strength of
each test cube after 28
days of hardening
[N/mm2]

Minimum Average
Standard Compressive
Strength of each series
of test cubes
[N/mm2]

Remarks

B5

only for lean concrete

B10

10

15

only for lean concrete

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Minimal Nominal
Compressive Strength of
each test cube after 28
days of hardening
[N/mm2]

Minimum Average
Standard Compressive
Strength of each series
of test cubes
[N/mm2]

B15

15

20

for blinding concrete in normal


structures and manholes

B25

25

30

for all kinds of reinforced


concrete unless otherwise
specified

B35 *

35

40

for reinforced concrete. in


sewage retaining structures and
concrete in direct contact with
sewage

Minimal Nominal
Compressive Strength of
Each Test Cylinder fck,cyl
[N/mm2]

Minimal Nominal
Compressive Strength of
Each Test Cube fck,cube
[N/mm2]

Concrete
Strength
Class

Remarks

Or:
Concrete
Strength
Class

C8/10

10

C12/15

12

15

C16/20

16

20

C20/25

20

25

C25/30

25

30

C30/37

30

37

C35/45

35

45

Aggregate shall be batched by weight and the weighing hopper shall be of an approved adjustable
type. Volume batching will not be allowed for concrete work except under special circumstances such
as for small pipe culvert headwalls, pipe surrounds, and other isolated minor works.
When aggregates are batched by volume, the approval of the Engineer shall first be obtained before
the use of this method of batching. With volume batching, stout gauge boxes approved by the
Engineer, shall be used.
When cement in bags is used, the total volume or weight of aggregate per batch shall be such that a
whole number of bags of cement is used and the use of cement from broken bags will not be
permitted.
Once the proportions of the mixes have been agreed by the Engineer, they shall not be amended
without his consent.
In the event that the British Standard 1370 and 4027 as well as the American Standard ASTM C1157,
being more stringent than the above specified DIN standard, these standard shall prevail. It has to be
stated that only sulphate resistant concrete is required for structures in contact with sewerage and/or
sewage gas emission.

3.7.

TESTS FOR CRUSHING STRENGTH

The Contractor shall be held responsible for ensuring that the crushing strength for the respective
classes of graded concrete is not less than the strength mentioned in the DIN.

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Cubes made with rapid-hardening Portland Cement must attain at 3 and 7 days after casting a
crushing strength equal to that specified for ordinary Portland Cement or sulphate- resisting cement at
7 and 28 days respectively after casting.
Test cubes shall be numbered and dated in a conspicuous manner and shall be at the Laboratory at
least 24 hours before the date when they are due to be tested. Four cubes shall be made at least 14days before concreting is to be commenced, from a batch of concrete made on Site with the
aggregates, cement and water proposed to be used on the works and at least two additional cubes
shall be made for each 25 cubic metre of concrete mixed or when otherwise required by the Engineer.
Should the crushing strength fall below the figure specified, the Contractor shall, without extra charge,
adopt a richer mix or make other changes in proportion or otherwise as the Engineer may direct or
approve, so as to bring the concrete up to the required strength.

3.8.

COMPACTION AND SLUMP TESTS

The Contractor shall as and whenever required by the Engineer carry out slump or any other tests to
determine the consistency of the mixed concrete and gauge, by measure, the amount of water
prescribed by the Engineer for each mixing of concrete.
The tests of concrete shall not show a greater slump or compaction factor than the Engineer shall
decide for each part of the work, but generally the slump for mass concrete must not exceed 25 mm
and for reinforced concrete work 50 mm.
The compaction factor of vibrated concrete shall not exceed 0.91.

3.9.

CENTRAL BATCHING PLANT

If a central batching plant is used, the method of weighing or measuring the cement and aggregate
shall be to the approval of the Engineer. Accommodation for a Concrete Inspector shall be provided at
the batching plant, and shall include a dust-proof room and shall be so situated that the inspector has
a visual check on the quantities of cement and aggregate used per batch. The Contractor shall include
in his prices for the provision and maintenance of this accommodation.

3.10.

HAND MIXING

If hand-mixing is permitted, the quantity of cement to be used shall be increased by 10 per cent. Handmixing shall be carried out on an approved water-tight platform, the aggregate and cement being
turned over three times in a dry state and thoroughly mixed by means of shovels. The water shall then
be added through approved hoses fitted to watering cans, and the mixture shall be worked together
until a uniform consistency is obtained.
During windy weather, protection shall be provided by screens or otherwise as directed to prevent
cement from being blown away.

3.11.

TRANSPORTING AND PLACING OF CONCRETE

No concrete shall be placed until the Engineer has approved the formwork and reinforcement. The
Contractor shall provide all facilities for inspection.
The Contractor shall give at least 48-hours notice to the Engineer of the times he proposes to concrete
and the Engineer may order that no concreting shall take place until either he or his Representative is
present.
Concrete shall be transported in water-tight containers in such a manner that will avoid the
segregation of the constituent materials. The time elapsing between the initial mixing of the concrete
and finally placing in the works shall not exceed 30 minutes when Portland Cement is used. Where
other cements are used, the Engineer will stipulate the maximum time allowed. Concrete remaining
unplaced at the end of this period shall not be placed in the work, but shall be removed from the Site
and disposed off at the Contractor's expense. Should there be need for the use of rapid hardening
cement at tie-ins particularly for expediting the completion of the works thereby the Contractor shall
inform the Engineer who will when he deems it necessary approve such use.

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Concrete shall not be dropped through a height exceeding 1.5 m. For lowering concrete through
heights in excess of 1.5 m, special methods shall be used, such as chutes, tremies, bottom dumping
hoppers, or bagged placing, and then only with the approval of the Engineer. All containers, troughs
and chutes and apparatus through and in which concrete is passed, shall be kept clean and entirely
free from hardened concrete or cement and free from contamination by extraneous material.
The concrete shall be placed in position in lifts not exceeding the heights to be agreed by the
Engineer, and the excessive heights which may cause segregation of the aggregate at the working
edge, shall be avoided.
Concreting of any unit or section of the work shall be carried out in one continuous operation, and no
interruption will be allowed without the approval of the Engineer.
A competent steel fixer shall be in attendance the whole time concrete is being cast around
reinforcement. Proper bridging arrangements for traffic over reinforcement shall be provided so that
the reinforcement is not distorted, damaged or displaced.
Where approval is obtained for concrete to be conveyed by chutes, these shall have a slope (not
exceeding 1 vertical to 2 horizontal) in order to ensure a continuous flow of concrete. Additional water
shall not be introduced to assist the flow of concrete down the chute, deposition is to be intermittent
and chutes shall be arranged to discharge into a storage hopper. Under no circumstances should a
clear fall of more than 1.0 m be permitted at the discharge end of the chute.
The pumping of concrete shall be used only for such parts of the work as the Engineer considers
suitable, and will be subject to the size, design, layout, and sitting of the whole concreting plant
including pumps, pipelines, water and air supply and all ancillary gear and apparatus and the
conditions and methods of its operation and maintenance being to the entire satisfaction and approval
of the Engineer.
Whenever transport of concrete is interrupted for any length of time (periods of over 30 minutes shall
be treated as such), the chutes, pumps, pipes and any other means of distribution shall be thoroughly
flushed out and cleaned. These shall also be flushed out immediately prior to resumption of concreting
and shall be kept free from hardening concrete.
All wash water used shall be discharged outside the shuttering and clearing of any freshly placed
concrete.

3.12.

COMPACTION OF CONCRETE

All concrete shall be compacted mechanically, except when agreed by the Engineer that small areas
may be otherwise compacted.
All vibrators shall be of a type approved by the Engineer. Mould vibrators shall not be used for in-situ
concrete work and may only be used for the manufacture of small pre-cast units, with the approval of
the Engineer. Vibrators shall not be attached to the reinforcement and care shall be taken to avoid
contact with it.
Concrete shall be placed to uniform levels in layers not exceeding 450 mm deep in such manner as to
avoid segregation, and each layer shall be compacted by means of approved vibrators to form a
dense material free from honeycombing and other blemishes. Compaction by hand may be used only
with the prior approval of the Engineer.
Vibration time, the effectiveness, radius and other vibration characteristics shall be in accordance with
the vibrator manufacturer's recommendations.
If internal vibrators are used, they shall be withdrawn immediately water or a thin film of mortar begins
to appear on the surface of the concrete. Withdrawal shall be carried out slowly to avoid cavitation.
If shuttering vibrators are used, the shuttering shall be strong enough to withstand the forces of
vibration.
Unless otherwise specified, before placing new concrete against concrete which has already
hardened, the face of the older concrete shall be prepared by the removal of any laitance and loose
aggregate, and shall be cleaned by a jet of compressed air.

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When displacers are used they shall be so placed that no displacer is within 300 mm of any finished
face or within 450 mm of any other displacer. On completion of any lift displacers shall be so arranged
that they project for half their height above the surface.
In order to avoid as much as possible the effect on the structure of shrinkage, no concreting of
adjacent wall or slab panels will be allowed (except by special permission of the Engineer) unless a
short intermediate section of not less than 0.45 m is left un-concreted. After the wall sections or slab
panels have hardened for a period of not less than 5 days, the intermediates shall be concreted.
For reinforced concrete work in structures, the immersion type of vibrator shall be used. For
carriageway and footpath construction, 150 mm thick or less, a vibrating screen may be used but for
thickness in excess of 150 mm an immersion or plate-type of vibrator shall be used to compact the
lower layers. Where a plate-vibrator is used, the thickness of each concrete lift shall be limited to
0.1 m.
In conjunction with each vibrator, one rammer consisting of either a pointed metal rod not less than
20 mm diameter and weight not less than 3 kg or a metal-shod tamper of size not exceeding 0.1 x
0.1 m and weight not less than 6 kg shall be used, together with a shovel or spade.
As the concrete flows under the action of the vibrator, it shall be shaped into position and thoroughly
rammed, care being taken to fill the void left by the immersion vibrator. The concrete shall be
compacted to produce a dense uniform mass and special care taken to ensure that the concrete
around the reinforcement and adjacent to the forms is free from voids.
Where agreed by the Engineer that a vibrator shall not be used, the concrete shall be compacted by
rammers only, but otherwise as described above.
Concrete shall not be compacted by hand or machine to such an extent as in such a way that
segregation takes place, and any concrete which, in the opinion of the Engineer, has been overcompacted, shall be removed, carted from the Site and replaced, all at the Contractor's expense.

3.13.
(a)

(b)

HOT WEATHER CONCRETING


Concreting shall not be permitted if its temperature at placing is in excess of 38C. In order to
maintain the temperature of the concrete below this value the following precautions shall be
taken wholly or in part as instructed by the Engineer.
(i)

All aggregates stockpiles, water lines and tanks as well as the mixer shall be protected
from the direct rays of the sun.

(ii)

Coarse aggregate shall be cooled by constant watering where possible.

(iii)

Mixing water shall be cooled by the addition of ice to the storage tanks where necessary.

(iv)

Rapid hardening cement shall not be used.

(v)

Where the above precautions are inadequate concreting shall be carried out during the
cooler parts of the day or during the night as may be directed by the Engineer.

When the air temperature is above 20 degrees centigrade loss of mixing water by evaporation
shall be considered in arriving at the amount of water to be added to the mix. In order to
maintain the water/cement ratio within permissible limits an approved water-reducing agent
shall be included in the mix.
The maximum water/cement ratios may be increased with the Engineer's permission by 0.05 (or
2.25 litres to 50 kilograms of cement) during mixing, but on no account shall water be added to
concrete directly or indirectly once it has left the mixer.

(c)

In order to reduce premature drying of the concrete during transporting and placing, all chutes,
shuttering and reinforcement shall be cooled by watering when possible, or shall otherwise be
protected from the direct rays of the sun. Any water so used shall be removed by jetting with
compressed air before placing the concrete in close contact.

(d)

As soon as possible after concreting, the shuttering shall be stripped and the surface of the
concrete shall be kept moist for a period of 7 days by covering with wetted Hessian or sand, or
shall otherwise be treated with an approved curing membrane.

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Where drying winds are encountered, wind shields shall be positioned as directed by the
Engineer to protect exposed surface of the curing concrete.

3.14.

WET WEATHER CONCRETING

Concreting during periods of constant rain shall not be permitted unless aggregate stockpiles, mixers
and transporting equipment and the areas to be concreted are adequately covered.
During showery weather, the Contractor shall ensure that work can be concluded at short notice by
the provision of stop ends. On no account shall work be terminated before completion of each section,
between one stop and another. Adequate covering shall be provided to protect newly placed concrete
from the rain.

3.15.

PROTECTION AND CURING OF CONCRETE

Immediately after placing, the surface of the finished concrete shall be protected from the harmful
effects of sun, drying winds, rains, running or surface water and against any shocks. It shall be cured
by keeping it covered with damp material for a minimum period of seven days after placing. The
formwork shall also be kept damp and if struck earlier than 7 days, shall be replaced for the remaining
period with some other approved damp material.
In the case of concrete made with high alumina cement, the whole of the concrete shall be kept
thoroughly saturated with water for at least 24-hours after casting.
The Contractor shall protect and cure the concrete works as soon as practicable after completion by
one or more of the following methods:
(a)

The concrete shall be covered with a layer of sacking, canvas, Hessian, straw mats, or similar
absorbent material or a layer of sand and kept constantly wet for 7 days.

(b)

Except in the case of surfaces to which concrete has subsequently to be bonded, the concrete
shall be cured by application of an approved liquid-curing membrane. On horizontal surfaces,
the curing membrane shall be applied immediately after placing the concrete and on vertical
surface immediately after removing the formwork.

No traffic or constructional loads shall be permitted on newly placed concrete until it has hardened
sufficiently to take such traffic or load without surface damage or deformation.
If directed by the Engineer, the finished concrete works shall be fenced in such a manner as to
prevent the access of traffic, unauthorized persons or animals on the surface of the newly paved
concrete, until such time when the concrete will have hardened not to show any imprints or defects
caused by any interference.

3.16.

LOADING

No loads shall be placed on beams, slabs or walls without the permission of the Engineer.
No external load of any kind shall be applied to any part of a concrete structure until the concrete has
matured for at least 7 days and then only with the approval of the Engineer and after confirmation that
7 day cube strengths as agreed by the Engineer have been met.
The full design load shall not be applied until confirmation that the specified 28 day strength has been
reached.
The Contractor shall not fill around any structure incorporating a ground or floor slab before
confirmation that the slab and the wall has reached its specified 28 day strength.

3.17.

PLACING OF CONCRETE IN FOUNDATIONS

Before placing concrete in foundations, the bottom shall be thoroughly rammed and cleaned up to a
neat horizontal plane, or such profile as is shown on the Drawings. No steps or batters will be
permitted unless shown on the Drawings or approved by the Engineer.
Where shown on the Drawings or ordered by the Engineer that the sides of the concrete shall be cast
against the existing ground without using shuttering, the faces of the earth shall be trimmed neat and
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true to line. Where such a hole is over- excavated due to the Contractor's method of working, the void
shall be filled with concrete, at the Contractor's expense of the same Class as specified for the
foundation.
Where pumping from the foundation is necessary, sumps and drains shall be provided outside of the
area to be concreted. Where it is likely that there will be standing water in the foundation after
excavation, the final 0.1 to 0.15 m of the soil shall not be excavated until immediately before the
concreting. Where, in the opinion of the Engineer, the bottom of the excavation has become
unsuitable for bearing due to the Contractor's method of working, the soft material shall be excavated
to such a level as the Engineer may direct, and replaced with concrete Class 12/15 at the Contractor's
expense.
No concrete shall be placed in the foundation until the excavation has been approved by the Engineer.

3.18.

PLACING OF CONCRETE IN WATER

As far as possible, all concrete shall be deposited on a dry bottom and the placing of concrete under
water will not be permitted except with the written approval of the Engineer. Concrete placed under
water shall not be dropped, but shall be carefully placed in position by enclosing it in bags or by
means of a bottom dumping-bucket or tremie, or by continuous discharge through pipes leading from
the mixer. Full details shall first be permitted to the Engineer, whose written approval shall be obtained
before work is commenced.
The surface of the concrete deposited under water shall be kept as nearly as possible horizontal, and
no concrete shall be placed in running water or water liable to disturbance or pumping. Placing shall
be such as to require the minimum amount of spreading.
Tamping to such an extent or in such a way that segregation takes place shall be avoided. Sufficient
time shall be allowed for the concrete to set before it is subjected to any form of loading, and also to
ensure that it shall suffer no damage from subsequent pumping or dewatering operations.

3.19.

BENDING, PLACING AND FIXING OF STEEL REINFORCEMENT

The Contractor shall provide on Site, facilities for cutting and bending reinforcement whether he is
ordering his reinforcement bent or not and shall ensure that a token amount of straight bar is available
on Site for bending as and when directed by the Engineer.
Reinforcement shall be wire-brushed and cleaned at the Contractor's expense, before and/or after it is
placed in position, if required by the Engineer.
The bars shall be cold bent in strict accordance with the bending schedules and the Contractor shall
be responsible for the accuracy of bending. Bending dimensions shall be worked to the tolerance
indicated in DIN 488 and DIN 1045 except for binders and links which shall be bent to a tolerance of
1.5 mm. Bars in which any errors in bending are beyond the limits of the foregoing tolerances, shall be
replaced at the Contractor's cost by correctly bent new bars, or, may be straightened and re-bent cold,
subject to the Engineer's prior approval.
Steel reinforcement shall be cut and bent only by competent workmen accurately to the shape and
dimensions shown on the Drawings. They shall be bent cold to templates which shall not vary
appreciably from the shape and dimensions shown on the Drawings. All sharp bends shall be avoided
and in no case shall the bending radius be less than 80 mm for reinforcing bar diameters less than
20 mm and 200 mm for reinforcing bar diameters equal or larger than 20 mm and less than 28 mm.
The Contractor shall satisfy himself as to the accuracy of any bar bending schedule supplied, and
shall provide all steelwork in accordance with the detailed reinforcement Drawings.
Any discrepancy or inaccuracy found in the bending schedule shall be notified to the Engineer
immediately.
After bending, reinforcement shall be securely bundled and labelled with weather-proof tags or shall
be marked with other approved signs by which it can readily be identified.
Before assembling or placing the reinforcement the dimensions to which it has been bent shall be
checked with the bending schedules by the Contractor.

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The reinforcement shall be fixed in strict accordance with the Drawings as regards cover, spacing and
position and suitable precautions shall be taken by the Contractor to prevent the displacement of
reinforcement during the placing and compaction of concrete.
Distance from the forms shall be maintained by means of stays, blocks, ties, hangers, or other
approved supports. Blocks for holding reinforcement from contact with the forms shall be of suitable
material of approved shape and dimensions. Special distance holders may be used for waterproof
concrete of water tanks, etc. The holders shall be short enough to permit their ends to be covered with
concrete. Reinforcing bars shall be securely wired together in such a manner that they will maintain
their exact designated position during placing of concrete. The ends of all wires shall be turned into
the concrete away from the face.
Where required to support and retain the reinforcement in its correct position, the Contractor shall
provide templates, stools and other supports at his own cost.
Pre-cast concrete support blocks for reinforcement shall be manufactured from Class C20/25 fine
concrete to ensure the correct thickness. They shall be well cured before use and carefully stored on
Site to avoid contamination. Plastic and metal supports, chairs, etc, may be used subject to the
Engineer's prior approval.
A lap of not less than forty-four diameters of the large bar shall be provided at the junction of two bars
for which the lap is not specifically detailed on the Drawings.
Fabric reinforcement shall be lapped at least 40 diameters or two squares whichever is the greater.
Additional splicers, other than those shown on the Drawings, may be permitted by the Engineer, but
will not be paid for. All splicers shall be staggered and the length shall be as directed by the Engineer.
All intersection of bars in walls and slabs and all connections between binders and links and main bars
in columns or beams shall be tied with soft iron wire ties or with fixing clips which shall not be allowed
to make contact with the shuttering or to project into the specified cover.
Unless permitted by the Engineer, welding of bar reinforcement at intersections or for the joining of
bars is prohibited. Where permission is granted, welding shall be carried out in accordance with the
recommendations "Welding of Mild and Cold-worked Steel Bars for Reinforced Concrete Construction"
as issued by the Institute of Welding, UK.

3.20.

FORMS AND FORMWORK FOR CONCRETE: DEFINITIONS

"Forms, formwork or shuttering" shall include all temporary moulds for forming the concrete to the
required shape, together with all temporary construction such as falsework, props and struts required
for the support of such moulds, together with any special lining that may be required to produce a
special concrete finish.
"Wrot" or "Wrought" formwork or shuttering shall mean formwork where the internal timber face in
contact with the concrete is planed smooth, and the Contractor is to take particular care with the
surface of the shuttering, and with the floating of unshuttered surfaces, it being the intention that a
very smooth face will result when the shuttering is struck.
"Unwrot" formwork or shuttering shall mean formwork when the internal timber face in contact with the
concrete is left "as sawn".

3.21.

FORMWORK

3.21.1.

Forms and Formwork for Concrete: Construction

All forms shall be constructed so as to facilitate the accurate placing and proper compaction of the
concrete. Timber forms shall be constructed of sound, well-seasoned timber of such quality and
strength as will ensure rigidity throughout the placing, ramming, vibration and setting of the concrete
without visible deflection or warping. They shall be so constructed that they can be removed without
shock, vibration or damage to the concrete. All joints shall be tongued and grooved, unless otherwise
required, and shall be made sufficiently tight to prevent any leakage of grout. Internal ties shall be
avoided as far as possible, and if used, shall be metal. They shall be capable of removal without injury

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to the concrete, but if permitted by the Engineer to be permanently embedded in the concrete, shall be
cut back after the concrete is cast to at least 25 mm below the concrete.
Formwork for columns and small concrete sections, or where directed by the Engineer, shall be fitted
with trap doors through which saw-dust, shaving and other debris can be removed.
Steel forms of other materials may be used with the approval of the Engineer. Travelling forms will
only be permitted in special circumstances, and with the written approval of the Engineer.
Struts and props shall, where required by the Engineer, be fitted with double hardwood wedges or
other approved devices, so that the moulds may be adjusted as required and eased gradually after
casting the concrete. Wedges shall be spiked into position, and any adjusting device locked before the
concrete is cast.
All formwork shall be approved by the Engineer before concrete is placed within it. The Contractor
shall, if required by the Engineer, provide the latter with copies of his calculations of the strength and
stability of the formwork of falsework, but notwithstanding the Engineer's approval of these
calculations, nothing shall relieve the Contractor of his responsibility for the safety or adequacy of the
formwork.
Top shuttering shall be counter-weighed or otherwise anchored against floatation.

3.21.2.

Formwork for Mould Vibrated Pre-cast Concrete

Where pre-cast concrete is to be cast in vibrating moulds, special care shall be taken to maintain the
rigidity of the mould and supports against the action of the vibrators. Form vibrators shall be rigidly
attached to the forms to ensure the transmission of the vibrations to the concrete, all wedges and
clamps shall be fitted with locking devices to ensure they are kept tight during the vibrating operation.

3.21.3.

Preparation of Forms Before Concreting

Before the concrete is deposited, the forms shall be thoroughly cleaned of saw-dust, shaving and
other debris and hosed down with water. The face of the forms shall be coated with lime-wash or
painted with approved mould oil. Where reinforcement has been accidentally coated, it shall be
cleaned with a wire brush, and a suitable solvent.

3.21.4.

Forms for Construction Joints

Where permanent or temporary joints are to be made in horizontal or inclined members, stout stopping
off boards shall be securely fixed across the mould to form a watertight joint. Temporary contraction
joints shall have blocks of timber at least 75 mm thick, slightly tapered to facilitate withdrawal and
securely fixed to the face of the stopping off board. The area of the key or keys so formed shall be at
least 30% the area of the member. The block shall be kept back at least 50 mm from the exposed
surface of the concrete.
Where reinforcement passes through the face of a Construction joint, the stopping off board shall be
drilled so that the bars can pass through, or the board shall be made in sections with a half-round
indentation in the joint faces for each bar, so that when placed, the board is a neat and accurate fit,
and no grout leaks from the concrete through the bar holes or joints.

3.21.5.

Formwork Left In

Where the striking of formwork would in the opinion of the Engineer, cause damage to or prejudice the
safety of the structure, the formwork shall be left in. If, in the opinion of the Engineer, the necessity for
leaving in the formwork arises from the Contractor's method of working, then that loss shall be borne
by the Contractor.

3.21.6.

Removal of Forms

Forms shall be removed in such a manner as will not injure the concrete, and no formwork shall be
removed before the concrete has sufficiently set and hardened. The minimum periods which shall
elapse between the placing and compacting of Ordinary Portland cement concrete for the various

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parts of the structure are given in the following schedule, but compliance with these requirements shall
not relieve the Contractor of obligation to delay the removal of the forms if the concrete has not set
sufficiently hard:
Side beams, wall, columns, piles
Soffit of secondary slabs (props left in)
Soffit of main slabs (props left in)
Removal of props - slabs
Bottom boards of piles
(Intermediate support left in)
Soffit of beams under 6 m span
Soffit of beams over 6 m span

3.22.

......................... 2 days
......................... 3 days
..................... .... 7 days
......................... 10 days
......................... 12 days
......................... 16 days
......................... 16 days
plus 1 day per 0.6 m in
excess of 6 m with
maximum of 28 days

SPECIAL METHODS OF WORKING

Should the Contractor propose to use special methods of working not included in these Specifications,
such as pumping concrete or using vacuum moulds, he shall obtain the Engineer's approval before
commencing work, and comply with any subsequent specification made by the Engineer for this
special method of working.

3.23.

MAKING GOOD

Honeycombing or damaged surfaces of concrete which in the opinion of the Engineer are not such as
to warrant cutting out and replacement of the Concrete shall be made good as soon as possible after
removal of the shuttering as follows:
A Portland Cement and sand mixture shall be worked into the pores over the whole surface with a fine
Carborundum float in such a manner that no more material is left on the concrete face than is
necessary completely to fill the pores so that a uniformly smooth and dense surface of uniform colour
is finally presented.

3.24.

PROTECTION OF CONCRETE AFTER REMOVAL OF SHUTTERING

Any concrete surfaces, rises and treads of stairways which might be damaged during the construction
of the works, shall be adequately protected.

3.25.

REMOVAL AND REPLACEMENT OF UNSATISFACTORY CONCRETE

The Contractor shall on the Engineer's instruction so to do, cut and replace any concrete in any part of
the structure if in the Engineer's opinion:
(a)

the concrete does not conform to the Specifications; or

(b)

deleterious materials or materials are likely to produce harmful effects have been included in
the concrete; or

(c)

the honeycombed or damaged surfaces are too extensive; or

(d)

the finished concrete sizes are not in accordance with the Drawings within permissible
tolerances; or

(e)

the setting-out is incorrect; or

(f)

the steel cover has not been maintained; or

(g)

the protection, including curing of the concrete during the Construction was inadequate,
resulting in damage; or

(h)

the work of making or other remedial measures the Engineer may indicate are not carried out
to his satisfaction; or

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(i)

undue deformation of or damage to the works has taken place due to inadequate shuttering,
or to premature traffic and loading; or

(j)

any combination of the above points has taken place resulting in unsatisfactory work.

3.26.

CONSTRUCTION JOINTS

The details of the Construction Joints and their positions shall be submitted by the Contractor for
approval together with the order of concreting.
Joints shall be made at right angles to the member. Stop end shutters shall be removed as soon as
practicable after the concrete has set, but without moving the main shuttering. Exposed horizontal or
vertical concrete shall be thoroughly cleaned to expose the coarse aggregate, being hacked, well
brushed and washed with high pressure air and water jetting or by other approved method. Before
fresh concrete is placed against the joint, the surfaces shall be cleaned to remove any laitance, loose
material or dirt. Horizontal surfaces shall be coated with 1 to 12/3 cement mortar 12 mm thick,
moistened and of approved consistency, and the concrete shall be deposited and rammed hard
against the existing concrete before the coating has set.
In Construction Joints of water-retaining structures, and elsewhere as may be ordered by the
Engineer, 200 mm "Dumbbell" PVC water bars shall be provided. Unless otherwise ordered by the
Engineer, Construction Joints shall be rebated to an approved form.
The cost of water stops required at Construction Joints is to be included in the rates for concrete and
form-work if not specifically itemised in the Bills of Quantities.

3.27.

WATER TIGHTNESS

The water tightness of all members subject to water pressure shall be ensured by the use of proper
materials and good workmanship as specified above and all precautions shall be taken to ensure
thorough and proper consolidation of the concrete forming such members. The Contractor shall carry
out such tests for water tightness as the Engineer may order. The cost of such tests shall be borne by
the Contractor, unless otherwise included for in the Bills of Quantities.
The greatest depth of water penetration on testing in accordance with DIN 1048 shall not exceed
50 mm.
Special attention shall be given to the elimination of cracking due to the shrinkage of the concrete.

3.28.

FAULTY WORK

The Contractor shall on being requested in writing by the Engineer, remove and reconstruct any
structural members or portions of the work which gives evidence of any fault, or injury which may
affect the strength, durability of water tightness of the Construction. No concrete or steel shall be cut in
any way except on such request and with permission in writing.

3.29.

RATES OF CONCRETE

The prices inserted in the Bills of Quantities shall include for all materials including water for weighting,
gauging, mixing, conveying, placing, spreading, compacting, vibrating, finishing, and except where
otherwise provided for in the Bills of Quantities, for joints with existing work or recently deposited
concrete; for shuttering to Construction joints, skew-back, stunt ends, stepping, bonding chases and
the like; for Constructing the work under the alternative bay system; for curing and surface finish for
the cost of strengthening and stiffening the shuttering to resist vibration and for handling the concrete
at the specified water-cement ratio.
Unless items for shuttering are included in the Bills of Quantities the prices for all mass concrete shall
include for any necessary shuttering, side forms and timber work.

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3.30.

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PRE-CAST CONCRETE

The foregoing requirements relating to ordinary and reinforced concrete generally shall be observed in
the case of pre-cast concrete so far as they are applicable as well as the following requirements
relating to pre-cast work in particular.
The pre-cast concrete work shall comply with the requirements of DIN 1045 or equivalent.
The Contractor shall submit for the approval of the Engineer samples of all aggregates for use in the
pre-cast concrete.
Where holes or recesses are required for bolts, covers, etc. they shall be cast in the units.
Where reinforcement is required, the requirements of the Specification regarding holding of the bars or
fabric firmly in position shall be strictly adhered to.
Pre-cast concrete units shall be manufactured either on the Site or in a concrete factory approved by
the Engineer.
All pre-cast concrete units shall have the date of casting and identification number engraved on them
before the concrete is fully hardened. Any undated units will be liable to be rejected by the Engineer.
The Contractor shall take all measures concerning the curing and protection of the units after
fabrication.
Transportation of the units to the Site shall be permitted only on one of the following conditions:

28 days after fabrication, or

after the required compressive strength specified in the Table of Designed Concrete Mixes has
been reached.

Where the installation of pre-cast concrete units in any particular structure is such that the faces of the
units are to be left exposed either internally or externally, the exposed surfaces of the units as finished
shall be uniform in colour and in texture. All cement, aggregates and other materials used in the
manufacture of the units shall be obtained from the same approved sources throughout the period of
manufacture.
Concrete for pre-cast units shall be placed and compacted by methods approved by the Engineer.

3.30.1.

Concrete Quality and Tests on Concrete

The concrete used in the manufacture of pre-cast concrete units shall comply in every respect with
specifications and the Class of Concrete required shall be in accordance with the above specified
requirements.
The design, mixing, testing, curing and quality control of the concrete used in pre-cast units shall be in
accordance with all defined specifications.
Shuttering and concrete finishes shall also comply with the above mentioned requirements.

3.30.2.

Cast-in Parts

The cast-in parts, such as lifting lugs, fasteners, jointing materials supporting structures, etc. shall be
fixed in the positions as shown on the working drawings. Cast-in parts shall be free from rust, dirt or
grease and shall be properly stored before using.

3.30.3.

Transport, Storage and Erection

At all stages and until completion of the Works, pre-cast units shall be adequately protected to
preserve all permanently exposed surfaces and arises. The protection shall not mark or otherwise
disfigure the concrete.
Transportation, storage and erection of the pre-cast concrete units shall be done carefully and in such
way as to avoid any damage and to keep the surfaces of the units free from dirt or other unwanted
marks. Loading and unloading, storage and erection of the pre-cast concrete units at the Site shall be
carried out by skilled labour and under supervision of a competent supervisor.
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Any pre-cast concrete unit which is found to be cracked, damaged or otherwise inferior in quality either
before or after erection shall be rejected and shall be replaced by the Contractor.

3.30.4.

Installation of Pre-cast Concrete

All pre-cast concrete units shall be laid, bedded, jointed and fixed in accordance with the lines, levels
and other details shown on the approved working drawings.
Dry-pack mortar, where necessary, shall be used for jointing or packing. The mortar shall be placed
and packed in stages where possible from both sides of the space being filled using a hardwood stick
hammered until the mortar is thoroughly compacted.

3.30.5.

Manufacturing in a Factory

Pre-cast concrete units may be manufactured in a factory approved by the Engineer and which is off
the Site. If the units are to be made in a concrete factory, then the Contractor shall give the Engineer
full information, in advance concerning the name and address of the factory, details of the probable
date of commencement of manufacture. The Contractor shall make the necessary arrangements for
the Engineer to inspect the factory during working hours.

3.30.6.

Work Programme and Method Statement

The Contractor shall submit to the Engineer for his approval, the Work Programme and Method
Statement giving full details of his proposed method of carrying out all operations connected with the
manufacture and erection of pre-cast concrete units, which shall include the following:

period required to produce the drawings and detailed calculations;


dates of commencement of manufacturing of the concrete units.,
dates of delivery to Site with the Specification for erection;
sequence of erection and the period required for Site erection works;
a description of the types of casting bed, mould and shuttering for the various types of
members;
procedure for reinforcing, concrete casting and method of curing the concrete;
procedure for transporting, handling, hoisting and placing of each type of pre-cast concrete unit;
the necessary strength of in situ cast concrete before starting site erection works;
the design, manufacturing and mounting details to adapt the in situ cast concrete to the
assembly; and
particulars of temporary supports as deemed necessary to ensure adequate stability during
erection and to sustain the effects of construction loads, wind loads or other transient loads.

No commencement of works shall be permitted until the programme and method statement have been
approved by the Engineer.

3.31.

RATES FOR PRE-CAST CONCRETE

The price for each description of pre-cast concrete shall include for all shuttering, moulds, fillets, for
forming the tops to proper shapes, for finishing all exposed surfaces to a very smooth face and for
fixing and building in place complete.

3.32.
(a)

CONCRETE WORK TOLERANCES


Cover to Reinforcement
The cover to the reinforcement bars in concrete shall be as specified in clause 3.38 Cover to
Reinforcement, or as ordered by the Engineer, following variations are permitted:
Least Dimension on Concrete Structure:

Permitted variation:

Less than 0.25 m

+ 4% to - 2%

Greater than 0.25 m

+10% to - 5 mm

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(b)

Tender Documents
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III.2 Part A: Civil Works and Buildings

Shuttering
Shuttering shall be of such accuracy, strength and rigidity as to carry the weight and pressure
from the concrete to be placed on or against it, together with all constructional, wind or other
loads likely to be imparted to it, without producing deformation of the finished concrete in excess
of the tolerances outlined below:
Overall dimensions and levels

+/-

5 mm

Column sizes

+/-

5 mm

Beam sizes

5 mm

Slab thickness

5 mm

Wall thickness

10 mm

Vertical lines out of plumb

+
+

5 mm or
12 mm in every 30 metres

Except that in the case of "sawn" shuttering the dimensions of the finished concrete shall be not
less than those shown on the Drawings.
Beam soffit shall be erected with an upward chamfer of 6 mm per 3 metre span.

3.33.

WATER BARS

Waterbars shall be of suitable plastic material (e.g. PVC) and of approved manufacture and securely
fixed in place before concreting is commenced. All joints and junctions shall be welded in an approved
manner, the cost of welding and jointing being included in the rate per linear meter entered in the Bills
of Quantities.

3.34.

ADMIXTURES TO MORTAR OR CONCRETE

The use of any admixtures to mortar or concrete shall be subject to the written approval of the
Engineer.

3.35.

SAMPLING AND TESTING

The Contractor shall provide on the site equipment, staff and labour for carrying out the sampling and
testing, and he shall carry out any or all of these tests at such times and with such frequency as may
be requested by the Engineer.
All equipment shall be calibrated and checked from time to time as the Engineer may require.
The Contractor shall provide all samples required by the Engineer. Those samples to be tested in a
laboratory shall be carefully forwarded by the Contractor to an approved laboratory. Results of
laboratory and Site tests shall be kept on Site and copies of all test Reports shall be forwarded in
duplicate to the Engineer's Representative.
The provision on site of all instruments and apparatus
laboratory fees and carriages) of all checking, calibrating,
testing materials and concrete either by a laboratory or on
for by the Contractor in his rates and prices together with
supplying copies to the Engineer.

3.36.
(a)

and the expenses and costs (including


provision or making and of handling and
Site as described herein shall be allowed
the cost of preparing all test records and

TESTING OF CONCRETE DURING PRODUCTION


Consistency
The consistency of concrete shall be frequently checked by means of a slump test performed by
the Engineer or his Representative. The maximum and minimum slump for each Class of
Concrete used shall be as directed by the Engineer, and any concrete represented by the slump

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test which fails to comply with these specifications, shall be removed from the Site and disposed
off at the Contractor's expense.
(b)

Slump Test
Slump tests shall be performed in accordance with DIN 1045, during the progress of the work to
ensure consistency of the concrete and carried out at such frequency and on such concrete as
the Engineer shall direct.

(c)

Method of Making Test Cubes


Test cubes shall be made by or under the supervision of the Engineer or his Representative
from concrete placed in or about to be placed in the works.
Test cubes shall be made, stored and cured and tested in accordance with DIN 1045. The
method of compaction (by hand or vibrator) will be at the Engineer's discretion.
Test cubes shall be marked with the date of casting and a reference number, and the
Contractor shall keep a record and provide the Engineer with a duplicate copy showing the date
cast, reference number of cube, Class of Concrete and position in the works of the concrete
tested.
After approval of the trial mix by the Engineer, production of concrete for the works may
commence.
The proportions of materials used in the works shall follow the proportions found to be
acceptable in the trial mixes. The concrete shall be prepared under the control of a competent
person, and close control kept over quantities and water content, care being taken to make due
allowances for variations in the moisture content of the materials. Regular testing of the
moisture content of the aggregates shall be carried out. All measurements of materials (except
water) must be done by weight.
For the concrete to be acceptable the following conditions must be satisfied:
(i)

No more than one individual result in the same test shall fall below the specified works
Cube Strength.

(ii)

No individual result to fall below 0.9 x the specified works Cube Strength.

(iii)

No test result (average of three cubes in one sample) to fall below the specified works
Cube Strength.

When at least 4 consecutive working days concrete production has been proved satisfactory,
the frequency of testing may be reduced at the Engineer's discretion.
(d)

Transport of Test Cubes


Test cubes shall if required by the Engineer, be transported by the Contractor to the approved
laboratory so as to arrive not later than 6 days after casting but shall not be despatched earlier
than 72-hours after casting.

3.37.

FREQUENCY OF TESTS

Frequency of tests and the number of samples required will be governed by the results of previous
test, the quality of the materials revealed during the tests and the uniformity of that quality.
In case of crushing tests to be made on concrete when Construction commences, the Engineer may
require up to 6 test cubes to be cast each day for each Class of concrete (3 cubes to be tested at 7
days and 3 cubes at 28 days) until he is satisfied that the materials and the method of mixing used are
such as to produce a concrete which complies with the requirements. The number of test cubes to be
made for routine testing shall be 3 for each and every 30 m3 or part thereof per working day or as
otherwise required by the Engineer. These cubes shall normally be tested 7 and 28 days after casting.
Should it become evident that quality of the concrete is deteriorating; the Engineer may require
additional samples to be made and tested to determine the cause.

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3.38.

Tender Documents
WWTP
III.2 Part A: Civil Works and Buildings

COVER TO REINFORCEMENT

The concrete cover to reinforcement shall be as follows:

3.39.

