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CCP - Concrete Cylinder Pipes

and Fittings
The ideal pipe system to transport water or sewage.

Contents
About CCP
Features and benefits
Pipe and fittings designs
Manufacturing process
Specifications of CCP
Installation guide

Amiantit Group of Companies


The Amiantit Group is a leading global
industrial organisation that manufactures
high quality pipe systems, researches,
develops, owns and licenses advanced
pipe technologies and provides water
management services.
The Group supports global infrastructure
development projects and delivers to
municipal, industrial, agricultural and
energy markets worldwide.
The Group has a presence in more than
70 countries, including 33 wholly-owned or
joint venture manufacturing facilities in the
Middle East, Europe, North America and
Latin America, North Africa, the Far East,
Central Asia, the Indian Subcontinent and
in Africa. Amiantits manufacturing
capabilities are supported by technology
companies and sales offices around
the globe.
Other members of the Group are
predominantly limited liability companies
owned by the Amiantit Group in varying
percentages and operating under
individual commercial registrations.

Contents

Introduction

01

Pipe properties and materials

02

Station adjustments and changes in direction

03

Hydraulic design

10

04

Pipe and fittings design

11

05

Quality system

27

06

Manufacturing process

29

07

Specifications for Concrete Cylinder Pipe

34

08

Design and operation for corrosion control

38

09

Operation and maintenance

44

10

Guide specification for installation

52

11

Procedure of hydraulic testing in field after installation

62

12

Typical design

64

app.

Great Concrete Pipelines of Saudi Arabia

70

Marketing and technical information

72

Approvals and certification

73

Appendices

The Company
Ameron Saudi Arabia, Ltd. (ASAL) was
established in 1978 in Dammam, Saudi
Arabia, as a limited liability company
operating three manufacturing plants
located in Dammam and Jubail with total
annual production capacity of more than
1000 km. It is a joint venture company
between Saudi Arabian Amiantit Co. (Joint
Stock Co.) and Ameron International
(USA).
Our Customer Objective
We believe the growth of our business will
be based on how well we identify
customer needs and satisfy them over the
long term with products and services of
superior value.
We also believe that satisfied, repeat
customers are the lifeblood of any
successful business and must be nurtured
and cared for in the most professional and
courteous manner.
Our customers should expect and
receive:
+
+

+
+

Strong commitments from us to the


markets we serve.
Professional and dedicated technical
services provided promptly where
needed.
Well-trained, knowledgeable and
motivated direct sales people and
representatives.
Professionally prepared, welldocumented sales proposals, product
literature, technical data and other
support materials.
Fast, courteous response in any
transaction.
Consistent, on-time delivery of products
and services.

Concrete Cylinder Pipe and Fittings


Made according to AWWA C303 Diameter 300 mm to 1800 mm

1.0 Introduction
1.1 General
Concrete Cylinder Pipe (CCP) is a durable, semirigid pressure pipe designed as a composite
structure combining the tensile strength of steel
with the compressive strength and corrosioninhibiting properties of Portland cement mortar.
CCP is used principally for the transmission and
distribution of water in municipal, industrial, and
irrigation systems. It is also used in sewage force
mains, and seawater cooling systems.
CCP sections are rapidly assembled with a selfcentring steel bell and spigot joint sealed with a
confined round rubber gasket (Figure 1.1-1).
Installation rates of 30 to 50 pipe sections per crew
per day can be attained. The watertightness and
reliability of the CCP joint have been proved by
more than 70 years of field experience.
The composite construction of CCP contributes
significantly to its rigidity and, consequently, to its
external load carrying capacity. This benefit has
been well substantiated by field experience and
load test reported as early as 1952.

Figure 1.1-2. Al-Hunayy to Riyadh City Water Transmission Project (Year


2000)

Since introducing CCP in 1942, Ameron and


affiliated companies have supplied several
thousand kilometres of this pipe in North and
South America, the Middle East, and the Far East.
Major users in the United States include the U.S.
Bureau of Reclamation; the U.S. Army Corps of
Engineers; numerous state, regional and municipal
water districts; and many U.S. corporations. Major
local users include the Ministry of Agriculture and

Water and the Saline Water Conversion


Corporation in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
1.2 Product Range
CCP is manufactured in standard diameters of 300
mm through 1800 mm, for design pressures up to
27.6 bars (400 psi), and for external loads as
required. Pipe of the same composite construction
have been produced for higher pressures up to 40
bars as shown in Appendix A. Short pipe, beveled
pipe, and a wide range of special pipe and fittings
are also available.
1.3 Standards and specifications
CCP is designed and manufactured in accordance
with the following standards and specifications:
+ AWWA C303 (AWWA Standard for Concrete
Pressure Pipe, Bar Wrapped, Steel-Cylinder
Type)
+ AWWA M9 (Manual for Water Supply Practices
Concrete Pressure Pipe)
+ Saudi Arabian Standard Organization (SASO)

Figure 1.1-1. Section through a CCP joint before and after assembly.

01

01

1.4 Pipe Structure

cement mortar to complete the joint and prevent


corrosion of the steel joint rings.

The components of CCP are shown in Figure 1.41. The welded steel cylinder and joint ring
assembly functions as a watertight membrane,
resists a portion of the tensile hoop forces, and
provides longitudinal tensile strength and beam
strength. The accurately sized steel bell and spigot
joint rings provide a self-centring joint for rapid field
assembly.

1.5 Design Method


CCP is designed to resist hoop tension through
both the steel cylinder and circumferential steel
bar. Cylinder thickness, bar diameter and spacing,
and the proportion of bar and cylinder areas are
controlled to ensure integrity of the composite
design.

The cement-mortar lining contributes to the pipes


rigidity, protects the inside of the steel cylinder from
corrosion, and provides a smooth surface with low
resistance to flow. After the cement-mortar lining is
cured, the steel cylinder is helically wrapped with a
continuous mild-steel bar applied at a tensile
stress of 8,000 to 10,000 psi. The circumferential
steel bar provides the balance of steel required to
resist tensile hoop forces. It also reinforces the
mortar coating and locks it tightly against the steel
cylinder so that cylinder, bar, and coating act as a
composite structure. This composite construction
increases the pipes rigidity and resistance to
physical damage. Wrapping the steel bar under
tension produces moderate compressive stresses
in the steel cylinder and cement-mortar lining,
thereby increasing the rigidity of the pipe and
reducing the effects of drying shrinkage.

CCP is designed to resist external loads by limiting


the maximum deflection to a value which will not
impair the structural and protective properties of
the mortar lining and coating. The design method
considers the effects of pipe bedding, soil type and
compaction, and rigidity of the pipe wall.
While CCP is similar in external appearance to
mortar lined and coated welded steel pipe (WSP),
it is inherently much thicker and more rigid.
1.6 Design versatility
The exact steel area required for a given design
pressure and external load can be obtained by
selecting appropriate combinations of steel
cylinder thickness, bar diameter, and bar spacing.
This versatility gives the design engineer the
opportunity to match the design pressure with
project requirements along the entire pipeline. In
practice, the pipeline is usually divided into a
number of sections, each representing a different
pressure class. The designs are then checked for
adequacy under external load, and adjustments in
pipe rigidity or bedding conditions are made, if
required.

The process of wrapping CCP under tension is


reflected in some specification titles by the word
pretensioned. Pretensioning should not be
confused with prestressing of concrete pipe in
which a concrete core is helically wrapped with
high-tensile steel wire producing permanently high
compressive stresses in the core2.

1.7 Field assembly

The principal function of the cement-mortar coating


is to prevent corrosion of the steel cylinder and
steel bar components. The method of coating
application produces a rough exterior surface
which increases the friction between the installed
pipe and the soil, thereby enhancing its resistance
to hydraulic thrust.

The self-centring steel bell and spigot joint sealed


with a confined rubber ring and the long laying
length permits CCP to be installed rapidly and
economically.
1.8 Custom-fabricated fittings
Fittings can be furnished in virtually any size or
configuration and are manufactured in-plant to
eliminate cutting and fit-up in the field. Most CCP
fittings are fabricated from standard pipe sections;
many are incorporated directly into the pipe,
reducing the number of joints required, and thus
speeding installation.

In the assembled joint, the rubber gasket is


compressed between the bell and spigot rings,
completely filling the spigot groove and forming a
watertight seal between adjacent pipe sections.
The joint permits relative movement between
assembled pipe sections, within prescribed limits,
without affecting watertightness of the joint.
Interior and exterior joint spaces are filled with

01

C
G
D

D
A

FIGURE 1.4-1. COMPONENTS OF INSTALLED CONCRETE CYLINDER PIPE. A steel cylinder (A) with steel bell and spigot joint rings
(B) and (C) welded at the ends is lined with centrifugally-cast cement mortar (D). A continuous mild-steel bar (E) is helically wrapped
around the cylinder and secured by welding to the joint rings at each end. A dense cement-mortar coating (F) encases the cylinder and bar
reinforcement. The pipe is coated with 100% coal-tar epoxy and white reflective paint or Fibreglass as supplemental protection . A round
gasket (G) is placed in an annular groove in the spigot ring just prior to field assembly. A ground band (H) wrapped around the joint and
firmly strapped on both sides after field assembly serves as a mold for cement-mortar grout (I) poured in the exterior joint space. The
interior joint space is pointed with cement mortar (J).

1.9 Changes in direction


1.12 Corrosion resistance
Long-radius curves and minor changes in pipeline
direction are achieved by joint deflection of
standard pipe or by the use of pipe sections with
ends beveled up to 5 degree.

CCP is an inherently corrosion-resistant product


due to its composite construction and to the unique
protective properties of Portland cement mortar.
Protection against corrosion of steel elements in
the pipe is provided by a passivating iron oxide film
which quickly forms and is maintained by the
highly alkaline cement-mortar lining and coating
(pH at least 12.5). A portland-cement slurry is
applied on the steel cylinder during both the barwrapping and mortar-coating operations to ensure
complete encasement of the steel in a highly
alkaline environment.

1.10 Restraint of thrust


Hydraulic thrust in the pipeline can be resisted by
field welding a sufficient number of pipe joints
adjacent to the thrust point to develop the required
restraint in friction or dead weight. This method
eliminates the need for expensive and sometimes
unreliable concrete thrust blocks.
1.11 Carrying capacity

Supplemental protection can be provided to ensure


corrosion-free service for pipelines subjected to
stray current electrolysis or installed in unusually
aggressive soils.

The smooth surface of the cement-mortar lining


provides a Hazen-Williams coefficient, C, of 145 for
water service. Because cement mortar does not
corrode, the carrying capacity is not decreased
with age.
3

01

1.13 Tapping

operating requirements for each section of the


pipeline.

CCP can be easily tapped, permitting the


installation of a full range of outlets in any diameter
pipe.

