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A report by:
Ashwani Tyagi 13112020
Harsh Prateek 13112036
Jagdeep Singh Smagh 13112042
Shabaj Khan 13112082
Sonu Kumar-13112097
Vaibhav Pal-13112103
Dept. of Chemical Engineering
IIT Roorkee

It has been an immense pleasure and truly enriching
experienge doing my summer training at IOCL,Guwahati
Refinery. I would like to extend my heartiest thanks to the
entire IOCL team and the Training Centre for providing me
this splendid opportunity.
My special thanks to:
1. Mrs. Sita Barua, Training Department
2. Mr. Mahesh Kumar, CFSM
3. Mr. E. Ekka, SNPM
4. Mr. Santanu Bikas Barua, DMPN
5. Mr. B. Lama, DMPN
6. Mr. B. Mishra, PNM
7. Mr. S. Gupta, PNM
8. Mr. Keshav Kumar, DMPN
9. Mr. Hashim Ahmed, AMPN

1. Introduction
2. Crude Distillation Unit
3. Delayed Coking Unit
4. INDMAX Unit
5. Sulphur Recovery Unit
6. Hydrogen Generation Unit
7. Hydrogen Treating Unit
8. MSQU Unit
9. Effluent Treatment Plant

Guwahati Refinery is a countrys first Public Sector Refinery as well as Indian Oils first
Refinery serving the nation since 1962. The Refinery produces various products and
supplies them to North Eastern India as well as beyond, up to Siliguri end through the
Guwahati-Siliguri Pipeline, spanning 435 km, which was the first pipeline of Indian Oil
and Commissioned in 1964.

Quality LPG, Motor Spirit, Aviation Turbine Fuel, Superior Kerosene Oil, High Speed
Diesel, Light Diesel Oil and Raw Petroleum Coke are the products of this Refinery.

The Guwahati Refinery has the following units:

Crude Distillation Unit (CDU)

Delayed Coking Unit (DCU)
Hydrogenation Unit (HGU)
Hydrotreater Unit (HTU)
Sulphur Recovery Unit / Nitrogen Unit
Oil Movement and Storage Unit
Effluent Treatment Plant

Distillation is the first step in the processing of crude oil and it takes place in a tall steel
tower called a fractionation column. The inside of the column is divided at intervals by
horizontal trays. The column is kept very hot at the bottom (the column is insulated)
but as different hydrocarbons boil at different temperatures, the temperature
gradually reduces towards the top, so that each tray is a little cooler than one below.
The crude needs to be heated up before enriching the fractionation column and this is
done at first in a series of heat exchangers where heat is taken from other process
streams which require cooling before being sent to rundown. Heat is also exchanged
against condensing streams from the main column. Typically, the crude will be heated
up in this way up to 200 280 C, before entering a furnace as the raw crude oil arriving
contains quite a bit of water and salt, it is normally sent for salt removing first, in a
piece of equipment called a de-salter. Upstream the de-salter, the crude is mixed with
a water stream, typically about 4 6 % on feed. Intense mixing takes place over a mixing
valve and (optionally) as static mixer. The de-salter, a large liquid full vessel, uses an
electric field to separate the crude from water droplets .It operates best at 120 150
C, hence it is conveniently placed somewhere in the middle of the preheat train. Part
of the salts contained in the crude oil, particularly magnesium chloride, are
hydrolysable at temperature above 120 C. Upon hydrolysis, the chlorides get
converted into hydrochloric acid, which will find its way to the distillation columns
overhead where it will corrode the overhead condensers. A good performing de-salter
can remove about 90% of the salt in raw crude.
Downstream the de-salter, crude is further heated up with heat exchangers, and starts
vaporizing, which will increase the system pressure drop. At about 170 200 C, the
crude will enter a pre-flash vessel, operating at about 2 5 bar, where the vapors are
separated from the remaining liquid. Vapors are directly sent to the fractionation
column, and by doing so, the hydraulic load on the remainder of the crude preheat
train and furnace is reduced (smaller piping and pumps). Just upstream the pre-flash
vessel, a small caustic stream is mixed with the crude, in order to neutralize any
hydrochloric acid formed by hydrolysis. The sodium chloride formed will leave the
fractionation column via the bottom residue stream. The dosing rate of caustic is
adjusted based on chloride measurements in the overhead vessel (typically 10
20ppm). At about 200 280 C the crude enters the furnace where it is heated up
further about to 330 370 C. The furnace outlet stream is sent directly to the
fractionation column. Here it is separated into a number of fractions, each having a
particular boiling range. At 350 C and about 1 bar, most of the fractions in the crude