For normal structures


For sewage structures

25 mm
50 mm

REFERENCE AND RECORD BOOKS TO BE KEPT ON SITE

A triplicate book shall be provided by the Contractor wherein all instructions on concrete work given by
the Engineer shall be entered. This book shall be kept on the Site and one copy of all entries shall be
forwarded to the Engineer.
A continuous entry diary shall be kept permanently on Site by the Contractor wherein he shall record
details of shuttering, construction, placing or reinforcement, concreting and curing operations, striking
or shuttering, making good, daily temperature and weather conditions. The diary shall always be
available for the Engineer's inspection.
The Contractor shall provide and keep permanently on Site all the Standard Specifications referred to
herein.

3.40.

TESTING EQUIPMENT

The Contractor shall provide a complete concrete laboratory. The laboratory shall include also the
following equipment:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)

Glass graduated cylinders for use in the silt test for organic impurities in the sand.
Slump test apparatus
Cubes /moulds crushing machine
Sieves
Weighing and measuring apparatus, thermometer
All other necessary apparatus and equipment.

A sufficient number of 152.4 mm steel cube moulds with base plates and tamping rods.

3.41.

REINFORCEMENT

(1)

Certificates: All deliveries of steel reinforcement shall be accompanied by the manufacturers


certificate giving the results of tests carried out in accordance with the requirements of the
relevant DIN standard. The Engineer may require the Contractor to submit samples of steel
from each delivery to an approved Laboratory for testing, the costs of all samples and tests shall
be deemed to be included in the Contractors rates for reinforcement.

(2)

Yield Stress: The yield stress for ribbed reinforcement steel of deformed steel bars shall be
minimum 390 N/mm on the basis of DIN 488 Parts 1 and 2. The wire mesh shall be hard drawn
welded wire fabric on basis of DIN 488 Part 4.
Reinforcing drawings and bar bending schedules shall be prepared (as shop drawings) by the
Contractor and checked and approved by the Engineer.

(3)

Special attention should be paid to hooks splices bending radii anchorage lengths and concrete
cover.

(4)

All reinforcing steel shall be stored on elevated platforms and must not be laid on the ground.

(5)

Reinforcing steel shall be protected at all times from damage and when placed in the structure
shall be free from dirt loose mill and rust scale paint oil and other foreign substances.

(6)

Reinforcing steel bars shall be cut and bent cold to templates. All sharp bends shall be avoided
and in no case shall the bending radius be less than 80mm for diameters less than 20 mm and
200 mm for diameters 20 and more.

(7)

Distance from the forms shall be maintained by means of stays, blocks, ties, hangers or other
approved support. They shall be of suitable materials and of approved shapes and dimensions.
Special care shall be taken to water proof concrete.

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(8)

Welding of bars is not allowed, but the Engineer may authorise from case to case.

(9)

No concrete shall be placed until the reinforcement has been examined and approved by the
Engineer. The Contractor shall give a minimum period of notice of at least 24 hours before the
scheduled commencement of concreting to allow the Engineer time to carry out a full and
detailed inspection of the reinforcement.

(10)

If in the Engineers opinion additional reinforcement is required, this shall be placed as directed
by the Engineer.

3.42.

CONNECTIONS TO CONCRETE STRUCTURES, TEMPORARY HOLES AND OPENINGS

3.42.1.

General

All connections to concrete structures, temporary holes and openings in structures shall be made in
accordance with the Drawings and/or to the directions of the Engineer.
All steel constructions and other items to be cast in, such as anchor bolts, steel frames, sockets,
pipes, strips, waterstops of rubber, etc. shall be fixed and cast in by the Contractor in accordance with
the approved working drawings.
The Contractor shall also provide templates and other supplementary means for the correct
positioning of the constructions and items as mentioned above.
The Contractor is to ensure that all of the constructions and items as mentioned above are on Site in
time in order to avoid interruptions during the execution of concrete works. If recesses are provided,
these shall be sufficiently larger in size than the dimensions of the construction or items to be cast in.

3.42.2.

Building-in Pipes and other Items

Pipes and other items passing through concrete structures shall wherever practicable be built into the
structure as work proceeds, having been installed and connected to the remainder of the system to
ensure proper fit prior to the start of any concreting.
Before placing concrete all bolts, pipes or conduits or any other fixtures which are to be built in shall
be fixed in their correct positions, and cores and other devices for forming the holes shall be held fast
by fixing to the formwork or otherwise. Holes shall not be cut in any concrete without prior approval of
the Engineer in writing.
When that procedure cannot be adopted, holes or openings of suitable dimensions shall be formed for
such items to allow them to be built in later along with or after installation of the remainder of the
system. Such holes or opening shall be of size and shape sufficient to permit proper placing and
companion of concrete or grout. The surfaces of the holes or openings shall be treated as construction
joints.
All items to be built-in shall be securely supported in their correct position to prevent movement or
damage during building in. In particular, any pipe with flanged joints shall not be concreted in until its
accurate fit with other pipework has been checked and it has been secured in position.
Concrete used for building-in shall be of the same Class as the surrounding concrete, except that the
mix shall also incorporate an approved expanding additive used with due regard to the manufacturers
instructions.
Cement sand mortar or cement grout used for this purpose shall also incorporate an expanding
additive. Concrete, mortar and grout shall be placed and compacted by methods which will avoid
moving or damaging built-in items.

3.42.3.

Cutting or Displacement of Reinforcement

Reinforcement shall not be cut bent or displaced to facilitate building in without the Engineers
approval.
Where reinforcement is cut or displaced to facilitate the formation of holes or openings, the Contractor
shall provide and fix additional reinforcement steel as required and approved by the Engineer to
transfer the stresses from one side of the hole, opening or recess to the other.
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Cutting or displacement of reinforcement shall only be permitted after the approval and inspection by
the Engineer.

3.42.4.

Cleaning

Before filling or grouting, the holes and openings shall be roughed and cleaned to remove dust or
other impurities. The openings and holes shall be moistened with clean water before filling or grouting.
The threads of anchor bolts and other items shall be cleaned and greased immediately after filling or
grouting.

3.42.5.

Grouting in Narrow Spaces

In the event of the space between the fixture or unit to be cast in and the adjacent concrete being less
than or equal to 25 mm, the grouting shall compose of one part cement and two parts of sand with an
approved expanding additive.

3.42.6.

Joint between Old and New Concrete

Where new concrete is joined with old or existing concrete, the Contractor shall cut the old concrete to
form a straight surface. The joint shall be considered as a construction joint and treated with an
approved epoxy resin compound, prior to placing the new concrete. The exposed surface of the joint
between old and new concrete shall be formed with a timber insert 20 mm x 25 mm. After the concrete
has fully hardened, the timber insert shall be removed and the space filled with an approved epoxy
sealer.

3.42.7.

Grouting under Hand-railings

The grouting under hand-railings shall be executed with a synthetic resin mortar based on epoxy and
to be approved by the Engineer.

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4.

SEWERS AND PIPEWORK

4.1.

GENERAL

Tender Documents
WWTP
III.2 Part A: Civil Works and Buildings

This specification applies in particular to sewers and pipework. Sewers, pipes, valves and fittings shall
comply with the relevant EN/ DIN/ BS Standard Specifications as stated hereinafter or equivalent.
In general the recommendations contained with regards to sewers and pipework and its installation
shall be followed, in so far as they are relevant to the prevailing soil and climatic conditions.
Sewer and pipeline materials shall be so transported, stored, and handled that they are not
overstressed at any time and fittings are not damaged in any way. Sewers or pipes damaged or
cracked in any way shall be removed from the Site.
Satisfactory temporary end covers shall be provided for the protection of plain-ended pipes and
fittings, and to prevent damage to internal lining during transportation and during handling on Site. The
following items should also be considered:
1.

All sewers and pipework as indicated on the contract drawings shall be provided and installed.
The sizes, diameters and arrangement of the pressure pipework may be varied to suit the
arrangement and pump sizes subject to the approval of the Engineer. The layout and design of
the pipework shall be such as to facilitate its erection and the dismantling of any section for
maintenance. Necessary adjustments resulting from the Contractors detailed local investigation
shall be indicated in the Contractors shop drawing. The shop drawings are subject of the no
objections from the Engineer and Employer. Obvious adjustments are covered by the
Contractors contract price.

2.

The flexible joints to be employed are to be of an approved type and manufacturer. Where
necessary, tie bars are to be used. Sufficient flexible joints, whether shown on the contract
drawings or not, are to be included at all points necessary in the pipelines to facilitate erection
and dismantling of separate units runs of pipework at any time, and to allow for possible
movement, settlement or vibration.

3.

All pipework, valves and fittings shall be to a class in excess of the max. pressure they will
attain in service, including any surge pressure.

4.

A flange adapter shall be included in the suction and delivery pipework for easy dismantling and
provision shall be made for a flexible joint arrangement to structures.

5.

The ends of pipes to accommodate flange adapters and couplings shall be faced squared and
sized according to the tolerances required by the manufacturer of the coupling.

6.

Whenever sewers or pipework are fixed to penetrate walls, the Contractor shall provide and
install suitable flexible connection joints and dense sealing between the concrete structure and
the sewer.

7.

Flange adapters and unions shall be supplied and fitted in the pipework runs wherever
necessary to permit the simple disconnection of flanges, valves and equipment without the need
to disturb long runs to remove valves, equipment etc.

8.

Flange joints shall be made with seals, which conform to DIN 2690, and the faces of all flanges
shall be machined to give a true angle of 90 degree to the centre line of the pipe or fitting.

9.

The whole of the jointing and materials necessary to fix and connect the pipes including
adequate and efficient pipe supports, shall be included in the tender.

10.

The Contractor shall be responsible for ensuring that the internal surface of all sewers and
pipework is thoroughly clean before and during erection and before the sewers and/or pipework
is placed into commission. Cleaning shall include removal of all dirt, rust, scale and welding slag
due to the site welding.

11.

Before dispatch from the Contractor's works the ends of the pipes, branch pipes etc. shall be
suitably capped and covered to prevent any accumulation of dirt or damage. This protection
shall not be removed until immediately prior to connecting adjacent pipes or valves.

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12.

All small bore pipes shall be blown through with compressed air before connection is made to
instruments and other equipment.

13.

The Contractor shall note the necessity for providing flexibility in the sewers and pipework at
joints in the main structures to allow for differential settlement and thermal stresses which shall
not be transferred to the anchor blocks.

14.

Flexible joints or collars and cut pipes shall also be provided on all sewers where necessary to
allow some margin of error in the building work. The sewer system shall be designed to ensure
that anchorage at blank ends, bends, tees and valves may be kept to a minimum. The
Contractor shall indicate on his detailed drawing what thrust blocks are required to anchor
sewers supplied by him.

15.

The tendered prices shall cover all brackets, stays, backing boards, threader tubes, clips and
bolts necessary for the complete installation whether large or small in size.

16.

Where the coating of the pressure pipes is damaged, the surface shall be cleaned and dried
and the Contractor shall paint the damaged area with a minimum of three coats of paint and to
the full thickness and specification as the original coating. Repair works are subject of the
Engineers approval.

4.2.

LAYING OF SEWERS

The Contractors attention is drawn to Section 1 and 2 of these Specifications regarding Earthworks,
Sewer Bedding and Backfilling and Piling.
The construction and testing of the sewage networks will comply with European Standards EN 1610,
EN 1295-1 and the German Code of practice (ATV-Working Sheet A 127).
(a)

The trench bottom shall be prepared as specified. Piling facilities are foreseen to bear the
structures. Trenches shall be kept sufficiently dry to allow proper and safe bedding, laying, and
jointing of sewers and kept dry until the sewers have passed the required tests and construction
of the selected fill blanket over the pipes has been completed.

(b)

All pipes and culverts shall be carefully handled during stringing out and laying operations.
Pipes and culverts shall be moved by lifting, and shall not be dropped dragged or rolled.
Suitable lifting appliances shall be used and the passing of slings through the barrel of the pipe
and culvert will not be allowed.

(c)

Sewers and pipelines shall be laid and bedded to even grades and to levels gradients and
alignments shown on the drawings or as directed. It shall be laid centrally in the trench and with
the manufacturer's class and quality identification marks visible from the top of the trench, if
possible. Control of laying and bedding shall be by means of boning rods and sight rails or an
acceptable laser beam device. Sight rails shall be painted black and white and shall be fixed
securely and accurately.

(d)

Each sewer / pipe and each fitting shall be thoroughly cleaned and carefully examined for
damage and defects immediately before laying. Should any damaged or defective pipe or fitting
be laid, it shall be removed and replaced at the Contractors expense and to the satisfaction of
the Engineer.

(e)

All sewers and pipes shall be laid with a minimum cover from the ground level to the top of the
pipe as specified in the drawings (proposed minimum cover for gravity pipes is 40 cm), or as
directed by the Engineer.

(f)

Laying and jointing of the pipes shall be carried out in strict accordance with the manufacturers
instructions.

(g)

Every reasonable precaution shall be taken to prevent the entry of foreign matter and water into
the sewer / pipeline. At the close of each day's work or at any time when work is suspended for
a significant period, the last laid pipe / culvert shall be plugged, capped, or otherwise tightly
closed until laying is recommenced.

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(h)

During laying and jointing of pipes and until the pipeline(s) has/have passed the required
acceptance tests and the trenches have been backfilled, all trenches shall be kept in a state
which, in the opinion of the Engineer, is reasonably dry.

(i)

The minimum clearance between the outside of a pipeline being laid and the outside of any
other pipe that it crosses shall be 150 mm. Where this requirement conflicts with the
requirements for cover over the pipeline the Contractor shall ask the Engineer for written
instructions and shall carry out the work in accordance with those instructions.

(j)

In newly laid sewers / pipes, any connection showing leakage when tested it will be considered
defective and the pipe length with the defective connection shall be replaced and re-tested by
the Contractor at his own expense. The Contractor shall record all relevant data (e.g. street
name, number of plot, location measurements and distances in relation to boundary peg(s), size
of connection, depths at connecting point etc.) for the preparation of "as-built" drawings, and
shall make these records available to the Engineer.

(k)

The internal diameter of the pipes barrel shall not be reduced by more than 3% of its base
diameter when measured after backfilling and compaction bur prior to final paving. If this
deflection is exceeded, the Contractor shall uncover the pipe and shall improve the quality of
the backfilling and compaction. Excessive deflection shall be measured by pulling a mandrel of
97% of the pipe diameter through the pipe.

(l)

The mandrel test shall be performed prior to leakage testing.

(m)

During the process of pipe laying a brush of suitable diameter shall be passed through the pipe
for cleaning purposes.

(n)

The construction of the sewer / pipeline in trenches shall be co-ordinated with the excavation
and backfilling of other trenches.

4.3.

JOINTING

All pipelines shall be jointed in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions and to the approval by
the Engineer.
Each end of pipes being jointed with detachable couplings shall be thoroughly cleaned of dirt, grease
and grit by brushing and wiping immediately before being jointed. All rubber rings and seals shall be
carefully inspected after being placed in position and before the joint is closed, to ensure that they
have not suffered any cuts, tears, or other damage, and are not in any way defective. Only the
lubricants (if any) recommended by the manufacturer of the pipe shall be used for sleeve-type
couplings and rubber insertion rings. The pipe shall be properly supported, bedded and lined up
before the joint is set up and made. The joint rings shall be lubricated with the manufacturer's
recommended material and accurately positioned.
Gaskets for pipe flanges shall be of natural rubber. The quality shall comply with DIN 3754. Where
necessary, high pressure service gaskets shall be used. Pressure and temperature shall comply with
DIN 3754, page 2.
Care shall be taken to avoid damage to the internal surface of the pipes during assembly of the
pipeline.
Important
The sewer / pipes connected to the manholes from all sides shall be of maximum one meter length in
order to absorb possible settlements of the manholes. The one meter pipe pieces shall be connected
from all sides of the manholes. Pipes longer than one meter shall not be allowed to be connected to
the manholes or to other waste water structures.
After the one meter pieces, normal lengths of pipes can be jointed.

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4.4.
(a)

Tender Documents
WWTP
III.2 Part A: Civil Works and Buildings

SITE CONNECTIONS AND BRANCHLINES


Storage Areas
The Contractor shall provide for the storage of pipes in a manner and with facilities approved by
the Engineer for pipe fittings and branchline pipes that should be in realistic proximity to the
area or areas of laying.
The Contractor shall construct a fenced lockable compound in which all pipes and fittings shall
be delivered. The Contractor shall provide all necessary cleaning and security. The shelters
shall be of sufficient size and capacity to protect the materials from the effect of weather.
The Contractor shall provide details of these storage areas to the Engineer in advance for his
approval.
The Contractor shall at all reasonable times allow the Engineer free access to any storage place
for inspection or test. In all cases the Contractor shall satisfy the Engineer that the plant has
been delivered in good clean condition, that the identification markings are clear and that the
stock piling is in an approved manner.

(b)

Sewer / Pipe Stacking and Storage


Sewers / pipes shall be properly stacked at the pipe storage areas, which shall be under cover
and in accordance with the manufacturers recommendations and might have to be fully
protected from the sun. The site shall be flat, level and free from sharp stones, etc. Pipes shall
be stacked such that they are supported along the whole length of the pipe barrel with the
sockets protruding. Notwithstanding manufacturers recommendations the maximum stacking
height shall not exceed 2.8 metres for 200 mm diameter and above. Transparent or black
polythene sheeting shall not be used as protection.

(c)

Distribution of Materials to and from Storage


Sewers / pipes may be distributed from storage to the trench side no more than 2 days prior to
laying unless they are to be protected from the suns rays in which case this period may be
extended at the discretion of the Engineer's Representative.
Care shall be exercised in the transporting, handling, off-loading and loading of the sewers /
pipes. A minimum of two persons per sewer / pipe shall assist in the loading and offloading and
pipes / sewers shall be neither thrown down nor dropped.
When pipes or culverts are being loaded onto vehicles care shall be taken to avoid their coming
into contact with any sharp corners such as chains, cope irons, loose nail heads, etc. Whilst in
transit, pipes shall be well secured over their entire length and not allowed to project unsecured
over the tailboard of the lorry.
Pipes shall not however be rolled or dragged along the ground.

(d)

Marking
Each culvert, pipe, fitting or accessory shall bear the mark of manufacturer and its country of
origin, together with the nominal diameter. In addition a referencing system shall be employed
by the manufacturer denoting the sewer / pipeline for which the material is intended.
The Contractor shall keep detailed and up-to-date records in a form to be approved by the
Engineer of all accepted pipes and fittings showing the quantities of each type received by the
Contractor and the quantities that have been used during the report period. These records shall
be delivered monthly to the Engineer.

4.5.

PACKING FOR TRANSPORT FROM ABROAD

Pipes up to DN 300 may be bundled; with larger sizes packed loose. Containerised packing and
transportation is also acceptable and if proposed shall be so indicated by the Tenderer.
Notwithstanding any intention to utilise containers, all nuts, bolts, rubber gaskets etc. shall be packed
in wooden boxes and protected against the elements. Nesting of pipes is not permitted. Fittings up to
and including DN 200 and flanged pipe pieces up to DN 200 and length not exceeding 1 metre shall
also be packed and supplied in wooden boxes. All other fittings and flanged pipes may be packed
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loose. All flanges shall be protected with discs of wood, wool, fibre or timber. Bolted gland joints and
flexible couplings shall be bundled if not containerised. Pipe sockets, spigots, plain ends shall be
protected by suitable wrapping prior to transportation.

4.6.

MANUFACTURING OF PIPES AND CULVERTS

The Engineer reserves the right for himself or his agent to be present to personally view the
commencement of manufacture or/and the testing of the pipes / culverts. Should however the
Engineer or his agent not present themselves on the indicated date for manufacture or for testing, the
manufacturer shall be entitled to proceed with production.
All certified records of inspection of the manufacturer shall be made available for examination by the
Engineer or his agent at the manufacturers works during the period of manufacture and shall be
forwarded to the Engineer upon completion of manufacture.
Prior to delivery of the manufactured goods to the site of storage the Contractor shall obtain from the
Engineer in writing the name or names of those persons responsible for final site acceptance.

4.7.

MANUFACTURERS CERTIFICATE

In addition to Third Party Inspection (if any so called for) the Contractor shall supply to the Engineer a
signed certificate from the pipe / culvert manufacturer stating that the pipes / culverts and fittings
comply in all respects with the provisions of the Specification and the indicated National or
International Standards.

4.8.

ON-SITE INSPECTION

All pipes / culverts and fittings shall be inspected upon arrival at the pipe storage areas for damage to:
-

the pipe / culvert itself


external coatings (if any)
internal linings (if any)
jointing surfaces (incl. sockets if any)

The Contractor shall be responsible for and shall undertake any work required by the Engineer or his
Representative as appropriate or where deemed necessary, replace defective pipes / culverts and
fittings. All expenses in connection with such remedial works or replacements shall be deemed
covered by the Tender.

4.9.

HANDLING FROM STORAGE TO TRENCH

All pipes / culverts shall be handled from storage to trench in accordance with the manufacturers
recommendations and Engineers instructions.
The Contractor shall obtain and keep on site the entire manufacturer's literature relating to the proper
handling, storage, laying, installation and testing of their products and shall make them or copies
thereof available to the Engineer on site.

4.10.

TESTING OF PIPELINES / SEWERS

Testing of pipes / sewers shall in all cases be applied in the presence of the Engineer and to the
satisfaction of the Engineer. The Contractor shall give to the Engineer advance written notice of his
intention to carry out testing. The form and period of notice are to be agreed between the Engineer
and Contractor.
Test Certificates shall be prepared by the Contractor in a form to be agreed and shall be signed by the
Engineers Representative on the satisfactory completion of each test. One copy of each signed
certificate shall be kept by the Engineer and one by the Contractor. The complete pipeline / sewer
including blank flanges, caps, plugs, pressure gauges, pipe connection cocks, struts, thrust blocks,
etc. shall be provided with anything necessary for effectively testing the pipelines / sewers at the
required pressure and he shall keep the said plant in good order during the continuity of the Contract,
all at his own expense.

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Any pipe / sewer or length of pipes / sewers found to be defective shall be immediately removed and
replaced without additional cost, and leaking joints shall be re-made. The test shall be repeated as
often as necessary until the whole length under test is accepted by the Engineer.
The testing of the gravity pipelines / sewers will comply with European Standards EN 1610 and EN
1295-1. The testing of pressure pipelines will comply with EN 805.
Testing for Pressure Pipelines:
All pipes which are designed for internal pressure shall be tested hydraulically in a convenient length.
All pipelines including fittings and valves, shall be hydraulically tested to the pressure where specified
or to at least 1.5 times the max. working pressure. Water shall be forced into the pipes by means of a
force pump, fitted with a pressure gauge to indicate the pressure at the lowest point in the section
under test. Pipelines will not be accepted until they have withstood the required pressure for 30
minutes without leakage and without the pressure has dropped.
Testing for Gravity Pipelines / Sewers:
Water test (method W):
(a)

After laying new pipelines / sewers shall be tested under pressure and where in trench, such
tests shall be made before it is completely back- filled. During the test, all joints shall be clear of
earth, timber, etc to allow visual inspection.

(b)

The pipeline / sewer shall be tested in lengths from manhole to manhole.

(c)

Sewers shall be subjected to an internal pressure in accordance to EN 1610 head of water


above the crown of the pipe at the upper end of each section subject to the limitation that the
maximum head at the lower end shall not the values given in EN 1610.

(d)

The test shall be carried out by inserting suitably strutted plugs in the lower end of the section of
sewer and if necessary at appropriate positions within any connections and by filling the system
with clean water. For small pipes a knuckle bend may be temporarily jointed to the upper end of
the section together with a suitable length of vertical pipe to enable the required test head to be
attained.

(e)

During the initial period water may be added to maintain the test head in order to allow for the
displacement of the trapped air from the system but the proper test shall commence one hour of
the initial filling of the system

(f)

During a test period of 30 minutes, no loss of water shall be registered.

(g)

The limits for infiltration shall not be exceeded when backfilling is completed and all inlets to the
length of sewer under test have been effectively sealed than
-

0.15 l/m for pipes,

0.2

l/m for pipes including manholes,

0.4

l/m for manholes and inspection chambers.

(h)

The Contractor shall supply all necessary materials to carry out the test in accordance with the
requirements including pumps, water pressure gauges, including tools for the use of the
Engineer, interconnecting pipework, feeding tank, temporary stop-ends, struts and water for the
test. The test section shall be capped off at each end and all branches.

(i)

Test for line, level and freedom from obstacles shall be applied by means of a lamp and mirror
or by a laser beam.

(j)

All tests shall be witnessed by the Engineer. Test results shall be recorded on an approved test
data sheet, countersigned by the Contractor and by the Engineers and copies shall be provided
to the Engineers use.
Leaks exceeding permissible amounts shall be made good. And faulty pipes, culvert, fittings,
and specials, shall be replaced by the Contractor at his own expense and the section tested
again before approval is given for backfilling. Payment for the section will not be certified, until

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the test has been passed and backfilling completed.

4.11.

MEASUREMENT FOR SEWER- AND PIPELAYING

Sewer- and pipelaying and jointing where in trench is included in the Bill of Quantities with excavation,
backfilling, and temporary reinstatement. Measurement of the work done will be along the centre-line
of junctions in the pipe network, and branches from outside manhole to outside manhole, unless
otherwise indicated in the Bills of Quantities.

4.12.

SUPPORT OF PIPEWORK AND VALVES

1.

All necessary supports including structural steelworks foundations, hangers, saddles, sliding
shoes, slings, expansion pieces, fixing bolts, foundation bolts, fixing and anchor points and all
attachments shall be supplied to support the pipework and its associated equipment in an
approved manner.

2.

Valves, meters, strainers and other devices mounted in the pipework shall be supported
independently of the pipe to which they connect.

4.13.

FLUSHING AND CLEANING

All pipe work shall be flushed and cleaned. The rates shall include for cleaning, labour and supply for
water and any equipment and materials necessary to complete the works to the satisfaction of the
Engineer.

4.14.

DUCTILE IRON PIPES, LAYING AND TESTING

4.14.1.

Norms and Standards

Pipes and fittings in ductile iron for use with sewerage and wastewater for pressure application shall
conform to the standard DIN 28600 and EN 598, joints and fittings shall conform to DIN 28622 till DIN
28648, and shall withstand successfully any test described therein.
(a)

Socketed Pipes
Ductile Iron Socketed pipes shall be centrifugally cast in accordance with DIN 28600. The
minimum tensile strength shall be 420 N/mm and the minimum 0.2% proof stress shall be
300 N/mm.
All pipes supplied shall conform to Class K7 unless specifically indicated otherwise on drawings
or in the bills of quantities.

(b)

Socketed Joints
Socketed joints shall be of the push-on type to DIN 28603 unless otherwise specified on
drawings or in bills of quantities. The material used for the rubber gaskets shall be either natural
rubber or synthetic elastomer to ISO 4633, and they shall be stored in accordance with
ISO 2230.

(c)

Flanged Pipes
Ductile Iron Flanged Pipes shall be centrifugally cast to DIN 19690. Flanges shall be drilled to
PN16 unless otherwise specified or required.
They shall be joined using a rubber gasket of minimum thickness of 3 mm which shall be
reinforced unless otherwise indicated on drawings or in bills of quantities. The material used
shall be either natural rubber or synthetic elastomer in accordance with ISO 4633, which shall
be stored in accordance with ISO 2230. Pipe thickness shall conform to DIN 28600 Class K9
unless otherwise indicated on drawings or in the bills of quantities.
Flanged joints shall be made, unless specified otherwise, with full face rubber joint gaskets and
cadmium plated or galvanised steel bolts and nuts which shall include two washers per bolt.
Joint gaskets shall be of such physical properties as to be capable of forming permanent

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watertight joints in accordance with the relevant DIN. The use jointing paste or grease will not
be permitted. No jointing material shall be left protruding into the bore of the pipework.
(d)

Protections to Pipes
Ductile Iron Pipes shall be internally lined with a cement mortar, centrifugally applied and
conforming to DIN 28610. The thickness of the cement mortar shall be according to the DIN.
Ductile Iron Pipes shall be externally protected by a metallic zinc spray coating to DIN 8565
applied directly to the warm film after annealing and covered by a layer of bituminous varnish to
ISO 8179. The mass of sprayed zinc metal shall be not less than 130 g/m and the thickness of
the bituminous varnish not less than 70 microns.
A final coat of whitewash shall be applied generally in accordance to DIN 8565 to reduce head
absorption. The pipe manufacturer shall provide a polythene sleeve for site protection purposes.
The sleeve shall conform to DIN 30670 and be of minimum thickness of 200 microns.
Coatings shall be in accordance with ISO 8179-1 and ISO 8179-2. Cement mortar linings shall
comply with ISO 4179. Socket areas that come into contact with sewage or wastewater shall
receive a reinforced coating of epoxy paint. Fittings shall be coated and lined with epoxy paint to
150 microns DFT (minimum).
All non-buried flanged pipes and fittings (in pumping stations and pipe bridges etc.) shall be with
internal coatings as specified above. The external coating shall be the factory coating specified,
excluding the bituminous coating, supplemented by a number of paint coats as specified in the
General Mechanical and Electrical Specification, with a finishing coat of a colour to be specified
by the Engineer.

(e)

Fittings
Ductile Iron Fittings shall be sand cast in accordance with DIN 28600. The minimum tensile
strength shall be 400 N/mm and the minimum 0.2% proof stress shall be 300 N/mm. The
minimum elongation after fracture shall be 5%. All fittings shall be subjected to a works leaktightness test using water to a pressure as given in DIN 28600.

(f)

Joints to Fittings
Socketed fittings, except collars, shall be supplied with push-on joints unless otherwise called
for on drawings or in bills of quantities. Collars shall be supplied with mechanical joint.
Flange fittings shall be fixed by rubber gaskets as indicated in (c) above for flanged pipes.

(g)

Protection to Fittings
Unless otherwise indicated in drawings or in bills of quantities, fittings shall be internally and
externally protected with bituminous paint of minimum thickness of 60 microns.
A polythene sleeve shall be provided by the pipe manufacturer for site protection purposes. The
sleeve shall conform to DIN 30670 and be of minimum thickness of 200 microns.
Polyethylene sleeving shall be installed to all buried spigot and socket pipelines. The sleeving
shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturers instructions. The method of application
shall include the independent protection of joints with protective wrapping tape and continuous
sleeving over the joints.
Bolted joints at all buried flanged fittings, accessories and valves shall be protected by tape
wrapping.
A continuous coating of bitumen primer shall be applied over the whole area to be protected.
Where bolt heads, nuts, flanges and other projections arise, a profiling mastic shall be used to
give a smooth external profile. The joint or fitting shall be wrapped with a self adhesive, cold
applied, rubber bitumen tape with a PVC backing. The minimum application shall be a spiral
wrap using 55% overlap. The tape shall extend along 150mm of the barrel of the pipe on each
side of the joint or fitting.

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4.14.2.

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III.2 Part A: Civil Works and Buildings

Thickness of Pipes and Fittings

The standard wall thickness of pipes and fittings shall be determined by the following classification:
Pipes
Fittings, excluding tees
Tees

4.14.3.

Class K7
Class K12
Class K14

Quality of Pipes, Fittings and Accessories

Pipes, fittings and accessories must not have any defects likely to be detrimental to their use.
Pipes, fittings and accessories showing small imperfections inseparable from the method of
manufacture and in no way affecting their use, shall not be rejected. The Manufacturer may, on his
own responsibility, remedy such slight surface imperfections in a suitable manner.

4.14.4.

Socket and Spigot Pipes and Fittings

All buried pipes shall, unless otherwise specified, required or indicated, be of the socket and spigot
type with the manufacturers standard rubber gasket.

4.14.5.

Coatings and Linings

4.14.6.

Transport and Storage

During transport, pipes shall be solidly supported not only under the lower layer and between the
layers, but also laterally and at the ends and the top in wooden crates to prevent accidental damage.
Storage of pipes, fittings and jointing materials on site shall be strictly in accordance with the
manufacturers instructions or recommendations.
Storage of pipes on site shall be on a raised floor with support frames so that the sockets do not touch
the ground. Storage can be either head to tail storage or all pipes pointing in the same direction.

4.14.7.

Laying and Jointing

4.14.7.1.

Re-rounding and Cutting of Pipes

Pipes that have been roughly handled can have an ovalisation at the spigot end that prevents a
correct assembly of the pipeline. Such ovalisation may be corrected with special tensioning equipment
to the approval of the Engineer.
Pipes shall be cut at right angles to the pipe axis. It is recommended to use wheel cutters for cutting
the pipes. Care shall be taken to remove all burrs and to remake the chamfer to facilitate the fixing of
the automatic joint and to avoid damaging the joint ring. The chamfer, made with a file for DN 300 and
less or with a wheel cutter for the larger than DN 300, must be in strict accordance with the original
chamfer made in the factory.

4.14.7.2.

Excavation of Trenches

Trenches shall be excavated to the width and the depth and to the lines shown on the drawings and
shall be carried out in accordance with Clause 1 Earthworks.

4.14.7.3.

Bedding of Pipes

The bedding to the pipes and fittings shall be carried out in accordance with Clause 1 Earthworks and
Clause 2 Piling.

4.14.7.4.

Laying and Jointing of Pipes

Before lowering the pipes into the trench the Contractor shall carefully inspect and clean the pipe to
ensure that it has been freed for all foreign matter.

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The alignment of the pipe in the trench shall be controlled by level instrument or boning rods to ensure
correct levels.
The Contractor shall keep the interior of pipes clean and free from water, dirt, stones and other foreign
matter as laying proceeds, and at the end of the day's work or at other times when installation work is
not preceding the open ends of the pipes shall be sealed off by a suitable stopper. The Contractor
shall take such precautions as are necessary to prevent pipes from floating.
The pipes shall be laid in straight lines both in horizontal and vertical planes. Changes of direction of
less than 3 shall be obtained by deviating the pipes after jointing at one or more joints. The angle of
deviation at each joint depends on the DN and has the following maximum values:
Maximum Deviation Angle

Table III.4-1:
DN

Maximum deviation
[]

100 to 300

3.5

350 to 600

2.5

700 to 2000

1.5

No deviation can be made at a locked joint.


The jointing of spigot and socket, and flanged pipes and fittings shall be carried out strictly in
accordance with the manufacturers instructions or recommendations.

4.14.7.5.

Thrust and Anchor Blocks

Thrust blocks, or other approved means of restraint, shall be provided at bends (both horizontal and
vertical), branches and blank ends on flexibly jointed pressure pipelines.
Thrust blocks shall be of reinforced concrete B25 or higher. Thrust blocks shall extend from the fitting
to solid undisturbed earth, shall be suitably reinforced and shall be installed so that all joints are
accessible for repair. The concrete backfill to the excavation shall be placed the same day as any
additional excavation for the thrust block is carried out. No pressure shall be applied to thrust blocks
until the concrete has matured as specified.
In large radius curves obtained by deviations at the pipe joints, the thrusts are absorbed by the
backfill.
Anchor blocks shall be provided on steeply sloping pipelines, where the slope exceeds 25% for a
buried pipeline or 20% for a pipeline laid in a shaft.
The pipeline shall be secured by stirrups fixed into the concrete block and placed immediately behind
the sockets (the sockets normally pointing uphill).
The concrete shall be reinforced concrete Class B25 or C20/25. The concrete shall not be subjected
to any load until the concrete has matured as specified.

4.14.7.6.

Locking Joints

Locking joints or restrained flexible joints may be used, as an alternative to thrust blocks for:

areas where the underground space is crowded, large urban zones, industrial installations, etc.;
low strength grounds where massive concrete thrust blocks would otherwise be necessary;
under crossings of services, rivers, streams etc.;
shafts.

Locking joints shall be provided for sufficient lengths along either side of the joint requiring restraint, in
order to generate sufficient frictional force from the pipeline to resist the thrust.

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4.14.7.7.

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III.2 Part A: Civil Works and Buildings

Surround to Pipes

Selected Fill Surround


The filling to the pipeline shall be carried out in accordance with Clause 1 Earthworks and Clause 2
Piling.
Concrete Bed and Surround (if applicable)
Where concrete protection to pipelines is to be provided the Engineer may direct that a blinding layer
of concrete Class B20 or C15/20 be laid over the full width of the bottom of the trench so as to satisfy
the following requirements:
Concrete Bed and Surrounding

Table III.4-2:

Pipe Nominal Bore [mm]

Details of Concrete Blinding

600

700 to 900

1000 to 2000

Min. thickness of blinding [mm]

75

75

75

Min. extent of blinding each side of pipe barrel [mm]

150

150

230

Min. clearance between blinding and pipe barrel


[mm[

150

150

230

Min. clearance between blinding and underside of


pipe socket [mm]

25

25

25

Any concrete blinding shall be allowed to set and be thoroughly washed down before pipe laying
commences.
The length of pipelines laid in any one operation before concreting the pipeline shall be as directed by
the Engineer so as to permit accurate laying of the pipeline and proper compaction of the fill.
Pipes up to and including 1,200 mm nominal bore shall be firmly supported on pre-cast concrete
blocks and separated from them by a 25 mm thick saturated softwood packing.
After the pipeline has been tested by the Contractor and approved by the Engineer the concrete shall
be thoroughly washed down and concrete Class B25 or C20/25 shall be carefully placed and
compacted thereon to avoid disturbing the pipes or joints until the appropriate profile for the type of
protection required has been reached.
Concrete protection to the pipelines shall be either bed or surround of concrete Class B25 or C20/25
along such lengths as ordered by the Engineer in writing.
The concrete protection shall be placed to the full width of the trench and never less than 150 mm
wider on each side than the barrel of the pipe. When support of excavation is provided building paper
shall be placed against that support before concreting to facilitate withdrawal of the support.
In the case of spigot and socket pipes with flexible joints the concrete protection at each joint shall be
interrupted in a vertical plane at the edge of the socket by a strip of fibreboard or other material
approved by the Engineer and of the following thickness:
Table III.4-3:

Fibreboard Thickness

Pipe Nominal Bore [mm]

Fibreboard Thickness [mm]

300

12

350 to 600

24

700 to 1200

36

1400 to 2000

48

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Where two or more pipelines are laid in the same trench, the joints shall coincide at the points where
the continuity of the concrete surround is broken at the joints in the pipeline with the longest pipes, and
any intermediate joints in the other pipeline with shorter pipes shall be surrounded in concrete.

4.14.7.8.

Pipe Supports

The Contractor shall take due care to support adequately the pipework during installation until
permanent supports and anchorages as approved by the Engineer have been completed. The
Contractor shall ensure that no excessive loads or stresses are imposed upon the fittings, pipework or
structure during installation.
Pipework systems shall be complete and checked for correct position and alignment before and after
being embedded in concrete, where applicable.

4.14.7.9.

Backfilling

The remainder of the trench above the pipe surround shall be backfilled with approved selected
backfill material in accordance with the Specification.

4.14.7.10.

Accessories

Mechanical Couplings
Approved couplings or flange adaptors shall be used to joint respectively two plain ended pipes or a
flanged fitting/valve to a plain ended pipe. They shall be installed and jointed strictly in accordance
with the manufacturers instructions and protected as specified for bolted joints.
Dismantling Joints
Dismantling joints or adjustable and removable joints of an approved manufacture shall be installed at
all valves exceeding 100 mm diameter to permit the removal of the valve.
Flanged Anchoring Sleeves
Flanged anchoring sleeves, complying with ISO 2531, shall be used whenever a ductile iron pipe
passes through a concrete wall or structure.
Surface Boxes
Surface boxes for buried valves, hydrants etc. shall be manufactured from cast iron, complying with
ISO 3531 or BS 5834, coated with a tar-based coating.

4.14.7.11.

Testing of Pipelines

Pressure pipelines (together with all specials and valves incorporated) shall be tested with water in
accordance with prEN 805. The trench must be filled on the pipe barrels, leaving the joints uncovered
so as to prevent the pipeline from moving whilst leaving the joints accessible. Thrust blocks must also
be constructed before testing. In heavily trafficked roads the backfilling at joints may take place before
testing if the Engineer so allows in writing. At least two days notice must be given in writing to the
Engineer before pressure testing of any section is commenced.
The test pressures, unless otherwise specified or ordered by the Engineer, shall be:
1.5 the maximum working pressure or the maximum surge pressure, if applicable, whichever
is the greater.
Pipes shall be filled and tested in sections of convenient lengths, which must not exceed
1,000 metres. Where pipes are laid with steep gradients the length of pipes tested at any one time
shall be as directed by the Engineer.
The ends of pipes under test shall be closed by means of caps or blank flanges with anchors all
provided by the Contractor. Valves must not be used for this purpose. All scour valves and air valves
shall be replaced by blank flanges before commencement of the test.