+ The system approach identifies the most


economical combination of pipe and fittings for
the pipeline.

1.14 System approach

+ Special pipe and custom-fabricated fittings

CCP pipelines are designed as complete systems.


Upon request, Ameron Saudi Arabia, Ltd. provides
the customer with a complete engineering package
for each project. The package typically includes
pipe design data, technical information, drawings,
and fabrication details for each item furnished.
Pipe and fittings are numbered to identify their
positions in the pipeline.

eliminate the need for field modifications.

+ Long laying lengths and self-centring rubber


gasket joint permit rapid pipeline installation.

+ Assembled pipe joints can be field-welded at


thrust points to eliminate concrete thrust blocks.

+ The semi-rigid construction of CCP makes its


external load-carrying capacity greater than that
of flexible pipe.

Fittings are fabricated at the CCP manufacturing


facility and are designed to eliminate the need for
cutting and fit-up in the field. Virtually any size or
configuration of fittings can be furnished.

+ The corrosion resistance and ruggedness of


CCP make it virtually maintenance free. Its
interior surface remains smooth and free of
tuberculation, guaranteeing sustained high
carrying capacity throughout the service life of
the pipe.

1.15 Economy
CCP Offers the following advantages and cost
savings:

+ The design procedure permits selection of pipe


designs which most economically satisfy

Figure 1.13-1 Tapping of concrete cylinder pipe in field.

2.0 Pipe properties and materials


02

2.1 Pipe dimensions and weights

2.2 Laying lengths

The steel reinforcement is plain round bar meeting


the requirements of ASTM A615, Grade 40.
Minimum and maximum bar diameters are 6 mm to
16 mm (0.219 and 0.625 inches), respectively. Bell
and spigot end rings are fabricated from a mildsteel strip and a special hot-rolled shape,
respectively

The laying length of CCP is normally measured


along the pipeline centerline. The laying lengths
given in Figure 2.1-1 are for standard pipe installed
in straight alignment with standard interior joint
space.

c. Rubber Gasket rubber gaskets are


manufactured of polyisoprene and are of 50 to 65
Shore A durometer hardness. Gaskets are sized to
fit the spigot groove tightly before joint assembly
and to fill the groove completely after assembly.

Dimensions of standard CCP are given on the


following page. Beveled pipe and fittings are
described in Page 7.

FIGURE 2.3-1. FABRICATING STEEL CYLINDERS. A helical welding machine forms a continuous cylinder from coiled steel sheet.
The lengths required for individual pipe are cut from the cylinder as it is produced.

2.3 Pipe components


a. Cement-mortar Components cement mortar
components of CCP are manufactured with fine
aggregates meeting requirements of ASTM C33
and with sulphate-resistance Portland cement
conforming to ASTM C150, Type II or Type V.
Mortar lining and coating consists of one (1) part
cement to not more than three (3) parts fine
aggregate by weight. Mortar used to fill the joint
spaces consists of 1 part cement to not more than
2 parts fine aggregate by weight.
b. Steel Components the steel cylinder is
helically welded from hot-rolled carbon steel
sheets meeting the requirements of ASTM A570,
Grade 36. Minimum and maximum steel sheet
thicknesses are 2.0 mm to 10 mm (0.060 and
0.375 inches), respectively.

FIGURE 2.3-2. STEEL CYLINDER WRAPPED WITH


CONTINUOUS MILD-STEEL BAR. Both bar and cylinder are
sprayed with cement slurry during the wrapping operation. Bar
spacing is checked by counting the number of coils in a 0.60metre length.

02

19 mm
Db

Tl

Tb

Dy

Dj

Pipe
Standard Cylinder
Outside
Joint
Inside
Laying
Outside
Bell
Diameter
Diameter Length Diameter
Diameter
(mm)

(mm)

(mm)

D
300
450
400

L
10.0
10.0
11.0

450
500
600

16.7 dia. Rubber Gasket

Minimum
Cylinder
Thickness

Js

Minimum
Nominal
Standard
Interior Joint
Bell
Lining
Thickness Thickness
Space

(mm)

(mm)

(mm)

(mm)

(mm)

(mm)

Dy +2t y
336
386
436

Dj
350
400
450

Db
420
470
520

ty
1.5
1.5
1.5

tb
3.5
3.5
3.5

tl
13
13
13

Js
5
5
5

11.0
12.5
12.5

496
546
646

510
560
660

590
640
740

1.6
1.6
1.9

4.8
4.8
4.8

19
19
19

5
5
10

700
800
900

12.5
12.5
12.5

746
846
946

760
860
960

840
950
1050

1.9
1.9
2.3

4.8
4.8
4.8

19
19
19

10
10
10

1000
1100
1200

12.5
12.5
12.5

1046
1146
1246

1060
1160
1260

1150
1250
1350

2.7
2.7
2.7

4.8
4.8
6.4

19
19
19

10
10
10

1300
1400
1500

12.5
12.5
12.5

1346
1446
1546

1360
1460
1560

1450
1550
1650

3.4
3.4
3.4

6.4
6.4
6.4

19
19
19

10
10
10

1600
1700
1800

12.5
12.5
12.5

1650
1750
1850

1664
1764
1864

1750
1850
1950

3.4
4.2
4.2

6.4
6.4
6.4

19
19
19

10
10
10

FIGURE 2.1-1. DIMENSIONS FOR STANDARD CONCRETE CYLINDER PIPE.


The standard laying length shown is also the maximum pipe length for each
diameter. Dimensions are in mm unless otherwise noted.

3.0 Station adjustments and changes in direction


03
welding the spigot ring to the cut end.

3.1 Maintaining stationing and straight


alignment

The laying length of a beveled pipe is reduced by


an amount

Project documents for a CCP project typically


include pipeline layout showing stations and
elevations at control points along the pipeline.
Stationing of pipelines with straight alignment is
maintained by installing the pipe with the standard
inside joint space, Js, shown in Figure 3.1-1.
Minor corrections in stationing are made by
increasing or decreasing the inside joint space
within the minimum and maximum values tabulated
in the figure. Deflections within these limits will not
affect the water tightness of the joint.

DL = (Dj/2) tan b
The adjusted laying length of the beveled pipe is
L = L DL
And the offset from the pipeline centreline at the
bell end of the beveled pipe is
G=L sin b

3.2 Deflected joints

Maximum bevel angle, bmax, is 5 degrees.


Beveled joints are usually not deflected. Maximum
offsets and corresponding laying lengths are given
in Figure 3.2-1.

Minor changes in pipeline alignment and grade are


made by deflecting the pipe joints. The sequence
for deflecting a pipe joint within recommended
minimum and maximum joint space limits is shown
in Figure Steps 2 and 3 of Figure 3.1-1.
Joint space deflection results in a slight increase in
the laying length of the deflected pipe as shown in
Figure 3.1-1. For the general case, the magnitude
of this increase is

Step 1. Pipe is
assembled with standard
joint space, Js.

D
Js

DL = 0

DL = ((Jw x Jn) / 2) Js
Where Jw = widest joint space
Jn = narrowest joint space

Step 2. Joint is initially


deflected by increasing
the space, Jw on one
side up to a maximum,
Jmax.

Jw
Js+DL
Jn

Also for the general case, the deflection angle

DL = ((Jw Jn)/2) Js

q = tan-1((Jw-Jn)/Dj)
where Dj = joint diameter as defined in
Figure 2.1-1.
The adjusted laying length of the deflected pipe is

Step 3. Additional joint


deflection is obtained by
decreasing the joint
space Jn on the opposite
side down to a minimum,
Jmin

Jmax
Js+DL
Jn

L = L + DL
And the offset from the pipeline centreline at the
bell end of the deflected pipe is

DL=((Jmax+Jn)/2) Js
Inside
diameter

G = LsinDq
Maximum angular deflections, offsets, and laying
lengths are given in Figure 3.2-1.
3.3 Beveled joints
Pipe with beveled spigots are furnished for
changes in alignment or grade greater than can be
achieved by joint deflection. Beveled pipe is
installed in the same manner as standard pipe.

Inside
joint space

Maximum centerline
correction, DL

Js

Jmax

Jmin

Step 2

Step 3

300 - 500

25

10

600 - 1800

10

30

10

Figure 3.1-1. Sequence of deflecting a standard joint. (delta)L is


the increase in centreline laying length resulting from joint
deflection. Step 3 applies to pipe 600mm in diameter and larger.
All dimensions in the table are in mm.

Beveled pipe is fabricated by cutting the steel


cylinder at the desired bevel angle, (beta), and
7

03

Deflection and bevels

L
q

Jmax

q
Jmin

Js

Pipe
Standard Cylinder
Outside
Joint
Inside
Laying
Outside
Bell
Diameter
Diameter Length Diameter
Diameter

Minimum
Cylinder
Thickness

Minimum
Nominal
Standard
Interior Joint
Bell
Lining
Thickness Thickness
Space

(mm)

(mm)

(mm)

(mm)

(mm)

(mm)

(mm)

(mm)

(mm)

D
300
450
400

L
10.0
10.0
11.0

Dy +2t y
336
386
436

Dj
350
400
450

Db
420
470
520

ty
1.5
1.5
1.5

tb
3.5
3.5
3.5

tl
13
13
13

Js
5
5
5

450
500
600

11.0
12.5
12.5

496
546
646

510
560
660

590
640
740

1.6
1.6
1.9

4.8
4.8
4.8

19
19
19

5
5
10

700
800
900

12.5
12.5
12.5

746
846
946

760
860
960

840
950
1050

1.9
1.9
2.3

4.8
4.8
4.8

19
19
19

10
10
10

1000
1100
1200

12.5
12.5
12.5

1046
1146
1246

1060
1160
1260

1150
1250
1350

2.7
2.7
2.7

4.8
4.8
6.4

19
19
19

10
10
10

1300
1400
1500

12.5
12.5
12.5

1346
1446
1546

1360
1460
1560

1450
1550
1650

3.4
3.4
3.4

6.4
6.4
6.4

19
19
19

10
10
10

1600
1700
1800

12.5
12.5
12.5

1650
1750
1850

1664
1764
1864

1750
1850
1950

3.4
4.2
4.2

6.4
6.4
6.4

19
19
19

10
10
10

Figure 3.2-1 Deflections, Offsets, Minimum Radii, and Laying


Lengths for standard pipe. The centerline laying length of a
deflected pipe, L exceeds the laying length of a standard pipe
by amount DL as shown in Figure 3.1-1. The centerline laying
length of a beveled pipe, L, is less than the length of a standard

pipe by amount DL. Beveled joints are usually designed to be


installed without joint deflection. However, the joint may be
deflected within the limits specified in Figure 3.1-1 if required
during installation.