oil vaporize and rise up the column through perforations in the trays, losing heat as
they rise. When each fraction reaches the tray where the temperature is just below its
own boiling point, it condenses and changes back into the liquid phase. A continuous
liquid phase is flowing by gravity through down-comers from tray to tray downwards.
In this way, the different fractions are gradually separated from each other on the trays
of fractionation column. The heaviest fractions condenses on lower trays and lighter
fractions condenses on the trays higher up in the column. At different elevations in the
column, with special trays called draw-off trays, fractions can be drawn out on gravity
through pipes, for further processing in the refinery. At top of the column, vapors leave
through a pipe and are routed to an overhead condenser, typically cooled by air finfans. At the outlet of the overhead condensers, at temperature about 40 C, a mixture
of gas, and liquid naphtha exists, which is falling into an overhead accumulator. Gases
are routed to a compressor for further recovery of LPG (C3/C4), while the liquids
(gasoline) are pumped to hydro-treater unit for sulfur removal. A fractionation column
needs a flow of condensing liquid downwards in order to provide a driving force for
separation between light and heavy fractions. At the top of the column this liquid flow
is provided by pumping a stream back from the overhead accumulator into the column.
Unfortunately, a lot of the heat provided by furnace to the vaporize hydrocarbons is
lost against ambient air in the overhead fin-fan cooler. A clever way of preventing this
heat loss of condensing hydrocarbons is done via the circulating refluxes of the column.
In a circulating reflux, a hot side draw-off the column is pumped through a series of
heat exchangers (against crude for instance), where the stream is cooled down. The
cool stream is sent back into the column at a higher elevation, where it is been brought
into contact with hotter rising vapors. This provides an internal condensing mechanism
inside the column, in a similar way as the top reflux does which is sent back from the
overhead accumulator. The main objective of circulating reflux therefore is to recover
heat from condensing vapors. A fractionating column will have several (typically three)
of such refluxes, each providing sufficient liquid flow down the corresponding section
of the column. An addition advantage of having circulating refluxes is that it will reduce
the vapor load when going upwards in the column. This provides the opportunity to
have a smaller column diameter for top sections of tower. Such a reduction in diameter
is called a swage. The lightest side draw-off from the fractionating column is a fraction
called kerosene, boiling in the range 160 280 C, which falls down through a pipe into
a smaller column called side-stripper. The purpose of side-stripper is to remove very
light hydrocarbons by using steam injection or an external heater called reboiler. The
stripping steam rate, or re-boiling duty is controlled such as to meet the flashpoint
specification of the product. Similarly to the atmospheric column, the side stripper has

fractionating trays for providing contact between vapor and liquid. The vapors
produced from the top of the side stripper are routed back via pipe into the
fractionating column. The second and third (optional) side draw-offs from the main
fractionating column are gasoil fractions, boiling in the range 200 400 C, which are
ultimately used for blending the final diesel product. Similar as with the kerosene
product, the gasoil fractions (light and heavy gasoil) are first sent to a side stripper
before being routed to further treating units. At the bottom of the fractionation column
a heavy, black/brown colored fraction called residue is drawn off. In order to strip all
light hydrocarbons from this fraction properly, the bottom section of the column is
equipped with a set of stripping trays, which are operated by injecting some stripping
steam (1 3% on bottom product) into the bottom of the column.

DCU was commissioned in 1962 with the processing capacity of 0.33MMTPA of RCO.
DCU unit revamp was conducted in 2000. After revamp, new capacity of the unit is
0.44 MMTPA of RCO.