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After laying, jointing and anchoring the pipe shall be slowly and carefully charged with water so as to
avoid water hammer and all air shall be released through the upper pipe end or in case of an
intermediate high point by installing a service connection with a tap. Pipes internally lined with mortar
shall be allowed to stand full for at least 24 hours before testing.
The test pressure shall be applied by means of a manually or motor operated test pump connected to
the pipe and to two parallel installed pressure gauges calibrated at an approved testing laboratory.
The test pressure shall be maintained for at least 30 minutes without the pressure decreasing by more
than 0.2 bar.
During the test the pipe joints shall be inspected for leakages, but the duration of the test shall under
no circumstances exceed 2 hours in which case a pressure drop of 0.3 bar shall be permissible.
Should leakage of water occur at the joints, the joint shall be reassembled to eliminate such leakage
or, should this not prove possible, the Contractor shall supply and assemble new joints at his own
expense. Should any pipe or joint burst or should water leak through the body of a pipe or joint the
Contractor shall forthwith remove the faulty pipe or joint and replace them with new at his own
expense. In all the above cases the length under test shall be re-tested as above described and the
process repeated, if necessary, until the pipeline satisfactorily withstands the prescribed test.
A test report shall be prepared in respect of each and every test performed. The test report shall
contain as a minimum the following data:

Number and date of the test


Description of the section tested with unambiguous indication of the extremities of the section
Sketch showing in the order of laying, the number and the characteristics of the pipes, the
fittings, the specials and other apparatus incorporated in the section
Duration of the test, test pressure, results obtained
Decisions relative to possible repair works and conclusions.

The test report shall be signed by the Contractor and the Engineers Representative.
The Contractor shall provide labour, install and work the test pump, pressure gauges and all other
equipment required for the test and he shall fill the pipes with water and subsequently empty them
after the test, all to the approval of the Engineer. The water used for testing shall be obtained from an
approved source. Water drained from the pipes shall be discharged in a way that does not affect the
stability of the Works or adjacent structures.

4.15.

PLASTIC PIPES, LAYING AND TESTING

4.15.1.

Pipes for Pressure Applications

Plastic pipes for pressure applications shall comply with ISO 161-1: 1996, metric dimensions. Joints
and fittings to be used therewith shall comply with ISO 264.
Plastic pipes are only allowed for buried pipes. Pipes exposed to the sun shall be ductile iron pipes
only.

4.15.2.

HDPE-Pipes

HDPE pipes shall comply with DIN 8074, DIN 18306, DIN 4033, DIN 2501, DIN EN 1610.

4.15.3.

GRP Pipes

Glass reinforced plastic (GRP) pipes and fittings shall comply with the relevant provisions of EN 1636,
EN1115, EN 1796, DIN 16869, DIN 19565.
The pipes shall be manufactured using a centrifugal moulding technique, and all pipes shall have a
resin rich inner layer of minimum 0.4 mm thickness. The GRP pipes manufactured according other
proved technologies and fulfilling the project specific requirements are acceptable but relevant
manufacturing standards has to be fulfilled.
Bends shall be fabricated in GRP to the same standard as the pipes.

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All pipes and fittings shall have a minimum nominal stiffness of 10,000 N/mm.
Pipes shall be joined by means of a push fit sleeve coupling comprising an EPDM rubber seal bonded
inside a GRP casing. The rubber seal shall extend over the full length of the joint and shall have
moulded central register with two pressure actuated lip seals either side.
Pipes shall be plain ended, shall have a smooth outer surface and shall have a constant outside
diameter throughout their length thus allowing them to be cut and jointed at any position along their
length without the need for any special preparation of the cut end, other that resealing the exposed
fibres.
Longitudinal angular deflections at the joints shall not exceed 75% of the maximum stated by the
manufacturer.
Rocker pipes shall be incorporated adjacent to all thrust blocks.
The Contractors pipe laying labour will be required to demonstrate that they have attended the pipe
manufacturers own training course for the installation of GRP pipes and fittings, before they are
permitted to commence pipe laying activities.

4.15.4.

General Requirements

Pipes and fittings shall be stored, handed, laid and jointed strictly in accordance with the
manufacturers instructions and recommendations.
Plastic pipes shall be capable of withstanding ultraviolet degradation.
The Contractor shall advise the manufacturer of the climatic and conditions at the site of the Works
and shall seek his advice on the storage of plastic materials on site. Subject to the Engineer's approval
this advice shall be followed at all times.

4.15.5.

Pipe Laying and Testing

4.15.5.1.

Excavation of Trenches

Trenches shall be excavated to the width and depth and to the lines shown on the drawings and shall
be carried out in accordance with Clause 1 Earthworks and Clause 2 Piling.

4.15.5.2.

Bedding of Pipes

The bedding of the pipes and fittings shall be carried out in accordance with Clause 1 Earthworks.

4.15.5.3.

Thrust and Anchor Blocks, and Locking Joints

Thrust and anchor blocks, as specified for ductile iron pipes, shall be provided where the pipeline
incorporates flexible joints or where a flexible joint e.g. mechanical coupling, is installed in a
continuous, pressure pipeline adjacent to a bend, branch or blank end.

4.15.5.4.

Surround and Protection to Pipes

Selected Fill Surround:


The filling to the pipeline shall be carried out in accordance with Clause 1 Earthworks.
Concrete Slab Protection:
Plastic pipelines shall be protected from excessive deflections resulting from superimposed loadings,
by the provision of a reinforced concrete slab, where the pipeline is laid under the following situations:

Where the cover is less than 1 m, laid in un-paved areas not liable to live loading
Where the cover is less than 1 m or 1 times DN, laid in or alongside roadways subject to light
traffic loadings
Where the pipeline is laid in or alongside roadways subject to heavy traffic loadings
Where the cover is greater than 6 m, in poor ground conditions

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The concrete slab shall be minimum 300 mm thick and shall bear a minimum 500 mm on the
undisturbed surface at each side of the trench.
Concrete Bed and Surround:
Concrete bed and surround shall be provided, where required, as specified for ductile iron pipes.

4.15.5.5.

Pipe Supports

Pipe supports shall be provided as specified for ductile iron pipes (if applicable).

4.15.5.6.

Backfilling

The remainder of the trench above the pipe surround shall be backfilled with approved selected
backfill material in accordance with the Specification.

4.15.5.7.

Testing of GRP Pressure Pipelines

Testing of GRP pressure pipelines shall be carried out as specified for ductile iron pipes.

4.15.5.8.

Testing of Thermoplastic Pressure Pipelines (HDPE)

Testing of thermoplastic (Polyethylene) pipelines shall be carried out generally as specified for ductile
iron pipes, together with the procedure as detailed below to take into account of the visco-elastic
(creep) response of the material. The procedure shall be as follows:
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)
g)
h)

When the main is fully charged and all air vented the system should be allowed to stabilize
before the test procedure begins
Pressure should be applied at a constant rate and the time tL taken from the start of
pressurisation to attainment of test pressure must be recorded
Readings of pressure decay at time intervals in minutes must be taken and recorded, and
should be taken by the temporary installation of a pressure logging and recording device
The first such reading P1 is taken at any decay time t1 equal to and greater than tL
The second reading P2 is taken at any decay time t2 equal to and greater than 5 tL
Calculate N1 = (loge P1 - loge P2) / (loge t2 - loge t1)
which should be between 0.04 and 0.12.
If N1 is greater than 0.25, then an unacceptable leak is indicated
A third reading P3 is taken at any decay time t3 equal to and greater than 15 tL
Calculate N2 = (loge P2 - loge P3) / (loge t3 - loge t2)
If N2 is greater than 0.25, then an unacceptable leak is indicated.
If the ratio N1 / N2 is less than 0.8, an unacceptable leak is indicated.

4.16.

CONCRETE PIPES, LAYING AND TESTING

4.16.1.

General

Unreinforced and reinforced concrete pipes and fittings with flexible or ogee joints shall comply with
the relevant provisions of EN 1916, EN 1610, EN 1295-1, EN 681-1 and ATV-Worksheet 127.
All pipes and fittings shall have gasket type joints of spigot and socket or rebated form, unless
otherwise described in the Contract.
Concrete jacking pipes shall comply with the relevant provisions DIN. Additionally, the Contractor shall
ensure that the pipes can withstand the jacking loads to which they will be subjected during
installation, without cracking or spalling. A certificate shall be supplied, confirming that the pipes are
suitable for jacking and stating the distributed jacking loads for which they were designed.
All concrete pipes shall be manufactured with sulphate resisting concrete, to DIN 1164 or equivalent to
resist sulphate gas or acid conditions.
All pipes and fittings shall be transported, stored, handled, laid and jointed strictly in accordance with
the manufacturers instructions or recommendations.

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4.16.2.

Pipe Laying and Testing

4.16.2.1.

Excavation of Trenches

Tender Documents
WWTP
III.2 Part A: Civil Works and Buildings

Trenches shall be excavated to the width and the depth and to the lines shown on the drawings and
shall be carried out in accordance with Clause 1 Earthworks and Clause 2 Piling.

4.16.2.2.

Bedding of Pipes

The bedding to the pipes and fittings shall be carried out in accordance Clause 1 Earthworks and
Clause 2 Piling.

4.16.2.3.

Surround to Pipes

Selected Fill Surround:


The filling to the pipeline shall be carried out in accordance Clause 1 Earthworks.
Concrete Bed and Surround:
Concrete bed and surround to the pipeline shall be provided, where required, as specified for ductile
iron pipes.

4.16.2.4.

Pipe Supports

Pipe supports shall be provided as specified for ductile iron pipes (if applicable).

4.16.2.5.

Backfilling

The remainder of the trench above the pipe surround shall be backfilled with approved selected
backfill material in accordance with the Specification.

4.16.2.6.

Testing

Sewer pipes / culverts shall be tested in the shade as specified or as instructed by the Engineer when
they have been bedded and jointed and before any concrete surround or backfill is placed. A further
test shall be carried out when any concrete surround has been completed and when backfill has been
placed and compacted to a depth of 300 mm above the crown of the pipeline / culvert. Generally the
testing of gravity pipelines will comply with European Standards EN 1610 and EN 1295-1.
Air tests (method L) or water tests (method W) are applicable and subject to the approval of the
Engineer.
The Contractor shall provide labour, install and work the test pump, pressure gauges and all other
equipment required for the test and he shall fill the pipes / culverts with water and subsequently empty
them after test, all to the approval of the Engineer. The water used for testing shall be obtained from
an approved source. Water drained from the pipes / culverts shall be discharged in a way that does
not affect the stability of the works or adjacent structures.

4.17.

ALTERNATIVE PIPE LAYING METHODS (PIPE JACKING, FLUSHING)

4.17.1.

General

For alternative pipe laying proposals like pipe jacking-, flush/scour method or other technical solutions
generally the same procedure shall be applied as for the open cut method for. These alternative
proposals including their different items are currently not mentioned in the Bill of Quantities (BoQ). If
the contractor wants to offer / implement such methods, separate clearly marked BoQ with reference
to the alternative solution should be provided by the Applicant. All other items not covering the
proposed technical solution shall remain. The entire design for alternative solutions is the obligation of
the Contractor.
The Contractor shall prepare a method statement of his proposal for each particular part of the Works
to be constructed at any one time, detailing the location, programme of pipe jacking or flush/scour
method, temporary supports and the placing and handling of the spoil.
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III.2 Part A: Civil Works and Buildings

The Contractor shall submit for the Engineers approval his proposed method statement at least 14
days before his intended date to commence on each particular part of the Works.
Prior to the commencement of any pipe jacking or flush/scour operation the Contractor shall submit to
the Engineer for his approval method statements. Such method statements shall include, but not be
limited to the following:

Equipment to be used
Materials to be procured and their sources and properties
Haul routes
Stock pile areas
Safety measures to be taken
Detailed Drawings of all temporary works
Computations to support the design of temporary works
Measures to be taken to ensure that the public can safely pass the works
Proposed working hours.

4.17.2.

Material of Jacking Pipes / Reinforced Concrete Jacking Pipes

Production, delivery and material of all pipes used for the alternative pipe laying methods (e.g. pipe
jacking) shall be in accordance to all relevant European or German Standards. The construction and
testing of the sewage networks will also comply with European or German Standards.
All proposed pipes and associated fitting and couplings for incorporation in the Works shall be certified
by the manufacturer that they comply with the above standards.
Notwithstanding such certification, any pipe found to be defective by visual examination should be
rejected. Such defects which shall include cracks, honeycombing or effects of incorrect handling.
Pipe joints shall be stainless or galvanized steel collars with rubber jointing rings recommended by the
pipe manufacturer for use in sewerage pipelines.

4.17.3.

Construction Methods of Pipe Jacking

If the Contractor will implement alternative solutions for pipe laying (e.g. pipe jacking), the Contractor
shall construct sewer pipelines using the alternative method for the sections of the sewer as proposed
in the Drawings, provided by the Contractor and approved by the Engineer, or to the lines and grades
as shown on the Drawings or as directed or approved by the Engineer.

Excavation shall be carried out by equipment capable of maintaining and adjusting alignment as
necessary.
Equipment and systems shall be designed to provide the forces necessary for the installation of
the full pipe string between driving and receiving pits
Provision shall be made for closing up the exposed excavation face at all times.
The pipe jacking procedure described in the Contractors method statement shall be made in full
consideration of the ground and groundwater conditions along the pipeline route and shall be
discussed with, and shall have the approval of, the Engineer prior to implementation.

4.17.3.1.

Thrust and Reception Shafts

Thrust and reception shafts shall be designed and constructed to allow the safe operation of
equipment and handling of materials and to withstand all loadings imposed by ground pressure,
superimposed loads from surface structures and the maximum anticipated trust forces.

If the Contractor intends to use permanent works for thrust arrangements he shall consult with
the Engineer to establish the adequacy of the structure and to ensure that it will not sustain
damage as the result of such use.
In all case the Contactor shall submit his proposals including calculations to the Engineer for
approval.
The horizontal dimensions of shafts shall be determined by considering the dimensions required
for the jacking operation or the subsequent construction of the manhole structure, whichever are
greater.

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4.17.3.2.

Tender Documents
WWTP
III.2 Part A: Civil Works and Buildings

Pipe Jacking Operation

All key personnel shall be experienced in pipe jacking.

Before any particular pipe jack length commences sufficient numbers of standard and
intermediate pipes and intermediate jacking assemblies shall be available to ensure continuous
operation.
Previously jacked pipes shall not be used without the approval of the Engineer. Cut pipes shall
not be jacked.
The jacking force applied by thrust pit jacks or an intermediate jacking station shall not exceed
the design allowable distributed or deflected load for any pipe being jacked.
Thrust loads shall be transferred to pipes through a thrust ring which shall be sufficiently rigid to
ensure even distribution of the load.
Intermediate jacking stations shall be inserted no later than when the main thrust pit jacking
force reaches an agree level, typically 66% of the pipe design load or 66% of the available
jacking thrust, whichever is the lesser, unless otherwise agreed with the Engineer during the
jacking operation.
Pipe jacking, once commenced, shall be performed as one continuous operation until
completion, unless otherwise agreed with the Engineer.
Means shall be provided to ensure that the pipeline remains stationary when any jacking rams
are retracted even when face balance pressure is maintained.
Where agreed for use by the Engineer as part of the Contractors method statement, a
lubrication or ground support fluid, such as bentonite, shall be injected into the annulus between
the exterior of the pipe and the ground. This fluid shall be maintained until grouting is carried
out.

4.17.3.3.

Sealing and Packing

Pipe joints shall comply with all relevant provisions of European and German Standards.

Joint packing material, in accordance with the pipe manufacturers recommendations shall be
inserted at each pipe joint and at any jacking station.
After completion of jacking, cavities behind jacked pipes shall be filled with grout injected under
pressure, unless otherwise agreed with the Engineer. All lifting holes and grouting holes shall be
sealed with a 1:3 cement: sand mortar with plasticizer, or a purpose-made plug.

4.17.3.4.

Monitoring and Instrumentation

The Contractor shall survey, monitor and record all jacking work as it proceeds so as to form a
complete record of the work which shall include records of jacking loads, line and level measurements,
the distance moved and the relationship between them. Copies of all records shall be supplied to the
Engineer at agreed intervals.

The jacking force instrumentation shall be calibrated at intervals agreed prior to the
commencement of jacking by the Engineer.
During grouting the type, consumption and pressure of grout shall be recorded.
All changes in conditions including, but not limited to change of jacking force, ingress of water,
etc shall be recorded.

4.17.3.5.

Tolerances

Pipe jacking shall be carried out to the following tolerances:

Horizontal Alignment:
Vertical Alignment:

+ / - 50 mm
+ / - 50 mm from the given grade line of the invert and without low
points.

Notwithstanding the above alignment tolerances, the rate of change of direction in any plane, or
combination of planes, shall not exceed the maximum value agreed by the Engineer, taking into
account the pipe length, diameter, jacking loads and the pipe manufacturers recommendations.

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4.17.3.6.

Tender Documents
WWTP
III.2 Part A: Civil Works and Buildings

Disposal of Spoil

The Contractor shall dispose of spoil in accordance with the requirements of Section 1 Earthworks.

4.17.3.7.

Connection with Manholes and Chambers

Jacking pipes shall be cut back such that the ends of pipes will be embedded in the wall of the
manhole 50 mm beyond the inner face.

4.18.

MANHOLES AND CHAMBERS

4.18.1.

General

Manholes and Chambers shall be constructed and fulfil the requirements according to EN1917 and
EN 124.
(a)

(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
(g)
(h)
(i)
(j)
(k)
(l)
(m)
(n)
(o)
(p)
(q)
(r)

Manholes and chambers shall be constructed on sewer pipelines in the positions and at the
levels as approved and/or directed by the Employer's Representative. The manholes shall be
constructed either from in-situ cast concrete or pre-fabricated. Where pre-cast manholes are
built, all pre-cast concrete sections shall comply with the requirements of DIN 4034.
Manholes shall be positioned on sewer pipelines at all changes in alignment, levels and
diameters and on all connections with other sewers. Sewers shall have a spacing of the
manholes not exceeding approx. 100 m.
Manhole diameters shall at least be as shown on the drawings if one sewer only enters the
manhole. If two or more sewers enter the manhole, the diameter shall be sufficient to
accommodate adequate benching.
All chamber rings, tapers, chamber and shaft covers shall be reinforced
Lifting eyes are to be provided in chamber cover slabs and in all tapers and chamber sections
Sulphate Resisting cement shall be used for all concrete and mortar subject to contact with
sewage or sewage gas.
Mortar shall be cement mortar of 600 kg cement per cubic meter of sand.
All reinforced concrete structures for manholes, inspection chambers and treatment plant
installations shall be constructed from B 35 waterproof concrete with high resistance to
chemical attack according to DIN 1045.
Benching shall be of sulphate resisting waterproof concrete. All benching shall be sloped
towards the channel at a gradient of 2% or as directed by the Engineer.
Blinding and screeds shall be constructed from concrete B15.
The Contractor shall ensure that the manholes are well ventilated when any work is being
carried out.
All inlet and outlet pipes shall be joined to manholes by means of inlet and outlet wall pieces
cast into the concrete as shown on the drawings, then 1.0 m length of pipe and then the rest of
the pipes, in order to provide flexible joints in case of settling.
The cast iron frame of the manhole covers shall be cast into the concrete slab. The manhole
covers shall be class D 250 (in walkways) or D 400 (in the streets). They shall be round,
lockable with ventilation slots manufactured in accordance with DIN EN 124 / DIN 1229
The covers in roads and paved areas shall be accurately set to level and slopes of the roads
and pavement.
The height of the covers in not surfaced areas shall be coordinated with the relevant authority
responsible for the resurfacing.
The covers in gardens and open areas shall rise 200 mm above the surrounding ground level.
The rectangular cast iron frames for the inspection chambers shall be of Class D 250 and
according to DIN EN 124 / DIN 1229.
Step irons according to DIN 1212 shall be provided and installed in all sewer manholes. The
maximum spacing shall not exceed 25 cm.

4.18.2.

Testing of Manholes and Inspection Chambers

Manholes and inspection chambers shall be visually inspected for water tightness against infiltration
during backfilling operations and after backfilling have been completed. Testing of the Manholes shall
comply with EN 1610. No infiltration flow shall be admissible.

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5.

BLOCKWORK AND MORTAR

5.1.

CONCRETE BLOCKWORK

Tender Documents
WWTP
III.2 Part A: Civil Works and Buildings

Concrete blocks shall be solid, hard, true to size and shape with sharp arises in accordance with DIN
and approved by the Engineer.
They shall be obtained from an approved manufacturer or manufactured on Site in an approved block
making machine.
The blocks on removal from the machine shall be carefully deposited on edge on racks under sheds
erected by the Contractor and left for 3 days during which period they shall be kept constantly wet
after which they shall be placed on edge in the open on racks and protected by sacking or other
approved covering and kept wet for a further 5 days. Thereafter, the blocks shall be left in the same
position without wetting for a further 20 days.
No blocks will be allowed to be used in the work until they are 28 days old and until samples have
been taken and approved by the Engineer.
They shall be laid dry except for the top surface which shall be wetted immediately before mortar is
spread on. After laying, no further water shall be applied
Pre-cast concrete blocks used in manholes, chambers and structures shall be made using sulphate
resisting cement and shall comply DIN 1146 or equivalent as BS 4027 or ASTMC 1157/150, Type V.
Block sizes shall be subject to design requirements, but with a minimum thickness of 140 mm for
external walls and 100 mm for internal partition walls. Faces of blocks shall be 390 mm by 190 mm
(metric co-ordinated) or other blockwork co-ordinate sizing approved by the Employer's
Representative.
Unless otherwise approved by the Employer's Representative, aggregates for the manufacture of
concrete blocks shall comply with DIN 1045, DIN 4226, BS 882. Pre-cast concrete blocks shall be
solid with a minimum compressive strength of 10.5 N/mm.
Where concrete blocks are cast on Site, they shall be made in approved concrete block making
machines.
All casing shall be carried out with the block making machines under cover. The concrete shall be put
into the machine moulds in thin layers and properly tamped. On removal from the machine, the blocks
shall be carefully cured. After placement on racks under sheds, the blocks shall be kept wet for three
days. Curing shall be continued for a further five days with the blocks being kept on racks in the open
under mat covers and kept wet. Further curing shall take place by leaving the blocks under mat covers
for a further seven days without wetting.
If the Contractor wishes to use steam-cured concrete blocks, he shall request the approval of the
Employer's Representative to the methods of curing proposed.
Blocks shall be carefully packed for transport and unloaded and stacked on delivery by hand or other
approved means so as to avoid damage to surfaces.
Blockwork shall be constructed using cement sand mortar and joints shall not be less than 6 mm thick
nor more than 10 mm thick at their narrowest part.
Where appropriate, the courses shall be laid level or parallel to the axis of the work and with parallel
neat and regular joints. Vertical joints shall be kept true and in perpendicular alignment as appropriate.
Immediately before being laid, the blocks shall be thoroughly soaked in clean water, and before
continuing partly completed work the exposed bed joint shall be likewise soaked.
The courses shall be built up uniformly and no portion of the wall during laying shall rise more than
one meter above any other portion of the wall. No bats or broken blocks shall be allowed except where
necessary for closures.
The joints shall generally be not more than 6 mm in the beds and 10 mm at the ends or such other
dimensions as may be agreed by the Employer's Representative.
All joints shall be completely filled flush with mortar.
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All blockwork shall be protected during erection from the effects of rain, frost or snow by suitable
covering. Curing finished work shall be as specified for concrete. The Employer's Representative may
order that all block laying should be suspended during frosty weather.

5.2.

CEMENT MORTAR

Cement mortar shall consist of cement and sand gauged by volume in wrought wooden boxes in the
proportion of 1 part of Portland Cement to 3 parts of sand. Where required (anywhere where the
concrete will be exposed to sewage and/or sulphate gas etc.), Sulphate Resisting Cement should be
used in corrosive environment. The mortar shall be measured in specially prepared gauge boxes and
thoroughly mixed in an approved mechanical mixer or mixed dry on clean and approved mixing
platforms, with water added afterwards until all parts are completely incorporated and brought to a
proper consistency. The use of re-tempering of wholly or partially set mortar will not be allowed.
Mortar shall be mixed until the colour and consistency are uniform and shall be mixed only as and
when required. Mortar shall fulfil the requirements of concrete class B25.

5.3.

MORTAR PLASTICIZERS

Mortar Plasticizers shall comply with the relevant DIN and shall not contain chlorides. Mortar
Plasticizers shall be used only with the approval of the Engineer. Plasticizers shall be used strictly in
accordance with the recommendation of the manufacturer.

5.4.

SAND FOR MORTAR

The sand shall comply with DIN 4226 or equivalent. All sand for making mortar shall be cleaned well,
graded siliceous sand of good, sharp, hard quality equal to samples which shall be deposited with the
Engineer for prior approval before use for the Works.
The sand shall be free from lumps of stone, earth, loam, dust, salt, organic matter and any other
deleterious substance, and shall be sieved through a fine sieve and washed as necessary or when
directed by the Engineer.

5.5.

LIME FOR MORTAR

Lime for mortar shall be non-hydraulic or semi-hydraulic quicklime or hydrated lime in accordance with
DIN 1060 or equivalent.
Quick lime shall be run to putty in a pit dug on the Site or in an approved container immediately after
delivery to Site. The water to be first run into the pit or container and the lime shall be added until it is
completely submerged and stirred until all lumps are disintegrated. The resulting milk-lime shall then
be run through a 3 mm square-mesh sieve and run into a pit or other container and kept clean and
moist for not less than 4 weeks before use.
Hydrated lime shall be added to water in a clean receptacle thoroughly mixed to the consistency of
thick cream. The lime shall then be allowed to stand and kept clean and moist for not less than 16
hours before use.

5.6.

CHEMICAL RESISTANT MORTAR

5.6.1.

General

Chemical resistant mortar shall be used in corrosive environment for internal pointing of blockwork in
underground structures and for internal rendering of concrete surfaces including concrete blockwork,
or where the installation of plastic lining is impractical.
The purpose of the mortar is to resist bio-degradation in septic sewage environments which include
sulphuric acid up to 10 % concentration (w/w) and up to 35 C. Chemical resistant mortar shall be of a
type and make approved by the Employer's Representative.
The following sub-clauses cover the requirements for chemical-resistant resin mortars for bedding,
jointing or pointing bricks, concrete blocks or tiles, to be used as a corrosion-resistant lining in sewers,
manholes, chambers and related structures. The mortar may have to be applied and cured in damp or
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WWTP
III.2 Part A: Civil Works and Buildings

wet conditions. Mortar required for pointing may have to be applied by gun, through a small diameter
nozzle reaching to the bottom of the pointing groove.

5.6.2.

Information to be Submitted by the Contractor

Where the Contractor wishes to submit results of tests previously carried out on materials for chemical
resistant mortar, those results shall be submitted with certificates from the independent testing
laboratories used.
The Contractor shall arrange to have samples of chemical resistant resin mortar tested by a laboratory
approved by the Employer's Representative and suitability for the purpose of compliance with this
Specification shall be established to the satisfaction of the Employer's Representative before any such
product is used in the Works.
Further samples shall be taken during the period of application at the rate of one sample for every
1,000 kg of mortar delivered for use and tested by any or all of the procedures necessary to establish
compliance with this Specification, as required by the Employer's Representative. If any sample fails to
comply, application shall cease until suitability and compliance with the Specification has been reestablished to the satisfaction of the Employer's Representative.
Any samples of chemical-resistant resin mortars submitted by the Contractor for the approval of the
Employer's Representative shall be accompanied by a complete set of the literature issued by the
manufacturer describing their product. In addition to the manufacturer's standard data sheets, details
of other installations where the mortar has been used, and any references as to its suitability should
be included.

5.6.3.

Material and Properties Description

The chemical resistant mortar shall be an intimate mixture of liquid resinous material and a setting
agent and may contain appropriately selected filler materials. When mixed, these components shall
form a mortar with a workability suitable for the proposed method of application that subsequently
hardens.
The liquid resin shall be any solvent-free resinous material capable of forming a chemical resistant
mortar when mixed with a suitable catalyst and if required, a filler material. The filler material, if used,
shall be compatible with the liquid resin, of the chemical resistance required and of a size that will
permit the preparation of a minimum joint thickness of 3.0 mm. The mixed mortar shall not adversely
affect or be affected by other construction materials with which it will properly come into contact,
including fixtures and fittings.
The colours of individual components of the mortar shall be sufficiently different from each other so
that complete homogeneous mixing of the components will be apparent by visual inspection. The
colour of the completely mixed chemical resistant resin mortar shall be appreciably different from that
of the bricks and tiles to be pointed.
The unmixed components of the mortar shall have a minimum shelf life after delivery to the site of
12 months when stored at a temperature between 5 C and 45 C.
Where it is proposed to apply the mortar be trowel, the working time after initial mixing of the resin,
filler material and hardener shall be a minimum of 60 minutes at a temperature of 20C and
30 minutes at 45C. The pot life of the mortar shall be considered exceeded when the mortar can no
longer be applied to a prepared surface without curling behind the trowel according to DIN.
If it is proposed, subject to the approval of the Employer's Representative, to apply the mortar by some
other method (e.g. by gun), the working time after mixing shall be of a length suitable for the proposed
method of application.
Mortar applied at any time during the pot life shall have the specified properties when cured.
The chemical resistant resin mortar shall form a bond with the brick, tile or concrete, or with a cured
surface of itself, with a minimum strength, subject to substrate cohesive capacity, of 3 N/mm. This
bond strength shall be achieved regardless of whether the mortar is applied to a dry, a damp or wet
surface without priming or other form of surface preparation. The bond strength shall be tested and
measured in accordance with ASTM C 321 using samples of the actual construction materials.
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III.2 Part A: Civil Works and Buildings

The mortar shall have a minimum compressive strength of 15 N/mm, a minimum tensile strength of
5 N/mm and a maximum elastic modulus of 9 kN/mm when tested and measured in accordance with
ASTM C 579, C 307 and C 580 respectively.
The cured mortar shall be capable of resisting attack by any constituents that may normally or
occasionally be present in the wastewater, or which may form within the system by a combination of
physical, chemical and biological reactions. In particular, the mortar shall be capable of resisting attack
from extended exposure to sulphuric acid in concentrations up to15 %, oil, grease and petrol.
The chemical resistance of the mortar shall be tested and measured in accordance with ASTM C 267.
The tests shall be conducted using acid concentrations of 5 % and 15 % at temperatures of 20 C,
40 C and 70 C and using petrol at 20 C. The maximum changes in weight, compressive strength
and bond strength shall be measured after 7, 28, 56 and 84 days. The results of the tests, for petrol
and each acid concentration and temperature shall be plotted on a graph, against time elapsed and
submitted for approval by the Employer's Representative.
While discoloration and loss of gloss on the surface of these tested specimens is acceptable, there
shall be no surface cracks, etching, pitting or softening of the exposed surface. If the test solution
becomes discoloured during the test, the test shall be continued with fresh solution and there shall be
no further discoloration.
The mortar shall have a shrinkage not exceeding 0.5 % when tested after curing for 84 days at a
temperature of 70 C, and measured in accordance with ASTM C 531. Furthermore, the mortar shall
withstand those tests prescribed in ASTM C 883.
The cured mortar shall have an absorption not exceeding 3.0 % when tested and measured in
accordance with ASTM C 413.
The cured chemical-resistant resin mortar shall have properties of shrinkage and thermal expansion
such as to be able to withstand those tests prescribed in ASTM C 884.
The mortar shall achieve its service strength in a period not exceeding 7 days at temperatures ranging
from 10 C to 45 C in dry, damp or wet conditions when tested and measured in accordance with
ASTM C 308. The properties of the cured mortar shall not be impaired by curing in dry, damp or wet
conditions at any temperature ranging from 5 C to 45 C.

5.6.4.

Testing

Requirements for testing of the chemical resistant resin mortar are described in the previous subclause. For convenience, those tests are summarised below, giving the relevant ASTM standards, in
accordance to which the tests have to be carried out.
For resistance to chemicals:
For working and setting time:
For bond strength:
For absorption:
For shrinkage:
For compressive strength:
For tensile strength:
For modulus of elasticity:
For thermal compatibility:

ASTM C 267
ASTM C 308
ASTM C 321
ASTM C 413
ASTM C 31 and C 883
ASTM C 579
ASTM C 307
ASTM C 580
ASTM C 884

Testing shall be carried out to the Employer's Representative's approval before any product is used in
the Works.
Testing shall be carried out subsequently at the rate of one set of tests per 1,000 kg of mortar
delivered to Site.

5.6.5.

Storage and Application

The individual components of the chemical resistant resin mortar shall be supplied in pre-measured
quantities and packaged by the manufacturer in units sized to suit the method of application. Under no
circumstances shall these quantities be divided to mix smaller batches.

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All packages shall be clearly marked as to size, contents, mixing instructions, safety precautions,
storage requirements and date of expiration of the contents.
The manufacturer's recommendations for storage of the individual components of the mortar shall be
followed. In all cases, storage shall be in a dry, cool place with containers tightly sealed and away
from open flame. Components that have exceeded their shelf life or have become wet shall no be
used.
The manufacturer's recommendations for the safe use of the mortar shall be followed. Workers shall
wear gloves when handling the product. In the mixing and working areas there shall be no open flame
and adequate ventilation shall be provided.
Mixing of the mortar shall be in strict accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations. The
temperatures of the component shall be such that the temperature of the mixed mortar is between
15 C and 40 C. Mixing shall be thorough and complete such that the mortar is a homogeneous
colour and free from lumps and air bubbles. In no case shall unspecified materials such as sand,
cement or water be added to the mix. In no case shall mixed mortar that has become unworkable be
retempered with resin liquid or by any other means. Once mortar has become unworkable, it shall be
discarded.
The manufacturer's recommendations for surface preparation and for application and spreading of the
mortar shall be followed. The joints shall be completely raked out to a depth of 25 mm. The surfaces to
which the mortar is applied shall be free from dirt, debris, grease, oil and other materials that would
prevent the formation of a sound bond. Where surfaces are damp or wet, such special measures as
are recommended by the manufacturer for these conditions shall be adopted. The joints shall be
carefully inspected by the Contractor prior to mortar application. A smooth, even surface shall be
achieved, flush with the surface of the blocks or tiles.
The manufacturer's recommendations for curing the mortar shall be followed. The temperature during
the curing period shall be kept within the range of 5 C to 40 C. Special consideration shall be given
to curing in damp or wet conditions.

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6.

Tender Documents
WWTP
III.2 Part A: Civil Works and Buildings

ROADWORKS

The specification for the road works shall serve for the re-establishment of road pavements, for the
construction of access roads and for temporary roads.

6.1.

CLEARING AND GRUBBING

Clearing and grubbing for road works shall be executed in accordance with Clause 1.1 of the
Specification.

6.2.

EARTHWORKS FOR ROADS

The earthworks for roads shall generally be in accordance with Clause 1 Earthwork of the
Specification.
Where the dry density of the natural ground within 0.3 m. depth of the formation level is below 90% of
the maximum dry density as determined in DIN 18126, the sub-grade material shall be reworked and
compacted to 90% of the maximum dry density.
Fill below 0.3 m depth under the formation level shall be compacted to 90% maximum dry density. Fill
within 0.3 m depth of the formation level shall be compacted to 95% maximum dry density.
During compacting sub-grade sections, particular attention shall be paid to the requirement that the
natural sub-grade or the fill shall be compacted with a slight outward slope to ensure good run-off of
surface water.
Material excavated out of the road bed which is suitable for use in fill, shall be used for filling as far as
this is practicable.

6.3.

FINISH AND PROTECTION OF SUBGRADE

When the sub-grade has been compacted to the required degree, the surface shall have a formation
parallel to the finished surface of the carriageway and to the correct levels and cross-section.
The finished surface of the sub-grade shall be approved by the Engineer before any sub-base material
is placed. The sub-grade, once it has been finally compacted, shaped and approved, shall be
protected and kept well drained.
Plant and materials shall not be stored or stockpiled on the formation. Contractor's traffic shall not be
permitted to pass over the completed sub-grade unless otherwise approved by the Engineer. The
Contractor shall, at his own expense, repair any soft spots or damage caused to the sub-grade.

6.4.

MATERIAL AND CONSTRUCTION OF SUB-BASE

The material of embankments and fills shall be only of material approved by the Engineer and
obtained from cuts quarries and borrow pits. The material shall be spread and compacted to the
specified level and thickness. If necessary, water shall be added.
The granular material used in the sub-base shall comply with the requirements specified in DIN 4226.
All material shall be placed, spread evenly and compacted; spreading shall be undertaken
concurrently with placing. The material shall be spread in one or more layers so that after compaction
the total thickness is as required. Compaction of the sub-base shall be to 98% of the maximum dry
density in accordance with DIN 18126 and shall be completed as soon as possible after the material
has been spread. Where compacting plant is of insufficient capacity, the sub-base shall be laid in two
or more layers. During the construction period the sub-base shall be maintained in such a condition
that it will be drained at all times. The outflow shall be diverted away from the construction at all times.
The outflow shall be diverted away from the construction in order to prevent erosion.
The sub-grade shall be kept drained. All damage caused by water where the sub-grade cannot be
compacted to the required density, shall be removed and repaired. Sub-grade shall be cleaned of all
foreign matter, pot-holes, loose material, ruts, corrugations, depressions or any other defect. The

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Contractor shall rectify, scarify, water, grade and re-compact the sub-grade to the level at his own
expense and all to the satisfaction of the engineer.
No surfacing shall be done until the sub-grade has been inspected and approved by the Engineer.

6.5.

REQUIREMENTS FOR COMPACTION

Vibratory compacting plant may be used if approved by the Engineer. The number of passes to be
made will be determined having regard to the characteristics of the plant to be employed and the
material to be used.
If necessary, test specimens shall be taken to determine the optimum method of compaction. The
surface of any layer of material shall, on completion of compaction, be well closed, free from
movement under compaction plant and free from compaction planes.
All loose, segregated or otherwise defective areas shall be made good to the thickness of the layer
and re-compacted.
The maximum compacted thickness of any layer shall be 25 cm. The sub-grade layers shall be
compacted from slope stake to slope stake at the optimum moisture content. The layer shall be
scarified and water shall be mixed in or the material allowed to dry out to the correct moisture content.
The layer shall then be compacted. The final surface shall be graded to level.
Where shown on the drawings or directed by the Engineer, the formation shall be completed without
the addition of any wearing course, sub-base, base or shoulders. The Contractor shall finish the subgrade by grading watering and compacting with four passes of a 12 Mg smooth-wheeled roller.
Irregularities shall not be allowed over 12 mm when measured from a 3 meter long straight board.

6.6.

MATERIAL AND CONSTRUCTION OF BASE

The base shall comprise of one of the following:

Selected gravel base


Crushed stone
Cement stabilised selected gravel base.