03
3.4 Curves
Pipe with deflected joint or beveled spigots are
used to lay around radius curves. Pipe are laid on
chords as shown in Figure 3.4-1. The pipeline
radius for deflected pipe is
R = L / (2sin(Dq/2)
And for the beveled pipe is
R = L / (2sin(b/2)
Pipeline centerline minimum radii for pipe with
deflected or beveled joints are in Figure 3.4-2.
PC

point of curve

PI

= point of intersection

PT

point of tangent

total deflection angle of curve

Dq

= angular deflection per pipe section

= calculated centerline pipe laying


length

pipeline centerline radius

Figure 3.4-1 Long-radius curves in CCP. These 1100-mm


diameter pipelines are part of a 150-mile CCP system
transmitting desalinated water to cities in the Eastern Province
of Saudi Arabia. The long-radius curves in this part of the
system are achieved with beveled joints.
Figure 3.4-2 Pipe alignment through a curve. Pipe are laid on
chords, normally ends of pipe do not coincide with the PC or
PT. For beveled pipe, Dq equals the bevel angle,b.

PI

Dq
L

L
PT

PC
Dq
R
Dq

4.0 Hydraulic Design

04

4.1 Velocity Limits

The Hazen Williams friction coefficient for


concerete pipe can be determined from the
formula.

Most water transmission pipelines are designed for


flow velocities in the range of 0.6 3 m/s to
minimize frictional losses and to avoid cavitation
and excessive surge pressure. This range is
applicable to concrete or cement-mortar lined
pipelines, however, velocities as high as 7.6 m/s
have been permitted by some water agencies
under special circumstances.

C = 139.3 + 0.169 D
where D = pipe inside diameter, in
The following conservative values are
recommended for design.

4.2 Flow formula and friction coefficients


The Hazen-Williams flow formula is most
commonly used to determine frictional losses in
water pipelines. It was derived from tests on
smooth pipe and is applicable to concrete pressure
pipe conveying water at temperatures normally
encountered in transmission and distribution
systems. The Hazen-Williams formula provides
values which most closely match field test results
in the velocity range of 0.6 3 m/s.

Where
V = mean velocity, ft/s

s = hydraulic gradient, ft/fs


The hydraulic radius, r, is defined as the pipeline
cross-sectional area divided by the wetted
perimeter. For pipelines flowing full, r=D/4.

hr = ((2.312Q)/C)1.852) (L/(D4.871))
where
hr = head loss, ft

= pipe inside diameter, ft

145
150

Significant transient pressures are caused by rapid


changes in pipeline flow velocity. This occurs most
commonly during rapid closing of a valve or
shutdown of a pump. The transient pressure
increase is dependent on the pressure wave
velocity, the change in flow velocity of the liquid in
the pipe, and the time over which the change of
flow velocity takes place.

For head loss calculations, Equation 4.2-1 can be


expressed as

1300 to 2700

The design of CCP provides an allowance for


surge pressure and other transient pressure
overloads equal to 50 percent of the pipeline
design pressures. The allowance is sufficient for
most hydraulic are anticipated, modification of the
system or the use of appropriate control devices
should be considered as alternatives to designing
the entire piping system to withstand excessive
overload.

r = hydraulic radius, ft

= pipeline length, ft

140

4.3 Transient pressures

C = Hazen-Williams friction coefficient

300 to 1200

These values assume that head losses in fittings


are minimal and that the pipeline is free from
organic growth or chemical deposits that affects its
carrying capacity.

V = 1.318 Cr0.63s0.54

= volume flow rate, ft3/s

Hazen-Williams
C

> 2800

In most general form the Hazen Williams formula


is

Diameter
D,mm

For more information about Hydraulic design,


please refer to AWWA M9 Manual.

10

5.0 Pipe and Fittings Design

recommended for all buried steel elements of


CCP pipeline. Flanged joints and blind flanges
are permissible exceptions if suitable means of
protection are provided.

The design of concrete cylinder pipe conforms to


AWWA standards C303. The average
circumferential stress in the steel cylinder and bar
reinforcement of the pipe at working pressure shall
not exceed 18,000 psi (124 Mpa) nor 50 percent
of the minimum yield strength of the steel used in
the cylinder. Under the combined effect of the
working pressure and surge pressure, the average
circumferential stress in the steel cylinder and bar
reinforcement of the pipe shall not exceed 27,000
psi (186 Mpa) nor 75 percent of the minimum yield
strength of the steel used in the cylinder.

The total cross-sectional area of the circumferential


steel reinforcement (steel cylinder plus rod
reinforcement) is
As = Ay + Ar
= (PdDy)/2fs

5.1 General Requirements

where As = total cross-sectional area of


circumferential steel, mm2/m of pipe wall.

Center-to-Center (C C) spacing of rods shall not


be less than 2 * Rd (Rd=the rod diameter). Nor
greater than 50mm.

Ay = cross-sectional area of circumferential steel in


cylinder steel in the cylinder, mm2/m of pipe
wall.

+ The maximum number of rods per meter shall

Ar = cross-sectional area of circumferential steel in


the cylinder, mm2/m of pipe wall.

not exceed 40.

+ Rod area shall not be less than 487mm2/M nor

Pd = design pressure, kPa

greater than 60% of the total steel area.

Dy = inside diameter of steel cylinder, mm

+ For normal designs, the cement-mortar coating

thickness shall not be less than 19mm nor


greater than 32mm over the rod. However, if a
thicker coating is required, it shall be applied in
two layers with a light wire mesh between
them. In no case shall the coating thickness be
greater than 37mm over the rod.

fs = circumferential stress in the steel cylinder at


design pressure, Mpa.
The required circumferential steel area for a given
diameter and pressure class of pipe can be
provided by several combinations of steel cylinder
thicknesses and rod diameters and spacing. Any
combination which satisfies the following criteria
may be selected.

+ The minimum lining thickness used in the

manufacture of pipe shall be that specified in


the Design Manufacturing data sheet.

+ The cylinder O.D. shall always be 46mm over

the nominal diameter of the pipe, except for


300mm, 350mm and 400mm pipe where it shall
be 36mm over the nominal diameter and from
1600mm 1800mm shall be 50mm over the
normal pipe diameter.

Pipe Diameter
Range (mm)
300
600
900
1100
1300
1700

+ Maximum standard laying lengths of pipe

determined by beam strength analysis are


shown in EXHIBIT (A).

+ Electrical bonding of pipe joints shall be

recommended for all CCP pipelines, and shall


be required in all installations in aggressive
environments.

+ When only the working pressure is specified in

Minimum steel cylinder thickness shall be as


follows:

the contract documents, the filed hydrostatic


pressure shall not exceed 1.33 * the working
pressure anywhere in the pipeline test
segment. However, the recommended test
pressure shall be 1.20 * the working pressure.
Cement-mortar or concrete protection shall be

11

400
800
1000
1200
1600
1800

Minimum Cylinder
Thickness (mm)
1.5
1.9
2.3
2.7
3.4
4.2

Minimum diameter of rod reinforcement shall


be 5.5 mm.

Maximum center-to-center spacing of rod


reinforcement shall not exceed 50 mm.

05

5.2
05

Hydrostatic (Internal Pressure) Design

Recommended bedding and backfilling procedures


are included in Amerons Installation Guide
Specifications. The method of determining
permissible earth cover loads on concrete cylinder
pipe is covered by Amerons Design Manual 303.

When designing for internal pressure alone, the


total cross-sectional area of the circumferential
steel reinforcement shall be obtained from
equation (1) or (2) :
As = (Pd*Dy) / 2 * Fs

Eq. (1)

As = ((Pd + Ps) * Dy)/ 2 * Fst

Eq. (2)

The external load is defined as all live loads dead


loads and surcharge loads that are superimposed
on any pipe segment.
The maximum vertical deflection (an increase in
the horizontal diameter vs. a simultaneous
decrease in the vertical diameter) shall not exceed
D2/1.02 * 100,000 where D = the nominal pipe
diameter in mm. This deflection is based on 32mm
maximum coating thickness.

Where :
As = Total cross-sectional area of circumferential
steel (cylinder and reinforcing rod) in
MM2/M.

If the maximum values of cylinder rod and coating


do not provide sufficient carrying capacity for the
external load requirements, special bedding design
shall be used according to the parameters set out
and by increasing (E) value, we increase the pipe
carrying capacity.

Pd = Design pressure or working pressure,


whichever is the highest, when specified in
the contract documents, or 0.83 * the field
hydrostatic test pressure, when only the
latter is specified in the contract documents,
in KPa.

All the general requirements shown in section


A.1.0 shall be followed when designing for external
load.

Ps = Surge pressure in KPa.


Fs = Average circumferential stress in Mpa, in the
cylinder & rod when the pipe is subjected to
both the design pressure (Pd). Fs shall not
exceed 124 Mpa

5.4 Typical designs


Typical designs for concrete cylinder pipe are
shown in the following tables based on an average
design stress in the steel cylinder and rod
reinforcement of 114 MPa. The steel cylinder
thickness and rod diameters may vary from those
shown in order to use available steel supplies
provided the basis of design is met.

Fst = Average circumferential stress in MPa, in the


cylinder and rod when the pipe is subjected
to both the design pressure (Pd) and surge
pressure (Ps). Fst shall not exceed 186
MPa or 75% of the specified minimum yield
strength of the steel used in the cylinder.

The division of the total steel area between steel


cylinder and rod reinforcement and the center-tocenter spacing of the rods may be calculated from
the information in the tables of typical designs.

All the general requirements specified in section


A.1.0 shall be followed when designing for internal
pressure.
5.3 External Load Design
CCP is classified as a semi-rigid pipe. A semi-rigid
pipe resembles a flexible pipe in that it will deflect
slightly from external loads and obtain some
supporting strength from the lateral pressure of the
soil at the sides of the pipe. However, the cementmortar lining and coating add to the pipes strength
to withstand external loads.
CCP installed in a trench with normal bedding and
backfilling procedures will safely withstand external
loads of up to three meters or more of earth cover.
Special bedding and backfilling procedures can be
employed to accommodate abnormal or excessive
loads.

12

Example
Ar = As - Ay
05

D=1000 mm
= 4189 - 3000
Pd=1000 kPa
= 1189 mm2/m
From design tables:
Determine center-to-center rod spacing:

As = 4189 mm2/m
ty = 3.0 mm

Area/rod = p (8.02)/4

dr = 8.0 mm

= 50.3 mm2

Determine cylinder area, Ay, and rod area, Ar:

Rods/m = Ar/area/rod

Ay = 1000 ty

= 1189 / 50.3

= 1000 (3.0)

= 23.6

= 3000 mm2/m

Spacing = (1000 mm/m) / 23.6 rods/m

13

5.5 Special pipe and fittings


05

A full range of special pipe and fittings is available


to satisfy project requirements. They are custom
fabricated at the pipe manufacturing facility and
delivered with the pipe to the construction site in
proper sequence for installation in the pipeline.
Fittings can be designed to fit almost any
configuration. Special pipe and fittings of all sizes
can be supplied with various end configurations
including flanged ends for flanged joints, steel
plate plain ends for mechanical coupling joint or for
butt-strap closures, and steel bell and spigot ends
for joint sealed with the standard round rubber ring.
When practical, fittings are attached to sections of
pipe to reduce the number of field joints and for
ease of handling, transport and installation.
Special pipe and fittings can be furnished with
various end configurations to meet project
requirements. These include plain ends, flanged
ends or standard bell and spigot ends.
Special pipe
Special pipe sections including short pipe, bevel
pipe, angle pipe and outlet pipe are generally
fabricated by modifying a standard section of pipe.
the design of elbow.