Process occurring in DCU are:

1. Pumping and Preheating of RCO
The feed enters at 800C and the feed is preheated up to 2500C.
2. Introduction of RCO feed to the main fractionation columns and control of
bottom temperatures:
Temperature at the bottom is 3650C. Feed Exchanges heat with the vapor
coming from quench column. The heavier portion gets condensed at the
bottom of the fractionator column and forms a recycle with the surplus
quantity if fuel oil. Recycle ratio is about 0.73.
3. Introduction of fractionations bottom to heater and cracking:
The RCO along with recycle at a temperature of 3650C from the bottom of CL-2
is pumped by secondary feed pump.
The discharge enters the charge heater in four equal passes having individual
flow controllers at the convection coil inlet.
4. Cracking to Coal and Distillates:
The furnace outlet enters the bottom of one of the two coke chamber, which
are operated alternately. While one remains under cooling, cutting, cleaning,
pressure testing and vapor heating operation, other remains under filling.

5. Removal of RFO
All the Entrained heavy materials enters are washed off from vapors coming
out of the chamber.
The column top temperature is maintained around 4150C.

6. Products Obtained
Coker Off Gas
Coker Gasoline
Coker Kerosene
Coker Gas Oil
Coker Fuel Oil
Furnace Feed


INDMAX employs circulating fluidized bed Riser-Reactor-Stripper configuration similar to

conventional FCC technology along with single stage full combustion Regenerator
System. The Catalyst system and operating conditions employed in INDMAX process are
tailor-made and different from the conventional FCC technology. The specially designed
catalyst of the INDMAX process consists of various synergetic components for
upgradation of heavy molecules maximising conversion with higher light olefins

Salient Features:
Employs high riser outlet Temperature (ROT) of more than 540C and high Catalyst
to Oil Ratio (C/O) of more than 12.
Employs proprietary catalyst system with low coke and dry gas make, higher metal
tolerance and selectively towards light olefins.
Excellent heat Integration Single stage full burn Regenerator, use of catalyst cooler
for feed with higher CCR (>6 weight %)
Highly efficient hardware components
a) MicroJetTM Feed injector
b) Proprietary SCT riser reactor design.
c) Direct-coupled cyclone separator
d) Efficient catalyst regeneration system (multi zone pipe grid distributor with
MSO nozzle )
e) Advanced catalyst cooler design
Operability at wide range of severities with a given hardware to maximize either
light olefins or high octane gasoline depending on refiners objective.
Lower catalyst consumption owing to lower regenerator temperature with a given
feedstock and excellent metal tolerance of catalyst
Typical product yields, weight % of feed


The Basic Claus unit comprises a thermal stage and two or three catalytic stages. Typical sulphur
recoveries efficiencies are in range 95-98% depending upon the feed gas composition and plant
configuration. The basic chemical reactions are:

H2S + 1.5O2 SO2 + H2O


2H2S + O2 3/xSx + 2H2O


Some of the H2S in the feed gas is thermally converted to SO2 in the reaction furnace of the thermal
stage according to reaction (1). The remaining H2S is then reacted with the thermally produced SO2
to form elemental sulphur in the thermal stage and the subsequent catalytic stages according to
reaction (2). Claus reaction (2) thermodynamically limited and has a relatively low equilibrium
constant for reaction (2) over the catalytic operation region. As the feed acid gas normally contains
other compounds, which could include carbon dioxide, hydrocarbon, mercaptans and ammonia, the
actual chemistry in the furnace is very complex. The latest analysis of this has been presented by
Borsboom and Clark.

