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tomos, Molculas e Ions

2.27 Consider a hypothetical case in which the charge on a proton is twice


that of an electron. Using this hypothetical case, and the fact that atoms
maintain a charge of 0, how many protons, neutrons, and electrons would a
potassium-39 atom contain?
2.37 The following table gives the number of protons and neutrons in the
nuclei of various atoms. Which atom is the isotope of atom A? Which atom
has the same mass number as atom A?

2.39 Naturally occurring chlorine is a mixture of the isotopes Cl-35 and Cl37. How many protons and how many neutrons are there in each isotope?
How many electrons are there in the neutral atoms?
2.43 Ammonia is a gas with a characteristic pungent odor. It is sold as a
water solution for use in household cleaning. The gas is a compound of
nitrogen and hydrogen in the atomic ratio 1:3. A sample of ammonia
contains 7.933 g N and 1.712 g H. What is the atomic mass of N relative to
H?
2.63 Give the molecular formula for each of the following structural
formulas.

2.79 Write the formulas of the following compounds.


a. nitrogen tribromide
b. xenon tetroxide
c. oxygen diuoride
d. dichlorine pentoxide

Clculos com frmulas qumicas e equaes

3.21 Find the formula weights of the following substances


to three signicant gures
a. methanol, CH3OH
b. nitrogen trioxide, NO3
c. potassium carbonate, K2CO3
d. nickel phosphate, Ni3(PO4)2
3.27 Calculate the mass (in grams) of each of the following
species.
a. Na atom
b. N atom
c. CH3Cl molecule
d. Hg(NO3)2 formula unit
Obs: Para descobrir a massa de um tomo ou molcula em gramas (g), divide-se o valor
da massa molar pelo nmero de Avogadro.

3.43 A 1.836-g sample of coal contains 1.584 g C. Calculate


the mass percentage of C in the coal.
3.47 A fertilizer is advertised as containing 14.0% nitrogen
(by mass). How much nitrogen is there in 4.15 kg of
fertilizer? 3.48 Seawater contains 0.0065% (by mass) of
bromine. How many grams of bromine are there in 1.00 L of
seawater? The density of seawater is 1.025 g/cm.
3.51 Calculate the percentage composition for each of the
following compounds (three signicant gures).
a. CO
b. CO2
c. NaH2PO4
d. Co(NO3)2
3.57 Ethylene glycol is used as an automobile antifreeze
and in the manufacture of polyester bers. The name glycol
stems from the sweet taste of this poisonous compound.
Combustion of 6.38 mg of ethylene glycol gives 9.06 mg
CO2 and 5.58 mg H2O. The compound contains only C, H,
and O. What are the mass percentages of the elements in
ethylene glycol?
3.69 Oxalic acid is a toxic substance used by laundries to
remove rust stains. Its composition is 26.7% C, 2.2% H, and
71.1% O (by mass), and its molecular weight is 90 amu.
What is its molecular formula
3.71 Ethylene, C2H4, burns in oxygen to give carbon
dioxide, CO2, and water. Write the equation for the reaction,
giving molecular, molar, and mass interpretations below the
equation.

Reaes qumicas

4.35 Classify each of the following as a strong or weak acid


or base.
a. HF
b. KOH
c. HClO4
d. HIO

4.67 An experiment calls for 0.0353 g of potassium


hydroxide, KOH. How many milliliters of 0.0176 M KOH are
required?