Pipe sections with spigot end beveled up to 5


degrees are available in all diameters to
accommodate changes in pipeline direction.
Beveled pipe sections are fabricated by cutting the
steel cylinder at the desired mitre angle and
welding the spigot ring to the cut end.

+ The angle of bevels shall increase in degree


intervals but shall not exceed 5.0 degrees.

+ Outlets requiring collars shall be put into


standard or short CCP pipe

Angle pipe is available to accommodate changes


in pipeline direction for angles up to 22.5 degrees.
Angle pipe is fabricated by making a mitered girth
seam of the desired angle in a section of pipe.

+ Outlets requiring wrappers shall be put into

Outlets of any size up to the pipe diameter can be


built into the wall of a pipe for manholes, air valves,
blowoffs and other connections. The steel cylinder
at the outlet opening is reinforced with either a
steel collar, a wrapper plate or crotch plate,
depending on cylinder thickness, pipe and outlet
diameters, and operating conditions.

+ When a project includes a number of outlets

standard or short CCP provided the length of


the run is at least 1.5 times the AWWA C208
length of the main run.

which require wrappers to be put on a run


shorter than 1.5 times the AWWA C208 length,
then a heavy skelp cylinder can be used for
these shorts, provided that the combined
thickness of the cylinder and wrapper does not
exceed 10mm. The normal rod wrap shall be
placed on this cylinder.

General Requirements

+ When the combined thickness in section B.1.8

+ Specials are defined as short pipe, standard

exceeds 10mm then a steel plate shall be used


for the fabrication of the special without the use
of the reinforcing rod.

and short bevels, CCP pipe with heavy


cylinder, CCP pipe with special ends or
features and outlet pipe.

Fittings

+ All special pipe shall be designed as standard


CCP pipe.

Custom-fabricated fittings include elbows, tees,


wyes, closures, reducers, and connections to
mainline valves and appurtenances. They are

+ Although one-cut elbow are fabricated from a

standard CCP pipe they will be covered under


14

surcharge loads specified in the contract


documents.
05

Circumferential stress in the steel cylinder at


design pressure shall not exceed 114 MPa.
(16,500 PSI).

Bell joint rings for fittings shall be designed for


internal pressure only using the I.D. of the bell
in the calculation.

Elbow shall have a center-line radius equal to


2.5 * the nominal diameter of the pipe.

The mortar coating thickness for all fittings


shall be minimum 25MM.

5.6 External Load Design (For Pipe and


Fittings)
To check on the external load capacity of pipe and
fittings Spanglers equation shall be used and E
(Soil Reaction modules) = 700 Psi (4.8 MPa) 1.1
Spanglers Equation in Metric becomes :

W = DX*(El+0.061.E.r3)
5.71*DL.K.r3

fabricated from welded steel plate or sheet and


lines and coated with cement mortar. The cylinder
diameter for the mainline portion of the fitting is
equal to the cylinder diameter of standard pipe.

Where :
W =
DX =
E =
=
I =

Vertical load on fitting in KN/M.


Allowed deflection in MM
Concrete Modulus in MPa
27,580 MPa
Moment of inertia of fitting wall in
M4/M.
= Il+Iy+Ic or (Il+Iy+Ic+Ir) for the pipe.
Ir = Moment of inertia for the steel rod

Design of Fittings

Fittings are defined as elbow, tees, wyes,


reducers, closers, and connections to valves
and appurtenances that are fabricated form
steel plate or sheet and lined and coated with
cement-mortar.

The requirement of AWWA C208 for the


minimum lengths of fittings shall apply except
that the actual laying lengths are modified as
shown in APPENDIX (1).

The O.D. of the fittings cylinder shall be equal


to the O.D. of the cylinder of the standard
pipe.

All fittings shall be designed to a maximum


deflection of D2/1.02 * 100,000 where D is the
nominal pipe diameter in mm.

Fittings shall be designed for internal


hydrostatic pressure. Their load carrying
capacity shall be calculated and if necessary
increased so that is at least equal to the
combination of the live loads, dead loads

Where :
Il = Moment of inertia (MI) of lining about
its neutral axis.
Iy = N * MI of cylinder about its neutral axis
(n = 7.5).
Ic = MI of coating about its neutral axis
based on 25MM coating thickness.
E = Soil Reaction Modulus in MPa.
r = Mean radius of fitting in M.
DL = Deflection lag factor
= 1.00
K = Bedding constant
= 0.085
If the calculated load capacity is less than the
applied external load, the sheet or plate thickness
shall be increased.

15

05

5.7 Particular Fitting Design

4.0 Buttstrap Closure

1.0 One-cut Elbow

4.1 When the cylinder thickness of the closure pipe


is less than 5.0MM a wrapper ring with a minimum
thickness as that of the cylinder, shall be welded to
the inside of the cylinder in the fabrication shop.

1.1. One-cut elbow shall be fabricated using a


standard CCP.
1.2. When designing for field welded joint pipeline
the length of one-cut elbow shall be that of
one standard CCP.
1.3. When designing for thrust block, the length of
one-cut elbow shall be according to
APPENDIX (1) or the thrust block length
specified on the contract drawing, whichever
is greater.
1.4. When thrust block length is not known it must
be obtained from the contractor.
If thrust
block length would result in elbows longer
than on the P.O. the commercial issue must
be resolved first with the contractor.
1.5. The wrapper plate used at the location of the
miter is designed to handle the stress
increase and replace the rod. The thickness
of the wrapper shall be as follows:
Tw =

4.2 The Buttstrap thickness shall be that of a fitting


designed for internal pressure.
5.0 Crotch Plate
5.1 Crotch plates shall be welded to roll-up
fittings or heavy skelp cylinders only.
5.2 Crotch plates shall be cut and installed
straight on the tee when the diameters of the outlet
and main run are equal.
5.3 When the diameters of the outlet and main run
are not equal the crotch plate shall be one piece
curved.

(As * 0.18 + Ar) * 1.10


1000

6.0 Thrust Wall plate

Where :
Tw
As

=
=

Ar

6.1 Thrust wall plates shall be used with roll-ups or


heavy skelp cylinders only that have the minimum
cylinder thickness shown in section C.2.1.

Wrapper plate thickness in MM.


Total cross-sectional steel area
used in the elbow in MM2/M.
Area of rod in MM2/M.1.6

7.0 Plain end

Only when standard CCP is not available, shall


one-cut elbow be fabricated using roll-up sheet.

7.1 When plain end pipe are used for Buttstrap


connection, no machining shall be required for the
end.

2.0 Multi-cut Elbow


7.2 When plain end pipe are used for flange
adaptor or for connection to pipe other than CCP
then the plain end diameter and out-of-roundness
tolerance shall be specified.

2.1 Multi-cut elbow shall be fabricated using rollup sheet or plate or heavy cylinder, but in no
case shall it be fabricated from CCP.
2.2 The steel thickness of the multi-cut elbow
shall be according to the following formula.

7.3 When the plain end pipe are used for


connection with other product pipe, then plain end
shall be fabricated as the following dimension in
Appendix 2.

Ty = ((Pd * Dy)/(2000 * Fs)) (K)


Where :
K=Stress Concentration Factor. See
Amerons Design Manual, Page 49

5.8 DIMENSION FOR FABRICATED PIPE


FITTINGS
Tee Main Run Laying Length

3.0 Reducer
NOTE : For laying lengths of laterals use the
following formula :

3.1 When designing reducers the same sheet or


plate thickness shall be used throughout the length
of the reducer. Normally this shall be thickness
calculated for the large end.

H = (D/sinq)+3f+100

16

Where :
05

H = Laying length of the main run in MM. This


length is approximate.
q = The angle of the branch to the main run.
f= Formula factor determined by the outlet
diameter, in MM. See table 1 of AWWA C208If 0 is
over 75 degrees, then the laying length of the
laterals shall be that given for tees.
If q is over 75 degrees, then the laying length of
the laterals shall be that given for tees.
If q is less than 30 degrees, then use 30 degrees
laterals plus an elbow to fit.
Branch Laying Length
NOTE : The dimension (A) is the laying length of
the branch taken from the center-line of the main
run to tip of the bell ring of the branch or adjacent
pipe or fittings or when a flange is used to the top
of the flange in MM.
For the branch laying length of laterals use the
following formula :
G = (D/(2 tan q/2)+2f+100
Where :
G = The laying length of the branch in MM.
q = The angle of the branch to the main run.
f = Formula factor determined by the outlet
diameter, in MM. The G dimension may very
slightly to suit the job requirements or the type of
connection used for the branch.
Reducer Laying Length
The laying lengths of the reducers shall be
according to the following formula :
L = [4 * (D-d)] + F
Where :
L = Laying length of the reducer, in MM.
D = Large diameter, in MM.
d = Small diameter, in MM.
F = Total length of the straight parts of the reducer.
= 1000 MM for pipe up to 900 MM in diameter (D).
= 1350 MM for pipe over 900 MM in diameter (D)
This formula applies to both concentric and
eccentric reducers.

17

Allowable Earth Cover per Class and Size


05

Size (mm)
300, 350,
400, & 450
500

600

700

800

900

1000

Min. & Max.


Class
Earth Cover
Range (Bar)
(m)
8 - 40
8
14
8
12
20
25
8
10
20
28
29

40
8 10 18 23 33 39 9 11
12 21 32 35 9
10 12 16 19 26 28 32 35

13
40
11
19
24
40
9
19
27
28
39
9
17
22
32
38
40
10
20
31
34
38
11
15
18
25
27
31
34

Size (mm)

1.0 - 6.0
- 5.5
- 6.0
- 4.5
- 5.0
- 5.5
- 6.0
- 3.0
- 4.0
- 4.5
- 5.0
- 5.5
- 6.0
- 2.5
- 3.0
- 4.0
- 4.5
- 5.0
- 5.5
- 2.0
- 2.5
- 3.0
- 4.0
- 4.5
- 5.0
1.5
1.5 - 2.0
1.5 - 2.5
1.0 - 2.5
1.0 - 3.0
1.0 - 3.5
1.0 - 4.0
1.0 - 4.5
1.0 - 5.0

1100

1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.5
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.5
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0

1200

1300

1400

1500

1600

1800

Class
Range (Bar)

Min. & Max.