The hot combustion products from the furnace at 1000-1300C enter the waste heat boiler
and are partially cooled by generating steam. Any steam level from 3 to 45 bar g can be
The combustion products are further cooled in the first sulphur condenser, usually by
generating LP steam at 3 5 bar g. This cools the gas enough to condense the sulphur formed
in the furnace, which is then separated from the gas and then drained to the collection pit.
The heated stream enters the first reactor, containing a bed of Sulphur conversion catalyst.
About 70% of the remaining H2S and SO2 in the gas will react to form sulphur, which leaves
the reactor with the gas as sulphur vapour.
The hot gas leaving the reactor is cooled in the second sulphur condenser, where LP steam is
again produced and sulphur formed in the reactor is condensed.
A further one or two more heating, reaction, and condensing stages follow to react most of
the remaining H2S and SO2.
The sulphur plant tail gas is routed either too a Tail Gas Treatment Unit for the further
processing ,or to a Thermal Oxidiser to incinerate all of the sulphur compounds in the tail gas
to SO2 before dispersing the effluent to the atmosphere.

Raw Naptha contains harmful catalyst poison compound built with sulphur. During
the catalyst reaction they deactivate the catalyst active sites. So two step naptha
sweetening process is usually required based on optimization of catalyst life and
sulphur absorption on packed bed of the absorber. The two process units are:
Pre-Desulphurization process
Final Desulphurization process
After sulphur removal Naptha is vaporised and high molecular compounds are broken
down with help of steam at high temperature. Reforming unit process is used for this
operation. The Outlet process steam of the reformer contains H2, CO, CO2 and H2O.
CO when reacted with steam, it gives out H2 and CO2, for this operation high
temperature shift reaction is used.
Finally a recovery unit is used to reaction the escaped hydrogen along with the CO2,
steam and CH4. A pressure swing absorption process best suits for the operation.
Sour Naptha is pumped to surge drum to the vaporiser and heated to 340C in a
super-heater (fire heater). Make up hydrogen recovered from PSA process is mixed
with Naptha feed line. With 24.5kg pressure of vaporised Naptha is fed to the PreDesulphurizer to remove the sulphur compounds in the form of hydrogen sulphide.
The outlet stream of the Pre-Desulphurizer is cooled with inlet stream. Cooled Naptha
is injected to the separation column to remove the Hydrogen Sulphide.

Sweet Naptha is pumped to the vaporizer and 390C is attained by the furnace and
passed to reformer convection section to heat up. With 30.8 kg/cm2 pressure the
process stream is sent to Final-Desulphurizer to convert sulphur to H2S, Co-Mo Oxide
Catalyst is used in the reactor. Super-Heated steam with the temperature of 379C is
mixed with 377C process gas stream and increased to temperature of 520C in a
super-heater (furnace). Reformer tube filled with nickel tube are heated by the side
burner and process gas along with steam is passed into them. Reforming reaction
takes place and hydrogen, Carbon Monoxide present in the reformed gas combines
with steam in high temperature shift reactor, packed with iron and Chromium Oxides
to that enhances the water-gas shift reaction. Hydrogen production rate is further
increased by this process.
Finally to recover the hydrogen, the process gas is sent to PSA (Pressure Swing
Absorption). CH4, CO, CO2 are adsorbed on molecular sieves. Hydrogen yield is
improved by recovering it from the gases.

Heavy Naptha cut from the atmospheric crude oil distillation column in a refinery is
sent to a Naptha Hydro-Treater Unit. After the Hydro treater unit the Naptha is sent
to an isomerisation unit or a Catalytic Reformer Unit, which often use reforming
catalysts. Most reforming catalysts contain platinum as the active material. Sulphur
and Nitrogen compounds present in cut from atmospheric distillation column can
deactivate the catalyst and must be removed prior to Catalytic Reforming.
Purpose of the Naptha hydro treater unit is to remove sulphur and nitrogen
compounds. The Naptha hydro-treating unit uses a Co-Mo Catalyst to remove Sulphur
by converting it to Hydrogen Sulphide that is removed along with unreacted
Hydrogen. Some of the H2S-H2 mixture is recycled back to the reactor to utilize the
unreacted hydrogen, using a compressor.
Reactor conditions for Naptha Hydro-Treater Unit are around 400-500F (205-260C)
and pressure of 350-650 psi (25-45bar), as coke deposits on the catalyst, reactor
temperature must be raised. Once the reactor temperature reaches ~750F (400C),
the Unit is scheduled for shut down and catalyst replacement. If required, the boiling
range of the catalyst reforming charge stock can be changed by redistilling in the

Naptha Hydro-Treater in a Stripper as shown in Figure-2. Often light Naptha

containing Pentanes, Hexanes and Light Napthas are stripped off and sent directly to
gasoline blending or pre-treated in an Isomerization Unit prior to gasoline blending.
The heavy Naptha from the bottom of the stripper column goes back to the catalyst
reformer unit before blending with gasoline.