Base coarse is the top surfacing coarse which supports traffic and it is the coarse immediately below
the surface dressing. The minimum thickness shall be 150 mm after proper compaction.
The selected gravel or crushed stone base shall be minimum 150 mm or as required by the existing
ground conditions. If the thickness of the base course is required to be more than 150 mm, the
material will be then laid and processed in two or more layers.
The materials to be used shall be from a source proposed by the Contractor and approved by the
Engineer. It shall be non plastic. The maximum size shall not exceed 60 mm. The materials shall
consist of sand gravel mixture or sand and crushed stone. The base material shall be a well graded
material complying with the following requirements:

CBR value after 24 hours soaking shall not be less than 80 %


Liquid limit and plasticity index shall not exceed respectively 25 % and 8 %
The grading limits shall be:
Sieve Size [mm]

Passing % by weight

60

100

20

50-75

25-50

10-35

0.6

5-25

0.2

2-15

0.06

1-8

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The selected gravel or crushed stone base shall be compacted to 100 % of maximum dry density.
Compaction shall take place by watering and rolling until there is no longer any visible movements of
the compacted stone material and a stone of the base material when thrown under the roller shall
become crushed. A finishing layer of sand shall be rolled in to fill the surface voids.
The cement stabilised selected gravel base shall be minimum 150 mm or as required by the existing
ground conditions. The gravel material shall answer to the above specification and be stabilised with 6
- 8% of Portland cement. To obtain a uniform mixture of materials and water, the cement stabilised
gravel base shall be manufactured in a pug mill, carried to the place of placement and compacted to
100% of maximum dry density. If the conditions on site allows it and the Engineer approves, the
cement stabilised gravel base may be constructed on site by using rotary tillers and water bowsers to
obtain a well mixed base. The compaction requirement remains unchanged, i.e. 100% of maximum
dry density.
The material shall be placed and spread evenly, spreading shall be undertaken concurrently with
placing. Road base material shall preferably be spread in one layer using a paying machine or similar
approved.
The material shall be spread so that after compaction the total thickness is as required. The
Contractor shall organise the work in such a way that longitudinal joints against hardened material are
avoided as far as possible. If this is not possible then before work proceeds against a longitudinal joint
of hardened material, the edge compacted previously shall, if it has been exposed for more than an
hour, be cut back vertically to produce a face equivalent to the specified thickness of the layer of
properly compacted material.
Compaction of the road base to a minimum of 100% of the maximum dry density shall be completed
as soon as possible after the material has been spread. Compaction equipment shall not bear directly
on hardened or partially hardened material previously laid other than what is necessary for achieving
the specified compaction of the joint. Special care shall be taken to obtain full compaction in the
vicinity of both longitudinal and transverse joints, and the Contractor shall use special small
compactors in addition if necessary or instructed by the Engineer.
Any loose or poorly compacted material in the vicinity of construction joints shall be removed and
replaced with fresh material. The surface of any layer of material shall on completion of compaction be
well closed, free from movement under compaction plant and free from compaction planes, ridges,
cracks or loose material. All loose, segregated or otherwise defective areas shall be made good to the
full thickness of the layer and re-compacted. If this cannot be done within 2 hours of mixing, the
making good shall comprise the material being broken out to the full thickness of the layer, removed
and replaced with freshly mixed material compacted to Specification.
The base shall, immediately on completion or completion, be cured for a period of at least 7 days,
unless otherwise approved by the Engineer. Curing shall be achieved either by covering with
approved impermeable plastic sheeting adequately secured from being blown off the surface with
joints overlapped at least 300 mm and set to prevent egress of moisture or in accordance with
Clauses in the Specification dealing with concrete or by spraying with an approved curing compound.
Notwithstanding the above the Contractor shall construct the road base in accordance with the
requirements and specification of the relevant Authority or Municipality. The Specification included
herein shall be adopted only in the absence of any particular requirements from these authorities.
The surface shall be maintained by the Contractor until the Certificate of Completion is issued.

6.7.

BITUMINOUS SURFACE COURSE / ASPHALT PAVEMENTS

6.7.1.

Material and Construction

(a)

A bituminous tack coat shall be applied on the cleaned drained and levelled base coarse. The
tack coat shall comprise CSS-1 or CSS-1h emulsified asphalt mixed with equal parts of water.
The amount of bituminous material including water per m shall be up to 0.8 litres. Exact amount
to be ordered by the Engineer.

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(b)

The surface course shall be composed of mineral aggregate and bituminous material mixed in a
central mixing plant and the dimensions shall be according to drawings. The surface course
shall be constructed in two courses to depth established by the Engineer and each course shall
be rolled finished and approved before placement of the next course.

(c)

The aggregate shall consist of crushed stone or gravel with or without sand and other fine
mineral aggregates. The aggregate shall be of sound tough durable particles free from clay and
organic matter and shall contain not more than 8% by weight of flat or elongated pieces. The
course aggregate shall show no more than 40% wear and no signs of disintegration nor shall
the sodium sulphate soundness loss exceed 9%.

(d)

The bituminous plant mix shall be composed of a mixture of aggregate filler and bituminous
materials. The aggregate fractions shall be sized uniformly graded and combined in such
proportions that the resulting mixture meets the grading requirements of the job mix formula.
The gradations of the materials shall produce a relatively smooth curve when plotted in a semilogarithmic gradation chart.

(e)

The crushing of the aggregate shall result in a product in which course aggregate (retained on
sieve No.8) shall have at least 75% by weight of particles with at least 90% of weight of particles
with one or more fractured faces. When filler is necessary, it shall consist of stone dust,
Portland cement or other approved materials. The asphalt cement will be 60-70 grades.

(f)

Work shall not start until the Contractor has submitted samples of the materials and the job mix
formula for each mixture to the Engineer and to the acceptance of the Engineer. The accepted
job mix formula shall then not be changed.

(g)

The gradations in the table below represent the limits which shall determine suitability of
aggregate. The final gradations shall not vary from the low limit to one sieve to the high limit on
the adjacent sieves or vice versa. The selection of any gradation shall be such that the
maximum size aggregate used shall not be more than one half of the thickness of the layer of
the surface course being constructed

(h)

The bituminous content of the mixture shall be calculated on the percentage basis by weight of
the total mix. The mineral aggregate and asphalt shall be combined to meet the following
gradations.
Sieve Size

Passing in% of
Weight of Total Mix

12.7 mm

100

9.5 mm

95-100

No.4

70-100

No.8

52-84

No.16

38-56

No.30

37-44

No.50

19-33

No.100

13-24

No.200

8-15

Asphalt

6.5-9.5

(i)

The surface course shall be constructed only when the surface is dry and approved by the
Engineer.

(j)

The aggregate of the mixture shall be dried and heated at the paving plant before entering the
mixer. When introduced into the mixture the combined aggregate shall not contain more than
0.5% moisture in the asphalt mixture. Water in the aggregate shall be removed by heating to the
extent that there is no subsequent forming in the mixture. The maximum temperature and rate

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of heating shall be such that no permanent damage occurs to the aggregates. Particular care
shall be taken that aggregates high in calcium or magnesium content are not damaged by
heating. The aggregates shall be screened to specified sizes and conveyed into separate bins
ready for mixing with bituminous material.
(k)

The dry aggregates shall be combined in the plant in the proportionate amounts of each fraction
of aggregate to meat the specified gradation. The quantity of each aggregate shall be measured
and conveyed into the mixer. The aggregates shall be mixed with the bituminous material at the
central mixing plant. The mixture shall be prepared at the temperature specified.

(l)

The mixture shall be then transported from the mixing plant to the point of use in approved
vehicles. It shall be placed at temperature between 121C and 149C when asphalt cement is
used. The Engineer may accept lower temperatures. The temperatures shall be maintained
throughout the spreading operation. The mixture shall be laid only upon cleaned dry and
approved underlying course.

(m)

After arrival, the mixture shall be dumped and immediately spread to the full width required. It
shall be struck off in a uniform layer such that when the work is completed will have the required
thickness.

(n)

After spreading, the mixture shall be thoroughly and uniformly compacted with power rollers as
directed by the Engineer. The speed of the roller shall at all times be slow to avoid displacement
of the hot mixture. Any displacement occurring as a result of reversing the direction of the roller
or from any cause shall be corrected at once by rakes and fresh mixture.

6.7.2.

Asphalt Overlay Pavements

The asphalt overlay pavements comprise:

Asphalt concrete course


Binder course
Wearing course

All pavements are asphalt concretes, but of varying composition, especially in regard of the grading of
the gravel fraction. The asphalt concrete course shall be the coarser and the wearing course of the
finest grading.

6.7.3.

Hot-Mix Asphalt Bituminous

The bituminous mixture for the surface courses shall conform to the requirements of locally produced
mixtures.
The composition of the mixtures is generally as follows:

Stone dust filler


5 to 7 % bitumen
70 to 75 % grey or blue calcareous material
23 to 25 % sand.

Bituminous mixtures shall be, as far as practicable, obtained from an approved local mixing plant.
Contact details of local producers (sub-contractors) will be given by the Engineer. No bituminous
mixture shall be manufactured until a job-mix formula has been submitted by the Contractor and
approved by the Engineer in writing.
The formula shall indicate the exact percentage of each sieve fraction and the exact percentage of
asphalt to be used in the mixtures, including the mix temperature. The job-mix formula shall be within
the master range as specified and shall be in effect until modified in writing by the Engineer.

6.7.4.

Weather Limitations

Bituminous courses shall be constructed only when the base is dry and when the weather is not rainy.

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6.7.5.

Tender Documents
WWTP
III.2 Part A: Civil Works and Buildings

Preparation

Immediately before applying a bituminous pavement, the surface of the base course shall be
thoroughly cleaned of all loose or foreign material. The base layer shall be coated with a tack-coat of
the liquid asphalt rapid curing type. The tack-coat composition shall be approved by the Engineer's
before starting the works. The tack-coat shall be applied just sufficiently in advance of the placement
of the asphalt concrete mixture so as to provide a thin adhesive film of bituminous cement to ensure a
good bond.
The tack-coat shall be uniformly applied by means of a pressure hand spray, in quantities of not less
than 0.2 litres per square metre or more than 0.3 litres per square metre of surface, unless otherwise
directed by the Engineer. Stakes for alignment control shall be furnished, set and maintained by the
Contractor, subject to checking and correction by the Engineer, in order that the Works shall conform
to the lines shown on the drawings.
The stakes shall be set in lines parallel with the centre line of the area to be paved, offset and spaced
as directed by the Engineer.

6.7.6.

Transportation

All bituminous mixtures shall be transported from the mixing plant to the spreader in trucks having
tight, clean, smooth beds which have been oiled with a minimum amount of approved thin oil to
prevent adhesion of the mixtures to the trucks. Each load shall be covered with canvas, or other
suitable material, to protect it from dust or rain, and to prevent the loss of heat. Deliveries shall be
arranged so that spreading and rolling of all the mixtures prepared for a day's run can be completed
during daylight, unless artificial light satisfactory to the Engineer is provided. Any loads excessively
wet by rain will be rejected. Hauling over freshly laid material will not be permitted.

6.7.7.

Placing

The asphalt pavement shall be constructed in accordance with the thickness as present prior to
removal and excavation work or as shown on the drawings with a minimum as specified. The
temperature of each mixture when dumped into the spreader shall be as directed by the Engineer,
plus or minus 10C.
The spreader shall be adjusted and the speed regulated, so that the surface of the ill be smooth and of
such depth that, when compacted, it will conform to the cross section shown on the drawings. The
length of any lane laid before placing the adjacent lane shall be as directed by the Engineer. Where
two spreading machines are operating in staggered position, no single lane shall be laid in advance of
the adjoining lane further than will permit a satisfactory hot longitudinal joint between the lanes.
Where forming a hot longitudinal joint, the 150 mm strip along the edge against which additional
material is to be laid shall not be rolled until such additional material is placed, except when the work
is to be discontinued. After the first lane has been placed and rolled, the adjacent lane shall be placed
while the unrolled 150 mm strip is hot and in readily compactable condition. Rolling of the adjacent
lane shall begin along the joint. Placing of the mixture shall be as continuous as possible.
In areas where the use of machine spreading is impractical, the mixture may be spread by hand and
dressed with rakes. The loads shall not be dumped any faster than can be properly handled by the
shovellers and rakers.
Contact surfaces of previously constructed pavement kerbs, manholes and similar structures shall be
painted with a thin tack-coat prior to placing the bituminous mixture.

6.7.8.

Compaction of Mixtures

Compaction shall be effected by three-wheel rollers and tandem rollers.


Rolling of the mixture shall begin as soon as after placing as the mixture will bear the roller without
undue displacement. Delays in rolling freshly spread mixtures will not be permitted. Initial rolling shall
be effected by tandem rollers, followed immediately by the three-wheel rollers. Rolling shall start at
the extreme sides of the lanes and proceed toward the centre of the pavement overlapping on
successive strips by at least one-half the width of the rear wheel of the three-wheel roller. On the
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super-elevated curves, rolling shall begin at the low side and progress toward the high side.
Alternative trips of the roller shall be slightly different lengths. Tests for conformity with the
smoothness will be made immediately after initial compaction, any deviations in excess of the
specified tolerances shall be corrected by loosening the hot surface with rakes and removing or
adding material as directed before continuing the rolling.
Generally, rolling shall be executed in such a manner as to produce a smooth surface and shall be
continued until a density of at least 100% has been obtained.
During rolling, the wheels of the rollers shall be moistened to prevent adhesion of the mixture to the
wheels, but an excess of water will not be permitted. The Contractor shall furnish additional and
sufficient rollers if it is found that the pavement density specified is not obtained. In all spaces not
accessible to the roller, the mixture shall be thoroughly compacted with hot hand tampers weighing not
less than 10 kg, with a tamping face of not more than 300 cm. Skin patching of an area that has been
rolled will not be permitted.
Any mixture that becomes mixed with foreign material, or is in any way defective, shall be removed,
replaced with fresh mixture and compacted. The rollers shall not be permitted to stand on pavement,
which has not been fully compacted. Necessary precautions shall be taken to prevent the dropping of
oil, grease, petrol, or other foreign matter on the pavement, either when the rollers are in operation or
standing. The Contractor shall provide competent workmen who are capable of performing all work
incidental to the correction of all pavement irregularities.
The finished surface shall not vary more than 3 mm when tested with a 3.00 m straight edge applied
parallel with the centre line of the pavement. After completion of the final rolling, the smoothness of the
course will be checked, and any irregularities that exceed the tolerance or that retain water on the
surface shall be corrected by removing the defective area and replacing with new pavement without
additional payment. The completed bituminous pavement will be tested for thickness at such intervals
as directed by the Engineer. Where the thickness proves to be more than 5 mm smaller than the
specified pavement thickness, the deficient pavement shall be removed and replaced with satisfactory
pavement with no additional payment.
All joints shall present the same texture, density and smoothness as other areas of the course. The
joints between old and new lanes, or sections, shall be carefully made in such manner as to ensure a
continuous bond between the old and new pavement. All trimmed contact surfaces of previously
constructed pavement shall be painted with a thin, uniform tack coat before the fresh mixture is
placed. When the edges of joints are irregular, honeycombed, or poorly compacted, all unsatisfactory
sections of joint shall be trimmed to expose an even, vertical, or sharply sloping surface for the full
thickness of the course. Fresh mixture shall be raked uniformly against the joint, followed by rolling.
After final rolling, no vehicular traffic of any kind shall be permitted on the pavement for at least 24
hours.

6.7.9.

Kerb Stones Laying

Pre-cast concrete kerb stones shall be laid according to the relevant Standards, true to line and level
and any kerb found to be more than 5 mm out of line or level at either end shall be lifted and reused.
Where practicable kerb stones shall be laid before paving. In reinstatement, the original kerbs stones
shall generally be re-used except where these are damaged. They shall be thoroughly cleaned before
replacement and laid to suit the line and level of the undisturbed kerbs.
Kerb stones laid on stabilised pavement shall be bedded on a layer of 2:1 sand-cement mortar
150 mm thick and shall be backed with concrete, cast over and around steel dowels previously driven
into the green pavement material and shaped up to the required cross section.
Kerb stones laid otherwise than on concrete pavement shall be bedded on a layer of 2:1 sand-cement
mortar 150 mm thick and shall be backed with concrete shaped up to the required cross-section.
Specially cast circular kerbs shall be used on curves of 13 m radius or less.
Kerbs shall be jointed with cement mortar except at expansion joints which shall be made with
preformed joint filler 13 mm thick. Expansion joints shall be carried through the concrete backing and
foundation.

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6.7.10.

Tender Documents
WWTP
III.2 Part A: Civil Works and Buildings

Footpaths

The formation and sub-grade for footpaths shall be prepared as specified for roads, except that proofrolling will not be required.
Paving flags shall be un-reinforced pre-cast concrete of 50 mm minimum thickness and shall be
natural colour unless otherwise specified.
Edging to footpaths shall be of pre-cast concrete. It shall be bedded in concrete foundation and
shaped up.
No sub-base will be required for footpaths. The base shall be as specified for road base, laid and
compacted to a minimum thickness of 75 mm using a roller of not less than 2.5 ton mass or other
approved equipment giving equivalent compaction.
Where a flexible final surface is specified the base course shall be sealed with a coat of cut-back
bitumen, 100 seconds grade sprayed on at the rate of 1.4 litres/m and shall be covered by a surfacing
of 6 mm nominal size medium textured wearing course macadam not less than 25 mm thick made and
laid in accordance with BS 4987.
Where concrete flags are specified as the final surface, they shall be bedded on a layer of sand
approximately 50 mm thick, laid on to the base course. Joints shall be made 3:1 sand-cement mortar.
Paths surfaced with concrete flags will not normally have pre-cast concrete edgings.

6.7.11.

Testing

The Contractor shall carry out tests at such intervals as the Engineer may direct to demonstrate that
the materials for the granular sub-base and road-base comply with the Specification and that the
specified density for the sub-grade, sub-base and roadbase are being achieved.
The Contractor shall inspect and test each area of layer for compliance with surface level accuracy.

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7.

MISCELLANEOUS ITEMS

7.1.

PAVING

Tender Documents
WWTP
III.2 Part A: Civil Works and Buildings

Pre-cast concrete paving slabs shall be manufactured as agreed upon in size but 10 cm thick of
vibrated 1:2:4 concrete finished on top with a wood float, clean cut edges and free from all cracks,
chips or broken corners. The slabs shall be laid on a 75 mm consolidated bed of sand or stone dust, in
cement mortar 1:4. The jointing mortar shall be worked well down into the joints, the pointing to the
key-drawn and all excess mortar cleaned off.

7.2.

ENTRANCE STEPS

Entrance steps as required to suit ground and floor levels shall be formed in concrete (1:3:6), with
suitable underneath foundations as directed by the Engineer. Treads shall be not less than 300 mm
wide and risers not more than 175 mm high. All exposed surfaces shall be finished in cement and
sand (1:4) trowelled smooth with a wood float 18 mm thick on treads and 12 mm thick on risers or
finished with Carborundum dust.

7.3.

PLASTERWORK

The cement and sand paving and finishing shall include for finishing of the surface to a perfectly
smooth and hard standard with a steel trowel to deal level or true falls if so described. This shall apply
for all temporary rules, formwork to stop paving at openings or edges as required, for preparing
concrete beds to receive paving by thoroughly brushing clean the surface with a steel wire-brush, and
well wetting and painting the same with cement and sand (1:1) grout immediately before paving is laid,
for any additional thickness of paving beyond the thickness specified required due to irregularities in
the concrete bed to receive such paving, and for keeping paving damp for at least 7 days after laying.
All surfaces to be plastered or rendered shall be brushed clean and be well wetted before the plaster
is applied. All plaster and rendering shall be kept continuously damp for seven days after application.
All arises shall be finished true and slightly rounded except where otherwise stated, and shall be run at
the same time as the adjoining plaster. No partially or wholly set plaster or rendering will be allowed to
be used or re-mixed.

7.4.

CARPENTRY

All carpentry work shall be left with sawn surface except where particularly specified to be wrot.
Scantlings and boarding shall be accurately sawn and shall be accurately set out and in strict
accordance with the Drawings and shall be framed together and securely fixed in the best possible
manner with properly made joints. Provide all beads, nails, screws, etc. as necessary and as directed
and approved.

7.5.

JOINERY

All joinery shall be executed with workmanship of the best quality and in strict accordance with the
detailed Drawings. All mouldings shall be accurately run and all work planned, sandpapered and
finished to the approval of the Engineer. All finishes shall be slightly rounded. All framed work shall be
cut out, properly tenoned, shouldered, etc. and framed together as soon after commencement of the
works as is practicable but should not be wedged up until required for fixing in positioning. Any
portions that warp, get in winding, develop shakes or other defects shall be replaced with new ones.
Whenever required for fixing in position, the framing shall be glued together with best quality glue and
properly wedged or pinned, etc. as described.
Oval or round brads or nails shall be used for fixing all face work and in each case all heads shall be
properly punched in and puttied.

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7.6.

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III.2 Part A: Civil Works and Buildings

IRONMONGERY

All ironmongery shall be of the description and manufacture described and shall be fitted and fixed in
an approved manner. All locks shall be provided with two keys and shall have a sufficient number of
differs to ensure that no two external locks of the same contract may be opened with the same key.
The Contractor shall include for all cutting, sinking, boring, mortising and fitting and for supplying all
necessary and suitable matching screws. The Contractor shall also include for removing door,
furniture etc. during painting operations and afterwards re-fixing and for labelling all keys with door
references and handing to the Engineer on completion.
Master keys shall be provided and properly labelled where directed. Face plates with all locks shall
match the door furniture. All finishes shall be in satin chrome or silver anodised aluminium unless
otherwise stated.

7.7.

PAINTING

Before commencing the painting work, the Contractor shall submit to the Engineer for approval, a list
of all the brands of paints and finishings including the necessary primers and undercoats to be used
and immediately upon being approved orders shall be placed and total requirements obtained for the
works.
Once approved, no other brand of material shall be used without the express permission of the
Engineer
All materials shall be delivered on Site intact in the original containers and shall be mixed and applied
strictly in accordance with the manufacturer's printed instructions. No addition will be allowed to be
made locally without the express permission of the Engineer.
The priming, undercoats and finishing coats shall each be of different tints, the printing and undercoats
shall be the correct brands and tints to suit the respective finishing coats, in accordance with the
manufacturer's instructions. All finishing coats shall be of the colours and types specified by the
Engineer.
The Contractor shall include for the preparation of surfaces, rubbing-down between each coat,
stopping, knotting and all other work in connection as previously described and as necessary to obtain
a first class finish.
Plaster finished with a steel trowel and fair face concrete surfaces shall be well rubbed-down, filled
and made good as necessary and thoroughly cleaned down immediately before decoration is applied.
Plaster finished with a wood float or other rough textured surfaces of a similar nature shall be made
good as necessary and thoroughly brushed clean immediately before decoration is applied.
Cast-in-situ concrete with a rough textured surface shall be made good as necessary and thoroughly
wire-brushed clean immediately before decoration is applied.
Insulation board or similar surfaces shall be filled and made good as necessary and lightly brusheddown to remove all dirt, dust and loose particles.
All exposed cast iron soil, waste and vent pipes shall be primed with two coats approved aluminium
metal primer before further treatment.
Woodwork to be painted shall be well rubbed down and primed with aluminium wood primer wellbrushed into the wood. All knots shall be covered with good shellac knotting before priming and all
defects be filled with hard stopping after priming.
Plywood shall be filled over the entire surface, with approved brush filler.
Woodwork to receive finishes other than paint shall have all stains removed, be well rubbed-down and
have all defects levelled up with hard stopping or a colour to match the adjoining surfaces.
After each coat the work shall be allowed to dry and shall then be well rubbed-down with fine glass
paper on blocks or other means as required for the particular work before the next coat is applied. The
paint work shall be finished smooth and free from brush marks.

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All materials for external use shall be of exterior quality recommended by their manufacturers for
external use.
The floors, etc. shall be swept cleaned and covered up with dust sheets when executing all printing
and decorating work.
Paint splashes, spots and stains, shall be removed from floors, wood work, etc. Any damaged
surfaces shall be touched up and the whole of the work left clean and perfect upon completion.
Painting shall be applied as follows:
1

Fibreboard ceiling

Three coats distemper

Plastered Walls

Three coats plastic emulsion internally and two coats


exterior water paint externally

Metal Work

Prime and paint one undercoat and two finishing coats


gloss-paint. Only approved systems to be used.

Copper, Galvanised and coated Metal

Treat with approved calcium plumbate solution, prime


paint two undercoats and one coat gloss-paint.

Galvanised corrugated

Apply two coats of approved roof - Iron Roofing paint.

Woodwork

Knot, prime, stop and paint one undercoat and two


finishing coats gloss-paint. Only approved systems to
be used

7.8.

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS

All work in connection with the electrical installations shall be carried out by an approved SubContractor under supervision of a qualified, competent and experienced supervisor. The finished work
shall be to the satisfaction of the Engineer and the Electricity Authority.

7.9.

METALWORK

Steelwork shall comply with recognised standards for general structural purposes. Before ordering or
fabricating any item of metal work the approval of the Engineer shall be obtained.
Unless otherwise stated, all steel work shall be hot dip galvanised. All bolts, nuts and washers for
fastening galvanised components or aluminium alloy shall be of stainless steel to DIN 17440 and shall
remain unpainted.

7.10.

PAINTING OF METALWORK

All work shall be carried out in accordance with DIN 55928, or equivalent.
All paints shall be obtained from an approved manufacturer, and applied strictly in accordance with the
manufacturer's instructions. The source of supply shall not be altered without the Engineer's approval.
The colour of the paints used shall be to the Engineer's approval and where possible alternate coats
shall be of different shades.
Where blast cleaning is specified prior to painting, the cleaned surfaces shall conform to First Quality
finish.
All preparation and painting shall be carried out under dry conditions and on completely clean and dry
surfaces.
All preparation and painting at manufacturers works shall be carried out under cover at a controlled
ambient temperature.
Where surfaces are joined during fabrication, they shall be brought together while the final protective
coat is still wet.
After welding and fabrication, all weld areas shall be thoroughly cleaned and touched up as specified
with the appropriate priming system.

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III.2 Part A: Civil Works and Buildings

Coatings and paints used for all structures, including tanks, pipes, valves, flowmeters, fittings etc.,
which are in contact with potable water shall be non-toxic, and shall not foster microbiological growth
or give rise to taste, odour, turbidity or discoloration of the water with which they are, or could be in
contact.
The Engineer reserves the right to inspect all work prior to painting, and reasonable access shall be
given for such inspection at any stage of the work.

7.11.

HOT DIP GALVANIZING

All hot dip galvanizing shall conform to DIN 50941 and DIN 50976 or equivalent.

7.12.

STEP IRONS

All step irons shall conform to DIN 1212 - General Purpose Pattern. The weight of each step iron shall
be at least 2.15 kg. Maximum spacing shall not exceed 25 cm.

7.13.

LADDERS AND STAIRS

(a)

Ladders shall conform to international safety standards and shall be to the acceptance of the
Engineer.

(b)

Safety hoops and stringer extensions as well as suitable support stays shall be provided.

(c)

The spacing of support stays shall not exceed 2.4 m.

(d)

All bolts nuts and washers of galvanised steel shall be in accordance with DIN 50930. The bolts
nuts and washers for fastening galvanised components, aluminium alloy components and
stainless steel components shall be of stainless steel to DIN 17440 and shall remain unpainted.

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Annex
List of relevant Vietnamese Standards to be considered in addition to the DIN / EN:
Earthworks - Codes for Construction, Check and Acceptance

TCVN 4447 1987

Standard for Construction - Check and Acceptance of Foundation Works

TCXD 79 -1980

Building Mortar - Technical Requirements

TCVN 4314 1986

Water for Concrete and Mortar - Technical requirements

TCVN 4506 1987

Concrete - Rules for the Strength Control

TCVN 5440 1991

Heavy concrete - Requirements for natural moist curing

TCVN 5592 1991

Concrete - Classification by compressive strength

TCVN 6025 1995

Prefabricated Concrete and Reinforced Concrete - Codes for Construction


Check and Acceptance

TCVN 4452 1987

Cast iron pipes and fittings for Pressure Pipelines

TCVN 2942 1979

Water Supply and Drainage Systems - Technical Rules

TCVN 5576 1991

Monolithic Concrete and Reinforced Concrete Structures - Codes for


Construction Check and Acceptance

TCVN 4453 1995

Steel structures - Fabrication, Assembly, Check and Acceptance Technical


Requirements

TCXD 170 1989

Pump - Installation Tolerance

TCXD 183 1996

Anti-Corrosion for Building Structures

TCXD 149 1986

Finished Building Plans - Codes for Construction, Check and Acceptance

TCVN 4516 1988

Manufacturing Processes - General Safety Requirements

TCVN 2289 1978

Manufacturing Equipment - General Safety Requirements

TCVN 2290 1978

Code of Practice for Building Safety Technique

TCVN 5308 - 1991

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Tender Documents
WWTP
III.2 Part B: Mechanical Works

PART B: MECHANICAL WORKS

CES / NAGECCO
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III.2 Part B: Mechanical Works

TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.

page
WORKS INCLUDED IN THE CONTRACT...............................................................................1

2.

PROTECTION AND PACKING FOR DISPATCH ....................................................................1

3.

HANDLING OF PIPES AND FITTINGS ...................................................................................2

4.

ADVICE OF DISPATCH ...........................................................................................................2

5.

ON SITE STORAGE AND SAFEKEEPING .............................................................................2

6.

UNLOADING, ERECTION AND RUNNING-IN OF PLANT .....................................................3

7.

TOOLS AND LUBRICANTS.....................................................................................................3

8.

SPARE PARTS.........................................................................................................................4

9.

SERVICE AGREEMENTS ........................................................................................................4

10.

MATERIALS .............................................................................................................................4

11.

FINISH.......................................................................................................................................4

12.

APPLICABLE REQUIREMENTS AND STANDARDS ............................................................4

13.

FASTENER AND ACCESSORIES...........................................................................................4

14.

FASTENINGS AND DOWELS .................................................................................................5

15.

SELECTION OF MATERIAL AND APPROVAL OF EQUIPMENT .........................................5

16.

WELDING WORKS ..................................................................................................................5

17.

CORROSION PROTECTION ...................................................................................................6

18.

EXPOSED PIPEWORK AND FITTINGS..................................................................................8

19.

STAINLESS STEEL PIPES AND FITTINGS ........................................................................ 11

20.

UNPLASTICISED PVC.......................................................................................................... 12

21.

GLASS REINFORCED PLASTIC GRP................................................................................. 12

22.

POLYETHYLENE .................................................................................................................. 12

23.

DUCTILE CAST IRON........................................................................................................... 12

24.

EXPLOSION PROTECTION.................................................................................................. 13

25.

PAINTING AND MARKING OF EQUIPMENT AND PIPING ................................................ 13

26.

PRINCIPLES FOR DESIGN AND RATING OF MACHINERY ............................................. 14

27.

SCREENS AND SIEVES ....................................................................................................... 15

28.

SCREENING WASHING PRESSES ..................................................................................... 17

29.

RESIDUES TRANSPORTATION .......................................................................................... 18


29.1.
Screw Conveyor ...............................................................................................................18
29.2.
Belt Conveyor...................................................................................................................18

30.
30.1.
30.2.

PENSTOCKS AND VALVES................................................................................................. 19


Manual Lifting Penstock..................................................................................................19
Electric Lifting Penstock .................................................................................................19

31.

GATE VALVE ........................................................................................................................ 20

32.

NON-RETURN VALVE .......................................................................................................... 20

33.

TRAVELLING GANTRY CRANE FOR THE SCREENING PLANT...................................... 21

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General Technical Specifications for Mechanical Works


1.

WORKS INCLUDED IN THE CONTRACT

The Mechanical & Electrical Works included in the Contract consist in preparation of design, working
drawings, manufacture, temporary erection at the manufacturers or his subcontractors works, testing,
conveyance to Site, erection and commissioning of equipment for the Wastewater Disposal Project in
Provincial Towns, Programme South: Tra Vinh, Vietnam.
The following clauses shall specify general mechanical requirements and standards of workmanship
for equipment and installations. These general specification clauses shall apply where appropriate
except where particularly redefined in the Particular Specification.
All equipment shall be complete with electric motors, all accessories as hereinafter specified and
newly manufactured. There shall be included all shafts, couplings, bearings, guards, valves, pipe
work, pressure gauges, cover plates and frames, holdingdown bolts, lubricators, switchboards,
control gear, and spare parts together with all other apparatus, appendages and connections to make
the whole works complete, ready for operation and perfect in every detail.
2.

PROTECTION AND PACKING FOR DISPATCH

Before dispatch from the Manufacturer's works all Plant shall be adequately protected by painting or
by other approved means for the whole period of transit, storage and erection against corrosion and
accidental damage. The Contractor shall be held responsible for the Plant being so packed and/or
protected as to ensure that it reaches the Site intact and undamaged. All plant and equipment as
necessary shall be packed in first quality containers or packing; no second-hand timber shall be used.
The Plant shall be packed to withstand rough handling in transit and all packages shall be suitable for
several stages of handling via sea or air freight, inland transport and movement on site and for storage
including possible delays in delivery. Packing cases shall be of the fully boarded type, slated cases will
not be allowed.
Precautions are to be taken to protect shafts and equally unprotected surfaces where they rest on
wooden or other supports likely to contain moisture. At such points wrappings impregnated with
antirust composition or vapour phase inhibitors are to be used of sufficient strength to resist chaffing
and indentation due to any movement which is likely to occur in transit. The form of the protective
wrappings and impregnation are to be suitable for a minimum period of twelve months.
Lids and internal cross battens of all packing cases are to be fixed by screws and not nails. Hoop
metal bindings of cases are to be sealed where ends meet and if not of corrosion resistant material,
are to be painted.
Contents of such cases are to be bolted securely or fastened in position with struts or cross battens
and not with wood chocks, unless they are fastened firmly in place. All struts or cross battens are
preferably to be supported by cleats fixed to the case above and below to form ledges on which the
battens may rest. Cases are to be upended after packing to prove that there is no movement of
contents.
Where parts are required to be bolted to the sides of the cases, large washers are to be used to
distribute the pressure and the timber is to be strengthened by means of a pad.
Waterproof paper and felt linings are to overlap at seams by at least 12 mm and the seams secured
together in an approved manner, but the enclosure is to be provided with screened openings to obtain
ventilation.
The flanges of pipes, valves and fittings shall have their open ends protected by adhesive tape or
jointing and then be protected by wooden discs secured by means of service bolts (which shall not be
used on site) or by other approved means. The sleeves and flanges of flexible couplings shall be
bundled by wire. Cases containing rubber rings, bolts and other small items shall not normally weigh
more than 500 kg gross.
All relays, instruments, etc. shall be shipped with transport screws and/or clamps, clearly marked and
painted red, to prevent movement of moving parts. Reference shall be shown in the operating and

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maintenance instructions, Clause 1.1.17 detailing the removal of these temporary fixings prior to
setting the equipment to work.
Structural steel work, pipes, valves, uncased fittings and metalwork shall be similarly marked. In
addition, one in every ten repeated articles shall bear the despatch marks in suitable paint or other
approved medium. When in the opinion of the Engineer the despatch marks cannot be applied
satisfactorily to any item they shall be stamped on a metal label attached to the item or part by means
of a piece of wire passing through holes at either end of the label and secured so that it lies flat with
the item.
Indoor items such as electric motors, switch and control gear, PLC's, instruments and panels, machine
components, etc., are to be cocooned in aluminium or polythene sheeting, sealed at the joints and
the enclosures provided internally with an approved desiccators.
All items of Plant shall be clearly marked for identification against the packing list, in Vietnamese and
English.
All cases, packages, etc., shall be clearly marked on the outside with a waterproof material to show
the weight, where the weight is bearing, and where the slings should be attached and shall also have
an identification mark relating them to the packing lists and to the appropriate shipping documents.
Cases shall bear the Contractor's name and the name of the particular site. These shall be marked in
stencils or legible letters and shall be in red or black waterproof paint or protected by shellac or
varnish to prevent obliteration in transit.
Each crate or package is to contain a packing list in a waterproof envelope and copies in duplicate are
to be forwarded to the Engineers Representative on Site, prior to despatch. All items of material are to
be clearly marked for ready identification against the packing list.
The Contractor shall be deemed to have included in the Contract Price for all materials and packing
cases necessary for the safe conveyance and delivery of the Plant.
The Engineer may require to inspect and to approve the packing before the items are despatched but
the Contractor is to be entirely responsible for ensuring that the packing is suitable for transit, and
such inspection will not exonerate the Contractor for any loss or damage due to faulty packing.
3.

HANDLING OF PIPES AND FITTINGS

The Contractor shall ensure that during all handling operations adequate care is taken with all
uncrated fittings. Rope or nylon slings and timber packing shall be used to ensure that the surfaces
finished of uncrated items are not damaged.
4.

ADVICE OF DISPATCH

The Contractor shall send advice of despatch to the Engineers Representative on site and the
Engineer so that this information is received not less than two weeks before the anticipated delivery of
the goods.
5.

ON SITE STORAGE AND SAFEKEEPING

The Engineer shall agree machinery delivery dates with the Contractor within 60 days of the award of
the Contract, and these shall be in accordance with the Contract.
In case of delay to the Civil Works programme, to prevent delay to the shipment of Plant or the
deterioration of Plant stored at Site, the Contractor shall either:
1)

Adequately package all items of Plant to enable the Plant to be stored in the open on Site
without any deterioration whatsoever.

2)

Provide an approved store, complying with the following minimum requirements on Site which
will also prevent any deterioration of the Plant.
Electrical equipment: covered, air conditioned, dustproof and verminproof area.
Rotating mechanical machinery: covered area.

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Pipes, valves, steelwork, etc.: sheeted on open hard standing area.


The sheeting to be used shall be of a type that will not deteriorate in ultraviolet light.
The machinery shall be ready for erection at Site by the end of the Manufacturing and carriage periods
but if the machinery is complete and ready for erection before the agreed date, the Contractor shall
arrange on site storage as defined herein, at his own expense within the Contract Price.
The Contractor shall provide insurance and shall be entirely and solely responsible for the security of
all such Plant stored at the Site for the period until erection.
The Contractor shall be responsible for inspecting all equipment prior to storage and he shall arrange
for any damaged equipment to be rectified prior to delivery to store.
The Contractor shall remove the machinery from storage and deliver to the final point of installation
upon receipt of the Engineer's Representatives instruction.
The Contractor shall be responsible for the operation, safe keeping and maintenance of all equipment
on site during and after erection up to the issue of the Completion Certificate.
6.

UNLOADING, ERECTION AND RUNNING-IN OF PLANT

The Contractor shall make his own arrangements for the unloading of the Plant supplied at site or
store and be responsible for any damage occasioned. The Contractor shall at his own expense
provide all equipment, tools meters, gauges, temporary accommodation, all skilled and unskilled
labour, for the erection of the whole of the Plant and apparatus so that it can be installed complete and
left in good working order.
Before commencing this work the Contractor shall examine the structure and make arrangements with
the Engineer so that the Plant may be installed without interfering with the works and the running of
the plants in course of construction and shall deliver to site items required to be Builtin prior to
delivery of the main plant.
The Contractor must expect erection at site to be discontinuous to suit the continuous running of the
existing plants and the Contractor shall be deemed to have included a suitable allowance for this.
Any special erecting tackle required shall be provided by the Contractor and be left at site after the
completion of the Contract.
The Contractor shall provide adequate protection for the plant from the time it is delivered to Site until
the Maintenance Certificate is issued.
In particular, the Contractor shall provide and fix adequate sheeting, etc., to prevent the ingress of
dust and dirt both during erection and whilst the building finishes are carried out after erection.
Upon the complete erection of the whole of the plant and auxiliary apparatus, the Contractor shall set
the Plant to work in conjunction with arrangements to be made with the Engineer.
7.

TOOLS AND LUBRICANTS

The Contractor shall provide a number of lockable metal boxes to contain two sets of polished steel
spanners, one set open ended and the other set ring ended, to fit every nut on the plant including the
holding down bolts and unions and other tools of a special nature, necessary for general maintenance
including three high pressure grease guns for each type / grade of lubricant. Tools of a special nature
include two sets of pullers for all bearings and tools for fixing of new bearings, three sets of screw
drivers for all type of screws on the plant as well as three sets of general tools.
A supply of the recommended lubricants and consumable items such as oil, sufficient for a period of
one year of operation, shall be supplied for the Plant. This does not relieve the Contractor of the
responsibility of ensuring that all grease lubricators have been filled and the grease applied to all
nipples before starting up the plant.
The Contractor shall ensure that lubricants used or their equivalent must be obtainable on the
Vietnamese market.

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8.

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III.2 Part B: Mechanical Works

SPARE PARTS

The Contractor shall enter in the Spare Part Schedules, the description and prices of the spare parts,
which he recommends should be kept in stock for the efficient operation of the equipment during a
period of two years after commissioning.
The prices of the spare parts shall be valid for acceptance throughout the Contract and Maintenance
Periods.
This recommendation shall in no way be deemed to place the Employer under obligation to purchase
all or any of the spare parts recommended.
The Engineer reserves the right to correct or vary the list submitted and adjust the total price in
accordance with the rates quoted.
The spares shall be packed and sealed in individual boxes to preserve the parts against damage and
corrosion over long storage periods. Each package shall be clearly identified in Vietnamese and
English as to its contents.
The Contractor shall provide assurance that all items shown in the Schedules will be readily available
for a period of at least ten years after the issue of the Completion Certificate.
9.