Earth Cover
(m)

9 - 15

1.5 - 2.0

16
21
29
8
12
17
22
25
10
16
22
10
15
19
23
10
15
20
10
15
20
10
15
20

28
24
-

20
28
31
11
16
21
24
27
15
21
26
14
18
22
24
14
19
23
14
19
22
14
19
22

1.5 - 2.5
1.0 - 3.0
1.0 - 4.0
1.5
1.5 - 2.0
1.5 - 2.5
1.0 - 2.5
1.0 - 3.0
1.0 - 3.5
1.5 - 2.0
1.0 - 2.5
1.0 - 3.0
1.5 - 2.0
1.5 - 2.5
1.0 - 2.5
1.0 - 3.0
1.5 - 2.0
1.5 - 2.5
1.5 - 2.5
1.0 - 3.0
1.5 - 2.0
1.5 - 2.5
1.5 - 3.0
1.5 - 2.0
1.5 - 2.5
1.5 - 3.0

Note:
Live load is based on 40 ton 2-passing trucks.

18

Total Load on Fittings


05

HS
20
HS 20

HS
20
HS
HS 20
20

Tabulated figures are based on the following:


Wheel Load
Soil Unit Weight
Bedding Coefficient
Ku2
Rsdp
Backfill Compaction

:
:
:
:
:
:

10.0 Ton
1.9 Ton/m3
0.085
0.165
0.5
90%

Earth cover

Compacted backfill

External Diameter

25mm min.
loose material (sand)

Trench Detail
Nominal Diameter

Nom.
Dia
(mm)
300
350
400
450
500
600
700
800
900
1000
1100
1200
1300
1400
1500
1600
1800
2000
2200
2400
2600
2800
3000
3200
3400
3600
3800
4000

Ext.
Dia.
(mm)
386
436
486
546
596
696
796
896
996
1096
1196
1296
1396
1496
1596
1737
1943
2143
2345
2545
2745
2945
3145
3380
3580
3780
3980
4180

1
32
36
40
45
48
56
63
70
77
85
92
99
107
114
121
131
147
161
176
191
205
220
235
252
267
281
296
311

1.5
29
33
37
41
45
53
60
66
72
78
84
90
96
103
109
117
130
142
155
167
180
192
205
219
232
244
256
269

Total
2.0
31
35
38
43
47
55
62
70
78
85
91
96
102
108
114
122
135
146
159
170
183
195
207
221
233
245
257
269

Earth Cover
Load in KN/m per Earth Cover 1 to 6 m
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
38
42
44
49
55
43
48
49
55
62
47
53
55
62
69
53
59
62
69
77
58
65
67
76
84
68
76
78
88
98
77
86
89
101
112
87
97
100
113
126
96
108
112
126
140
106
118
123
138
154
115
129
133
150
167
124
139
144
163
181
134
150
155
175
195
143
160
166
187
209
152
171
177
200
222
162
185
192
217
242
175
205
214
242
270
188
219
235
266
296
211
233
250
289
323
215
248
264
309
350
229
262
277
324
377
242
277
292
340
391
256
292
306
356
409
272
309
323
374
429
285
324
337
390
447
299
339
352
406
464
313
354
366
423
482
326
369
381
439
500

19

5.5
60
68
75
85
92
108
123
139
154
169
184
200
215
230
245
266
297
327
357
386
415
444
465
487
506
525
544
564

6.0
65
74
82
92
101
118
135
151
168
185
201
218
235
251
268
291
325
357
390
422
454
486
517
548
568
589
610
631

Standard Fittings Dimensions


All the standard dimensions of fittings can be changed as per project requirements.
These dimensions are ideal for CCP product.

CCP Tee
05

B
B

Main
Diameter
300
400
450
500
600
700
800
900
1000
1100
1200
1300
1400
1500
1600
1700
1800

B and L Dimensions for Branch Diameter as Headed


Length
B
L
B
L
B
L
B
L
B
L
B
L
B
L
B
L
B
L
B
L
B
L
B
L
B
L
B
L
B
L
B
L
B
L

up to 100
300
1150
350
1150
400
1150
400
1150
450
1150
500
1150
550
1150
600
1250
650
1350
700
1350
750
1500
800
1500
850
1650
900
1650
1000
1650
1050
1700
1100
1800

150 to
250
350
1150
400
1150
450
1150
450
1150
500
1150
550
1150
600
1150
650
1250
700
1350
750
1350
800
1500
850
1500
900
1650
950
1650
1050
1650
1100
1700
1150
1800

300 to
550
400
1150
450
1150
500
1150
500
1150
550
1250
600
1250
650
1250
700
1250
750
1350
800
1350
850
1500
900
1500
950
1650
100
1650
1100
1650
1150
1700
1200
1800

600 to
700

800 to
900

1000 to
1100

1200 to
1300

1400 to
1500

1500 to
1600

600
1250
700
1350
750
1500
800
1500
800
1500
900
1500
900
1500
1000
1500
1000
1650
1100
1900
1100
2000
1200
2000
1200
2000

800
1650
850
1650
900
1950
100
1950
1000
1950
1100
1950
1100
1950
1200
1950
1150
2400
1250
2400
1250
2400

950
1950
1000
1950
1100
2550
1100
2550
1200
2550
1200
2550
1200
2600
1250
2800
1250
2800

1100
2550
1150
2550
1200
2550
1250
2550
1200
2800
1250
3000
1300
3000

1250
2550
1300
2550
1250
2800
1300
3200
1300
3400

1250
3200
1300
3400
1350
3600

Note: Special features such as flange or special plain end can be provided with the same length.

20

CCP Reducer
05

Large
Dia.
1800
1700
1600
1500
1400
1300
1200
1100
1000
900
800
700
600
500
450
400

"L" for small diameters headed


300
9570
6950
6550
6150
5750
5350
4950
4550
4150
3400
3000
2600
2200
1800
1600
1400

350
7150
6750
6350
5950
5550
5150
1750
1350
3950
3200
2800
2400
2000
1600
1400
1200

400
6950
6550
6450
5750
5350
4950
4550
4150
3750
3000
2600
2200
1800
1400
1200

450
6750
6350
5950
5550
5150
2750
4350
3950
3550
2800
2400
2000
1600
1200

500
6550
6150
5750
5350
4950
4550
4150
3750
3350
2600
2200
1800
1400

600
6150
5750
5350
4950
4550
4150
3750
3350
2950
2200
1800
1400

700
5750
5350
4950
4550
4150
3750
3350
2950
2550
1800
1400

800
5350
4950
4550
4150
3750
3350
2950
2550
2150
1400

900
4950
4550
4150
3750
3350
2950
2550
2150
1750

1000
4550
4150
3750
3350
2950
2550
2150
1750

1100
4150
3750
3350
2950
2950
2550
1750

1200
3750
3350
2950
2550
2150
1750

1300
3350
2950
2550
2150
1750

1400
2950
2550
2150
1750

1500
2550
2150
1750

1600
2150
1750

1700
1750

CCP Elbows
A

6 - 22.5 degrees
B

46 - 67.5 degrees

R (Typ) = 2.5 x Inside Dia.


23 - 45 degrees
68 - 90 degrees

Diameter

300

400

450

500

600

700

800

900

1000

1100

1200

1300

1400

1500

1600

1700

1800

500

500

500

500

500

500

500

550

625

675

725

775

825

875

875

875

875

500

550

600

650

750

850

950

1050

1150

1250

1375

1475

1575

1675

1175

1875

1975

600

800

900

950

1125

1300

1450

1625

1800

1950

2125

2275

2450

2625

2800

2975

3150

850

1100

1250

1400

1625

1875

2125

2375

2625

2875

3125

3375

3625

3875

4125

4375

4625

Note: Special features such as flange or special plain end can be provided with the same length.
21

Lateral Tee

05

*
D

Main
Dia.
300
400
450
500
600
700
800
900
1000
1100
1200
1400
1500
1600
1700
1800

K & L Dimensions for Branch Diameters as Headed


Length Up to
100
K
L
K
L
K
L
K
L
K
L
K
L
K
L
K
L
K
L
K
L
K
L
K
L
K
L
K
L
K
L
K
L
-

150 to
250
650
1150
750
1150
750
1150
800
1200
800
1350
950
1500
950
1700
1050
1850
1100
1900
1200
2100
1300
2250
1500
1900
1600
2100
2250
2750
2350
2900
2500
3000

300 to
550
700
1150
850
1200
950
1300
1050
1450
1100
1450
1150
1600
1200
1850
1300
2000
1400
2150
1500
2300
1600
2400
1700
2100
1800
2300
2350
2850
2450
3000
2600
3150

600 to
700

1200
1750
1350
1850
1300
2000
1400
2150
1500
2300
1550
2450
1650
2600
1800
2200
1900
2400
2450
3100
2550
3250
2700
3350

800 to 1000
1200
1400
1500
1600
1700
900 to 1100 to 1300 to 1500 to 1600 to 1700 to 1800

1450
2100
1600
2250
1700
2400
1800
2500
1900
2650
2000
2400
2100
2600
2550
3200
2650
3350
2800
3450

1850
2450
2000
2600
2000
2750
2100
2500
2250
2750
2650
3300
2750
3450
2900
3550

Notes:
* - This dimension should be adjusted to suit conditions.
- if D is over 75 degrees then the laying length shall be that given to tees.
- if D is less than 30 degrees then use 30 degree wye plus an elbow to fit.

22

2200
2750
2250
2650
2350
2850
2750
3400
2850
3550
3000
3650

2350
2800
2500
3100
2850
3500
2850
3560
3000
3750

2850
3600
2950
3750
3050
3850

2950
3750
3050
3850

3150
3950

Special Plain End for Flanged Adaptor


Special end for installation of flexible coupling or flange adaptor inside the chambers or pump stations.
These are the minimum dimensions required for a special plain end.

05

FLANGE ADAPTOR
(NOT INCLUDED)

VALVE
(NOT INCLUDED)

AWG 1/0 INSULATED COPPER CABLE


MAX. 400 mm LONG DEPENDING GAP
2-PCS. PER JOINT (BY OTHERS)

BOLT OR THERMITE WELD TO PIPE


(BY OTHERS)
A
38

N.D.
C

TO BE COVERED WITH CEMENT


MORTAR IN THE FIELD (BY OTHERS)

A
N.D.

C
Min.