Heavy Naptha cut from the atmospheric crude oil distillation column in a refinery is
sent to a Naptha Hydrotreater Unit. After the hydrotreater unit, naptha is sent to an
isomerization unit or a catalytic reformer unit, which often use reforming catalysts.
Most reforming catalysts contain platinum as the active material. Sulphur and
nitrogen compounds present in cut from atmospheric distillation column can
deactivate the catalyst and must be removed prior to catalytic reforming.
Purpose of naptha hydrotrater unit is to remove Sulphur and nitrogen compounds.
The naptha hydrotreating unit uses a cobalt-molebdenum catalyst to remove Sulphur
by converting it to hydrogen sulphide that is removed along with unreacted
hydrogen. Some of the hydrogen sulphide-hydrogen mixture is recycled back to the
reactor to utilize the unreacted hydrogen, using a compressor.
Reactor conditions for naptha hydrotreater unitare around 400-500 degree
Fahrenheit and pressure of 350-650 psi. As coke deposits on the catalyst reactor
temperature must be raised. Once the reactor temperature reaches to about 750
degree Fahrenheit, the unit is scheduled for shutdown and catalyst replacement. If
required, the boiling range of catalytic reformingcharge stock can be changed by
redistilling in the naptha hydrotreater in a stripper. Often light naptha containing
pentanes, hexanes and light naptha are stripped off and sent directly to gasoline

blending or pretreated in an isomerization unit prior to gasoline blending. The heavy

naptha from the bottom of the stripper column goes back to the catalyst reformer
unit before blending with gasoline.

There are two distinct isomerization processes, butane(C) and
pentane/hexane(C/C). Isomerisation is a process in petroleum refining that converts
n-butane, n-pentane and n-hexane into their respective isoparaffins of substantially
higher octane number. The straight chained paraffins are converted to their
branched-chained counterparts whose component atoms are the same but are
arranged in a different geometric structure. Isomerisation is important for the
conversion of n-butane into isobutane, to provide additional feedstock for alkylation
units and the conversion of normal pentanes and hexanes into higher branched
isomers for gasoline blending. Isomerisation is similar to catalytic reforming in that
the hydrocarbon molecules are rearranged, but unlike catalytic reforming,
isomerisation just converts normal paraffins to isoparaffins.
Butane isomerisation produces feedstock for alkylation, Aluminum chloride catalyst
plus hydrogen chloride are universally used for low temperature processes. In the
typical low temperature process, the feed to the isomerisation plant is n-butane or
mixed butanes mixed with hydrogen(to inhibit olefin formation) and passed to the
reactor at 230-240 F and 200-300 psi. Hydrogen is flashed off in a high pressure
separator and hydrogen chloride removed in a stripper column. The resultant butane
mixture is sent to fractionator(debutanizer) to separate n-butane from isobutane

Pentane/hexane isomerisation increases the octane number of the light gasoline

components n-pentane and n-hexane, which are found in abundance in straight run
gasoline. In a typical C/C isomerisation process, dried and desulfurized feedstock is
mixed with a small amount of organic chloride and recycled hydrogen, and then
heated to reactor temperature. It is then passed over supported-metal catalyst in the
first reactor where benzene and olefins are hydrogenated. The feed next goes to the
isomerisation reactor where the paraffins are catalytically isomerised to isoparaffins.
The reactor effluent is then cooled and subsequently separated in the product
separator into two streams: a liquid product(isomerate) and a recycle hydrogen-gas
stream. The isomerate is washed(caustic and water), acid stripped and stablized
before going to storage.

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