SERVICE AGREEMENTS

The Contractor shall ensure that all of his sub-contractors will be willing to undertake service
agreements following the end of the maintenance period.
10.

MATERIALS

All materials incorporated in the Works shall be the most suitable for the duty concerned and shall be
new and first class commercial quality, free from imperfection, and selected for long life and minimum
maintenance.
11.

FINISH

All covers, flanges and joints shall be properly faced, bored, fitted, fixed, hollowed, mounted or
chamfered as the case may be, according to the best approved practice and all working parts of the
plant and other apparatus, shall similarly be well and accurately fitted, finished, fixed and adjusted.
12.

APPLICABLE REQUIREMENTS AND STANDARDS

The design, manufacture, delivery, installation, test runs, commissioning and the training of the
Employer's staff shall be in compliance with
DIN/ISO

German Industrial Standards/International Organization for Standardization

EN

European Norm

VDE/IEC

Standards of the German Electrical Engineers' Society / International Electrical


Commission

ATV

Standards of the German Sewage Treatment Society

DVGW

Standards of the German Society for Gas and Water Technology

UVV

German Regulations for Accident Prevention

VBG

German Safety Regulations of the respective Occupation Co-operatives

13.

FASTENER AND ACCESSORIES

All fastening components shall be made of stainless steel 1.4571 or equivalent approved material. In
cases, where steel structures are not in contact with wastewater, sludge and biogas or not installed in
an aggressive environment, hot-galvanized fastening material according to DIN 7990, quality 4.6 or
better.

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In order to prevent seizing of bolts and nuts, the Contractor may use nuts made from the material
1.4541 or equivalent.
In order to prevent strain-hardening, crack and contact corrosion it is necessary to apply molybdenum
sulphide or similar to thread and washers. As a means of locking bolt connections against unintended
loosening, spring washers, self-locking nuts or an approved metal adhesive shall be used.
14.

FASTENINGS AND DOWELS

Anchors for fastenings and dowels shall not be brought in contact with the steel reinforcement of
concrete structures. Wherever possible chemical anchors must be used. The centre distances of
anchor holes shall comply with the requirements of the dowel manufacturer.
15.

SELECTION OF MATERIAL AND APPROVAL OF EQUIPMENT

It is the Contractor's obligation to install the latest equipment and machinery available on the market.
In case there is a change in equipment layout and/or specification between tendering and installation
time the Contractor shall refer this matter to the Employer for decision.
In case of non-compliance, the Contractor shall bear all costs resulting from the necessary rectification
work.
The complete range of machinery shall be equipped with rating plates, stating all important technical
data as well as the name of manufacturer, serial number and year of manufacture.
16.

WELDING WORKS

In general, the following standards shall be applied:


DIN 1910

Welding: Definition, Subdivision of Welding Procedures

DIN 8524

Faults of Welding Joints

DIN 8560

Testing of Welders, Steel

DIN 8561

Testing of Welders, non-ferrous

DIN 8563

Quality Ensurance of Welding Works

DIN 8564

Welding of Pipe Lines

DIN 54 109

Quality of Photographs

DIN 54 111

Non-destructive Test of Welds by X-Ray Inspection DIN 54 119 Non-destructive Test


of Welds by Ultrasonic Testing

Welding work on steel structures subjected to static and/or dynamic loads shall be carried out by
welders holding a valid welding certificate according to DIN 8560. On request the certificates shall be
submitted to the Employer. The valuation of welding seam execution will be based on DIN 8563,
Categories BS and BK.
Steel structures, in particular pipes, shall be shop-prefabricated as far as possible in order to minimize
welding work on site.
The Employer reserves the right to order at the Contractor's expense the X-ray examination of up to a
maximum of 10 % of all executed welding seams. In case that more than 10 % of the examined welds
fail the test, the Employer will order the X-ray examination of a further 30 % of all executed welding
seams at the expense of the Contractor. If, again more than 10 % of the welds fail the tests, the
Employer will order the X-ray inspection of all welds. The Contractor shall bear all costs involved. The
X-ray examinations shall be conducted according to DIN 54 109 and DIN 54 111.

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17.

Tender Documents
WWTP
III.2 Part B: Mechanical Works

CORROSION PROTECTION

General
The scope of work comprises the delivery and application of a complete and durable corrosion
protection system. The expected life span is 60 months as a minimum. This work also includes all
required scaffolding and all ancillary means required for the execution of the work.
Prior to the corrosion protection works the installed hardware, non-ferrous and stainless steel
components shall be protected against possible damages.
Applicable Standards
The following standards shall be applied:
DIN 8200

Sandblasting Procedure

DIN 55 928

Corrosion Protection of Steel Structures by Coating

DIN 50 976

Corrosion Protection by Hot Galvanizing

DIN 8565

Corrosion Protection of Steel Structures by Thermal Application of Zinc

DIN 8566 T1

Alloys for Thermal Application

DIN 8566 T2

Wire for Metal Spraying

DIN 8567

Preparation of Metal Surfaces for Metal Spray Application

Each base surface shall be checked with regard to the suitability of the follow-up coating and - if
necessary - shall be pre-treated accordingly. The paint supplier's instructions for the application of the
coatings shall be strictly adhered to.
Sandblasting
The sandblasting of steel surfaces shall be carried out according to DIN 55 928 - T4, de-rusting grade
Sa 2 .
Immediately after completion of the sandblasting, the treated surfaces shall be properly cleaned and
the prime coat applied. The Contractor's production scheduling should be such that only the absolute
necessary sandblasting work has to be executed on site.
Galvanizing
Preferably hot galvanizing should be employed wherever materials need to be galvanized. If in certain
cases this is not possible the zinc shall be applied by metal spray application.
Applicable Corrosion Protection Systems
Corrosion Protection System C 0
This system does not require any treatment. Application: PVC, stainless steel, non-ferrous materials,
aluminium, which do not require additional treatment, except where system C 4 applies.
Corrosion Protection System C 1
-

sandblasting according to Sa 2

1 undercoat of an epoxy zinc-rich primer acc. to TL 918 300, e.g. Friazinc R or equivalent dry
film thickness: min. 60 m

3 coats of a heavy-duty coal tar epoxy coating, e.g. Inertol-Poxitar or equivalent total dry film
thickness: min. 450 m

Application: Components submerged in sewage or occasionally exposed to waste water


Corrosion Protection System C 2
-

sandblasting acc. to Sa 2

hot galvanizing 80 m - zinc spray application 100 m

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cleaning and degreasing of zinc surface

After spray zinc application the surface must be thoroughly wire brushed or sandblasted using suitable
blasting materials to remove zinc spatter
-

1 undercoat of an epoxy resin / micaceous iron oxide combination with polyurethane coat acc.
to TL 918300, e.g. Icosit EG 1 or equivalent dry film thickness: min. 80 m

1 top coat of an epoxy resin / micaceous iron oxide combination with polyurethane coat acc. to
TL 918300, e.g. Icosit EG 5 or equivalent dry film thickness: min. 60 m.

The top coat has to be applied after assembly of structures on site.


The following corrosion protection system may be applied for components which cannot be
galvanized:
Cast Iron and Aluminium
-

sandblasting

1 coat of an epoxy resin / micaceous iron oxide combination with polyurethane coat acc.to TL
918300, e.g. Icosit EG 1 or equivalent dry film thickness: min. 80 m

top coat of an epoxy resin / micaceous iron oxide combination with polyurethane coat acc. to
TL 918300, e.g. Icosit EG 5 or equivalent dry film thickness: min. 60 m

Steel
-

sandblasting

coat of an epoxy zinc-rich primer acc. to TL 918300, e.g. Friazinc R or equivalent dry film
thickness: min 60 m

coat of an epoxy resin / micaceous iron oxide combination with polyurethane coat acc. to TL
918300, e.g. Icosit EG 1 or equivalent dry film thickness: min. 80 m

top coat of an epoxy resin / micaceous iron oxide combination with polyurethane coat acc. to TL
918300, e.g. Icosit EG 5 or equivalent dry film thickness: min. 60 m

The top coat has to be applied after assembly of structures on site.

Application: Steel-, cast iron structures and aluminium surfaces not exposed to waste water.
Corrosion Protection System C 3
-

sandblasting acc. to Sa 2

1 under coat of an epoxy zinc-rich primer acc. to TL 918300, e.g. Friazinc R or equivalent dry
film thickness: min. 60 m

Removal of welding spatter and welding slag. Patching-up of welding seams with Friazinc R or
equivalent.

The following coats to be applied on site after assembly.


-

2 coats of an epoxy resin / micaceous iron oxide combination with polyurethane coat acc. to TL
918300, e.g. Icosit EG 1 or equivalent total dry film thickness: min. 160 m

top coat of an epoxy resin / micaceous iron oxide combination with polyurethane coat acc. to TL
918300, e.g. Icosit EG 5 or equivalent dry film thickness: min. 60 m

Application: Steel structures which require welding operations on site.


Corrosion Protection System C 4
-

thorough cleaning of surfaces from dust, oil, grease, etc. employing suitable solvent

patching-up of damaged areas of top coat using the same paint as specified below

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top coat of a low-solvent, high-build coating based on a modified synthetic resin combination
with active corrosion protection pigments, e.g. Icosit 6630 high-solid or equivalent dry film
thickness: min. 80 m

Application: Pumps, motors, valves, compressors, vessels, etc. which will be delivered to site with a
coating applied by the manufacturer of the specific equipment. The Employer reserves the right to
request details in writing about the pre-treatment and coating process employed by the equipment
manufacturer.
Surfaces which will be inaccessible after assembly must receive the above specified coating prior to
the assembly.
The above specified coating shall assure a uniform appearance of the entire plant.
If, during transportation and/or assembly the top coat has been damaged, it is the Contractor's
obligation to patch-up the damaged surfaces at no extra costs.
Colour Design and Manufacturer
The colour of top coats will be determined by the Employer. The Contractor will be notified in due
course.
The colour tint has to correspond to RAL.
The above specified coating material is manufactured by Sika Chemie GmbH, Kornwestheimer Strae
107, 70439 Stuttgart, Germany, Sika materials are available in Vietnam.
The use of alternative coating material can be accepted, if the Contractor proves an equal or better
quality than the ones specified above.
Calculation
All costs in connection with the above specified corrosion protection have to be included in the quoted
prices.
18.

EXPOSED PIPEWORK AND FITTINGS

General
The following specifications have to be applied in the complete range of exposed pipework, provided
the detailed specifications do not require special dimensions and/or ways of execution. The
specifications are applicable to complete piping systems including fittings, drives, flush connections,
brackets, etc. Terms of delivery in accordance with DIN 17 455, test certificate DIN 50 049/3.1 B.
Edge preparation for welding according to DIN 2559.
All pipes and fittings for water supply works shall comply with the relevant requirements of DIN and
German DVGW.
Piping
Selection of pipes has to be based on
Table 1: "Dimensions and Execution of exposed Steel Pipes" respectively on the contractor's detailed
engineering for pipes made of other materials and on the following summary velocities in pipes.
Velocities in Pipes:
-

potable and non-potable water

1.0 - 2.5 m/s

sewage

0.7 - 2.4 m/s

sludge

0.8 - 1.3 m/s

air

5.0 - 15.0 m/s

Pipe Bends
Preferably bends should have the same wall thickness as the joining pipes. Execution according to
DIN 2605. Radius 1.5 x D.

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Dismantling Pieces, lockable


The dismantling pieces must possess an axial adjustment capability of at least + 25 mm to facilitate
easy dismantling and installation of pumps, valves, non-return valves, measuring devices, etc.
Therefore, a sufficient number of dismantling pieces have to be incorporated in each pipe line.
Threaded rods and nuts through two opposite flanges should permit securing the dismantling piece in
the position determined during installation, so that the system represents a rigid connection of two
adjoining pipes.
Dismantling Pieces, non-lockable
Same requirements as above, however, this dismantling piece shall represent a non-rigid connection
of adjoining pipes. Therefore, the dismantling piece must permit axial and angular movements during
operating conditions.
Articulated Pipe Connector
A sufficient number of articulated pipe connections must be installed in the pipe lines to ensure
uninterrupted operation in case of different settlements.
Materials and design criteria:
-

pipe sections, flanges

: welded steel unit

sealing ring

: resistant against sewage, e.g. Perbunan

tie rods, nuts

: galvanized steel

corrosion protection

: black bitumen coating inside and outside or equivalent

radial deflection

: approx. 4

Branch Pipes
Wherever possible a branch should be realized through a socket according to DIN 2618 welded into
the main line. Wall thickness of main and branch pipe have to correspond to each other.
Reducer
In general all reducers shall be of the concentric type, similar to DIN 2616.
Suction intake reducer for pumps, however, must be of the eccentric type. Installation of reducer with
straight side at the top. The length of the reducer shall not be less than 0.5 (D+d).
Flange Connections
Flange connections up to DN 50 should be executed as threaded flange according to DIN 2566.
Flange connections DN 65 and above shall be of the welded neck flange type according to DIN
2632/2633 with a sealing surface form C.
Welded collars with slip-on flanges according to DIN 2641/2642/2673 may also be used. Wall
thickness of pipe and respective collar must correspond to each other. In case the operating pressure
requires PN 25 components, welded neck flanges according to DIN 2634 must be installed.
Blind flanges with sealing surface form C according to DIN 2526.
Gaskets must comply with DIN 2690. Flange connections DN 250 and above have to be equipped
with steel reinforced rubber packing.
Steel pipes have to be joined by galvanized hexagonal screws and nuts according to DIN 7990, quality
4.6 or better.
In case hexagonal bolts and nuts cannot be used, galvanized threaded rods according to DIN 976,
type m, quality 4.6 together with galvanized hexagonal nuts according to DIN 934, type m, quality 5,
shall be chosen as substitutes. Nuts of size M16 and above must be protected by a hood made of
soft-polyethylene.

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Flush Appliances
Each section which can be separated from the overall piping system, by valves, must have a sufficient
number of connections for drainage and cleaning.
Exact number and location of connections has to be decided jointly with the site supervision.
A flush connection comprises:
-

pipe socket DN 50 with outer thread 2", approx. 100 mm long

socket globe valve DN 50, PN 10

C-coupling with outer thread 2" according to DIN 14 307, material brass

C-blind coupling according to DIN 14 311 complete with chain, material brass.

Inspection- and Cleaning Opening


For inspection- and cleaning purposes each tail end of pipes DN 600 and above has to be closed by a
blind flange. The blind flanges have to be equipped with the above described flush appliances.
Vent Pipes
Depending on pipe arrangements, vent pipes including valves may become necessary. Generally,
vent pipes must terminate in "safe" areas, e.g. above roof. Arrangement of the pipes has to guarantee
unobstructed ventilation.
Measuring Instruments
Wherever from process engineering or operational point of view the necessity exists to install
measuring instruments the required socket or flange connections have to be provided on the pipe
lines.
Execution of such work must be included in the unit prices.
Pipe Brackets
All pipe brackets to be welded steel structures, subsequently galvanized. Pipe bracket arrangements
have to consist of slide- and fixed brackets. Design and installation of slide brackets must guarantee
proper alignment of the pipe, even when moving longitudinally. No stress must be transmitted to the
supports, except for the weight resulting from pipe and medium. The design of the fixed brackets must
be such that all forces and moments resulting from operating conditions will be safely transmitted to
the building structure. Required pipe supports, gussets, etc. have to be connected to the pipes by
reinforced welds.
The design of the brackets (axial movement, forces) has to be based on the prevailing operating and
ambient temperatures of the pipe system in question.
All brackets and pipe components which will be inaccessible after installation must be sufficiently
protected against corrosion prior to assembly.
Installation of Piping
Pipe lines must be level, plumb and properly aligned, respectively installed with the required slope.
Great attention has to be paid to the condition that pipes have to be connected to machinery and
appliances in such a way, that no forces and/or moments are transmitted to the respective equipment.
Forces and moments due to misalignment of pipework shall under no circumstances be transmitted to
wall ducts.
Directions for pipe installation according to DIN 19 630 must be adhered to.
Flushing and Pressure Test
After completion of installation work, however, prior to applying the final coat all pipe lines must be
pressure tested to ensure that there are no leaks in the system. After successful pressure testing the
piping systems have to be properly flushed. The entire procedure must be in line with DIN 4279.

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III.2 Part B: Mechanical Works

Painting and Marking


Painting and marking of pipes see also clause 1.25.
Table 1: Dimensions and Execution of Exposed Steel Pipes
Water General
Purpose

Medium
DN

Inch

6
8
10
15
20
25
32
40
50
65
80
100
125
150
200
250
300
350
400
500
600
700
800

1/8"
1/4"
3/8"
1/2"
3/4"
1" 1
1/4" 1
1/2"
2"

19.

Water General
Purpose
Threaded Pipe DIN
Steel Pipe DIN 2458
2441 galvanized
10,20x2,65
13,50x2,90
17,20x2,90
21,30x3,25
26,90 x 3,25
33,70x4,05
42,40 x 4,05
48,30 x 4,05
60,30 x 2,30
60,20 x 4,05
76,10x2,60
88,90 x 2,90
114,30x3,20
139,70x3,60
168,30x4,00
219,10x4,50
273,00 x 5,00
323,00 x 5,60
55,60 x 5,60
406,40 x 6,30
508,00 x 6,30
609,60 x 6,30
711,20x7,10
812,80x8,00

STAINLESS STEEL PIPES AND FITTINGS

General
Applicable DIN-Standards, recommendations for processing from suppliers and guide lines from the
German "Informationsstelle Edelstahl Rostfrei" ("Office for information about stainless steel") in
Dsseldorf must be strictly adhered to.
For generally applicable rules, regulations, etc. to both, standard steel and stainless steel, clause
10.4.7 applies.
Pipes
Pipes according to EN ISO 1127, material 1.4571 (see Table 1: Dimensions). Terms of Delivery in line
with DIN 17 455 and test certificate DIN 50 049/3.1 B.
Edge preparation for welding according to DIN 2559. Pipe ends to be sealed by PVC caps during
transportation. Pipes to have permanent marking, stating DIN-Standard and material identification
number. Tools and appliances for processing and installation of pipes must be of approved type.

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Pipe Bends
Welded stainless steel pipes to be used for the fabrication of bends. Wall thickness of bends must
correspond to those of adjoining pipes.
Bends in accordance with DIN 2605.
Bending radius R = 1.5 x D. DN 250 and above may have R = D + 100 mm.
Branch Pipes
Wherever possible, sockets according to DIN 2618 should be used. Tees DN 65 and smaller
according to DIN 2615.
Reducer
Reducer to be of concentric type, similar to DIN 2616.
Flange Connections
Generally, flange dimensions have to be as specified above for normal steel flanges. Flanges, bolts,
nuts, washer, etc. must be made of stainless steel. In order to prevent seizing different materials have
to be used for bolt and nut, e.g. material 1.4571 and 1.4541.
Welding Works
Generally the same applies as stated under chapter 4.10.4.5 - Welding Works and 4.10.4.7 - Piping
and Fittings. Besides adherence to applicable DIN-Standards, the guide lines from the supplier of
stainless steel with regard to processing must be strictly followed. Welders employed in welding
stainless steel must possess the welding certificate according to DIN 8560 WIG/E-B/R IV.
Quality of execution of welds will be based on DIN 8563, categories BS and BK. Correct edge
preparation and cleanness of weld joints are of great importance.
Great care must be taken to avoid the occurrence of annealing colours. The root weld must be
protected by inert gas against ingress of oxygen. Ignition spark spots and weld spatter will not be
accepted on material surfaces. In case the need arises the spots must be removed from the surface
by smooth grinding with approved tools or stainless steel brush. Areas affected by scale / annealing
colours must also be subjected to smooth grinding.
Pickling should be the usual post-treatment of stainless steel surfaces. In case the pickling process is
employed, the subsequent flushing of surfaces with clean water is of utmost importance.
Tests of welds will be performed as specified above in chapter 4.10.4.5 -Welding Works.
20.

UNPLASTICISED PVC

Unplasticised PVC pipes, joints and fittings shall not be used.


21.

GLASS REINFORCED PLASTIC GRP

GRP pipes shall only be applied if not exposed to sunlight and shall comply with the following
standards:
DIN 16868

Glass fiber - reinforced polyester resin pipes

The nominal stiffness (SN) shall be 5000 N/m.


22.

POLYETHYLENE

Polyethylene pipes shall only be applied if not exposed to sunlight and shall comply with DIN 8074 /
8075 (hard), and DIN 16932 / 16933.
23.

DUCTILE CAST IRON

1.

Ductile cast iron pipes and specials shall comply with: DIN 28600 to DIN 28648.

2.

The joints of ductile cast iron pipes and fittings shall be of one of the following types:

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3.

Spigot and socket type in which the seal is achieved by means of a suitably retained rubber
gasket (Type Tyton) (h) Flanged (F) for valve connections and junctions.

4.

Ductile cast iron special two-piece collars for connecting UPVC, steel and ductile cast iron
pipes shall be of the so-called "Long" type with internal rubber gasket. Nuts, bolts and washers
shall be of stainless steel.

5.

The protection of ductile cast iron pipes and specials for water supply works shall be
internally cement mortar lining, and externally polyethylene coating.

6.

The protection of ductile cast iron pipes and specials for sewerage works shall be the same as
for water supply works.

24.

EXPLOSION PROTECTION

Machinery, switch gear and electric drives have to be executed in a way to meet the requirements of
the area in which they operate. The minimum requirements are to be based on VDE0165 "Installation
of electrical apparatus in hazardous areas" and on "Explosion Protection Regulation"
("Explosionsschutzrichtlinien" <Ex-RL>), published by BG Chemie (Berufsgenossenschaft der
Chemischen Industrie). Equipment in explosive areas must have the relevant German PTB-certificate.
The Contractor has to prepare a drawing and a detailed list to define the potentially explosive
atmosphere areas and the relevant area classification, ignition protection class, explosion group,
temperature class and other special measures.
25.

PAINTING AND MARKING OF EQUIPMENT AND PIPING

All machinery, equipment, pipes, ducts, etc. have to be painted and marked as follows below:
Treatment and painting of surfaces as a means of corrosion protection is specified under chapter
4.10.4.6 - Corrosion Protection. The following chapter deals with painting for optical reasons and for
the purpose to associate a certain colour with a specific medium.
Piping
All exposed steel pipes which
-

are not insulated and

do not carry hot media which may cause the melting of the paint markings

shall be treated according to Chapter 4.10.4.6 - Corrosion Protection. The final coat shall be in
accordance with DIN 2403.
Stainless steel and PVC pipes as well as insulated pipes have to be provided with suitable adhesive
tapes. The tapes must be placed at distances not exceeding 3.00 meter and at strategic points, e.g. at
branch points, wall ducts, valves, equipment, etc.
The tapes must bear the media's name, a flow direction arrow and a colour code marking in
accordance with DIN 2403. The Employer's approval must be obtained with regard to the layout and
the colours.
In addition to the above mentioned marking, all pipes must be equipped with name plates. The name
plates must be of the same layout throughout the plant. The plates shall be of multiple-line type to
accommodate the following data:
-

medium

pipe line no. / section

diameter

operating pressure.

The name plates must be secured to the pipes by means of a hose clamp.

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III.2 Part B: Mechanical Works

Machinery and Equipment


Basically the same applies as specified above. Data on the name plates:
-

medium

designation

identification no. according to Pipe and Instrumentation (P & I) Layout

designation according to DIN 40719 in case electrical components are involved.

26.

PRINCIPLES FOR DESIGN AND RATING OF MACHINERY

General
The following paragraphs contain principles for the design, rating, selection and installation of
machinery and equipment. If the proposed equipment does not meet these specifications, any
deviation from the specification must be expressly noted. All deviations shall be listed on a single
document.
The Tenderer shall deliver drawings, specifications, catalogue cut-sheets, and detailed descriptive
material as well as copy of documents proving certification of the manufacturers Quality Management
System according the Questionnaire attached in Volume 1, Section 4 of the Tender Documents.
Installation drawings shall clearly illustrate how the proposed equipment fits in the channel and where
the proposed wash press will be installed as well corresponding conveyance piping.
The Tenderer shall include hydraulic calculations and performance curves showing the relationship of
head loss versus the full range of downstream liquid depths for flowrates specified under Volume 3,
Section 1 General Information and Particular Requirements.
For each equipment a list of recommended spare parts and a maintenance schedule showing the
required maintenance, frequency of maintenance, lubricants and other items required at each regular
preventative maintenance period, including all buy-out items shall be delivered according to 1.10 of
the Particular Requirements and corresponding schedule of the Questionnaire.
Standardisation and Testing at Manufacturers Premises
According to clause 1.15 of the General Information and Particular Requirements (Volume 3, Section
1), all mechanical equipment as screen, sieve, wash press, conveyors, piping, motors, gear reducers,
controls, control panels, and lifting attachments should be provided by the same Manufacturer as a
complete integrated package to ensure proper coordination, compatibility, and operation of the
system.
According to clause 7.1 of the General Information Particular Requirements (Volume 3, Section 1), the
manufacturer shall test-run the fully assembled machine in his factory before shipment. The
assembled machine will be inspected by a Commission formed by Employers and Engineers
Representative.
Accessibility
During the design phase the Contractor has to pay great attention to ensure easy accessibility to
machinery and equipment. This is absolutely requisite to facilitate quick and easy access for
inspection, maintenance and repair.
In addition from safety point of view it is absolutely necessary to provide safe access to machinery and
equipment for inspection and operation by means of stairs, ladders, platforms.
Lifting means have to be provided for machinery. Dimensions and arrangement of routes for
transportation as well as lifting hatches have to be duly considered by the Contractor.
Materials
Unless otherwise specified in these specifications, the entire equipment shall be manufactured from
AISI 304 / 316 Ti austenitic stainless steel shapes (rods, angles, and channels), pipes, and sheets.
Welded fabrications involving plates thicker than 5/8 (16 mm) thick shall be manufactured from AISI

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304 L / 316 L stainless steel. All mechanical parts shall be designed to handle the forces that may be
exerted on the unit during fabrication, shipping, erection, and operation.
Stainless steel components should preferably be passivated by full submergence in an acid bath for
perfect surface finishing. Corresponding certificates have to be supplied.
Standards
Fabrication of process equipment shall be done in compliance with all applicable ASTM standards or
equivalent international standards as EN, DIN or BS or as a complement to.
American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Publications:
-

Section A36: Structural Steel Specifications.

Section A48: Gray Iron Casting Specifications.

Section A322: Carbon and Alloy Steel Bar Specifications.

Anti-Friction Bearing Manufacturers Association (AFBMA) Publications:


-

Standard 9-90 Load Ratings and Fatigue Life for Ball Bearings.

Standard 11-90 Load Ratings and Fatigue Life for Roller Bearings.

American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC) Publications

American Welding Society (AWS) Publications

American Structures Painting Council (ASPC) Publications

All welding is performed in accordance with American Welding Society (AWS) D1.1 Structural Welding
Code, or equivalent
Drives
The drives will consist of a gearbox and an electric motor, type 3 phase squirrel cage
The drive unit shall have the following features:
-

gear drive motor with heavy-duty pole-changing motor

three-phase asynchronous motor according to IEC-standard

protection type IP 55 for tropical use

explosion proof insulation class F

operating mode S 1

external cooling

thermo element in coil for motor protection

with an overload protection

Electric motors, gear reducers, and other self-contained or enclosed components shall have an acrylic
enamel finish.
It shall be delivered motor characteristics and performance information as well as gear reducer data
including service factor, efficiency, torque rating, and materials.
The power supply is 480 Volts, 60 Hz, 3-phase.
27.

SCREENS AND SIEVES

General
The coarse screen and the sieves shall be suitable for the retaining and the subsequent removal of
coarse materials from municipal and industrial wastewater and shall have the following features:
-

design according to DIN 19569, where applicable

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III.2 Part B: Mechanical Works

screens, sieves and accessories suitable for outdoor installation

screen and sieves components permanently or occasionally in contact with wastewater to be


fabricated of stainless steel 1.4571 or equivalent

screen and sieves to be designed for service life rating class 3 according to DIN 19 569, Part1.

roller bearings not to be installed below water level

screen and sieves to be designed for continuous operation

each equipment shall be furnished complete coordinating compatibility and operatively with
other equipments and related parts of the work

Bar Screens
Mechanically raked screens shall consist of a drive motor, gear reducer, bar rack, rake scraper and all
required appurtenances including provision, for the efficient removal of screening, from the rake for
depositing onto a disposal unit.
The bar rack shall consist of equally spaced, straight bars that are inclined from the horizontal. The
bar rack shall be securely fastened to the frame of the screen and be readily removable
The bars shall be taper section to reduce clogging risk. Overload protection shall be provided to the
rake together with a provision for profiling action around any obstruction liable to cause damage.
Abnormal accumulations shall be subject to gradual removal to reduce the risk of overload.
Following specifications have to be observed by the automatically cleaned screens:
-

Space between bars 30 50 mm,

number of units 2,

velocities according to 3.1 and 3.3.1 of the Particular Requirements,

retention of screenings by inclined bar screen installed in the channel,

screen bars shall be easily removable and made of steel sections as above described,

removal of screenings by raking system,

raking system and matching scraper to represent one unit,

activation of raking system by differential level measurement using an air bubble injection
system to establish the water levels upstream and downstream of the screen as well as through
time-control in case of low screen loading.

Hand raked bar screen to be installed on the by-pass channel shall comply with the requirements of
the automatically cleaned screen. A facility shall be provided for manually raking the screen either in
the form of separate rakes with handles of adequate length and suitably spaced to match the bar
spacing, or an integral rake mechanism so designed as to facilitate raking from the operating level.
The manually raked screening shall be discharge in the conveyor belt. Space between bars 50 mm.
Sieves
Sieve shall be compound as cylindrical mesh wire screen and shall withstand static and hydraulic
forces exerted by the liquid to the screen. The sieve has to be provided with a transport screw and the
screenings shall be discharged in a transport screw conveyor for posterior washing, dewatering and
pressing in a washing-press.
-

The mesh wire spacing shall be 1 mm

Number of units 2

The screen basket shall be of a cylindrical shape.

The inner surface of the screen basket shall be lined with a wire mesh screen.

The thicknesses and widths of the rotating screen baskets upper and lower support rings shall
be specified

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III.2 Part B: Mechanical Works

The basket mechanism and transport screw shall be driven by a shaft mounted geared motor

If a seal plate between the circular screen and the channel is required, it shall be one-piece
fabricated of stainless steel and shall be of sufficient height to prevent bypassing of flow around
the screen at the maximum screen hydraulic capacity as per 3.1.

The screen shall be provided with an upper, a centre and a lower support allowing for pivoting
and easy removal of the screen from the channel for maintenance purposes

Flushing provisions as a spray wash systems shall be foreseen for automatically cleaning of the
screen basket. The spray wash systems shall be operated only while the screen basket is
rotating. Details of water supply requirements as well as control mechanisms shall be provided.

28.

SCREENING WASHING PRESSES

Screening presses shall include drive, flushing provisions, packing/compression unit and discharge
pipe to the container. The screening press will be of the type electric driven screw press with
transport- and press zone.
The washed and compressed material has to be discharged into a container
The dewatering section is provided with a perforated cylinder in which on one side the screen material
is pressed and on the other side a counter pressure is built up. The leak water or Leachate has to be
caught and discharged to the inlet channel.
The packing unit, located at the end of the transport pipe is of the cassette type, endless plastic tube.
The screening press shall be in operation simultaneously with the fluming trough system or the
transport conveyor of the sievings.
The washing press will be of efficient proprietary proven, non-clogging design with the following
features and comply with the following requirements:
-

Residual water contents of the dewatered residues min: 80% or min content of dry matter 20%.

Units 1+1 (duty + stand-by)

Minimal capacity 5 m/h of one press

Funnel, press body, engine frame, dewatering area and press piping shall be of stainless steel
1.4571 / AISI 316TI according to DIN EN 10088 or higher quality. The surface quality will be at
least sandblasted.

The supporting framework is to be fabricated from stainless steel profiles or stainless steel
tubes, min. 1.4571 / AISI 316 according to DIN EN 10088, and is to be of fully welded
construction. Sufficient connection pieces for mechanical stiffening are to be provided. The
surface quality will be at least sandblasted.

The drive shaft, flanges and shaft will be made out of steel E-St52-3. The blades of the spiral
will be done in a robust effectuation and out of special steel for a long lifetime and a minimum of
inspection. All parts are painted in a minimum thickness of 160 ym.

The funnel will have an inspection door (opening at min 20 cm x 30 cm) with lockable quick
release fastener. In the funnel will be a separately frame for the inspection door with a
waterproof seal between inspection door and frame.

The dewater areas will be done for a long lifetime and working property and without cleaning
brushes for a minimum of inspection, without clogging and with a detachable water collecting
boxes with a filtrate discharge.

Details of water flushing system including control mechanisms shall be provided.

A complete electrical installation for all electrical equipment installed, taken to control panels
installed on the frame of the press.

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29.

Tender Documents
WWTP
III.2 Part B: Mechanical Works

RESIDUES TRANSPORTATION

General
A fluming trough system for residues transportation to the washing-press consisting of transport (belt
and spiral) conveyors, funnels for receiving the screenings and sieving, piping including splitting
devices for feeding each washing press has been considered.
The Contractor has to deliver the complete system including all facilities for an hygienical discharge in
the container and if required sparge pipes and nozzles to flush screenings in the piping system.
The length of transport conveyors as to be considered shall be at least 15 m. At least shall be
considered 1 spiral conveyor.
29.1.

SCREW CONVEYOR

The screw conveyor shall be suitable for the conveyance of residues from screens and sieves.
-

design according to DIN 19569, where applicable

conveyor components permanently or occasionally in contact with sludge to be fabricated of


stainless steel 1.4571 or equivalent

conveyor screw housing with threaded drain connection at lower end

chutes to be provided at lower and upper end. Chutes to be adapted to corresponding


installations

designed for continuous and interrupted operation

automatic reversing of screw in case of overload

except for feed-/discharge openings the full upper length of the screw tube shall be covered with
removable linings

conveyor trough supports/stiffening plates shall be made of 1.4571 or equivalent

conveyor screw to be made of special wear resistant material

29.2.

BELT CONVEYOR

(if applicable)
The belt conveyor shall be suitable for the conveyance screening or grit.
-

design according to DIN 19569, where applicable

conveyor components permanently or occasionally in contact with sludge to be fabricated of


stainless steel 1.4571 or equivalent

conveyor belt shall be arranged in a trough-shape achieved through slanting supporting rollers
on either side of the belt

each roller station to consist of 3 rollers, 1 horizontal and 2 angular rollers

rollers shall be of galvanized steel

distortion-free galvanized steel base frame

steel skirts on either side of base frame

additional rollers shall support returning belt" which runs below actual conveyor belt

rollers shall run in grease lubricated/dust and water-proof roller bearings sealed for life

drive and reversing rollers shall be of convex shape

cleaning of belt at discharge end by scraper, brush or similar device

chutes at lower and upper end adapted to suit respective installations

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III.2 Part B: Mechanical Works

guide plates 100 mm high shall be provided on both sides of belt. Edge of guide plates facing
the belt to be equipped with rubber strip.

trough with threaded drain connection to be installed below endless belt to collect turbid water.

drive unit at upper end of conveyor and tensioning station at lower end

endless belt shall be made of oil and sewage water resistant rubber band material

endless belt

except for feed-/discharge openings the full length of the belt conveyor shall be covered with
removable linings

30.

PENSTOCKS AND VALVES

30.1.

MANUAL LIFTING PENSTOCK

The lifting penstocks must be suitable to shut off open or tunnel channels in the WWTP and shall have
the following features:
-

design according to DIN 19569, where applicable

seal tightness corresponding to DIN 19 569-4, category 3

penstock comprising:

guide frame

penstock frame

penstock yoke

rising spindle for easy maintenance, where possible


protecting tube for spindle material: stainless steel 1.4571
-

sealing of penstock plate all round by waste water resistant and easily exchangeable seal

seal to be attached to penstock plate to facilitate exchange of seal during operation of sewage
plant

spindle supported in water and duWWTProof axial ball bearings

spindle nut with lubricating nipple, nut made from red brass

penstock with mechanical position indicator

Drive
The drive unit shall comprise:
-

hand wheel on top of spindle

Alternatively:
30.2.

crank handle at side of penstock in combination with bevel gear drive


ELECTRIC LIFTING PENSTOCK

For general specification of the electric lifting penstock see item "Manual Lifting Penstock".
Drive
The drive unit shall comprise:
-

electric control device with three phase motor, direct coupling or by angular gear

thermo element in coil for motor protection

stroke- and torque limit switches

electronic position indicator

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III.2 Part B: Mechanical Works

potential-free contact points for operational- and fault signals

integrated switch "Open - Stop - Close"

integrated, key operated switch for "local - O - remote" operation

drive unit to be equipped with heating to prevent condensation

protection type IP 68

insulation class F

hand wheel shall be provided for emergency operation in case of power failure

clutch shall disengage hand wheel automatically in case motor drive starts automatically

31.

GATE VALVE

The gate valves shall be designed for use as full flange valve or for installation between flanges.
The full-flanged gate valves according to DIN 3352, part 4 A, length to EN 558-1, series 14.
-

valve shall be suitable for employment in liquid and gas pipe systems

replacement of all valve components must be possible

valve shall have unobstructed passage way

material

casing: cast iron

slide plate: stainless steel 1.4571

spindle: stainless steel 1.4571

Drive
The drive unit shall comprise:
-

hand wheel

Alternatively:
-

electric drive, see item "Electric Penstock"

32.

NON-RETURN VALVE

The non-return valves shall be of the swing type valve with internal damping device or external
damping by lever and weight
-

suitable for application in general non-return services for wastewater and sludge

tilting valve disc shall open under positive flow to a degree corresponding to the flow rate. With
decreasing flow the disc shall swing back towards the closed position

valve body length shall be of the short length series according to DIN 3202

material:

body: ductile cast iron

disc: ductile cast iron

body and disc:

seat faces: corrosion- and wear resistant nickel overlay weld, micro finished

bearings: corrosion resistant material, maintenance-free

mechanical position indicator open - shut"

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33.

Tender Documents
WWTP
III.2 Part B: Mechanical Works

TRAVELLING GANTRY CRANE FOR THE SCREENING PLANT

(if applicable)
Crane Bridge
-

for outdoor installation

gantry construction of structural steel with profile type legs and struts

single box or profile type main girder

extension of the main girder on each side

lifting class H1
stress group B2
both according to DIN 15018

Long Travel Carriage


-

travel carriage and crane bridge to be connected by screwed joints

travel carriage shall be a rigid steel structure with 2 special graphite cast iron wheels on each
side

wheels running in anti-friction bearings lubricated for life

wheel flanges to run on a rail track

energy absorbing rubber bumpers on both sides of each carriage

manual drive of crane by manually operated chain drive

including the relevant steel rails to cover the whole travelling distance

steel rails to be fixed to concrete floor

Hoist Trolley
hoist trolley shall run on lower flanges of crane girder and permits cross travel of hoist
design of hoist trolly according to DIN 15018
track width shall be adjustable to a wide range of crane bridge flanges
trolly wheels of special graphite cast iron with anti-friction bearings sealed for life
trolley with safety installations to prevent tilting, manual drive
Chain Hoist
hoist housing shall be totally enclosed to protect hoist brake and chain wheel gear against dust
and adverse weather conditions
highly wear resistant driving gear shall run in anti-friction bearings lubricated for life
high tensile endless lifting chain according to DIN 5684-GK8
overload clutch shall prevent lifting of load exceeding the SWL
manual drive
including hook
including container / box with floor flap to be handled easily
container to be made of carbon steel

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Tender Documents
WWTP
III.2 Part C: Electrical and Instrumentation Works

PART C: ELECTRICAL AND INSTRUMENTIATION WORKS

CES / NAGECCO
TV.TD.C23 - V3, S2 Part C Electrical & Instrumentation (rev. 2008-07-31).doc

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Tender Documents
WWTP
III.2 Part C: Electrical and Instrumentation Works

TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.

page
GENERAL WORKS INCLUDED IN THE CONTRACT............................................................1

2.

PROTECTION AND PACKING FOR DISPATCH ....................................................................1

3.

APPLICABILITY .......................................................................................................................2

4.

INSTALLATION STANDARDS ................................................................................................2

5.

WORKMANSHIP ......................................................................................................................2

6.

MATERIALS .............................................................................................................................3

7.