Max

300

336.25

338.47

200

400

436.25

438.47

200

450

495.25

498.47

200

500

546.25

548.47

200

Notes:

600

646.25

648.47

200

Grind helical weld then proceed as follows:

700

746.25

748.47

200

+ Flush with Amercoat 12 cleaner


+ Clean the steel surface by mechanical

800

846.25

848.47

250

900

946.25

948.47

250

1000

1046.25

1048.47

300

1100

1146.25

1148.47

300

1200

1246.25

1248.47

300

1300

1346.25

1348.47

300

1400

1446.25

1448.47

300

1500

1546.25

1548.47

300

1600

1646.25

1648.47

300

1700

1746.25

1748.47

300

1800

1846.25

1848.47

300

+
+
+

equipment or equivalent method.


Apply Amerlock 400 for the minimum dry
thickness of 125 microns.
Roundness of the plain end shall be checked
using 360 degrees template.
Above described coatings are for in-chamber
fittings only.

23

PA

T=2PA sin(D/2)
90-(D/2)

05

PA sin(D/2)
D

D/2

PA

LATERAL WYE (d)

PA cos(D/2)

T=PA

PA 2

ELBOW (a)
D/2
PA

PA

PA1

PA

T=PA

D/2

T=2PA2 cos - (PA1/2)

DEAD END (b)

WYE (e)

PA

PA 2

PA1

PA 2

T=P(A1 - A2)
T=PA

OUTLET (c)

REDUCER (f)

5.8 Design for thrust

resisted by dead weight or frictional drag, and


additional restraint is usually not needed.

Thrust forces are unbalanced forces which occur in


a pressure piping system when water flow changes
direction or velocity or when the pipeline is dead
ended. In the general case, the thrust forces of
primary importance are:

For fittings, the restraint provided by dead weight


and surrounding soil is usually supplemented by
welding adjacent pipe joints to increase the head
weight or frictional resistance, or by providing
concrete thrust blocks or collars to increase the
head weight or the soil bearing area. Reducers
and lateral wyes are special cases where
longitudinal thrust is often resisted by compression
of downstream piping.

+ Hydrostatic thrust resulting from internal


pressure

+ Hydrodynamic thrust resulting from change in

momentum of fluid flow. For flow velocities less


than 3.0 m/s, hydrodynamic thrust is less when
compared to hydrostatic thrust and usually
ignored.

Hydrostatic thrust
Typical examples of hydrostatic thrust shown in
Figure 9.2-1. The thrust in dead ends, outlets,
laterals, and reducers is function of internal
pressure, P, and cross-sectional area, A, at the
pipe joint. The thrust at an cross-sectional area, A,
at the pipe joint. The thrust at an elbow is also a
function of deflection angle, (delta), and is given by

Thrust can be extremely large for pipelines having


high internal pressures or large directionally
changes and must be resisted to prevent
separation of the joints near the thrust point.
For buried pipelines, thrust resulting from angular
deflections at standard and beveled pipe joints is

24

If it is impractical to design the block for the thrust


force to pass through the geometric center of the
soil-bearing area, then the design should be
evaluated for stability.

T = 2PAsin(D/2) x lb
Where A = (p(Dj2)/4
Dj = pipe joint diameter, in

After calculating the thrust block size based on the


safe bearing capacity of soil, the shear resistance
of the passive soil wedge behind the thrust block
should be checked since it may govern the design.
For a thrust block with a height HB less than one
half of the distance from the ground surface to the
base of the block h, the design of the block is
generally governed by the safe bearing capacity of
the soil. However, if the height of the block HB
exceeds one half h, then the design of the block is
generally governed by the shear resistance of the
soil wedge behind the thrust block. Determining
the value of the safe bearing and shear resistance
of the soil is beyond the scope of this book. It is
recommended that a qualified geotechnical expert
be consulted.

5.9 Thrust resistance


For buried pipelines, thrust resulting from angular
defections at standard and beveled pipe with
rubber-gasket joints is resisted by dead weight or
frictional drag of the pipe, and additional restraint is
usually not needed. Thrust at in-line fittings, such
as valves, reducers, or internal test plugs, is
usually restrained by frictional drag on the
longitudinally compressed downstream pipe. Tied
joints or thrust blocks are usually not required,
provided the joints are mortared so the
compressive force can be transferred over a
sufficient length of pipeline. Other fittings
subjected to unbalanced horizontal thrust have the
following two inherent sources of resistance: (1)
frictional drag from the head weight of the fitting. If
frictional drag and/or passive resistance is not
adequate to resist the thrust involved, the it must
be supplemented either by increasing the
supporting area on the bearing side of the fitting
with a thrust block or by increasing frictional drag
of the line by tying adjacent pipe to the fitting.

Typical configurations
Determining the safe bearing value (sigma) is the
key to sizing a thrust block. Values can vary from
less than 1,000 lb/ft^2 (47.9 kN/m^2) for solid
rock. Knowledge of local soil conditions is
necessary for proper sizing of thrust blocks. Figure
9-3 shows several details for distributing thrust at a
horizontal bend. Section A-A is the more common
detail, but the other methods shown in the
alternative sections may be necessary in weaker
soils. Figure 9.4 shows typical thrust blocking of
vertical bends. The design of the block for a top
bend must be sized to adequately resist the
vertical component of thrust with the dead weight
of the block bend water in the bend, and
overburden.

Unbalanced uplift thrust at a vertical deflection is


resisted by the dead weight of the fitting, earth
cover, and contained water. If that is not adequate
to resist the thrust involved, then it must be
supplemented either by increasing the dead weight
with a gravity-type thrust block or by increasing the
dead weight of the line be tying adjacent pipe to
the fitting.
Thrust blocks

Proper construction essential

Thrust blocks increase the ability of fittings to resist


movement by increasing the bearing area. Typical
thrust blocking of a horizontal bend (elbow) and
tee is shown in Figure 9-3.

Most thrust-block failures can be attributed to


improper construction. Even a correctly sized
block can fail if it is not properly constructed. A
block must be placed against undistributed soil and
the face of the block must be perpendicular to the
direction of number of thrust blocks fail due to
inadequate design or improper construction. Many
people involved in construction and design do not
realize the magnitude of the thrusts involved.

Calculation of Size
Thrust-block size can be calculated based on the
bearing capacity of the soil.
Area of block = LBxHB = (T/s)

As an example, a thrust block behind a 910 mm,


90 degree bend operating at 100 psi (689 kPa)
must resist a thrust force in excess of 150,000 lb
(667 kN), Another factor frequently overlooked is
that thrust increases in proportion to the square of
pipe diameter. A 910 mm pipe produces about four
times the thrust produced by an 18-in. (460-mm)
pipe operating at the same internal pressure.

Where:
LBxHB = area of bearing surface of thrust block, in
square feet
T= thrust force, in pounds
s = safe bearing value for soil, in pounds per
square foot.

25

05

LB
A

05

h
HB

Section A-A
A
Reinforcing
Steel

HB
Piles

Alternate Section A-A

Alternate Section A-A

26

6.0 Quality assurance and quality control


procedure and testing

06

Ameron Saudi Arabia, Ltd. (ASAL) has adopted


and has been implementing well-established
quality control procedures for all its products to
conform with international standards requirements,
as well as customer specifications, with the aim of
supplying its customers with reliable products of
consistent quality, which will provide maintenancefree service for the intended life cycle of the
pipeline.

Following are some of Ameron Saudi Arabia, Ltd.s


Quality Control features and activities/practices.

The Engineering Manager is the management


representative for the quality assurance system.
The Quality Control Engineer is responsible for
ensuring that applicable elements of the quality
control system are strictly complied with as
determined by contract specification; for
maintaining and implementing quality control
standards and procedures; evaluating test results
and monitoring of the manufacturing process to be
in compliance with the process standards; giving
technical support to customers on quality matters;
and giving potential customers and vendor
inspectors an eye-view of the companys quality
program.
The Quality Control Department has a highly
experienced staff of Quality Control Inspectors and
Laboratory Technicians who perform inspections
and tests to assure that finished products comply
to relevant project specifications, drawings and
standards.
Aside from obtaining approvals and acceptance for
all its products from some major agencies, Ameron
Saudi Arabia, Ltd. attained ISO 9001 certification
for all of its products manufactured in Dammam
and Jubail Plants a demonstration of ASALs
devotion to producing quality products and
performing quality services.

27

Ameron maintains a quality assurance


program to ensure that AWWA Standard
C303 is met.

Materials furnished by suppliers are


inspected and randomly tested during
receiving and before use for production.

Physical and chemical test reports, as


applicable, are obtained from the suppliers.

Product is inspected at each stage of


production before releasing it to the next
station.

Sample is collected from each completed


operation of the product, and tested in the
Q.C. laboratory for conformance.

Completed product is inspected according to


relevant standard before storage.

Pipes and fittings are given a final inspection


prior to delivery.

Contractors are given support during


installation.

Q.C. laboratory is well-equipped.

Equipment are calibrated regularly.

Quality Control has qualified and experienced


quality engineers, inspectors and technicians.

Quality Plan for CCP


06

S # TEST
1. Helical Weld

STANDARD

Butt/lap weld test


2.

In-house test

Daily

In-house test

Ameron AQS
Material-4

Daily

In-house test

ASTM A-615

Daily

In-house test

Brush coat slurry test

Ameron AQS
Material-4

Daily

In-house test

Sand-cement/water-cement ratio of fresh


mortar

Ameron QAM
Testing A-45

Twice/day

In-house test

Compressive strength test )3, 7 and 28 days(

ASTM C-109

Daily

In-house test

Absorption test

ASTM C-497

Daily

In-house test

AQS Testing-8

Twice/day

In-house test

Absorption test

ASTM C-497

Daily

In-house test

Sand-cement/water-cement ratio

Ameron QAM
Testing A-45

Daily

In-house test

Compressive strength test )3, 7 and 28 days(

ASTM C-109

Daily

In-house test

ASTM D-1888

Monthly
Daily

Independent
laboratory
In-house test

Clay lumps and friable particles

BS-812

Monthly

In-house test

Fineness Modulus

BS-812

Weekly

In-house test

Chloride contents

BS-812

Monthly

Independent
laboratory

Sulphate contents

BS-812

Monthly

Independent
laboratory

Absorption test

BS-812

Monthly

In-house test

Specific gravity

BS-812

Monthly

In-house test

Surface moisture test

BS-812

Monthly

In-house test

Fineness Modulus

BS-812

Weekly

In-house test

Absorption test

BS-812

Monthly

In-house test

Specific gravity test

BS-812

Monthly

In-house test

Surface moisture test

BS-812

Monthly

In-house test

Fineness Modulus

BS-812

Weekly

In-house test

Absorption test

BS-812

Monthly

In-house test

Specific gravity test

BS-812

Monthly

In-house test

Surface moisture test

BS-812

Monthly

In-house test

Rod Wrap

Brush Coat

Speedy moisture content

Gunite

Water Test
Chloride test
Total dissolved solids

7.

8.

9.

Daily

Sample of butt welded rod )tensile test, yield


test

6.

Once/shift and machine


setup change

ASTM C-39

Rod wrap slurry test

5.