DERATING DUE TO CLIMATIC CONDITIONS.......................................................................3

8.

POLARITY ................................................................................................................................3

9.

SAFETY INTERLOCKS............................................................................................................3

10.

SWITCHBOARDS AND MOTOR CONTROL CENTRES........................................................4

11.

MULTI-CUBICLE-TYPE ASSEMBLY ......................................................................................4

12.

SAFETY ....................................................................................................................................5

13.

SWITCHGEAR EARTHING WORKS.......................................................................................5

14.

MAIN SWITCHES .....................................................................................................................5

15.

DISTRIBUTION SECTIONS .....................................................................................................5

16.

BUSBARS AND BUSBAR CONNECTIONS ...........................................................................6

17.

CABLE BOXES, GLAND PLATES AND TERMINATIONS.....................................................6

18.

AUXILIARY SWITCHES...........................................................................................................6

19.

ISOLATING SWITCHES...........................................................................................................6

20.

AUXILIARY WIRING AND TERMINAL BLOCKS....................................................................7

21.

INDICATING LAMPS................................................................................................................7

22.

INDICATING INSTRUMENTS AND METERS .........................................................................7

23.

LOW VOLTAGE FUSES ..........................................................................................................8

24.

CURRENT TRANSFORMERS .................................................................................................8

25.

EXTRA LOW VOLTAGE SUPPLIES .......................................................................................8

26.

FAULT LEVEL..........................................................................................................................8

27.

PROTECTION RELAYS ...........................................................................................................8

28.

PROTECTION OF MOTORS....................................................................................................9

29.

OVERCURRENT AND EARTH FAULT PROTECTION RELAYS...........................................9

30.

DIRECT MOTOR THERMAL PROTECTION ...........................................................................9

31.

LOW VOLTAGE CIRCUIT BREAKERS ............................................................................... 10

32.

LOW VOLTAGE SWITCHES DISCONNECTORS AND FUSE SWITCHES


COMBINATION UNITS.......................................................................................................... 10

33.

MOTOR STARTERS GENERAL........................................................................................... 11

34.

ACTUATOR STARTERS....................................................................................................... 13

35.

AUTOMATIC CONTROL....................................................................................................... 13

36.

POWER FACTOR CORRECTION CAPACITORS ............................................................... 13

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III.2 Part C: Electrical and Instrumentation Works

page
ELECTRIC MOTORS ............................................................................................................ 14

37.
38.

EMERGENCY GENERATOR ................................................................................................ 15


38.1.
Motor .................................................................................................................................16
38.2.
Alternator ..........................................................................................................................16
38.3.
Accessories ......................................................................................................................16

39.

CABLES................................................................................................................................. 16

40.

EMERGENCY STOP PUSH BUTTONS................................................................................ 17

41.

L.V. CABLES......................................................................................................................... 17

42.

L.V. CABLES SMALL WIRING............................................................................................. 18

43.

CONTROL AND INSTRUMENTATION CABLES................................................................. 18

44.

CABLING METHOD FOR ELECTRICAL POWER ............................................................... 18

45.

CABLE TRENCH WORK ...................................................................................................... 19

46.

CABLE TRAY WORK............................................................................................................ 20

47.

BUILDERS WORK ................................................................................................................ 20

48.

CONDUIT SYSTEMS............................................................................................................. 20

49.

FLEXIBLE CONDUITS .......................................................................................................... 22

50.

LIGHTING SWITCHES .......................................................................................................... 22

51.

LIGHTING FITTINGS............................................................................................................. 22

52.

SOCKET OUTLETS .............................................................................................................. 22

53.

CONTROL CABINETS .......................................................................................................... 22

54.

DISTRIBUTION BOARDS ..................................................................................................... 23

55.

EARTHING GENERAL.......................................................................................................... 23

56.

EARTHING SYSTEMS .......................................................................................................... 23

57.

PROTECTION OF EARTHING SYSTEMS ........................................................................... 24

58.

LIGHTNING PROTECTION................................................................................................... 24
Structures and Buildings ................................................................................................24
Lightning Protection Devices for Plants .......................................................................24
Earth Electrodes ..............................................................................................................25
Earth Electrode Installations ..........................................................................................25
Batteries............................................................................................................................25
Battery Chargers..............................................................................................................25

58.1.
58.2.
58.3.
58.4.
58.5.
58.6.
59.

LABELS ................................................................................................................................. 26

60.

GENERAL INSTRUMENTATION, MONITORING AND CONTROL


REQUIREMENTS .................................................................................................................. 26
60.1.
Instrumentation, Monitoring and Control......................................................................26
60.2.
Contractors Responsibility ............................................................................................26
60.3.
General Design Requirements........................................................................................27
60.4.
Installation Approval .......................................................................................................28
60.5.
Cables and Cabling..........................................................................................................28
60.6.
Instrumentation and Control...........................................................................................28
60.6.1. Remote Control Supplies ................................................................................................29

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WWTP
III.2 Part C: Electrical and Instrumentation Works

page
60.7.
Construction of Panels....................................................................................................29
60.7.1. Panels for Outdoor Use...................................................................................................29
60.8.
Panel Wiring and Equipment ..........................................................................................29
60.8.1. Panel Wiring ....................................................................................................................30
60.8.2. Panel Protection ..............................................................................................................30
60.8.3. Panel Earthing .................................................................................................................30
60.8.4. Panel Heating ..................................................................................................................30
60.8.5. Panel Equipment .............................................................................................................30
60.9.
Terminals and Termination .............................................................................................31
60.10. Labels................................................................................................................................31
60.11. Control Battery / Charger Equipment ............................................................................32
60.11.1. Batteries ..........................................................................................................................32
60.11.2. Battery Chargers .............................................................................................................32
60.12. Test Instruments ..............................................................................................................33
60.13. Facilities Inspection, Test and Guarantees...................................................................33
60.13.1. Pumps .............................................................................................................................34
60.13.2. Control / Switchgear Panels ............................................................................................34
60.13.3. Transformers ...................................................................................................................36
60.13.4. H.V. Power Factor Correction Capacitors .......................................................................37
60.13.5. Electrical Measuring Instruments and Meters .................................................................37
60.14. CoOrdination of Site Testing Programme ...................................................................37
60.15. Cable Tests During Installation ......................................................................................37
60.16. Tests on Completion .......................................................................................................38

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WWTP
III.2 Part C: Electrical and Instrumentation Works

General Technical Specifications for Electrical Works and Instrumentation


1.

GENERAL WORKS INCLUDED IN THE CONTRACT

The Electrical Works and Instrumentation included in the Contract consist in preparation of design,
working drawings, manufacture, temporary erection at the manufacturers or his subcontractors
works, testing, conveyance to Site, erection and commissioning of equipment for the Wastewater
Disposal Project in Provincial Towns, Programme South: Tra Vinh, Vietnam.
The major items of equipment to be provided are as detailed in the Specifications, Particular
Requirements, and as shown on the drawings enclosed with the Tender Documents, but the
Contractor shall include for all minor ancillary items required for the efficient working of the works as a
whole whether they be specified or not.
All equipment shall be complete with electric motors, all accessories as hereinafter specified and
newly manufactured. There shall be included all shafts, couplings, bearings, guards, valves, pipe
work, pressure gauges, cover plates and frames, holdingdown bolts, lubricators, switchboards,
control gear, and spare parts together with all other apparatus, appendages and connections to make
the whole works complete, ready for operation and perfect in every detail.
2.

PROTECTION AND PACKING FOR DISPATCH

Before dispatch from the Manufacturer's works all Plant shall be adequately protected by painting or
by other approved means for the whole period of transit, storage and erection against corrosion and
accidental damage. The Contractor shall be held responsible for the Plant being so packed and/or
protected as to ensure that it reaches the Site intact and undamaged. All plant and equipment as
necessary shall be packed in first quality containers or packing; no second-hand timber shall be used.
The Plant shall be packed to withstand rough handling in transit and all packages shall be suitable for
several stages of handling via sea or air freight, inland transport and movement on site and for storage
including possible delays in delivery. Packing cases shall be of the fully boarded type, slated cases will
not be allowed.
Precautions are to be taken to protect shafts and equally unprotected surfaces where they rest on
wooden or other supports likely to contain moisture. At such points wrappings impregnated with
antirust composition or vapour phase inhibitors are to be used of sufficient strength to resist chaffing
and indentation due to any movement which is likely to occur in transit. The form of the protective
wrappings and impregnation are to be suitable for a minimum period of twelve months.
Lids and internal cross battens of all packing cases are to be fixed by screws and not nails. Hoop
metal bindings of cases are to be sealed where ends meet and if not of corrosion resistant material,
are to be painted.
Contents of such cases are to be bolted securely or fastened in position with struts or cross battens
and not with wood chocks, unless they are fastened firmly in place. All struts or cross battens are
preferably to be supported by cleats fixed to the case above and below to form ledges on which the
battens may rest. Cases are to be upended after packing to prove that there is no movement of
contents.
Where parts are required to be bolted to the sides of the cases, large washers are to be used to
distribute the pressure and the timber is to be strengthened by means of a pad.
Waterproof paper and felt linings are to overlap at seams by at least 12 mm and the seams secured
together in an approved manner, but the enclosure is to be provided with screened openings to obtain
ventilation.
The flanges of pipes, valves and fittings shall have their open ends protected by adhesive tape or
jointing and then be protected by wooden discs secured by means of service bolts (which shall not be
used on site) or by other approved means. The sleeves and flanges of flexible couplings shall be
bundled by wire. Cases containing rubber rings, bolts and other small items shall not normally weigh
more than 500 kg gross.
All relays, instruments, etc. shall be shipped with transport screws and/or clamps, clearly marked and
painted red, to prevent movement of moving parts. Reference shall be shown in the operating and
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maintenance instructions, Clause 1.1.17 detailing the removal of these temporary fixings prior to
setting the equipment to work.
Structural steel work, pipes, valves, uncased fittings and metalwork shall be similarly marked. In
addition, one in every ten repeated articles shall bear the despatch marks in suitable paint or other
approved medium. When in the opinion of the Engineer the despatch marks cannot be applied
satisfactorily to any item they shall be stamped on a metal label attached to the item or part by means
of a piece of wire passing through holes at either end of the label and secured so that it lies flat with
the item.
Indoor items such as electric motors, switch and control gear, PLC's, instruments and panels, machine
components, etc., are to be cocooned in aluminium or polythene sheeting, sealed at the joints and
the enclosures provided internally with an approved desiccator.
All items of Plant shall be clearly marked for identification against the packing list, in Vietnamese and
English.
All cases, packages, etc., shall be clearly marked on the outside with a waterproof material to show
the weight, where the weight is bearing, and where the slings should be attached and shall also have
an identification mark relating them to the packing lists and to the appropriate shipping documents.
Cases shall bear the Contractor's name and the name of the particular site. These shall be marked in
stencils or legible letters and shall be in red or black waterproof paint or protected by shellac or
varnish to prevent obliteration in transit.
Each crate or package is to contain a packing list in a waterproof envelope and copies in duplicate are
to be forwarded to the Engineers Representative on Site, prior to despatch. All items of material are to
be clearly marked for ready identification against the packing list.
The Contractor shall be deemed to have included in the Contract Price for all materials and packing
cases necessary for the safe conveyance and delivery of the Plant.
The Engineer may require to inspect and to approve the packing before the items are despatched but
the Contractor is to be entirely responsible for ensuring that the packing is suitable for transit, and
such inspection will not exonerate the Contractor for any loss or damage due to faulty packing.
3.

APPLICABILITY

The following clauses shall specify general electrical requirements and standards of workmanship for
the equipments and installations. General specification clauses shall apply where appropriate except
where particularly redefined in the individual specification clauses.
4.

INSTALLATION STANDARDS

All electrical work must be carried out by personnel in possession of a current licence acceptable to
the Authority, which permit the Contractor to carry out work on low voltage equipment and cabling.
All electrical equipment and installations shall be carried out in accordance with the requirements of:
1)

European norm EN 60204-1 Electrical Equipment of Machines

2)

European norm EN 60439-1 and EN 60439-3 for design of Switchboards

3)

International Electro-technical Commission IEC 364 series for building installation

4)

European norm EN 292 Safety of machinery-Principles for risk assessment.

5)

Vietnamese Electrical Standards

Any particular requirements of the EN or IEC standards shall take precedence to any other standards.
All electrical equipment shall be approved by the Vietnamese Electricity Company.
5.

WORKMANSHIP

Particular attention shall be paid to the appearance of the electrical installation, arrangements of which
shall be agreed by the Engineer before the commencement of installation. The Contractor shall ensure
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that the installation is completed to the highest standard of neatness with respect to the visible cable
runs and the arrangement and alignment of apparatus and fittings.
The general requirements for electrical building services are given in specific clauses but the
Contractor shall determine the quantities and locations of fittings and equipment and shall prepare
surveys and detailed design with installation arrangement drawings. The final locations of all building
services fittings and equipment shall be agreed at site with the Engineer before installation.
The Contractor shall arrange for the switchgear and panel manufacturers to provide skilled labour for
the supervision of off-loading, placing in position on prepared foundations, erection and
commissioning of all switchgear and control panels.
6.

MATERIALS

All materials incorporated in the works shall be most suitable for the duty concerned and shall be new
and of first class commercial quality free from imperfection and selected for long life and minimum
maintenance.
The use of dissimilar materials in contact shall be avoided, but where unavoidable these materials
shall be selected so that the natural potential difference between them does not exceed 250 millivolts.
Electro-plating or other treatment of contacting surfaces shall be employed as necessary to reduce the
potential difference to the desired limit.
All materials and material finishes shall be selected for long life under the climatic conditions at Site.
Materials used in ventilated or air-conditioned areas shall be selected to allow for the conditions
expected in case of failure of the ventilation or air-conditioning equipment.
Tropical grade materials and panel components shall be used.
7.

DERATING DUE TO CLIMATIC CONDITIONS

All electrical equipment cables and wiring shall be derated for the specified site climatic conditions in
accordance with the factors of the relevant design standards.
8.

POLARITY

The polarity of all apparatus used for the Works specified shall be arranged as follows when viewed
from the front:
i)

For two pole apparatus, the phase or live pole at the top (or left hand side) and the neutral or
earthed pole at the bottom (or right hand side). On plug and socket outlets, the polarity shall
conform to EN/IEC or other approved standards as appropriate.

ii)

For three or four pole apparatus the phases in the order L1, L2, L3 and neutral reading from top
to bottom or left to right in the case of vertical and horizontal layouts respectively.

iii)

Phase colours and sequence shall be to Vietnamese regulations


All cable cores shall be identified with phase references.

All non-flexible cables shall be connected between main switchboards, Motor Control Centre (MCC),
distribution boards, plant and accessories so that the correct sequence of phase colour is preserved
throughout the system.
On building services wiring installations, where more than one phase is incorporated on a common
system in one room, then the live cores shall be phase identified as appropriate and fittings and switch
accessories shall be permanently labelled and segregated in accordance with the relevant clauses of
the EN/IEC Regulations.
9.

SAFETY INTERLOCKS

A complete system of electrical and mechanical interlocks and safety devices shall be provided
throughout the electrical installation for the safe and continuous operation of the plant in order to
ensure:

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i)

Safety of personnel engaged in operational and maintenance work on the plant.

ii)

Correct sequence of operation of the plant during start up and shut down.

iii)

Safety of the plant when operating under normal or emergency conditions.


Interlocks shall be preventive and not corrective in operation.

The Contractor shall be responsible for the preparation of interlocking schemes for the approval of the
Engineer.
10.

SWITCHBOARDS AND MOTOR CONTROL CENTRES

LV switchboards and Motor Control Centres shall be control centres manufactured by a single
approved supplier and the construction of each individual panel shall be such that all components
shall be selected for standardization.
Fully type tested designs to the fault levels specified with ASTA or KEMA certification is required.
Low voltage switchgear (distribution boards) shall be designed and constructed in compliance with
IEC 439-3, and control boards (MCC) etc., shall be designed and constructed in compliance with IEC
439-1. Form 3b barrier shall be adhered to all types of boards.
Switchboards shall be so positioned that access thereto is not obstructed by the structure or contents
of the building. A distance of not less than 900 mm shall be provided and maintained in front of every
switchboard / panel board for the purpose of safety and effective operation and adjustment of all the
equipment mounted thereon.
Where a switchboard incorporates rackout switchgear, doors or hinged panels there shall be a
clearance of not less than 1,200 mm between any wall or immovable structure and the switchgear,
doors, or hinged panels when it is in the rackedout or in open position.
Rear access switchboards and panels shall be provided with unhinged liftoff panels only. Hinged
panels will not be permitted.
All apparatus shall be positioned on a switchboard so that there is ample room for its safe and
effective operation and handling.
The maximum height of any operating controls shall not exceed 1,700 mm above finished floor level.
LV (Low Voltage) switchgear shall be suitable for extending at either end and arranged so that
additional cubicles may be installed in position and cables only made off while the existing busbars are
not in operation. To gain access to the busbar, for the purpose of extending, it may only be necessary
to remove external endcovers.
Each switchboard panel or section shall be fitted with a demountable metal cable termination gland
plate positioned at vertical or horizontal level but with adequate space for termination of cables,
conduits, etc. The gland steel plates shall be efficiently earthed to the panel earthing system by a
separate earthing conductor. The base of the panels shall be provided with removable plates of PVC
or steel type to seal the cable / conduit entry.
All switchgear shall be provided with lifting eyes, which shall be removable and replaced, at site, with
chrome plated screws.
11.

MULTI-CUBICLE-TYPE ASSEMBLY

Cubicles / switch boards shall be constructed of not less than 1.5 mm thick sheet steel and be of a
totally enclosed welded construction with covers and hinged front doors interlocked as specified.
Panels shall be arranged for front access only.
Low voltage switchgear and control boards and individual enclosures for installation in indoor locations
shall have a minimum protection enclosure of IP54.
Compartments shall be easily accessible for maintenance purposes. Barriers shall be included
between each compartment to ensure safe maintenance on any outgoing circuit when the remainder
of the board is live.

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Cubicles / switch boards shall not rely on any removable portion for their rigidity.
All live terminals of equipment mounted on switch boards doors and/or enclosure covers shall be
adequately screened unless protected by an interlocked isolator. All doors and hinged covers shall be
efficiently earthen by a separate conductor.
All terminations for outgoing cables, including lighting fittings, socket outlets, etc. shall be provided
with terminals. Termination at fuse switches and miniature circuit breakers will not be acceptable.
Switchboards and panel boards shall be complete with the necessary interconnections, small wiring,
labels and copper busbars, the interconnections being referenced to indicate phases, and they shall
be properly earthed.
Where interconnections occur between various panels, the Contractor shall ensure that wire / terminal
numbers have identical references.
12.

SAFETY

Interlocks shall be provided so that it is not possible to gain access without tools to any compartment
containing uncovered live connections unless all such equipment inside the compartment is isolated
from the supply.
Where access to low voltage enclosures is necessary with equipment energised from an external
source all equipment, terminals shall be fully shrouded to prevent accidental contact and warning
labels shall be fitted. Safety barrier shall have a minimum degree of enclosure IP2x.
13.

SWITCHGEAR EARTHING WORKS

Single enclosures shall be provided with an earth stud or earth busbar. Multi-cubicle type enclosures
shall be provided with a continuous earth busbar, which shall extend over the full length. Each cubicle
shall be bonded to the earth busbar.
The earth busbar shall be provided with two terminal assemblies for connection to the installation main
earth terminal.
The short-time rating of the earth busbar and connections shall be not less than that of the associated
equipment, or the maximum through-fault current of the power source. The temperature rise of the
busbar and connections under fault conditions shall not cause damage to the connections of any
equipment to which they may be connected.
Earth terminal bolts or studs shall be brass and shall not be less than 8 mm diameter.
14.

MAIN SWITCHES

The main switch or switches of every installation shall be marked as such and shall be identifiable
from other switchgear by grouping, colouring or other suitable means, such as to render it (or them)
easily located in an emergency. When there is more than one main switch in any building, each shall
be marked to indicate which installation or section of the installation it controls.
In a cubicle main switchboard, the main controlling switch (or switches) shall be located in their own
section, completely segregated from all other parts of the switchboard with front access.
All main switches on main switchboards (of either cubicle type or otherwise) shall be so located, that a
minimum distance of 900 mm exists from the finished floor level to the bottom of the switch or
connection straps, whichever is the less.
15.

DISTRIBUTION SECTIONS

Distribution sections shall contain miniature circuit breaker outgoing ways for the required circuits plus
approximately 20% of spare ways. Access to the distribution board shall be possible without opening
the associated fused isolator, but access to the fused isolator shall only be obtained with the isolator
open. Miniature Circuit Breakers (MCB's) shall be insulated moulded case, non-adjustable, magnetic
and thermal tripping type. MCB's shall comply with EN/IEC standards for isolating and switching.
MCB's shall have a rated current and category of duty of not less than M4 or as otherwise specified to
match the fault rating of the switchgear. Back-up fuses shall be provided as required, but the ratings of
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the MCB's must be correctly co-ordinated with the fuse to achieve the necessary degree of fault coordination. Loads on distribution sections shall be balanced between the three phases as far as
possible.
16.

BUSBARS AND BUSBAR CONNECTIONS

All busbars and busbar connections shall be of hard drawn high conductivity copper. Busbars and
connections shall be identified by phase coding and adequately supported by suitable insulators. The
whole installation shall be mechanically and electrically designed to withstand the full fault capacity.
All busbars and connections shall be rated for continuous operation. The Contractor shall provide type
test certification for the busbar and primary connection short circuit withstand and thermal
performance.
Low voltage switchgear busbars and connections shall be identified throughout their entire length.
17.

CABLE BOXES, GLAND PLATES AND TERMINATIONS

The arrangement of cable boxes, gland plates and terminations shall permit easy installation.
Cable gland plates shall be manufactured from sheet steel for multi-core cables and non-ferrous
material for single core cables. Gland plates shall be mounted not less than 300 mm above the base
of the enclosure.
Space for cabling within terminal enclosures shall be not less than that stated in DIN / EN norms.
Adequate space shall be provided for the termination of oversize cables.
When the cable gland is remote from the cable terminals, purpose made cable tray or trunking shall be
provided within the enclosure for securing or accommodating the cable cores.
Terminals for small low voltage power and auxiliary circuit application shall be fully insulated, and shall
be of pillar type with indirect pressure plates unless otherwise approved by the Engineer.
Terminals in a common compartment associated with different voltages or circuit types shall be
segregated into clearly identified groups. Barriers shall be provided between each group.
Terminals shall be provided for the connection of all cable cores and, where applicable, core screen
drain wires.
Not more than one core of internal or external wiring shall be connected to a terminal. Where
duplication of terminals is necessary, purpose made solid bridging links shall be fitted.
Terminals, which remain energised when the main equipment is isolated, shall be shrouded and fitted
with a warning label.
18.

AUXILIARY SWITCHES

Auxiliary switches for indication, protection, interlocking and supervision purposes shall be readily
accessible and enclosed in a transparent dust proof cover or equal cover.
Adequate secondary disconnection shall be included between the fixed portion of a circuit breaker and
the moving portion.
Spare auxiliary contacts, one normally open and one normally closed, shall be provided on each unit.
19.

ISOLATING SWITCHES

The compartment isolating switch shall interrupt all supplies into the compartment to enable safe
maintenance to be undertaken. Isolators shall have ball and stick type handles and a fixed post shall
be provided to enable the isolator to be padlocked in the off position only. One padlock with 4 keys
shall be supplied for each isolator on the board.

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AUXILIARY WIRING AND TERMINAL BLOCKS

Wiring used for internal connections shall be capable of withstanding, without deterioration, the
conditions on site, due allowance being made for such temperature conditions as may arise within any
enclosure.
Butyl rubber / CSP insulated cables shall be employed or alternatively PVC insulated cables to VDE
0250 suitably derated if necessary.
Single-strand wire shall not be used. Wires shall not be less than 1.5 mm total cross-sectional area.
Both ends of every wire shall be fitted with full ring interlocking ferrules of white insulating material.
Letters and numbers shall read from terminal outwards and shall correspond to the appropriate wiring
diagram. Crimped on terminal connectors shall be fitted to all wire ends.
Unless otherwise specified or approved, wiring shall be coloured as EN 60204-1 and IEC 446.
Wiring shall be supported in insulated cleats or cable trunking.
Wiring passing between compartments which may be separated for transport shall be taken to
terminal blocks mounted near the top of each compartment, separately from those for external cable
connections.
The busbar chambers of the equipment shall not be used as trunking for small wiring.
All terminals which may be live when a compartment door is open shall be shrouded and provided with
warning labels.
Connections to apparatus mounted on doors or between points subject to relative movement, shall be
made in flexible wires, arranged so that they are subjected to torsion rather than bending.
The Contractor shall submit for the Engineer's approval, samples of the types of wires, numbered
ferrules, and terminal washers or lugs, if appropriate, which he proposes to use.
21.

INDICATING LAMPS

On AC operated circuits, indicating lights shall be of low voltage type with self-contained transformers.
The lamps shall operate at not greater than 90% rated voltage to ensure long life.
On DC operated circuits suitably rated resistances shall be connected across each lamp operating
contact.
Lights shall be well ventilated and be designed to permit the removal of the lamp glass and lamps from
the front of the unit.
Lamps units shall be of the push to test type to facilitate testing, or a separate LAMP TEST button
for the whole control board/switchboard shall be installed.
22.

INDICATING INSTRUMENTS AND METERS

All indicating instruments and meters shall be flush mounted and generally of the same appearance
throughout. They shall comply with relevant standards and shall be of industrial grade accuracy. They
shall be sealed against the ingress of moisture and dirt.
Indicating instruments shall be of 270 scale type and shall have an external zero adjustment. They
shall be positioned so that they can be easily read and the dial centres shall be not less than 400 mm
and not more than 1,700 mm above finished floor level. Instruments shall be fitted with an adjustable
pointer or shall be inscribed on the scales to indicate the normal circuit rating for the associated circuit.
All indicating instruments shall have a square front appearance with width dimensions not less than
96 mm.
Am- or kW meters fitted in a motor winding circuit shall be provided with adjustable red pointers.
All instruments shall be mounted adjacent to the relevant circuit breaker, switch or starter, unless
separate panel suites are specified herein.
At points of connection of instrument and meter potential circuits to LV busbars, fuses shall be
provided to protect the auxiliary wiring. For cubicle gear, these fuses shall be housed within the
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cubicle and be readily accessible. Additional fuses to clear individual instrument faults shall be
provided and accessible from the front of the cubicle where specified.
23.

LOW VOLTAGE FUSES

Low voltage fuse links shall be to EN 60269-2-3 and one spare fuse for each fuse fitted in the panel
shall be supplied, clipped adjacent to the position in which it would be in service with reusable clips. A
complete schedule of all fuses in the panel shall be affixed in a convenient position in the panel.
Fuse link carriers and bases shall be fully insulated and shrouded type, the design of which shall
prevent contact with live parts while the fuse carrier is being, or has been withdrawn. Fuse holders
and bases shall be manufactured of moulded plastic. Ceramic material will not be accepted.
24.

CURRENT TRANSFORMERS

Current transformers shall comply with IEC 185 or VDE 0414 and shall be of the wound primary or bar
primary type according to the ratio required. Current transformers shall be suitably rated and designed
to carry out appropriate metering and protection functions as indicated.
The rated burden of current transformers shall not be less than the sum of burdens of all relays,
instruments and related loads.
Unless otherwise specified current transformers shall be of Class 1 accuracy for use with measuring
instruments and Class 5P for protection circuit duties.
Identification labels giving type, ratios, rating, output and serial numbers shall be fitted. Duplicate
rating labels are to be fitted on the exterior of the mounting chambers suitably located to enable
reading without removal of any cover. Labels shall be supplied for multi-ratio current transformers
indicating the connection required for alternative ratios.
Bar type current transformers shall be supplied in preference to those with wound primaries. Current
transformers short-time current ratings shall relate to the full fault level for one or three seconds as
applicable and shall be not less than that of the switchgear in which they are incorporated.
Removable links shall be located on each phase of the switchboard primary conductors to enable
easy current transformer maintenance and replacement.
One secondary terminal of each current transformer shall be earthed through a bolted link located in
the switchgear instrument/relay panel.
25.

EXTRA LOW VOLTAGE SUPPLIES

Where extra low voltage supplies are required for illumination and power supplies (hand lamps,
installation liable to flooding, portable hand tools, etc.) they shall be obtained via a portable stepdown
transformer with a 220 V primary winding and secondary winding at 24 V.
Where applicable full details shall be given in the relevant clauses of the specification.
26.

FAULT LEVEL

Where a switchboard is directly connected to the low voltage side of the transformer or a transformer
without any distribution cutout, then the complete switchboard shall be manufactured to comply in
total with a short circuit rating of 50 kA for a duration of one second minimum.
With transformer distribution cutout, the minimum short circuit rating for Main Distribution Boards and
MMC shall be 25 kA and Distribution Boards 15 kA.
All small wiring for controls, voltmeter supplies, etc., that originates from the main and submain
busbars shall be protected by means of busbar mounted cartridge fuses suitably rated for the purpose
intended. The maximum size of fuse used shall not exceed 20 amps.
27.

PROTECTION RELAYS

Protective relays shall be provided, for fault and overload protection, to operate circuit breakers.

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The Contractor shall ensure that the form of protection proposed also meets the requirements of
Vietnamese regulations.
The Contractor shall be responsible for ensuring that all details relating to the protection systems shall
be submitted to the Engineer for approval and no work shall commence until such approval has been
received in writing.
All protective relays shall be manufactured by an approved manufacturer. They shall be suitable for
climate and site conditions and fully sealed against the ingress of moisture and dirt.
Relays shall be suitably rated to operate at the specified DC auxiliary circuit voltage and shall have
output contacts suitable for operation of the switchgear tripping mechanisms and associated alarm
and indication systems.
Secondary injection shall be easily possible by means of purpose-made voltage and/or current plug-in
type test terminal blocks which automatically open or short circuit the integral voltage transformers or
current transformer respectively and provide terminations for the test supply. Disconnection of any
permanent wiring will not be acceptable.
Each individual element of the relays shall incorporate a visual operation indicator, which shall be
reset by operating an external reset button mounted on the front of the relay case.
Each relay shall be complete with panel mounting Works and terminals for external circuit connection.
Protection relays and associated equipment shall be as detailed in the specific clauses and as
determined by the Contractor.
28.

PROTECTION OF MOTORS

For motors rated less than 0.5 kW, three single pole thermal overloads with phasing protection shall
be provided.
For all motors rated above 0.5 kW three single pole thermal overloads and three single pole, wound
magnetic adjustable overloads with phasing protection shall be provided or alternatively the motor
shall be protected by a three phase motor protection relay.
29.

OVERCURRENT AND EARTH FAULT PROTECTION RELAYS

Relays to be used for this duty shall incorporate selective Inverse Definite Minimum Time (IDMT) and
Definite Time characteristics. Relays shall be arranged 2 pole overcurrent and 1 pole earth fault or 3
pole overcurrent and separate 1 pole earth fault to suit 3 phase 3 wire and 3 phase 4 wire system
application respectively.
Inverse time characteristics shall be standard inverse or very/extreme inverse to meet the power
system protection scheme requirements and shall fully comply with EN/IEC norms. Relays shall be of
the static electronic pattern. Current and line settings shall be adjustable by integral switch or plug
assemblies of approved pattern.
Relays shall be suitably rated to operate at the specified DC auxiliary circuit voltage and have output
contacts suitable for operating the tripping mechanisms of the associated circuit breaker and initiating
alarm and indication systems.
30.

DIRECT MOTOR THERMAL PROTECTION

Where specified, motors shall be provided with embedded thermal switches or thermistors with a
protective relay operating in the contactor circuit.
Thermistor protection on motors fitted with internal thermal devices shall be arranged such that in the
event of device operation, a lock out function to prevent automatic re-start upon temperature reduction
is operated. The tripped indication shall also operate.
Thermostat protection relays shall be ambient temperature compensated and have external manual
reset Works.

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LOW VOLTAGE CIRCUIT BREAKERS

Air break circuit breakers shall be rated for controlling loads for maximum circuit operation and 400 V
3 phases 50 Hz. 4 wire operation under the specified site climatic conditions.
Test Certificates of the ASTA or KEMA type shall be provided for inspection with the Tender.
All low voltage circuit breakers shall be housed in control boards, which comply with the requirements
of the Particular Technical Specification and shall not reduce the degree of protection to less than
IP 54.
Low voltage circuit breakers shall comply with EN 60947, shall be of the air-break type, and shall be
moulded case or open construction (metalclad casing) design. For the purpose of this specification the
two designs are referred to as moulded-case and air circuit-breakers.
Circuit-breakers shall be Utilisation Category B and shall have a service short-circuit breaking capacity
not less than 50 percent of the rated ultimate short-circuit capacity.
Circuit-breakers shall be suitable for isolation and shall be to Overvoltage Category IV to EN 60947-1
The rated current specified in the specific clauses shall be that with the circuit-breaker mounted within
a switchboard. The service short circuit breaking capacity shall be not less than the maximum power
system fault level.
Unless otherwise specified, air circuit-breakers shall be used for rated currents of 630 A and above.
Moulded case circuit breakers shall be provided where specified in the specific clauses.
Circuit breaker closing mechanisms shall be of the independent type. It shall be possible to manually
charge power operated closing mechanisms. Works shall be provided for padlocking in the OFF
position.
Each pole of moulded case circuit-breakers shall be fitted with a bi-metallic thermal element for
inverse time delay protection and a magnetic element for short-circuit protection. The thermal element
shall be adjustable. Adjustments shall be made simultaneously on all poles from a common facility.
Thermal elements shall be ambient temperature compensated. Where available, the thermal magnetic
elements shall be interchangeable.
Unless otherwise specified, air circuit-breakers shall be fitted with a solid state protection system. The
protection system shall be fully self-contained, needing no separate power supply to operate the
circuit-breaker tripping mechanism.
Accessories such as shunt trips, undervoltage releases, auxiliary contacts and motor mechanisms
shall be manufactured to allow easy installation.
Closing mechanisms shall be suitable for operation at 80 percent of the nominal solenoid supply
voltage.
Closing and tripping batteries shall comply with the relevant clauses of the Particular Technical
Specification.
Auxiliary contacts for the indication of breaker state shall be provided.
Incoming feeder circuit breaker panels shall be provided with a purpose designed, separate earthing
device. The device shall be arranged to earth either the cable box or the busbar side of the circuit
breaker, and shall be stored in a suitable robust container which shall include a permanently fixed
instruction label giving details of assembly and use.
Auxiliary jumper connections, as necessary, shall be included.
32.

LOW VOLTAGE SWITCHES DISCONNECTORS AND FUSE SWITCHES


COMBINATION UNITS

Switches, disconnectors, switch-disconnectors and fuse-combination units shall comply with EN


60947-3 and shall be suitable for uninterrupted duty.
Switches shall be suitable for isolation and shall be to Overvoltage Category IV to EN 60947-1.

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Unless otherwise specified, the Utilisation Category for switching devices shall be AC-23A for
alternating current and DC-23A for direct current.
Operating mechanisms shall be of the independent manual type with provision for locking in the OFF
position.
Fuse links for use in fuse-switch devices shall comply with relevant standards.
Combination units shall be contained within an enclosure of metal and shall be fitted with an earthing
terminal or equivalent to enable the enclosures to be earthed irrespective of any means of connection
such as is provided for attaching armouring or other metallic covering of the cable supplying the
combination unit.
The enclosure shall be so constructed that the cover cannot be opened until the switch is fully opened
and that when the cover is opened, a component examiner can override the interlock and operate the
switch. After such operation, the cover shall be prevented from closing with the switch position
indicator in a false position.
Switches and fuse switch units for switchboard installation shall be flush mounting.
Switches shall be provided with mechanical ON/OFF indicators and operating handles. Means shall be
provided for locking the switch in the OFF position only.
The fuse shall either include a suitable fuse carrier or it shall be capable of isolation. If the fuse carrier
is included, it shall be such that when it is being withdrawn normally or when it is completely
withdrawn, the operator is completely protected from accidental contact with any live metal of its fuse
link, fuse contacts and fixed contacts.
If the fuse is capable of isolation, it shall be so interlocked with the switch that isolation is complete
before the fuse enclosure can be opened; further the switch shall be prevented from closing while the
fuse cover is open.
33.

MOTOR STARTERS GENERAL

The starter cubicles are required to form part of a motor control centre and as such circuit connections,
protection devices etc., shall comply with the relevant clauses of EN 60439-1 for form 3b
switchboards. The switch boards shall be easily accessible for maintenance purposes and shall be
damp and dustproof to IP54. Each motor starter shall be of a rating to carry the full load current of its
rated duty at its most severe load conditions.
Motor starters shall be combination type as defined in and complying with EN 60947-4.
Motor starters shall be of the electromagnetic non-latching type.
Utilisation Category shall be selected to suit the application of the motor starter, but shall be not less
than AC-3.
Unless otherwise specified, motor starters shall be suitable for uninterrupted duty.
Motor starters shall have Type 2 short-circuit co-ordination. The circuit breaker fuse, contactor and
overload relay combination shall have undergone and passed all the tests specified for full Type 2 coordination.
Motor starters to be PLC controlled shall be adapted for such control.
Each individual starter shall be housed in a separate totally segregated compartment fixed or
withdrawable type as specified in Particular Technical Specification and shall i.a. contain the following:
1 No.

Tree Pole and neutral (T.P. & N.) externally operated fault making, load breaking
isolating switch interlocked with the cubicle door with provision for using a padlock to
hold it in the OFF position only. Isolator handles shall not be removable. The isolator
shall be provided with suitable number of auxiliary contacts.

1 No.

T.P. & N. moulded case circuit breaker.

For D.O.L. Starting

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1 No.

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III.2 Part C: Electrical and Instrumentation Works

triple pole magnetically operated contactor with magnetic blowouts or arc chutes and
novolt release.

For StarDelta Starting


1 No.

triple pole magnetically operated contactor with magnetic blowouts or arc chutes and
novolt release.

1 No.

set of magnetically operated electrically and mechanically interlocked star and delta
contactors operating under electrical or pneumatic automatic timing devices with
adjustable operating periods.

Specification for frequency converters


1 No.

set of frequency converter.


The frequency converter shall be delivered with the newest technology including
digitalized control system, menu programming, display for reading of faults and
operation conditions.
The program system for the frequency converters shall be simple so that input of all
data can take place without other equipment than the operation unit in the frequency
converter. After programming of the unit, it must be locked with a code or similar.
It must be possible to read all alarms in a display or with lamps. Regardless of the
type of fault that may arise, it must be possible to transmit this alarm via a joint fault
signal to the SCADA system. In the event of critical faults in frequency converter,
motor or pump etc., the frequency converter must cut out.
The frequency converter shall be protected against surge voltage, excess current,
excess temperature as well as be secured against short circuit and earthing.
The frequency converter shall be delivered with a EMC filter fulfilling curve G
according to VDE 0875.

Starters General
Where two or more contactors are installed within a starter they shall be electrically interlocked to
ensure that the correct starting sequence is maintained:
1 Set

Motor protection equipment in accordance with the Particular Technical Specification

1 No.

Power factor correction capacitor with protective fuses

1 No.

Adjustable time delay relay or sequence starting (0 10 minutes)

1 No.

Normally open, voltfree contacts for local and remote running indication

1 No.

Normally open voltfree contact for remote overload alarm indication

1 No.

Set of terminals for remote emergency lockoffstop and remote indication lamps

The following equipment shall be mounted on the front of the starter cubicle door:
1 No.

Ammeter in motor circuit, fitted with suppressed scale to read motor running and
starting current

1 No.

KWmeter in motor circuit, fitted with suppressed scale to read motor running and
starting power. (For motors above 15 kW)

1 No.

Pilot lamp Motor in Operation

Motor in Operation lamps shall be initiated by the final contactor stage.


1 No.

Pilot lamp Overload Tripped

1 No.

Overload reset pushbutton

1 No.

Off-Local-Automatic selector switch

1 Set.

Stop/Start pushbuttons for operation under hand control

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1 Set
34.

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III.2 Part C: Electrical and Instrumentation Works

Component labels
ACTUATOR STARTERS

When motorised valves are specified, the actuator starters shall be integrally housed within the
actuator in a robustly constructed, totally enclosed weatherproof housing to enclosure protection
standard IP65. The motor starter shall be capable of starting the actuator motor under the most severe
load conditions.
The starter housing shall be fitted with contacts and cable terminations for power supply, remote PLC
control and positional indication circuits.
Each actuator starter shall be equipped as follows:

35.

2 No.

T.P. Magnetically operated line reversing contactors with arc chutes, no-volt releases
and electrical and mechanical interlocks

1 No.

T.P. Thermal overload device

1 No.

Set of Open, Close and Stop pushbuttons

1 No.

Set of Torque, Open and Close position limit switches

1 No.

Local-Off-Auto Switch with padlocking Works. The Auto position will permit control
to be initiated by a signal from automatic equipment as detailed in the relevant section
of the Specification
AUTOMATIC CONTROL

The motors in some applications will be required to operate in a predetermined sequence and starters
should include suitable auxiliary relays and contacts.
All starters which are not PLC controlled shall contain a timer, fully adjustable between 0 30 minutes,
which shall only permit the drives to start in a staggered sequence on restoration of supply after an
electricity supply failure.
36.

POWER FACTOR CORRECTION CAPACITORS

The power factor shall be corrected to 0.95 lagging for all motors rated above 10 kW. Unless
otherwise specified in Particular Technical Specification, 3 phases unit power factor correction shall be
provided for each motor circuit. On LV motor circuits the capacitors shall be housed in its respective
starter compartment. Where due to space limitations the capacitors cannot be housed within the
starters, they shall be installed in separate compartments adjacent to and fully interlocked with their
respective starters.
The rating of capacitors shall be selected to correct the power factor of the motor when the associated
drive is operating at its maximum duty point. Should the rating of the capacitor exceed 85% of the
magnetising kVAR of the motor, it shall be switched by a separate contactor, interlocked and
controlled automatically with the motor line contactor.
The capacitor(s) shall be connected after the line contactor but before the motor protection overloads,
generally in accordance with the motor starter schematic diagrams.
All capacitor circuits shall have three separate protection fuses housed within the respective starter
compartments.
The capacitors shall be of the oil or synthetic mineral oil impregnated type with paper or paper and
plastic, film dielectric in an oil tight steel tank complete with discharge resistances. A metal enclosed
terminal box with a bolted or screwed cover shall be provided with cable entry sealing Works.
A label shall be fitted on all capacitors warning that discharge resistances are fitted.
All capacitors shall comply with relevant norms.
Capacitors containing polychlorinated biphenyls will not be accepted.

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ELECTRIC MOTORS

Motors at 40C ambient shall be of the squirrel cage induction type suitable for directonline starting,
with starting current not exceeding 6 times full load current unless specifically detailed in the relevant
Section as an alternative arrangement.
Care must be taken in selecting the type of motor in relation to the starting characteristics of the driven
load. Although a directonline squirrel cage motor may be suitable in respect of starting current
limitations, the starting torque may be insufficient and a motor of wound rotor construction (slip ring)
could be required. Conversely, where a mechanical overload device is employed, it may be necessary
to limit the starting torque of the motor thus ensuring the overload device can be set to give maximum
protection to the plant.
All motors shall be suitable for operation at 380 Volts, 3 phases 50 Hz. supply and shall comply with
EN or IEC Standards.
Motor frames for indoor use shall conform to a degree of enclosure protection not less than IP54.
Motor frames for outdoor use shall conform to a degree of enclosure protection not less than IP55.
Totally enclosed motors shall be provided with means of breathing and drainage.
Motor frames for submersible pumps submersible pumps shall conform to a degree of protection not
less than IP68.
All motors, exclusive submersible pumps, shall be suitable for operation in the site climatic conditions
and in ambient temperature up to 40C.
The rotors shall run in ball and/or roller bearings and the weight of the rotor shall be carried by ball
thrust bearings incorporated in the motor body. Bearings shall have a minimum rated life of 6 years
(50,000 hours) and have provisions for adequate lubrication.
The bearing caps on the nondrive end covers of the motors shall be arranged so as to allow a speed
check to be taken.
The efficiency and power factor of the motors shall be high over a wide range of load conditions and
the motors shall be designed, manufactured and tested in accordance with relevant EN norms.
All windings shall have Class F insulation with Class B temperature rise limitations and this
requirement is in addition to any adjustments necessary for the high ambient temperature at Site. A
winding connection diagram shall be supplied permanently affixed to the inside of the terminal box or
cover.
In addition to standard rating and performance data, motor nameplates shall include details of class of
insulation, temperature rise and type of enclosure.
Motors shall be S4 duty type and capable of a minimum number of 15 starts per hour unless
specifically detailed elsewhere in the appropriate section of the Specification.
The continuous maximum rating (CMR) of each motor shall be in accordance with the following
requirements:
Application

Up to 125 kW Drives

Above 125 kW Drives

All pump motors (excluding


positive displacement type)

10% above the calculated


maximum power requirements
under all conditions of operation

5% above the calculated


maximum power
requirements under all
conditions of operation

Positive displacement pumps


and compressors

25% above the calculated power


requirements for normal duty or
5% above the power required for
maximum duty whichever is the
greater

12.5% above the


calculated requirements for
normal duty or5% above
the power required for
maximum duty whichever
is the greater

All other drives including

50% above normal duty

25% above normal duty

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Application
screens, mixers, conveyors,
tank scrapers, etc. and process
plant

Tender Documents
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III.2 Part C: Electrical and Instrumentation Works

Up to 125 kW Drives
requirements

Above 125 kW Drives


requirements

The above percentages shall be added to the calculated power requirements for motors, prior to
making the necessary adjustments (increased ratings) for high ambient temperature at Site. A higher
percentage shall be added to the calculated power requirements for motors, if specified in the
appropriate machinery section of the Specification.
All motors shall be capable of developing a minimum starting torque of 150 per cent of the full load
torque. It may be necessary, however, to limit the starting torque on some drives and this shall be
achieved by the form of starter and method of starting.
The motors shall be commercially silent in operation and run free from vibration. The rotors shall be
balanced both statically and dynamically and shall be tested and adjusted for dynamic balance both in
an approved manner.
The site rating and normal ratings of all motors together with all performance data shall be provided to
complete all the various schedules of particulars.
All guaranteed and technical data shall be that for an ambient temperature of 35C, although all
proving tests at the manufacturer's works shall be carried out at ambient temperature. The declared
site rating at 40C shall be estimated by means of approved recognised methods, the manufacturer
shall provide derating curves for each motor and these shall be included in the maintenance
instructions. Where identical type and size motors are being supplied, one motor only shall be
subjected to full tests and the remaining units to abbreviated tests.
Terminal boxes shall be provided with glands suitable for XLPE or insulated wire armoured, PVC
sheathed cable. The motor stool base, where appropriate, shall be drilled at works, vertically below the
terminal box gland for the passage of the cables and the edges of the hole slightly countersunk or the
hole bushed.
Termination boxes and terminals shall be of suitable dimensions to accept appropriate oversized
cables in accordance with the schedules of particulars.
All motors drives shall be labelled to correspond with their respective starters.
Arrangements shall be made with the manufacturer so that the Engineer may witness motor tests if so
desired. Triplicate copies of motor test certificates shall be provided for approval. Additional copies
shall be provided and included in the Operating and Maintenance Instructions.
38.

EMERGENCY GENERATOR

Automatic and manual starting shall be provided via an electric starter, consisting of a motor, dynamo
and (lead) storage battery, having sufficient capacity for 6 consecutive start-ups without recharging.
The supply shall also include an automatic self-regulating battery charger, installed in the control
panel.
The instantaneous full-load insertion voltage drop shall not exceed 15% of the rated voltage.
Moreover, transients resulting from the following manoeuvres:
a) instantaneous insertion of maximum load
b) instantaneous disconnection of maximum load shall have a maximum duration of 5 seconds.
For this purpose, the transient is considered to have ceased when the voltage is within a tolerance of
+2.5.
During constant load operation, the residual harmonics in the voltage signal shall not exceed 5%.

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38.1.

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MOTOR

The primary motor shall be capable of supplying, at the specified conditions, a continuous power no
lower than 10% of the actual shaft power of the generator set.
The motor shall be a 4-stroke diesel engine with mechanical injection fuel with closed circuit of water
air cooling through a radiator.
The motor shall be supplied complete with all the accessories necessary for its proper operation
(continuously), and in particular with those listed below:
Flywheel, appropriately sized for the specified operating conditions.
Automatic speed governor, for maintaining a constant speed within a tolerance of +-1%, for variations
in load from 0 to 100%
a) Electric starter complete with motor and dynamo
b) Dray type air intake filter
c) Oil filter
d) Diesel filter
e) Diesel pump
f)

Duty cooled radiator

38.2.

ALTERNATOR

The alternator shall be of the self-regulating type, with a constant voltage under variations in load and
power factor, and static excitation.
It shall supply a continuous-duty rated output with power factor 0.8, at an ambient temperature of
40C. It shall have a drip proofed construction, and open-cycle self-ventilation with intake and exhaust
into the atmosphere.
38.3.

ACCESSORIES

The supply shall include all the necessary accessories for proper operation of the group, and in
particular:

39.

Lead and heavy duty battery with sufficient capacity for starting the thermal motor and
supplying the control and command circuits

Power supply for full battery recharging. The charger shall normally be supplied from the
mains, and in the event of an outage shall transfer to the generator set.

Exhaust piping, including special fittings for absorbing the thermal expansion and reducing the
noise level.

Oil pressure gauge

Water temperature gauge


CABLES

All cables used in the construction of the electrical installation unless otherwise specified, shall be
manufactured to comply with the relevant Vietnamese Standards:
All cables shall be of suitable voltage grade, with stranded copper conductors, selected for the climatic
conditions specified and shall be derated by the approved factors laid down in the latest issue of
relevant norms. The selection of all cables and derating factors shall be based on the followings:
i)

Ground Temperature

ii)

Thermal receptivity of soil

iii)

Cable depth L.V.: 0.7 metres

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Cable depth, control and Instrumentation: 0.7 metres


(iv)

Cable grouping in accordance with the relevant tables

(v)

Cable in air in accordance with the relevant tables.

Each cable shall be of sufficient rating for its duty under normal, fault and site installation conditions.
To assess the rating and crosssection required for each cable, the following factors must be
considered as a minimum:
i)

Fault level

ii)

Conditions of ambient temperature relevant to method of laying

iii)

Voltage drop

iv)

Voltage drop in motor circuits due to the starting method

v)

Over current settings of circuit breakers

vi)

Disposition of cabling, whether in air, ducts or trays / ladders.

Where cables are run in conduit any requirements of the EN standards must be complied with.
Where a neutral conductor is required, its crosssectional area shall not be less than that of the phase
conductors, unless otherwise specified. Each and every mains supply cable shall be provided with an
individual earth continuity conductor (PE), which shall be not less than that of the phase conductors,
unless otherwise specified. The PE conductor can either be one core of a multicore cable or a
separately run, PVC insulated (yellowgreen) stranded single core cable sized in accordance with the
EN standards. The use of cable armouring, conduits, water or other service pipes as the only means
of an earth continuity path is strictly prohibited.
Each cable shall be supplied in lengths suitable for a continuous run, as no through joints will be
permitted in any cable run without the prior consent and written permission from the Engineer.
Prior to dispatch to site, the supplier shall pass to the Engineer, in triplicate, copies of the cable
manufacturers test certificates for approval.
40.

EMERGENCY STOP PUSH BUTTONS

Emergency stop push buttons of the mushroom headed, stay put type shall be provided adjacent to all
motors as specified in EN 418 and EN 1050.
Once operated the motor shall remain locked out until both the push button twist to release
mechanism, and the emergency stop reset push button on the control panel have been operated.
The emergency stop push button shall be direct acting on the motor circuit, i.e. no intermediate
devices shall be utilised.
Emergency stop push buttons shall be mounted on a suitable framework arrangement at a height of
1m and in a position to be accessible for emergency operation by the works personnel.
41.

L.V. CABLES

All L.V. power cables shall be of the thermoplastic insulated type of either polyvinyl chloride (PVC) or
cross linked polythene (XLPE). These shall be manufactured in accordance with VDE 0271 or DIN
46235. They shall be of 600/1000V grade and comprise stranded copper conductor, PVC or XLPE
insulated with suitable bedding, steelwire armoured and sheathed overall with extruded PVC. Where
single core mains cables are to be installed these shall be provided with aluminium strip wire
armouring. All L.V. cables shall be from an approved manufacturer.
Steelwire armouring is required for underground cables.

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42.

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III.2 Part C: Electrical and Instrumentation Works

L.V. CABLES SMALL WIRING

Small wiring cables for use on power, lighting, ventilation etc. shall be 600 / 1,000 V grade and a
minimum conductor size of not less than 1.5 mm cross sectional area. All conductors shall be
stranded.
Steelwire armouring is required for underground cables.
43.

CONTROL AND INSTRUMENTATION CABLES

Control and instrumentation site cables shall be shielded and have polyethylene or PVC insulation.
These shall be manufactured in accordance with VDE and IEC norms as IEC 227. Each cable shall
have its individual cores identified along their entire length by permanently printed numerals or letters.
At every point of termination, core identification shall be carried out using an approved system of
ferrule markers. At points of interconnection of wiring at which a change of numbering is unavoidable
double ferrules shall be provided on each wire.
Any change of numbering shall be recorded on the wiring diagrams of the equipment at which the
change is made.
Where it is proposed to use junction boxes for the marshalling of control and instrumentation cables to
a common item of equipment, etc., any such junction box shall be of the wall mounting type, purpose
made, complete with double terminal blocks of the pressure plate pattern.
All incoming wires shall be identified with core ferrules in accordance with the system schematic and
cable diagrams. Prior to the installation of any junction box, the Contractor shall submit to the
Engineer full details of the box and proposals for its use and only commence installation on the receipt
of written approval from the Engineer.
Steelwire armouring is required for underground cables.
44.

CABLING METHOD FOR ELECTRICAL POWER

Every cable shall be installed in accordance with the relevant codes of practice and shall be neatly run
in all situations.
When more than one cable is to be terminated at an item of equipment, particular care should be
taken to ensure that cables to that equipment are routed from a common direction and each is
terminated in an orderly and symmetrical fashion. Each and every cable shall be permanently
identified at each end by its cable number, as noted within the schedules. The identification label shall
be of adequate size and style to a pattern approved by the Engineer and shall be securely fixed to its
relative cable.
Where cables enter or leave structures or panel plinths, the ducts shall be sealed at the points of entry
or exit. Caulking shall be carried out with an approved compound and followed by not less than 40 mm
of epoxy resin, two mixcold waterproof compounds or a weak sand / cement mixture as directed by
the Engineer. This shall include any spare ducts. The Contractor shall be responsible for temporarily
sealing all cable ducts into structures during the installation stage to prevent accidental flooding of the
structures.
During caulking care should be taken to ensure that the serving and/or armouring of any cable is not
damaged.
In the event of any armouring or serving fault being made it will be the responsibility of the Contractor
to repair or make good any such fault to the satisfaction of the Engineer. Where any such fault occurs,
these shall be made known to the Engineer and subsequently recorded on the final record drawings.
All power cables shall be connected to switchboards and the like, in such a manner that the correct
phase sequence, phase number and colour coding are preserved throughout the systems.
The PVC and XLPE insulated L.V. cables shall have their cores identified, as follows:
No.1 Phase
No.2 Phase
No.3 Phase

L1
L2
L3

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Neutral
Blue or N

Earth
Green or Green/Yellow
Single core power cables shall have their cores identified as follows:

Phase
Brown

Neutral
Blue

Earth
Green or Green/Yellow
All cable conductors shall be terminated in suitable copper lugs or brass thimbles using an approved
compression tool.
Under no circumstances shall the use of hand crimpers be permitted.
All cables shall be delivered on robust cable drums which shall bear the full details of manufacturer,
size, length and insulation and shall be offered to the Engineer for inspection prior to installation.
Straight through joints will not be permitted except where a route length is in excess of a maximum
drum length in which case the Engineer is to be notified.
At the terminals of rotating machines, each cable core shall have core ferrules to match the notation of
each connection terminal of each machine.
Wherever it is required to remove the PVC sheath of a cable e.g. at a point of termination, the
minimum length necessary shall be removed and the exposed conductor, sheath or armouring shall
be adequately covered by an adhesive PVC tape or a PVC sleeve.
All L.V. cables whilst on their drums shall be adequately sealed at each end against the ingress of
moisture.
When a cable is cut from a length on a drum the drum length shall be immediately sealed. All cables
once cut and laid shall be terminated in their final position or effectively sealed. All cables shall be
drawn from the top of its drum which shall be jacked and positioned for easy draw off in relation to its
final position of installation, where a long length of cable is drawn from its drum, cable rollers or skid
boards shall be used.
The general routing of cables shall be as generally indicated on the Contract drawings but the final
routes shall be those agreed with the Engineer prior to any cable installation work being carried out.
All cables shall be installed in strict accordance with the requirements of this Specification.
45.

CABLE TRENCH WORK

The contractor shall prepare drawings giving the exact requirements for all cable trenches, detailing
the width and depth of each trench and detailing road crossing cable ductwork to be provided. The
drawings shall be prepared in conjunction with the Engineer and shall be approved in writing before
issue to site.
The excavation and back filling of cable trench work shall form part of the work by a civil works
contractor together with the supply and laying of road crossing and other ducts. The Contractor shall
work closely with the excavating and back filling contractor (the civil works contractor).
The laying of all cables shall satisfy the following requirements:
i)

Cable depths shall be assessed from the finished ground level unless otherwise directed by the
Engineer

ii)

Before laying in cables the Contractor shall inspect the trenchwork to ensure that the trench
bottom is of a smooth and firm contour and free from broken stones or rocks

iii)

Cable bedding within the trenches shall be formed by a 75 mm sand layer

iv)

Cables shall be laid with adequate separation and shall be snaked to avoid tension during
backfilling operations and subsequent settlement

v)

Before sanding and backfilling, all laid cables shall be inspected by the Engineer and a further
inspection made following sanding and tiling

vi)

After cables have been laid, they shall be covered by a further 75 mm of sand which shall be

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well tamped around the cables.


vii)

After sanding, concrete cable covers and red warning tapes shall be placed as required

viii)

The civil works contractor shall carry out backfilling and the Contractor shall ensure that cable
covers are undisturbed and that large rocks, stones and the like are eliminated from backfill
spoil.

46.

CABLE TRAY WORK

The Contractor shall supply and erect all required cable tray work.
The following points are to be taken into account in selecting routes for cable trays:
i)

Number of drive, power and control cables to be located on each cable tray

ii)

Separate cable tray works for machinery (EN 60204-1) and building installations (IEC 364)

iii)

The avoidance of existing pipework and pipework required for future extensions

iv)

The avoidance of maintenance areas of machinery, pipes, etc.

v)

The avoidance of unnecessarily long runs of cable

vi)

Tray runs to be at high level as far as possible with droppers to plant items

vii)

The tray to be arranged vertically as far as possible.

The cable tray shall be manufactured from heavy duty, hot dip galvanized mild steel complete with
approved type fixings and installed in accordance with manufacturer's instructions to permit maximum
expansion.
Support brackets shall be constructed from galvanized steel, heavy duty type, and installed at a
maximum of 1,200 mm centres. Fixings of these brackets will depend on the tray loading.
Bends, tees and junction pieces shall be of standard design and have an inside radius of not less than
300 mm.
The trays shall be of adequate width for cables to be laid flat and not bunched.
All cables shall be saddled or cleated in position as they are installed along the route.
Cables on vertical trays shall be securely fixed at 600 mm maximum spacing. Cables on horizontal
trays shall be fixed at suitable intervals to ensure a neat and orderly installation.
Particular care should be taken on vertically rising tray work, and adequate cable fixings shall be
supplied to ensure security and distribution of load
47.

BUILDERS WORK

The Contractor shall be required to mark out all necessary holes and chases in the course of carrying
out the installation and be responsible for the correct positioning of all fixings. All cutting away and
grouting in of fixings in brick and concrete work and the making good shall be carried out by the
Contractor. The Contractor shall arrange for the general requirements necessary for the electrical
installation such as floor ducts, chases, etc., to be carried out at various stages of building work to
ensure continuity of construction. In all cases the Contractor shall drill and plug walls, ceilings, floors,
etc., and provide any special fixings for securing conduits, cables, etc.
48.

CONDUIT SYSTEMS

Approved conduit systems shall be rigid steel conduits with metric threads and for flexible steel
conduit and adaptors, as appropriate. All rigid steel conduit and fittings shall be screwed and hot dip
galvanized, inside and outside.
In all plant buildings and structures, conduit shall be fixed to the surface of the wall or concealed in the
floor screed when they cross the floor. Conduit shall be concealed in those locations where the wall or
ceiling finishes as shown on the drawings or detailed in specific clauses make this possible.

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All conduits shall be installed in an approved manner and arranged with adequate ventilation and
drainage where necessary. Where practicable, all bends or sets, shall be formed in the conduit itself.
Inaccessible junction boxes shall not be used.
The whole of the conduit system shall be completely swapped through to remove any loose matter or
dirt before cables are drawn in. Where conduits connect to switch boxes, draw-in boxes, etc., the
conduits must have a machined faced socket, screwed on to the end which when tightened, is flush
with the outside of the box. The conduit is then to be secured to the apparatus by means of a hexagon
smooth bore brass bush screwed from the inside of the apparatus into the conduit socket, in order to
make a sound and tight mechanical joint. Conduits secured by locknuts in plain drilled holes will not be
permitted.
All exposed threads shall be cold galvanized after installation.
Surface run conduits shall be supported at intervals in accordance with the following schedule:
Size
[mm]

Interval
[m]

20

1.2

25

2.0

30

2.5

Where bends and sets occur in the conduit run, the conduit shall be securely fastened at a distance of
250 mm on either side of the diversion.
Standard junction or adaptable boxes shall be provided at all junctions and at sharp changes of
direction, in addition to any special positions where they are called for by the Engineer. Steel or
malleable cast iron inspection couplers may be used in long runs to facilitate drawing in cables.
Only continuous lengths of buried conduit shall be installed between boxes, no joint boxes being
allowed in the floor screeds. Conduits crossing expansion joints shall be fitted with couplings of
approved manufacture, with an earthing clip at each side of the coupling, connected by the correct
size of tinned copper stranded wire.
The ends of conduits laid or set in formwork prior to concreting, shall be temporarily sealed off with a
coupler and a solid brass plug.
Installations of conduits shall be made on the exterior surface of buildings shall be done only after
acceptance of the Engineer.
Fixing to surfaces of walls shall be by means of spacer bar saddles securely fixed by screws. Where
conduits are concealed or laid in construction floors they shall be held in position with substantial
fixings of make and pattern approved by the Engineer.
Conduit shall be of the screwed pattern galvanized by the hot dip process. All conduit fittings not
carrying accessories shall be supplied with flat covers, fixed in position with round head brass screws.
Each fitting shall be supplied with a neoprene gasket.
Adaptable boxes shall be constructed of minimum 3 mm sheet steel or best quality cast iron, finished
as previously detailed for conduit fittings and sized to prevent the undue packing of cables.
Weather proof boxes and accessories shall be used outdoors, and where indicated in the
Specification.
Conduit shall be installed such as to permit complete rewiring, without the need to carry out builders
works. No single conduit serving single phase socket outlets, lighting points and switches shall contain
more than one phase.

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FLEXIBLE CONDUITS

Where the conduit system terminates at any equipment requiring a nonrigid connection, a flexible
conduit shall be installed of the PVC or PVC sheathed metallic type, fully watertight with purpose
made connection adaptors.
Each flexible connection shall include not less than 400 mm length of flexible conduit.
50.

LIGHTING SWITCHES

Indoor surface switches shall be of minimum enclosure standard IP44. Where appropriate, they shall
be of the multiple phase type and where possible shall be arranged in multigang boxes.
Outdoor lighting switches shall be of minimum enclosure standard IP54. Rear entry shall be provided
to allow concealed conduit installation.
Switches for flush mounting shall comply with Vietnamese standards.
Switches controlling fittings in toilets, washrooms, bathrooms, etc., shall be suitable for ceiling
mounting, pull cord operated or shall be in accordance with this clause and installed outside the
rooms.
Special care shall be taken to ensure that all switches are securely fixed, truly vertical and that flush
mounted switches are flush with the wall finish so that the overlapping cover plates seat on to the rims
of the boxes.
51.

LIGHTING FITTINGS

Lighting fittings shall be complete with all supports, suspensions, flexible cables, pendants and plugs.
They shall be connected to the main circuit wiring with flexible cables of a minimum conductor size of
1.5 mm insulated with silicon rubber or PVC.
Break joint rings shall be used in conjunction with batten holders, ceiling roses or back plates mounted
on to a flush installation.
Standard fluorescent lighting fittings shall have two suspension fixing points. All sockets for flexible
pendants shall be of the all-insulated skirted pattern with cord grips suitable for batten or wall
mounting and shall be of similar pattern. All sockets shall be of the Edison screw pattern.
All fluorescent tubes shall be of an approved manufacture and standard white. They shall be suitable
for the lighting fittings in which they are installed and of correct voltage.
All incandescent lamps shall be of an approved manufacture with metal coil filaments, gas filled, clear
finish in all standard sizes with standard caps to suit the fittings in which they are installed.
The Contractor shall supply and install all lamps for the entire lighting fitting installation, and shall
replace all burned out lamps up to the time that the Engineer takes final acceptance of the Works. The
lighting layouts and fittings shall be approved by the Engineer.
52.

SOCKET OUTLETS

Socket outlets for installation in plant areas shall be manufactured by an approved manufacturer and
in accordance with relevant Vietnamese Standards. Casings shall be produced from a thermoplastic
material suitable for industrial application.
i)

220 Volt sockets, shall be nonswitched, 10 amp, 2 pole & PE and IP 54

ii)

380 Volt sockets shall be switched, mechanically interlocked, 16 amp, 3 pole and neutral and
PE. Protection enclosure IP 54.

53.

CONTROL CABINETS

Where local starter panels are called for, each shall be provided with a fully metal or reinforced glass
fibre construction cabinet. The cabinets shall be adequately sized to house the respective panels and
be provided with front opening, hinged, lockable, access doors. Back panels shall be of a durable
material. The base of the cabinet shall be complete with a gland plate and the necessary ventilation
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devices. Construction shall be to a minimum of IP54. The requirement of control cabinets should be
approved by the Engineer.
54.

DISTRIBUTION BOARDS

All distribution boards shall be of totally enclosed, metal clad pattern, manufactured in accordance with
IEC 439-3.
The enclosure shall be made from zinc coated mild steel sheet formed to a clean line and complete
with a lockable hinged cover with gasket. Removable plates with conduit knockouts shall be provided
at top and bottom.
The maximum height of any operating controls shall not exceed 1,700 mm above finished floor level.
All distribution boards shall be complete with an isolator of the rating and phase as the fuse switch at
the supply source.
Doors shall be fitted with suitable gaskets and shall be easily removable to preserve the finish and
simplify installation. Each distribution board shall be arranged for top or bottom cable entry and shall
be provided with ample cable termination plate and chamber, to enable cables to be neatly glanded
with tails grouped and terminated on to the appropriate internal terminations.
Distribution boards shall be wall or floor mounted and shall, when specified, incorporate on-load
incoming supply switch disconnectors complying with EN 60947-1 which shall be of the front-of-panel
operated type, with an "ON/OFF" indicator and capable of being padlocked in the "OFF" position.
Distribution boards shall incorporate cartridge fuses, or combinations of single pole and neutral and
triple pole miniature circuit breakers.
Miniature circuit breakers (MCB's) shall comply with relevant EN or IEC norms. They shall be fitted
with thermal overload and instantaneous magnetic short circuit protection. Earth leakage protection,
when specified, shall be current operated
Back-up fuses shall be fitted to provide the specified rupturing capacity, but the ratings of the MCB's
must be correctly co-ordinated with the fuse rating to achieve the necessary degree of discrimination.
Each bank of MCB's / fuses shall be clearly identified with its appropriate phase reference/code, and
the mounting framework for the banks of MCB's / fuses shall be easily removable to simplify
installation. Adequate phase barriers and shields shall be fitted to ensure that after installation and
wiring, all bare terminals and wires are covered, to prevent accidental contact with live conductors
during the normal procedure of fuse changing and resetting of MCB's.
All neutral bars shall have a separate terminal for each fuseway within the distribution boards.
55.

EARTHING GENERAL

The metal framework of all electrical and associated equipment, exposed building steelwork, metal
enclosures and associated screenings, supports, doors and any other metalwork that is not normally
used to conduct electricity shall be effectively earthed at all times. Particular care shall be taken where
moving parts are involved that they are earthed in any normal position, e.g., circuit breaker carriage,
cubicle or substation door. A suitable flexible connection shall be provided for continuity between each
and every moving part.
56.

EARTHING SYSTEMS

A main earth terminal bar shall be provided for each earthing system of each section of the power
system or building installation to which all main earth conductors, earthing leads, neutral earth
connections, switchboard earth bars, frame earths, and electrode nests, etc. shall be connected.
Connections shall be readily accessible for test purposes.
Each main earth terminal bar shall comprise a wall mounted mild steel channel supported on non
ceramic insulators and of a length to accommodate all connections.
Earthing and equipotential bonding conductors of each earthing installation shall be a ring or radial
system and shall be adequately sized for maximum fault current and the minimum cross section
requirements of main earthing systems shall be 25 mm.
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The armour wires on main cables shall be solidly bonded and earthed to provide additional earth
paths. Particular care shall be taken on cable termination boxes, to ensure that the cable armour is
adequately bonded to the associated item or plant.
Particular care shall be taken to ensure earth continuity across items of equipment situated within a
cable run. Should the design of such equipment not give an adequate and lasting continuity through its
structural body, then additional earthing clamps and conductors shall be provided to independently
bond the cable sheaths together.
Joints and terminal boxes in underground cables (if approved by the Engineer) shall be bridged by
tinned copper of adequate cross section, bonded to the cable sheath.
Earthing systems shall be performed according to DIN / EN and Vietnamese norms.
57.

PROTECTION OF EARTHING SYSTEMS

The complete earthing system shall be protected against damage by corrosion where necessary.
58.

LIGHTNING PROTECTION

58.1.

STRUCTURES AND BUILDINGS

All structures and buildings shall be provided with lightning protection in accordance with relevant
EN/IEC and Vietnamese Standards. Each structure shall be provided with one or more lightning
arresters mounted at the highest point.
Lightning conductors shall be routed as directly as possible avoiding acute bends. The installation
shall generally comply with the requirements for earthing conductor installation.
58.2.

LIGHTNING PROTECTION DEVICES FOR PLANTS

The contractor shall provide lightning and surge protection devices at each area of plant as detailed in
the particular specification. This shall ensure isolation and automatic resetting of the parts of the
system being subjected to high surge currents, devices shall be unfused.
Lightning protection shall be selected to provide the highest degree of protection possible, for the
circuit being protected, i.e. the clamp voltage shall be the lowest possible commensurate with normal
operation of the circuit.
The type and manufacture of the Lightning Protection Unit shall be approved by the Engineer.
Each lightning protection unit shall be earthed to an individual earth electrode, as directly as possible,
without inductive loops and equipotential bonding to the nearest earth reference bar. A single
unjointed earth cable shall be utilized.
Individual lightning protection units shall bolt directly onto a lightning earth bus bar. Cables and cores
containing the circuits to be protected shall not be looped or grouped together until the circuits subject
to induced lightning energy have passed through the protection units.
Where two or more lightning protection units are mounted on the same DIN rail mounted earth bar, the
earth cable shall be sized as follows:
a)

Cable length less than 6 metres - 10 mm

b)

Cable length greater than 6 metres - 16 mm

The whole assembly shall be mounted inside an insulated box, if not already mounted separately from
other equipment, close to the chosen earth termination in order to achieve a short, straight connection.
Lightning protection units which are mounted in an enclosure supplied with an ac electrical power
supply which utilize DIN rail mounted earth bars shall have the earth bars insulated by means of a
proprietary stand off, or the DIN rail insulated in an approved manner from the electrical power earth
or any earthed conducting surface.
The route for the earth conductor system shall be as far away as possible from the vicinity of signaland LV cables.

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The earth conductor shall be copper, no smaller than 16 mm in section, and its route shall be as short
and direct as possible, in any case no longer than 10 metres. The cable run shall be straight, but any
bends that are necessary shall have a long radius.
The earth termination and the method of connection shall be approved by the Engineer.
58.3.

EARTH ELECTRODES

The contractor shall provide an earth electrode system in each cases where lightning protection unit,
Motor Control Centre, control board, distribution board etc. provides for the facility of lightning surge
diversion equipment. The system shall be equipotential bonding to the main protective conductor
system at the common point of connection of the distribution system which it serves.
Earth electrode systems shall be provided where specified in the particular specification. Where
lightning protection is specified to be provided, the contractor shall provide an earth electrode system
in full accordance with the relevant code of practice.
58.4.

EARTH ELECTRODE INSTALLATIONS

Earth electrode installations shall connect earthing conductors to the general mass of the earth. The
installation shall comprise earth rods, mesh or a combination in order to obtain the required earth
electrode resistance.
Earth rods shall be of proprietary manufacture 16 mm outer diameter, made up of sections of 1.2
metres long with internal screw and socket joints and fitted with a hardened steel tip and driving cap.
They shall be driven into the ground to a minimum depth of 2.4 metres.
A minimum of two earth rods or other electrode shall be provided by the contractor for each main
earthing system, and the conductor brought back to the main earth bus-bar for each.
Connections to the electrodes shall be made as to be easily accessible for periodic inspection and
shall be protected against mechanical damage and corrosion. The actual connection to the earth rod
shall be by means of a purpose made non-ferrous clamp and shall be made below ground level, in a
concrete inspection pit, having a removable cover.
When the installation has been completed, soil receptivity or other tests shall be carried out and
witnessed by the Engineer, in order to ensure that the required earth loop impedance figure of less
than 5 ohms is attained.
58.5.

BATTERIES

All battery cells shall be either nickel iron, nickel cadmium or metal hydride structure and a
polycarbonate case. All batteries shall be protected by suitable enclosures from mechanical damage
and any accidental electric shorting.
58.6.

BATTERY CHARGERS

Battery chargers shall be housed in sheet steel, floor mounted, ventilated cabinets, constructed in
accordance with relevant EN and IEC norms. Batteries shall not be housed above charger units or any
other equipment, and shall be so ventilated that gases do not permeate into any equipment mounted
above.
Units shall be complete with a self adjusting constant potential, trickle charger suitable for operating
from a 220 Volt single phase AC supply. Chargers shall be rated to continuously energise relay coils
and lamps as applicable. Chargers shall be designed to maintain a constant voltage to within 3 per
cent irrespective of mains voltage or frequency variation. Booster charge Works shall be included.
Units shall be fitted with the following:
1 No.

Supply ''ON'' indicating lamp

1 No.

ON/OFF Switch

1 No.

Charger Ammeter

1 No.

Selector Switch

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i)

Off

ii)

Standby only

iii)

Charge only

iv)

Standby and charge

1 No.

Charger failure relay

1 No.

Set of cable terminals

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In an easily accessible position on the cabinet:


1 No.

Set AC Fuses

1 No.

Set DC Fuses

Batteries shall be of the correct voltage and of adequate capacity to operate the equipment with which
they are associated. Separate battery/charger combinations shall be used for each function, i.e. alarm
batteries shall not be used for breaker tripping, etc.
When the selector switch is in position (iv) the unit shall be capable of charging and supplying DC
power simultaneously.
59.

LABELS

All external and internal labels shall be engraved multi-layered plastic affixed with chrome plated
screws.
Each switchboard, control panel, distribution board, compartment door, etc., shall have a title label and
each door mounted component or control shall have a function label.
Every internal component shall be identified and each fuse shall be labelled with identification, fuse
type, fuse current.
Compartments with doors not interlocked to an isolator or removable covers having access to live
parts shall have an external label affixed thereto: -"DANGER LIVE TERMINALS" - black letters on a
yellow background.
A list of label inscriptions shall be submitted to the Engineer for approval before manufacture.
Notwithstanding that wording of labels and notices and suchlike in this Section is written in English, all
danger and warning labels throughout the Works shall be provided in both Vietnamese and English.
60.

GENERAL INSTRUMENTATION, MONITORING AND CONTROL REQUIREMENTS

60.1.

INSTRUMENTATION, MONITORING AND CONTROL

The Clauses in this Section define the general requirements and standards of workmanship for the
manufacture, supply, installation and commissioning of all instrumentation, monitoring and control
equipment (excluding switchgear and motor control centres) and shall be applicable to these Works
unless stated to the contrary in the application clauses.
Where components or equipment forming part of the instrumentation, monitoring and control
installation are not defined by Clauses in this Section, then the requirements of Particular Technical
Requirements shall apply.
The requirements of Section 1.1 (General Requirements) shall, where appropriate, apply to all aspects
of Instrumentation, Monitoring and Control.
60.2.

CONTRACTORS RESPONSIBILITY

The Contractor shall be responsible for:


i)

all aspects of design, application and, where applicable, subsequent operation of the
equipment, monitoring facilities and control circuits in accordance with the requirements of this
Specification,

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ii)

liaison between sub-contractors to ensure complete compatibility of all equipment at both


component and system interface levels,

iii)

overall systems engineering to ensure that all equipment, components and systems together
form a consistent, rational and fully integrated instrumentation, monitoring and control
installation,

iv)

ensuring that each system is handed over complete in all detail and in perfect working order,

v)

the supply and installation of all components including signal isolators, amplifiers, converters,
filters, line/equipment protection devices, voltage stabilisers, inverters, power supplies and
similar items which may be necessary to achieve the correct functions as specified in the
application clauses and to provide a safe and reliable installation; whether or not such items are
specifically called for in the Specification,

vi)

providing protection on all relevant circuits and equipment against the effects of lightning and
other induced voltages.

vii)

the supply and installation of all interlocks, alarms and other facilities as the Engineer, may
consider necessary to ensure safe and efficient operation ensure safe and efficient operation
whether or not such items are specifically called for in the Specification.

The approval by the Engineer of any drawing shall not absolve the Contractor from his complete
design responsibility.
60.3.

GENERAL DESIGN REQUIREMENTS

The equipment shall be guaranteed suitable for operation under the prevailing environmental
conditions and shall be designed:
i)

such that routine and occasional maintenance throughout its life shall be a practical minimum,
compatible with the preservation of maximum reliability,

ii)

to withstand the electrical, mechanical, thermal and atmospheric stresses to which it may be
subjected under operational conditions, without deterioration or failure,

iii)

and constructed to the highest available standards of manufacture, reliability, accuracy and
repeatability.

Where more than one component or item of equipment is supplied to perform a particular function, all
such items shall be identical and interchangeable.
The degree of protection for equipment enclosures shall be in accordance with IEC529 as follows:
iv)

IP54 for indoor applications,

v)

IP65 for outdoor applications,

vi)

IP68 for transducers and other equipment mounted within valve or meter chambers or similar
locations.

All equipment cabinets shall have lockable doors and any ventilation openings or louvres shall have
effective dust filters. Any cooling fans shall have fan failure alarm contacts connected into the relevant
alarm system.
External equipment shall be protected from direct sunlight by a well ventilated cabinet, canopy or other
approved type of sunshade.
Equipment in air conditioned locations shall be rated for continuous operation in ambient temperature
up to 45C. External equipment and internal equipment not in air conditioned locations shall be rated
for continuous operation over the ambient temperature range 0C to 50C. The above temperatures
make no allowance for local temperature rises due to operation of the equipment itself or by adjacent
equipment.
All equipment shall be protected against aggressive and/or corrosive environment.

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All instruments shall be installed in the locations shown on the Contractors drawings and where
connections are to be made into pipelines, each installation shall be complete with the necessary
manifolds, isolating valves, drain valves, test points, sample cocks, etc., as appropriate. In all cases it
shall be possible to isolate and remove the instrument, and fit check gauges, or take samples as
appropriate.
All panel indicator lamps shall have a lamp test facility.
60.4.