ASTM A-370

Ameron QAM
Testing A-45

Sand-cement/watercement
ratio for trough
and spun pipe

4.

MODE

Cement Mortar Lining


Compressive strength test )3, 7, and 28 days(

3.

FREQUENCY

ASTM D-512

Fine Sand

Coarse Sand

Combined Sand

FIGURE 4.0-1. TESTING. Quality control for manufacture of Concrete Cylinder Pipe (CCP) and fittings

28

7.0 Manufacturing Process

7.1.1 Fabrication of steel cylinders


An automatic helical weld machine forms a
continuous cylinder from coils of steel sheet. At
the appropriate point, a circumferential cutting
operation separates the exact length of cylinder
required for individual piece of pipe.

07

7.1.4 Hydrostatic testing of cylinders


A tensile stress of at least 0.75 min/mm (yield point
of steel) is hydrostatically induced into the cylinder
steel to check its strength and to confirm the
watertightness of the completed cylinder assembly.
7.1.2 Fabrication of joint rings
Bell and spigot rings, which form the Oring sealed
joint between adjacent pipes, are fabricated from
flat bars and special hot-rolled sections,
respectively. The steel is accurately cut, rolled and
welded into a ring and then sized on a hydraulic
press to an exacting circumferential length
tolerance.

7.1.5 Placement of concrete or cement-mortar


lining
A measured quantity of cement-mortar, mixed
under controlled conditions, is placed uniformly
throughout the length of the tested cylinder while
rotates in a spinning machine. The lining is
densified by increasing the speed of the machine.
High centrifugal forces are maintained until the

7.1.3 Attachment of joint rings


The steel cylinders advance along the production
line to the joint ring attachment station.
A bell joint ring is placed over one end and a spigot
over the other end of each cylinder. The rings are
adjusted to give the pipe its exact overall length
and to assure the ends are square. They are then
welded to the cylinder.

29

mortar is hard and all excess water has been


removed.
7.1.6 Curing the lining
The lined cylinder is placed in a chamber where
the mortar cures for a specified period of time
under controlled temperature and humidity.

07

7.1.7 Rod wrapping


Upon completion of cure, the lined cylinder is
wrapped circumferentially with steel rod at
controlled tension and predetermined spacing. A
slurry, rich in Portland cement, is sprayed on the
cylinder immediately ahead of the advancing rod
wrap to fill all voids between the steel and cylinder.
7.1.8 Application of cement-mortar coating
The rod-wrapped cylinder is moved to the cementmortar coating machine where it is slowly rotated
while a stream of cement-mortar is impacted
against its surface to produce a dense, durable
coating. A second spray of Portland cement rich
grout precedes the mortar to assure the steel is
encased in a highly alkali environment. The
coating mortar is mixed under controlled conditions
and applied in a designed thickness.
7.1.9 Spraying of coal-tar epoxy
The placement of the mortar coating is followed
immediately by the spraying on of a 100% solids
coal-tar epoxy at a specified rate. The moisture of
the mortar mix is thus sealed into the coating to
allow complete hydration of the cement. The
epoxy also provides an excellent protection to the
pipe against any aggressive soils or ground waters
to which it may be exposed to on installation.
7.1.10 Final Cure
The coated pipe is cured until the coating is of
adequate strength to permit handling. The joint
rings are cleaned and painted with a rust inhibitor.
The ends of the pipe are covered with tightly
fittings plastic caps which retain the moisture in the
mortar thereby providing the environment for
continued curing.
7.1.11 Storage
The complete pipe is stored on sand bags or sand
rows until it is loaded on a bolster-equipped truck
for delivery to the job site. The number of layers of
pipe is the storage stack and on the truck is a
function of the pipe diameter. Since concrete
cylinder pipe is designed as a semi-flexible
conduit, larger sizes are braced internally with
timber stulls until installation.
30

Fiberglass-coated Concrete Pressure Pipe

Introduction

surfaces, which passivates the steel. The


passivated steel will not corrode unless a corrosion
cell condition is created.

Due to harsh environmental conditions in the Gulf


Region, Ameron started using Coal-tar epoxy for
coating of its pipe products. And even
recommended the use of Cathodic Protection (CP)
to the pipe systems in order to make absolutely
sure the integrity of the underground pipeline and
protect it against chemical attacks from the harsh
soils in the area.

By adding a layer of Fiberglass coating, concrete


pressure pipe will be more durable, reliable, and
no need for any cathodic protection.

Advantages of Fiberglass Coating on Concrete


Pressure Pipe

In order to reduce the maintenance cost and


keeping pipeline efficient and economical, Ameron
started an in-house research and development to
improve the coating of our different concrete
pressure pipes since 1997. In addition to that, in
2002, Ameron stipulated a contract with KFUPM to
study the coating system for concrete pipe and to
enhance its performance.

+ Fiberglass Layer for external pipe protection


against corrosion in harsh environment
condition.
+ Increase pipe carrying capacity.
+ More flexibility in handling and loading of the
pipe.

Based on this continuous research, Ameron came


to the conclusion to use one layer of Fiberglass
Reinforced Resin to coat its Concrete Cylinder
Pipe (CCP) product as added protection against
the harsh environment in this area.

+ Eliminate the need of Cathodic Protection for the


pipeline.

Concrete pressure pipe has demonstrated


consistent long life when properly installed in most
natural environmental conditions. This is
attributable to the protection portland cement
affords embedded steel. The hydrated cement is
chemically basic, having a pH of about 12.5. At
this pH, an oxide film forms on the embedded steel

+ Pipe can be delivered 12 hours after the


application of GRP materials.

rg l
fibe

Reduce drastically the temperature of concrete


elements when exposed for long period under
sun radiation.

+ Can be used for above ground installation


without supplemental protection.

a ss

31

07

07

Fiberglass Application Process


The core pipe will be manufactured based on AWWA C303 requirements with modifications on the
process of application and curing of the cement-mortar coating (CMC). The fiberglass reinforced resin
coating is applied at a later stage on the dry surface of the cement-mortar coated pipe.

32

Manufacture of Special Pipes and


Fittings
Special pipes and fittings are designed to satisfy
the specific needs of each pipeline. Dimensions
meet or exceed the requirements of AWWA
Standard C208. Angular deflections and outlets
are frequently incorporated directly into full length
pipe sections.

07

Steel plates are rolled to the required diameter and


the two joining edges (which are kept beveled) of
the forming tube are tack welded. Fabrication is
done to the formed steel tube by cutting and sizing
it to the required shape, contour, length, degree,
and other applicable dimentional parameters,
depending on the type of fitting. The complete
fabrication of fittings is done with reference to, and
to meet the requirements of, the shop drawing,
designed individually for each fitting. Each fitting
shall be marked clearly for identification.

Application of cement-mortar lining and coating by Gunite.

Welding
guniting to remove loose mill scales, foreign
inclusions, penetrant residue, oil or greasy matters.
Each fittings is required to be washed with clean
potable water immediately ahead of gunite
shooting, with a light application of approved
bonding agent on the surface to be gunited.

Manual butt welding is done on the entire fitting to


be welded, with the exemption of some
components of fittings, taken from the standard of
similar pipes. Shielded metal arc welding is
employed to join the components of fittings.
Crimped wire mesh shall be tack welded to the
internal surface of the fitting and plain wire to be
tack welded on the exterior surface of the fitting.

Protective Coating
The 100% solids coal-tar epoxy coating, when
applied over the exterior mortar-coated surfaces of
fittings provide supplemental protection against
aggressive soils and stray-current electrolysis. It
rreduce current requirements for cathodic
protection and it will serve as a curing membrane
for cement-mortar coatings.

Gunite Application
After the fitting is released from the fabrication
shop, it shall be sand blasted prior to sending it for

Curing
Cement-mortar coating and protective coating on
fittings shall be permitted to cure for their minimum
respective time periods before shipment to the
jobsite. The mortar coating and protective coating
may be cured by the accelerated method using
heat or ambient cure.
Handling
All equipment and supports coming in contact with
protective coated surface of the fittings shall be
padded to prevent damage to the protective
coating.
Rolling of steel plates.

33

8.0 Specifications for Concrete Cylinder Pipe

Concrete and Mortar Materials

The water soluble chloride ion (Cl-) content of the


mortar-coating mix, expressed as a percentage of
the weight of cement, shall not exceed 0.15%.

8.1 Portland Cement

08

Portland cement shall conform to either ASTM


C150 Type I or Type V, or as specified by the
purchaser. Cement shall be stored in a dry, wellventilated location protected from the weather. If
the temperature of the cement exceeds 65oC, it
shall be stored until cooled to that temperature or
below.

The average absorption test shall not exceed nine


(9) percent, and no individual sample shall have an
absorption exceeding 11 percent.

8.2 Aggregates

After curing of the mortar coating and prior to


shipment, the mortar coating on each pipe shall be
checked for delamination and hollows by tapping
the exterior with a hammer having a head weight
of not more than 0.5 kg.

Aggregates shall conform to ASTM C33 except the


requirement for the gradation shall not apply.

8.7 Cement-Mortar For Lining And


Coating Of Fittings

8.3 Water

Cement-mortar conforming to Section 1.5,


including using the minimum water for proper
consistency, may be used for hand-trowel lining.

Water used in mixing and curing concrete and


cement-mortar may be fresh and shall be clean
and free from deleterious amounts of oil, acids,
alkalis and organic materials.

Cement-mortar conforming to Section 1.6 may be


used for pneumatically-applied mortar lining and
coating. The amount of water at the nozzle shall
be adjusted so that inplace material is adequately
compacted and free of sags.

8.4 Admixtures
Admixtures conforming to ASTM C494 may be
used unless otherwise specified. The use of
admixtures containing chlorides is prohibited.

8.8 Steel for Pipe Cylinders and Fittings


The grade of steel used for cylinders for pipe and
fittings shall have a minimum yield point that is
equal to or greater than twice the steel stress used
in design.

8.5 Concrete Or Cement-Mortar For Pipe Lining


The proportions of Portland cement, fine
aggregate, coarse aggregate, and water used
concrete for the lining shall be determined and
controlled to provide a uniform, dense, durable
concrete. Concrete shall have a Portland cement
content not less than 355 kg/m3.

Steel sheets and coils shall have a minimum


elongation at rupture of 15% (50 mm gauge length)
and shall meet the requirements of ASTM A1011
(Grade 36), ASTM 1018 (Grade 36) or ASTM
A569, except that for A569 steel. Steel in coils
may have thicknesses greater than the sheet
maximum of 6 mm, provided all other specification
requirements are satisfied.

Cement-mortar used to line pipe shall consist of


one part of cement to not more than three parts of
fine aggregate by weight, and water. Only enough
water to obtain proper flow characteristics of the
materials shall be used, and the maximum water
cement ratio should be 0.6.