INSTALLATION APPROVAL

Where there is no detail in the Specification or associated drawings regarding the exact location or
method of installation of measuring equipment, sensors, or other site mounted equipment, the
Contractor shall submit details of his proposed installation to the Engineer for approval and obtain this
approval before starting any installation work.
Test Certificates, including characteristics covering the full operating range of measured variable
against output signal, shall be provided for all instruments or sets of equipment measuring primary
quantities.
Site testing shall include demonstration of the satisfactory operation of each system individually and
the complete system as whole, before the start of main plant commissioning.
As an integral part of the setting to work and commissioning procedures, the Contractor shall ensure
and demonstrate, to the Engineer's approval, that all items of equipment incorporating any form of
variable setting (level electrodes, float switches, transmitters, trip amplifiers, meter relays, controllers,
timer etc) have been adjusted to achieve optimum control of the process or plant operation.
60.5.

CABLES AND CABLING

All cables necessary for the complete installation shall be provided and installed in accordance with
the requirements of Section 1.3.
All signal and control cables shall be shielded.
All signal and control cables for PLC shall be shielded.
All multipair cables, except those connected to remotely controlled actuators, shall include a
minimum of 25% spare cores. This spare capacity shall be over and above any cores which may be
required for proposed future installations or extensions. Spare cores in addition to the above may be
required in some cables to cater for the spare alarm channels.
There shall be a separate multi-core cable between each motorised valve actuator and the local
distribution enclosure or control panel. All such cables shall include a minimum of 2 No. spare cores
except those associated with actuators having remote control which shall have a minimum of 12 No.
cores.
All cores, even spare cores, in the cables shall be connected to terminals in both ends.
60.6.

INSTRUMENTATION AND CONTROL

All instrumentation, monitoring and control circuits and equipment shall be supplied at a voltage not
exceeding 55 volts to earth. These supplies shall be from one of the following:
i)

a battery / charger unit, typically of 24 Volt nominal output, but under no circumstances
exceeding 48 volts nominal output,

ii)

a double wound transformer having a fused primary, a 55055 Volt secondary with the centre
point earthed and each secondary line fused,

iii)

a transformer / rectifier system, comprising a double wound transformer with a fused primary
and a secondary having one end earthed, together with a full wave rectifier unit incorporating
voltage stabilisation if necessary. The mean voltage of the rectified output shall not exceed the
nominal output from the instrumentation battery/charger units.

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Equipment such as battery/chargers, no break and control power supplies, inverters etc. shall be
supplied as necessary to maintain the required electrical supplies to essential instrumentation,
monitoring and control systems which are to be kept in operation during a mains power failure. The
essential equipment to be maintained during a power failure shall include mimic diagrams, alarm
systems, data acquisition equipment and flow measuring, indicating, recording, integrating equipment
or as otherwise detailed in the application clauses.
60.6.1.

Remote Control Supplies

On remote control/indication circuits (such as occur with valves, penstocks, etc.) DC voltages and
relays shall be used in all cases where the cable capacitance could be of sufficient magnitude to
maintain AC relays in an energised state. The Contractor shall be responsible for establishing where
such DC operation of control/indication circuits is required and for providing a suitable supply (as in
Clause 1.4.7 (iii) above) at locations where instrumentation battery / charger supply is not available.
60.7.

CONSTRUCTION OF PANELS

All panels, cubicles, cabinets, consoles, and desks together with any other types of enclosure
(excluding motor control centres and switchgear) which form part of the instrumentation, monitoring
and control installation shall comply with the requirements of this Clause, and of Clauses 1.4.9 and
1.4.10 covering panel wiring, equipment and terminals.
Removable earthed, metal gland plates shall be provided to accommodate all incoming/outgoing
cables, and shall be fitted not less than 250 mm. above the floor level.
All equipment, other than front of panel items, shall be mounted on racks or fixing bars and not directly
onto the panels.
Each enclosure shall be vermin proof and dust proof with the necessary provisions made for natural or
forced ventilation.
All panel construction and arrangement details shall be approved before manufacture, and panels
shall be subject to inspection.
60.7.1.

Panels for Outdoor Use

All instrumentation and control cubicles, kiosks etc. designed for use outside shall be manufactured
having walls of double skinned, resin bonded fibreglass, with a totally encapsulated infill of noncorroding alloy.
Box section steel shall be encapsulated into door edges and door frames. Hinges shall be of high
tensile, noncorroding alloy with stainless steel pins and through fixing bolts. Large plane surfaces
shall have adequate reinforcing to ensure rigidity.
The doors shall be complete with latching handles and locks. All door catches and locks shall latch
onto steel reinforced surfaces. The door sill shall be protected by a noncorroding alloy material.
Colour impregnated gel coats backed by coloured resin shall be used to ensure maintenance free and
"colour fast" finishes. The finish colour, both internal and external shall be gloss white.
Door mounted meters and transparent windows shall be of glass, which shall be protected from
harmful direct sunshine by orientation or other approved means.
All internal equipment shall be mounted on supports built into the fibreglass structure. Fixing bolts
through the skin will not be accepted.
Each cubicle shall be constructed to provide environmental protection to IP55.
60.8.

PANEL WIRING AND EQUIPMENT

The requirements of this Clause shall apply to all cubicles, desks, cabinets, mimic diagrams etc. being
provided as part of the instrumentation, monitoring and control installation, but not motor control
centres or switchgear.

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60.8.1.

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Panel Wiring

Panel wiring shall be carried out using cable according to the appropriate DIN, installed in a neat,
systematic manner, securely fixed and supported on insulated cleats or trunking, and arranged so as
not to impede access to any internally mounted equipment.
For all cables, the sizing shall be fully adequate for the possible maximum loading, and derating shall
be applied as appropriate for cable bunching and ambient temperature.
Identification ferrules shall be fitted to both ends of all wires, and shall be of the full circle type,
threaded onto the cable such that all numerals are in line, and read outwards from the terminal.
Where stranded conductors are used, each end shall be fitted with a sleeved termination lug.
Terminations shall be restricted to one wire per terminal.
Cabling to door mounted equipment shall be protected in flexible cable conduit(s) and cleated to form
a loom with a loop of adequate length to allow easy door opening without causing strain to the
components or cable.
Sharp edges of cubicles, trunking, components etc., which may be in contact with cables, shall be
protected to avoid damage to cable insulation.
60.8.2.

Panel Protection

All terminals and all live parts (on equipment) which are or may be at a voltage in excess of 55 volts
(nominal) to earth, shall be enclosed by a protective cover, and carry a warning label stating the actual
voltage.
For panels and enclosures covered under this section, the maximum potential between any two points
within the panel or enclosure shall not exceed 250 Volts.
Terminals and equipment which are supplied from other sources and which may remain live when the
panel isolators are opened, shall be adequately protected and clearly labelled to this effect.
Adequate fuse protection for circuits and subcircuits shall be provided and arranged such that any
fuse failure causes the minimum disruption to controls and indications, and that any such fuse failure
cannot create an unsafe operating condition. Fuses shall be of the HRC cartridge type and be
mounted within fuse carriers. Ceramic fuse carriers and bases will not be accepted. All neutral links
shall be bolted connections.
60.8.3.

Panel Earthing

A copper earthing bar shall be provided and bonded electrically to the main frame. It shall be provided
with suitable brass screw terminals for the connection of the metal cladding, instrument frames, gland
plates, cable tray, the armouring of all incoming cables and the site earthing system.
60.8.4.

Panel Heating

Each enclosure shall be fitted with one or more heaters to prevent condensation and assist ventilation.
The heaters shall be so arranged and located that no deterioration can be caused to any equipment or
wiring. The surface temperature of any part which may be accidentally contacted shall not exceed
65C. The heating circuit shall be supplied via a fuse, an isolator and an Off/Auto switch. In the "Off"
position the heater shall isolated and in the "Auto" position the heater shall be controlled by a
thermostat or humidistat. All switches and controls shall be mounted within the enclosure.
60.8.5.

Panel Equipment

A fuse and isolating switch shall be provided for each incoming AC and DC supply.
Each switch board other than terminal enclosures shall be complete with a distribution unit providing
an adequate number of fused outlets at 220 Volts for possible future requirements.
Cubicles for PLC shall be equipped with a two-way outlet 220 V, and a fluorescent lamp 18 W,
automatic switch-on when the door is open. Both the outlet and the lamp shall be fused in the LV
distribution board.
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All items of equipment mounted within the enclosure such as relays, electrical transducers, indicators,
recorders, switch fuses, terminals etc. shall be arranged so as to provide easy access, be securely
fixed and clearly labelled as to their function, designation, and where applicable, the voltage.
Where meters and recorders are mounted on vertical front panels, the height of the instrument
centrelines shall be within the following limits above finished floor level:

60.9.

Indicating meters:

1.35 m min. and 1.90 m. max.

Recorders:

1.45 m min. and 1.85 m. max.

TERMINALS AND TERMINATION

Terminals for the connection of all incoming/outgoing cables shall be provided and comprise anti
tracking mouldings of melamine, phenolic or comparable material fitted on a purposebuilt mounting
rail. The conductors shall be secured by screw clamps or bars, but not pinch screws.
All terminals used on circuits not exceeding 55 volts (nominal) to earth, excluding power supplies and
auxiliary drives, shall be of the disconnecting link type.
Every terminal shall carry a clear identity number. Terminals at different voltages shall be grouped
separately, and each group shall be clearly labelled with its respective voltage and function. Each
group shall be segregated with a proprietary barrier to give a physical separation of 2 mm minimum.
Transparent protective covers complete with a voltage warning label shall be provided on all terminals
which are, or may be, at a voltage in excess of 55 volts (nominal) to earth.
Sufficient terminals shall be provided for terminating all cores of all cables (including spares)
associated with the particular enclosure. The number of terminals shall be sufficient to cater for all
anticipated requirements plus 20 per cent spare terminals and 30 per cent spare terminal rail. A
minimum of 5 terminals and 50 mm of spare terminal rail shall be provided.
Terminals for connecting to incoming/outgoing cables shall be mounted vertically wherever possible,
arranged to provide easy access and to enable ferrule numbers to be read without difficulty. Direct
termination onto such equipment as distribution boards, fuses or miniature circuit breakers is not
acceptable.
Terminal rails shall be backplate mounted only, the mounting of terminal rails on the sides, bottom or
top of cubicles shall not be allowed under any circumstances.
60.10.

LABELS

All external labels for panels and other items where specified shall be clear perspex, back engraved,
filled and back painted the same colour as the panel. All labels shall have chamfered edges and shall
be fixed with chrome plated screws or adhesive with two-component glue (epoxy).
All internal labels shall be engraved multilayered plastic fixed with chrome plated screws.
Every internal component shall be identified and each fuse shall be labelled with the identification
reference, fuse type and fuse current rating.
Panels with doors not interlocked to an isolator giving complete protection shall have a label affixed to
the door: DANGER LIVE TERMINALS with black letters on a yellow background. The relevant
voltage shall be stated.
All labels shall be in Vietnamese and English.
A list of labels with Vietnamese and English inscriptions shall be submitted to the Engineer for
approval before manufacture.
All socket outlets shall be clearly labelled to indicate their respective operating voltages. All junction
boxes shall be clearly labelled to indicate the relevant cable reference numbers.

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60.11.

Tender Documents
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III.2 Part C: Electrical and Instrumentation Works

CONTROL BATTERY / CHARGER EQUIPMENT

This Clause covers the requirements for batteries and chargers, specified in the application clauses
for the operation of control, instrumentation, alarm and monitoring equipment, but not for switchgear
tripping/closing batteries or other special function batteries.
Where alternative A.C. supplies are available, provision shall be made for taking the supply to the
battery charger from either source (e.g. from either side of the bussection switch) with facilities for
automatic change over from one source to the other in the event of failure of the supply source.
The battery and charger unit shall where possible form a composite unit and be housed in a single
sheet steel, floor standing cubicle having adequate ventilation and separate compartments for the
batteries (lower compartment) and chargers (upper compartment). Access to the batteries shall be via
lockable, hinged doors, and to the chargers via removable covers.
60.11.1.

Batteries

The batteries shall be of the nickel cadmium type having alkaline electrolyte with a nominal output of
24 volts, and shall be of adequate capacity to maintain full operation of the relevant load equipment
plus an additional 10 per cent, for a period of 2 hours during mains failure, assuming a normal charge
condition at the start of the mains failure.
The battery cases shall be made of polypropylene or similar translucent material such that the
electrolyte level can be seen through the battery casing.
All batteries shall be suitable for the intended service under the prevailing site conditions without
excessive gassing or loss of electrolyte.
60.11.2.

Battery Chargers

Duplicate chargers one duty and one Standby, shall be provided and mounted on their own
respective chassis in the upper cubicle compartment.
The controls for each charger shall be mounted on their own respective mounting plate and these,
together with all controls and indicators projecting through the front of the upper compartment shall be
positioned at a height not exceeding 1800 mm from floor level.
The front panel of each charger unit shall include:

1 No. ON/OFF Mains Isolator

1 No. Lamp to indicate A.C. Supply On (White)

1 No. Charger Ammeter.

1 No. Lamp to indicate Boost Charge (Red)

1 No. Lamp to indicate Float Charge (White)

1 No. Lamp to indicate Charger Failed (Amber)

1 No. Lamp test pushbutton.

Each charger unit shall also be provided with:

1 No. Float/Boost selector switch mounted internally.

1 No. Set of A.C. supply fuses.

1 No. Voltfree contact for duty charger failed alarm.

1 No. Voltfree contact for low D.C. output voltage alarm.

1 No. Voltfree contact for loss of D.C. output voltage alarm.

The above voltfree contacts shall open under fault conditions and be wired to a terminal block.

The following items of common equipment shall also be provided and mounted on the front panel:

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1 No. D.C. output voltmeter, scaled to indicate regions of Low, Normal and High output
voltages, by the use of different coloured sectors.

1 No. D.C. output isolator Switch.

1 No. D.C. output Ammeter

1 No. Duty/Standby selector switch (labelled No.1 Duty, No.2 Standby/No.2 Duty No. 1 Standby).

The battery charger unit shall also be provided with one set of full capacity rated output D.C. terminals
and fuses.
In the event of failure of the duty selected charger, the standby charger shall be connected
automatically and contacts for the remote alarm indication shall be provided. The alarm indicating
failure of the duty charger unit shall remain on until the failed charger has been repaired and returned
to operation.
Reversion from "Standby" to "Duty" charger shall be a manual operation. The chargers shall be of the
solid state constant potential type, and shall be designed to regulate the charger output voltage to
within 1 per cent for a mains input voltage variation of 6 per cent.
The D.C. terminal voltage shall be further regulated such that under "Float" or "Boost" charge
condition the D.C. voltage does not rise to more than 10% above the nominal.
The charger unit shall also be provided with both short circuit and reverse polarity protection.
The charger when selected to "Float" shall be capable of restoring the battery to 75% capacity within
78 hours.
Under "Boost" condition the charger shall be capable of restoring a fully discharged battery to 75%
capacity within 45 hours.
All internal and external components shall be labelled in accordance with Clause 1.4.11.
The cabinet shall be manufactured in accordance with Clauses 1.4.8 and 1.4.8.1 but with additional
treatment to the interior surfaces to prevent any corrosion by battery chemicals and with
environmental protection to IP32.
Internal wiring and equipment shall be in accordance with Clause 1.4.9.
For each battery/charger unit the Contractor shall supply a set of maintenance tools, equipment and
spares, and for nonsealed batteries this shall include a resealable, 2 litre container of electrolyte, a
pouring device and hydrometer; all of which shall be contained and secured within the charger
cabinet.
The Contractor shall fix inside the cubicle a wiring diagram indicating and identifying all outgoing
terminals, components and fuses.
Special precautions shall be taken in the sizing of the battery and charger for tropical use, and all
equipment shall be adequately rated for the prevailing site conditions.
60.12.

TEST INSTRUMENTS

The manufacturer shall satisfy the Engineer as to the accuracy of all the instruments used for the tests
and if required shall produce recent calibration tests, or otherwise have them calibrated at his own
expense by an independent authority.
Kilowatt- and kilovar hour meters shall be checked for correct rotation and creep tests shall be carried
out to ensure that the meter is inoperative with voltage alone if the secondary of the current
transformers is left connected with the primary current interrupted.
60.13.

FACILITIES INSPECTION, TEST AND GUARANTEES

Schedules of Particulars shall be prepared for the following items by the Bidder with Guaranteed
Particulars and efficiencies of the equipment offered at the duties specified, and these will be binding
and may not be varied except with the consent in writing of the Engineer.

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Full witness testing to the relevant standards and to prove guarantees given will be required for the
following items:
All Pumps with capacities of more than 15 l/s
All Control/Switchgear Panels
All Circuit Breakers
All Transformers
All High Voltage Power Factor Correction Capacitors
All Process Control and Indicating Instruments
All Electrical Measuring Instruments and Meters
All Programmable Logical Controllers (PLC)
In addition, all other items of equipment not subject to witness testing shall be temporarily erected at
the manufacturer's works, tested for satisfactory operation and offered for inspection. Certified copies
of the manufacturer's test readings shall be submitted to the Engineer prior to packing for shipment.
Such inspection, examination, or testing, shall not release the Contractor, manufacturer or supplier of
any item from any obligation.
Whilst the Engineer shall be provided with facilities for witness testing and/or inspection of all items of
equipment at the manufacturer's works, he may at his discretion advise that the tests shall proceed in
his absence, the tests shall be made as if in his presence, and duly certified copies of test readings
shall be submitted.
Where items of equipment are of identical size and duty it may be required, at the Engineer's
discretion that a reduced number of the items be subject to witness tests, however, this shall not
relieve the manufacturers from the requirement of carrying out the performance tests on all items prior
to offering for witness testing.
If after inspecting, examining, or testing any material or equipment, the Engineer shall decide that
such items or any part thereof is defective, or not in accordance with the Specification or performance
requirements, he may reject the said items or part thereof, giving to the manufacturer within a
reasonable time, notice in writing of such rejection, stating therein the ground upon which the said
decision is based. All retesting shall be at the manufacturer's expense.
As and when the Engineer is satisfied that the equipment shall have passed the required tests he shall
notify the Contractor in writing to that effect.
60.13.1.

Pumps

Each pump shall be witness tested as an integral unit for a capacity of 50 %, 100 % and 110 % of the
rated capacities (duty points). The tests shall include efficiency curves for the above capacities - both
for the motors and for the pumps. Curves for motors may be based on the motor suppliers efficiency
ratings.
60.13.2.

Control / Switchgear Panels

Low Voltage Devices


Low voltage circuit breakers shall be delivered with CE-marking in accordance with low voltage
directives.
Miniature circuit breakers shall be delivered with CE-marking in accordance with low voltage
directives.
Low- and moulded voltage air-break switches and fuse combination units shall be delivered with CEmarking in accordance with low voltage directives.
Low voltage contactors shall be delivered with CE-marking in accordance with low voltage directives.

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All other electrical equipment shall be delivered with CE-marking in accordance with relevant
directives.
All low voltage switching devices of current rating 100 A or greater shall be subjected to measurement
and recording of circuit resistance. The test shall comprise measurement, at the main terminals of
each pole with the contacts fully closed, of D.C. voltage and current (at 100 A or greater). The values
of resistance for any two similar examples from a particular manufacturer's range shall not differ by
more than 20%.
High Voltage Devices, if needed
High voltage circuit breakers shall be tested in accordance with BS 5311: Part 4. High voltage
switches shall be tested in accordance with BS 5463.
High voltage contactors shall be tested in accordance with BS 775: Part 2.
High voltage direct-on-line starters shall be tested in accordance with IEC 632-1.
All high voltage switching devices of current rating 100 A or greater shall be subject to measurement,
at the main terminals of each pole with the contacts fully closed, of D.C. voltage and current (at 100 A
or greater).
The values of resistance for any two similar examples from a particular manufacturer's range, shall not
differ by more than 20%. For circuit-breakers the test shall be as in BS 5311: Part 4.
Switchboards and Motor Control Centres
Factory built assemblies of low voltage switchgear and control gear shall be tested in accordance with
EN60204-1
If needed. High voltage metal enclosed switchgear and controlgear shall be tested in accordance with
BS 5227.
Additionally low voltage and high voltage switchgear and controlgear assemblies shall be tested for
the following:
i)

Measurement of main circuit resistance


The resistance of each pole of each main circuit from the cable terminal to bushes (with all
intervening switch contacts fully closed) shall be measured and recorded. A similar
measurement and record shall be taken along the length of each busbar (with bus-section
switch contacts fully closed). The tests shall comprise the measurement of D.C. voltage and
current (at 100 A or greater) and calculation of resistance.

ii)

Interchangeability
All components of the same rating and construction, designated as drawout or plug-in shall be
demonstrated as being interchangeable.

iii)

Protection and control circuits


For all forms of current transformer protection the following information shall be made available
to the Engineer before the time of inspection:

Current transformer magnetising curve.

Recommended relay setting

Calculated primary operating current at this setting.

Calculated through-fault stability values where applicable.

Values of any stabilising and setting resistors employed in the systems.


As far as possible, based on the completeness of the circuits, in the final manufactured
form within manufacturer's premises, the satisfactory operation of associated control and
protection circuits shall be proved by the following tests:

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To ensure the correct operation of all current operated protection relays and direct acting coils at
the recommended setting by primary current injection.

To ensure the correct polarity between current and voltage elements of power relays, meters and
instruments.

To ensure the correct operation of D.C. operated auxiliary protection relays, such as Buchholz
protection relays at normal operating voltage by stimulated operation of associated remote relays.

To ensure the correct operation of control circuits at normal operating voltage by operation of local
control switches and simulation of operation from remote control positions.
Note:

iv)

Checking the operation of all protection relays and control circuits shall be carried out
with all closing and tripping circuits energised at their normal rated voltage.

Instrument and metering equipment

Indicating ammeters shall be checked for calibration at 0.25, 0.5 and full scale deflection by
primary current injection testing.

Indicating voltmeters shall be checked for normal voltage readings by secondary voltage
application.

Where possible, integrating kWh- and kVar meters shall be tested for correct operation. Tests
shall be carried out to ensure that the meter is inoperative with voltage alone, with the secondaries
of current transformers connected and the primary current interrupted.

All instruments shall be subject to the manufacturer's normal work tests and shall be certified.

v)

Supervisory and control equipment


In order that any control scheme can be tested in its entirety, the Contractor shall provide a test
assembly comprising an adequate number of switches and lamps as a means of simulating
external signals and loads.

60.13.3.

Transformers

If it is decided to supply transformers they shall be routine tested at the manufacturer's works in
accordance with IEC 76. The Engineer will require to witness the following tests:
i)

Measurement of winding resistance.

ii)

Ratio, polarity and phase relationship.

iii)

Impedance voltage.

iv)

Load losses.

v)

Noload losses and noload current.

vi)

Insulation resistance.

vii)

Induced overvoltage withstand.

viii)

Separate source voltage withstand.


Further witness tests shall also be carried out in accordance with the following:

ix)

Impulse voltage withstand


If the manufacturer can provide evidence covering impulse voltage withstand tests for
transformers of similar type and design, Type Test certificates will be acceptable.

x)

Temperature rise
Where transformers of identical design and rating are being supplied, only one unit need be
subjected to the full Temperature rise test and Type Test certificates supplied for the duplicate
units.

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60.13.4.

Tender Documents
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III.2 Part C: Electrical and Instrumentation Works

H.V. Power Factor Correction Capacitors

Tests to include H.V. dielectric withstand, phase to earth - measurement of dielectric loss and loss
angle capacitance and verification of kVAr.
60.13.5.

Electrical Measuring Instruments and Meters

Tests to ensure accurate operation of all meters, voltmeters shall be undertaken in accordance with
relevant EN/IEC standards.
60.14.

COORDINATION OF SITE TESTING PROGRAMME

The Contractor shall be responsible for coordinating the programme of site testing of all items and to
ensure that all parties concerned are present during any tests to obligate their responsibilities.
60.15.

CABLE TESTS DURING INSTALLATION

During the period of site installation, the Engineer will carry out inspection of the works to ensure the
standards of workmanship meet the Specification and are to his satisfaction. In the event of any part of
the cabling installation failing to meet these requirements, the Contractor will be informed immediately
and shall remedy the deficiency to the satisfaction of the Engineer.
The Contractor shall:
i)

Inform the Engineer prior to the testing of the cables and shall be responsible for liaising with
any other contractor to whose equipment the cables may be terminated to ensure that all parties
concerned are aware of the impending tests, to guarantees the safety of personnel and that the
isolation of any equipment has been completed. Any special isolation or preparation required to
be carried out before cable testing can be completed, will be carried out by the Contractor
responsible for that equipment. All tests shall be carried out by the Contractor but shall be
supervised by the Engineer.

ii)

Provide D.C. test equipment and apply (after isolation) in the presence of the Engineer, the
following D.C. test voltages on all cables between cores, cores and sheath and cores and
armour.
High voltage cables if needed
XLPESWA PVC
between cores and between any core and
screen / armour
XLPESWAPVC

20,000/35,000 Volt grade cable


76,000 Volt
5,800/10,000 Volt grade cable

between cores

3,500/ 6,000 Volt grade cable

between any core and screen / armour

25,000 Volt/15,000 Volt

LV cables

600/1000 V

Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) or cross-linked polythene


(XLPE 600/1,000 Volt grade cable between cores and
between core and armour

3,500 Volt

iii)

Demonstrate correct phasing out of cores in all cables throughout the works and test the
insulation of all the cables, both between the cores and between the cores and earth, during
installation with a "Megger" 500 Volt hand generator.

iv)

Conduct soil resistively tests in the presence of the Engineer to obtain the most suitable location
for the earth electrode system.

v)

Demonstrate to the Engineer that the resistance of the earth electrodes to earth conductor
continuity and earth installation is in accordance with the specified requirements.

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Tests shall be performed from each major item of plant, by using an "Earth Megger" and auxiliary
return conductor.
If any portion of the works fails to pass the tests, another test of the failed portion shall be repeated
within a reasonable time upon the same terms and conditions.
Certificates of all testes carried out shall be provided giving full details and description of each test.
60.16.

TESTS ON COMPLETION

After erection is completed and the equipment is running satisfactorily after primarily setting to work
the Contractor shall notify the Engineer that he is ready to demonstrate the performance of the
facilities. Such demonstration is referred to herein as Site Testing, which shall be witnessed by the
Engineer. The Contractor shall then test fully all items of equipment and shall include provision and
arrangement of:
i)

All skilled and qualified operating and test staff for the testing of all equipment.

ii)

Provisions and disposal of all services, lubricants, and fuels and electricity.

iii)

All measuring and testing instruments to demonstrate equipment operates to the fulfilment of
the works tests.

All tests shall be carried out by the Contractor under the supervision of and to the satisfaction of the
Engineer, as follows:
i)

Lifting Equipment
Each installation inclusive of rails and beams shall be tested on site with test loads, provided by
the Contractor, to prove that the whole is capable of satisfactorily lifting 25 per cent above its
rated load (lift in centre of gantry where applicable) and certificates of site tests shall be
provided.

ii)

Pumps
Each set tested for capacity, head power consumption and mechanical reliability.

iii)

Electrical Plant and Power Systems


For electrical plant and power systems the Tests of Completion shall comprise precommissioning tests as detailed below, prior to energisation from the power supply system,
followed by energisation and demonstration of the operation of the plant and associated
protection and control systems to the specified performance requirements and maximum
operating and load duties.
On energisation a certificate of temporary acceptance will be issued for all Plant operating at
1000 V and above. Certificates of temporary acceptance will be issued for equipment on lower
voltages on satisfactory demonstration of on-load operation.
All tests shall be carried out by the Contractor under the supervision of and to the approval of
the Engineer, and shall comprise:
a)

Switchgear and Motor Control Centres


Insulation testing.
Power frequency pressure tests shall be carried out on all equipment for operation on
systems above 1000 volts.
For systems up to 1000 volts equipment insulation tests shall be carried out at 500 volt
using an approved test instrument.
These tests shall be carried out with all circuit breaker/contactor panels closed in the
circuit position, between phases and phase to earth. All secondary small wiring circuits
shall be similarly tested.
Mechanical tests

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All mechanical tests specified for conducting on manufacturer's premises are to be rechecked to ensure satisfactory operation of the plant in the final erected state.
Protection and control circuits
The satisfactory operation of all current operated protection circuits over their whole
operating range shall be tested by secondary current injection, where primary injection
tests have been previously carried out on manufacturer's premises.
Primary injection tests shall be carried out on restricted earth fault circuits, after pilot
circuits have been completed, for stability and fault conditions. On transformer differential
protection circuits where primary injection was not possible at the place of manufacture,
the completed relay circuits are to be fully tested by secondary injection, and simulated
fault conditions. Stability tests are to be carried out using normal load conditions after the
system has been completed and energised.
Instrument and metering equipment
Tests shall be carried out to ensure the correct operation of current and voltage operated
indication instruments when energised by the actual supply system.
Continuity of earth conductors
Continuity tests shall be carried out on the earth conductor within the switchboard, such
tests being by current injection.
This does not exclude testing of the main earthing systems which shall be in accordance
with Clause B5.7.
b)

Power Transformers
Samples of insulating oil shall be taken from each transformer at top and bottom levels
and from every container and subjected to dielectric strength tests.
Buchholz surge relays shall be tested after completion of pilot cables by stimulated oil
level changes at the relay. Buchholz gas relays shall be tested with pilot cables
connected by mechanical operation of contacts.
On-load tap changer equipment shall be tested to ensure correct operation from
associated control relays mounted on the switchgear relay panels by voltage injection on
the control relays.

c)

Rotating machines (motors and generators)


Before the application of electric power the machine windings, the insulation resistance
shall be tested (with a suitable insulation resistance tester) and shall be greater than the
manufacturer's minimum recommended figure when corrected for site winding
temperature. Any necessary drying out the windings on site shall be in accordance with
the manufacturer's recommendations.
Before rotating any machine under power, the mechanical alignment of the shaft with the
driven load (or driver) shall be checked (and adjusted if necessary) and shall be in
accordance with the manufacturer's recommended figure.
Before mechanically coupling any machine to the driven load, the direction of rotation
shall be checked.
Before running any machine on-load, all heavy current connections shall be checked for
correctness of make-up and tightness.

iv)

Earthing Systems
Test that the resistance of the earthing networks and electrodes are within the specified limits
and in compliance with the Supply Authority's, TEK, Regulations.

v)

Pipework
All pipework erected at site shall be hydraulically tested, following erection to at least 1.5 times

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the maximum working pressure. The Contractor shall provide the necessary equipment
including any temporary blank flanges, which may be required to isolate equipment.
The Contractor shall make his own arrangements for the supply and disposal of water used for
testing which shall be obtained from a source approved by the Engineer.
The final test shall be applied in the presence of the Engineer.
The Contractor shall be responsible to the Engineer for testing of the welders and inspecting
and testing of welded joints together with the supervision of the making good of any welding
defects.
Faulty welds shall be rectified in accordance with the requirements of BS 2971.
The Contractor shall provide all the necessary facilities, labour and equipment for the proper
execution of the inspections and bend testing included in BS 2971. Two sets of bend tests shall
be allowed for by the Contractor.
Cast Iron pipelines shall be tested in lengths between manholes or valve pits or such shorter
lengths as the Engineer may direct or permit.
Fittings required for temporarily closing the openings in pipelines to be tested shall be properly
designed for the purpose and shall be adequately strutted to withstand the pressure applied.
vi)

Electrical Equipment and Installations


The Contractor will in addition be responsible for arranging and carrying out such witnessed or
un-witnessed tests and inspections as may be required by the Electrical Supply Authority and
obtain and hand over to the Engineer their certificate of approval of the complete electrical
installation.

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Preamble of
Bill of Quantities

TABLE OF CONTENTS
page
PREAMBLE TO BILL OF QUANTITIES...................................................................................1
1

GENERAL..........................................................................................................................1
1.1

Related Documents ..................................................................................................1

1.2

Unpriced Items .........................................................................................................1

1.3

Units of Measurements.............................................................................................1

1.4

Lump Sums ..............................................................................................................1

1.5

Daywork....................................................................................................................1

1.5.1

Hire Terms ............................................................................................................2

1.5.2

Labour Rates ........................................................................................................2

1.5.3

Plant......................................................................................................................2

1.5.4

Materials ...............................................................................................................2

1.6

Headings of Items.....................................................................................................2

1.7

Alternatives ...............................................................................................................2

1.8

Provisional Sums ......................................................................................................2

1.9

Abbreviations ............................................................................................................3

METHOD AND RULES OF MEASUREMENT...................................................................3


2.1

Excavation / Earthworks ...........................................................................................3

2.2

Concreting ................................................................................................................5

2.3

Pipelaying .................................................................................................................5

2.4

Blockwork and Brickwork..........................................................................................6

2.5

Plaster, Rendering....................................................................................................6

2.6

Flooring and Tiling ....................................................................................................6

2.7

Plumbing...................................................................................................................7

2.8

Metal Works..............................................................................................................7

2.9

Painting.....................................................................................................................7

2.10

Roofing .....................................................................................................................7

2.11

Siteworks ..................................................................................................................7

CES / NAGECCO
TV.TD.C23 - V4 Preamble of BoQ.doc

Wastewater Disposal in Provincial Towns


Programme South: Tra Vinh, Vietnam

Preamble of
Bill of Quantities

PREAMBLE TO BILL OF QUANTITIES


1

GENERAL

Item 1 of the Bill of Quantities is understood as preliminaries for the Wastewater Treatment Facility
part of the contract.
No price adjustments are to be applied for the items; the treatment facility must be implemented for
the agreed design and contract price (according to FIDIC yellow book).

1.1

Related Documents

Attention is drawn to the Conditions of Tender, the Form of Tender, the Form of Agreement, the
Conditions of Contract, the Specification and the Drawings, all of which are to be read in conjunction
with the Bill of Quantities in the hierarchy specified in the Contract Document.

1.2

Unpriced Items

Items against which no price is entered shall be deemed to be covered by the other prices and rates
entered in the Bill.

1.3

Units of Measurements

All units of weights and measurements shall be based on the metric standards of weights and
measurements.
For the purpose of this Contract the "nominal diameter (DN)" of pipes and fittings shall be understood
to mean the internal diameter of the pipes and fittings.

1.4

Lump Sums

Interim payment against all Lump Sum items (excluding Prime Cost Sums and Provisional Sums) will
be sums made by instalments proportional to the extent to which in the opinion of the Engineer's
Representative the relevant work has been executed.

1.5

Daywork

Any work ordered by the Engineer's Representative to be carried out by Daywork shall be paid for at
rates entered against the appropriate items in the Daywork section of the Bills of Quantities subject to
the following conditions bellow.
The rates for daywork in the Bills of Quantities shall be net, not including overheads and profit.
Overheads and profit shall be paid at the percentage rate inserted by the Contractor at time of Tender
in the Bill of Quantities overall of the net rates for daywork actually executed. The percentage cost
shall be calculated in the Bill of Quantities and included in the Bill total.
The signature of the Engineer's Representative on Daywork sheets will be for record purposes only
and the Engineer reserves the right, should he see fit, to measure and value any works for which
Daywork records have been kept.
Only time engaged in the actual works will be measured. No allowance will be made for travelling time
on Sites. Also in the event of labour or plant having to be brought to the Site especially for the items of
Daywork, no allowance will be made for travelling time. Rates quoted for daywork shall bear
reasonable relationship with rates given elsewhere in the Bills of Quantities and will be considered in
conjunction therewith when the Tenders are evaluated. A full working day will be measured as 8 hours
net working time unless separately agreed with the Engineers Representative.
Records for daywork shall be kept in the form approved by the Engineer's Representative and agreed
daily as the work progresses.

CES / NAGECCO
TV.TD.C23 - V4 Preamble of BoQ.doc

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Wastewater Disposal in Provincial Towns


Programme South: Tra Vinh, Vietnam

1.5.1

Preamble of
Bill of Quantities

Hire Terms

Definition of hourly hire is as follows:

1.5.2

Any hour of the 24 hours of the day and on any day of the week.

Overtime rates are to be included in the percentage for overheads and profit.

Labour Rates

The daywork rates quoted for labour shall be the net amount payable including for use and waste of
hand tools, all ordinary non-mechanical plant for the works etc. and all special inducements for
working in the Socialist Republic of Vietnam. Unless specially authorized in writing by the Engineer's
Representative, non-productive overtime or special rates for overtime will not be admissible.
The cost of all supervisory staff, including engineers, foremen, gangers, clerks, storemen, timekeepers, watchmen etc., are to be included in the percentage addition for overheads and profit.

1.5.3

Plant

Plant time rates are to include for supervision, drivers, attendants, operators and bankmen,
maintenance in proper working order at all times, attendance in starting up and shutting down,
refuelling and all fuel and power, oils, greases and cleaning materials, replacement and/or sharpening
of tools and provision of tools and all other auxiliary items including consumable spares.
Payment will not be made for mechanics or maintenance time which shall be included in and spread
over the rates.

1.5.4

Materials

Materials used on daywork shall be as specified for the works. The rates shall be the actual cost
agreed with the Engineer and supported by commercial receipts and invoices. Cost of delivery to the
immediate working area shall be included in the percentage rate for overheads and profit.

1.6

Headings of Items

Description of items does not necessarily indicate the full amount of work. The items of the Bill of
Quantities are to be read in conjunction with the Conditions of Contract, the Specification and the
Drawings.

1.7

Alternatives

Where alternative proposals are requested in the Bill of Quantities, the rates for such alternatives are
to be quoted but costs shall not be included in the summary.

1.8

Provisional Sums

The Engineer will issue instructions for the use of such items. Payment may be made at appropriate
rates in the Bills of Quantities or at actual cost as substantiated by official receipts and invoices.
Overheads and profit shall be paid at the percentage rate inserted by the Contractor at time of Tender
in the Bill of Quantities overall of the net rates for daywork actually executed. If required, the
Contractor shall obtain quotations for work to be carried out under Provisional Sums for agreement
with the Engineer, the cost of obtaining such quotations shall be included in the percentage rate. The
percentage cost shall be calculated in the Bill of Quantities and included in the Bill total.

CES / NAGECCO
TV.TD.C23 - V4 Preamble of BoQ.doc

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Wastewater Disposal in Provincial Towns


Programme South: Tra Vinh, Vietnam

1.9
Length:

Area:

Volume:

Weight:

Time:

Preamble of
Bill of Quantities

Abbreviations
mm

millimetres

metres

km

kilometres

square metre

ha

hectare = 104 m2

m3

cubic metre

litres

kg

kilogramme

ton = 103 kg

second

hour

METHOD AND RULES OF MEASUREMENT

The quantity of each and every item of work in the Bill of Quantities executed in accordance with the
Contract shall be measured net in the units of the Bill of Quantities relating to such item.
Notwithstanding any reference hereinafter to specific costs, expenses, obligations, liabilities or risks,
the prices and rates inserted shall be deemed to be the full inclusive value of the work described
under the several items and in the Specifications, including all costs and expenses (together with
overheads and profits, with the exception of Daywork Rates and Provisional Sums) which may be
required in and for the construction of the work described, together with all general risks, liabilities and
obligations set forth or implied in the Contract.

2.1

Excavation / Earthworks

2.1.1

Structural Excavation and Extra Excavation shall be measured in metre cube. The quantity of
excavation for which payment will be made shall be the quantity removed between the
bottom level(s) of the structures and the ground level (taken after site clearing removal of
over burden or topsoil and approved by the Engineer) and between the vertical planes
coincident with the outside of the neat lines of the footings of the structures, not including
blinding layers.

2.1.2

Trench Excavation shall be measured in linear metre net between the outer surface of
structures or, if where is no structure, to node points or junctions to which pipes or cables are
connected by metre linear. The depth of trench excavation shall be measured in the
categories given in the Bills of Quantities as the depth from existing ground level to the invert
level of the pipe or cable. The depth shall be calculated by averaging the depths of
excavation from ground level at each end of run (i.e. at manhole, etc) and applying this
average to the complete length of the trench. Where in the opinion of the Engineer's
Representative, the longitudinal profile of the existing ground varies appreciably; an
appropriate adjustment will be made for arriving at the average depth.

2.1.3

Filling shall be measured in metre cube as the net volume measured as structural excavation
required to be fill on completion of the structure. Only material placed compacted and
trimmed shall be considered for payment.

2.1.4

Clearing and cleaning of the Site in preparation for the Works is measured as lump sum.

2.1.5

Removal of topsoil (if measured separately in the BoQ) shall be measured by hectare (h) or
square metres (m).

CES / NAGECCO
TV.TD.C23 - V4 Preamble of BoQ.doc

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Wastewater Disposal in Provincial Towns


Programme South: Tra Vinh, Vietnam

Preamble of