Steel plates shall conform to ASTM A283 (Grade


B, C, or D), ASTM A285 or ASTM A36.
8.9 Steel Bar Reinforcement

The water soluble chloride ion (Cl-) content of the


concrete or cement-mortar lining mix, expressed
as a percentage or the weight of cement, shall not
exceed 0.15%.

Steel bar reinforcement shall be plain round bar


conforming to ASTM A615 (Grade 40), except that
the carbon content shall not exceed 0.30% as
shown by heat analysis. ASTM-A 6.5 bar smaller
than 9.5 mm shall meet the applicable
requirements for 9.5 mm bar.

The specified compressive strength of test


cylinders shall be 31 MPa at 28 days.
8.6 Cement-Mortar For Pipe Coating

Welded-Wire Fabric Reinforcement for Fittings


Cement-mortar used for coating shall consist of
one part of cement to note more than three parts of
fine aggregate by weight and a minimum water
content of seven percent of the total dry weight of
cement and aggregate.

Welded-wire fabric shall conform to ASTM A185 or


ASTM A497

34

8.10 Joint Rings


Steel for joint rings shall have a minimum yield
point of 227 MPa and a minimum elongation of
15% (50 mm gauge length).

Gaskets shall be stored in a cool, dry area and


protected from the direct rays of the sun.
8.15 Steel Cylinder Thickness

Steel strip for bell rings shall conform to ASTM


1011, ASTM 1018, or ASTM A569.

The nominal cylinder thickness for each pipe


diameter range shall not be less than shown in
Table 2.

Steel plate for bell rings or special shapes for


spigot rings shall conform to ASTM A283 (Grade D
or C), ASTM A576 (Grade1012 or 1015), ASTM
A635 (Grade 1012 or 1015), or ASTM A36.

Table 2 - Pipe Cylinder Thickness

8.11 Steel Rings and Flanges


Steel castings shall conform to ASTM A27 (Grade
70-36 normalized). Flanges shall conform to
ANSI/AWWA C207.
8.12 Physical properties
A sample from a minimum of one coil or bundle per
heat shall be tested in accordance with the
applicable portions of ASTM A370 for yield
strength, tensile strength, and elongation to verify
compliance with the standard. These samples
shall be taken with their orientation of testing in the
direction of rolling.

Pipe Diameter
Range
(mm)

Nominal Cylinder
Thickness
(mm)

300 to 800
900 to 1000
1100 to 1200
1300 to 1600
1700 to 1800

2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0

8.16 Bell Ring Thickness


Pipe Diameter
Range
(mm)

Nominal Bell
Ring Thickness
(mm)

300 to 400
450 to 1000
1100 to 1800

3.4
4.8
6.4

8.13 Thickness tolerances.


Plate and sheet shall be ordered to the thickness
determined considering all pertinent design factors.
For plate, the maximum allowable thickness
variation shall be (0.25 mm) under the determined
thickness. For sheet, the maximum allowable
thickness variation shall be as tabulated in ASTM
A568 for thicknesses up to 4.5 mm or ASTM A635
for larger thickness, as applicable. However, the
maximum allowable thickness variation shall not
exceed 0.25 mm under the determined thickness.
The thickness of each soil or one sheet of each
bundle shall be checked by the pipe manufacturer
for compliance with the applicable standards.

8.17 Pipe And Joint Dimensions


And Tolerances
8.18 Pipe Diameters
Pipe shall be furnished in diameter increments of
50 mm for sizes 300 through 500 mm, and in
diameter increments of 100 mm for sizes 600
through 1800 mm. Pipe diameter shall be nominal
inside diameter of lining.
The mean internal diameter of any portion of each
piece of pipe shall not be less than the design
diameter or size specified by more than 6 mm for
400 mm and smaller pipe or by more than 10 mm
for 450 mm and larger pipe.

8.14 Gaskets
Gaskets for the joints shall be continuous rings
made of a composition of natural or synthetic
polyisoprene rubber. The cross section of gasket
shall be circular with a diametrical tolerance of
?0.4 mm. Surfaces of gaskets shall be smooth
and free from pits, cracks, blisters, and other
imperfections. The rubber compound shall be
dense, homogeneous and free from porosity and
air pockets, and shall contain no rubber substitute,
reclaimed rubber or deleterious substance.

8.19 Pipe Laying Length


Standard laying lengths and length tolerances are
given in Table4.

Two splices in each gasket will be permitted,


provided the length of the gasket between splices
is at least 600 mm.
35

08

Table 4 - Standard Laying Length


Pipe
Diameter
Range (mm)

08

300 to 350
400 to 450
500 to 1800

Standard
Laying
Length (mm)

Laying
Length
Tolerance (mm)

10
11
12.5

7
7
7

difference between two maximum and minimum


diameters, shall be within 1.0% of the average of
these diameters. Stiffener rings and end gage
rings shall be used during lining placement to
assure proper roundness. Internal bracing may be
required for subsequent operations. See Section
8.7.
8.24 Spacing of Wrapped Reinforcement

Pipe ends shall be square with the axis of the pipe


within 7 mm except when beveled ends are
furnished.

The number of coils of wrapped bar per linear


meter along any 0.6 meter length of cylinder shall
not be less than required by the design.

8.20 Lining Thickness

8.25 Testing of Pipe

The lining thickness measured from the inside


surface of the cylinder shall have the respective
thicknesses and tolerances shown in Table 5.

Completed pipe, the cylinders of which have


already been tested in accordance with Section
8.4, shall not be subjected to additional testing.

Table 5 - Lining Thickness

8.26 Cracks in Pipe Wall

Pipe Diameter
Lining
Range (mm) Thickness (mm)
300 to 400
450 to 1800

13
19

Cracks on the interior and exterior surfaces of pipe


that are acceptable without repair or are
acceptable after repair are defined in Sec. 7.2 and
7.3, respectively. The repair of cracks that exceed
the criteria defined in the following sections or
those cracks not specifically described therein,
shall be subject to the approval of the purchaser.

Tolerance
mm
-3
-5

8.21 Coating Thickness

Cracks on the interior surface. Temperature and


shrinkage cracks in the mortar lining less than 1.6
mm in width, in the absence of delamination of the
liner from the steel cylinder, are acceptable without
repair. Cracks wider than 1.6 mm, in the absence
of delamination of the liner from the steel cylinder
and acceptable without repair if it can be
demonstrated to the satisfaction of the purchaser
that the cracks will heal autogeneously under
continuous soaking in water.

The minimum cover provided by the cement-mortar


coating shall be 19 mm over the reinforcement or
25 mm over the cylinder, whichever results in the
greater thickness of coating.
8.22 Joint Ring Tolerances
On finished pipe, the inside circumference of the
bell shall not exceed the outside circumference of
the spigot by more than 4.8mm.

Cracks on the exterior surface. Longitudinal


cracks on the exterior surface having a maximum
width 0.1 mm are acceptable without repair.

8.23 Steel Cylinder Tolerances


Steel cylinders shall be made to the design
diameter with circumferential tolerances as shown
in Table 6.

Cracks on the exterior mortar face of bell or spigot.


Radial or circumferential cracks having a maximum
width of 0.25 mm or less shall be acceptable
without repair provided the exterior joint space is
grouted with cement mortar after installation.
Radial or circumferential cracks having a width
greater than 0.25 mm but less than 1.5 mm shall
be repaired by rubbing with wet cement paste or
fitting with neat cement slurry.

Table 6 - Cylinder Circumferential Tolerance


Pipe Diameter
Range
(mm)

Tolerance on
Taped
Circumference (mm)

300 to 400
450 to 1600
1700 to 1800

5
7
8

8.27 Deflected Joints


Joints may be deflected to form curves, to span
angle points, or to correct alignment, provided the
interior joint spaces are held within the dimensions
shown in Table 7.

The out-of-roundness of the cylinder at any


transverse section in the pipe, measured as the

36

the recommended minimum thickness of the repair


materials.
The application of the repair patch can be by
troweling, dry packing, forming, or by shotcreting.
The surface of the repair shall be smoothed and
blended in with the original surface using a trowel.
Curing of the repair shall be by prompt application
of a curing compound conforming to ASTM C309.
The curing compound used on the pipe interior
shall be suitable for potable water service.
Repaired pipe shall not be shipped until fully cured.
The repair shall be inspected visually and sounded
after curing for any sign of cracking or
delamination.

Table 7 - Joint Space


Pipe
diameter
300 to 500
600 to 1800

Interior Joint Space (mm)


normal minimum maximum
5
10

5
5

25
30

8.28 Steel Cylinder / Plate for Fittings


Table 8 - Minimum Steel Cylinder Plate Thickness
Nominal
Fitting
diameter (mm)

Minimum
Sheet or Plate
Thickness (mm)

300 to 500
600 to 900
1000 to 1200
1300 to 1600
1700 to 1800

3.4
4.5
6.4
7.9
9.5

8.31 Marking
Each standard pipe, special pipe, and fitting shall
have plainly marked inside near one end the
design pressure and date of coating. In addition,
each special pipe and each fitting shall be
sufficiently identified to show its proper location in
the pipeline by reference to the installation
schedule. Beveled pipe shall be marked to show
degree of bevel, the point of maximum pipe length
at the spigot end and the field top.

The deflection angle between adjacent segments


of an elbow shall not be greater than 22.5 degrees.
8.29 Testing of Fittings and Special Pipe

8.32 Handling and Shipping

No further test will be required of welded seams


which have been tested hydrostatically All welded
seams not previously tested shall be tested either
by the air-soap method using air at a pressure of
34 kPa or by the dye penetrant method at the
option of the manufacturer. Defects revealed by
any of the alternate test methods shall be repaired
and re-tested until all defects have been
eliminated.

Pipes and fittings shall be handled carefully,


shipped and stored in manner which is designed to
prevent damaged to any part. Pipes and fittings
shall be delivered to the jobsite with the plastic
caps.

8.30 Storage
Within 24 hours after completion of coating cure,
both end openings shall be covered with plastic
end caps which shall be maintained until delivery
to the jobsite except for temporary removal for
inspection.
Water application may be required during storage
to prevent excessive drying.
Repair of concrete or mortar. Defective concrete
or mortar shall be removed to the extent of the
defect and to a width and depth to allow
replacement with repair mix. Prior to placing the
patch, the cavity shall be free of loose, debonded
and foreign matter that would interfere with
bonding to mortar and the exposed steel shall be
clean. After wetting the surfaces of the cavity with
clean water and applying a cement-slurry mix, it
shall be filled with repair mix of the same mix
proportions as originally used in the pipe or with a
commercial repair material, having properties
compatible to mortar. The repair patch shall meet
37

08

9.0 Design and operation for corrosion control

Over 70 years experience with CCP has proved it


to be resistant to physical damage and corrosion
under a wide range of environmental conditions.
Nevertheless, the design and operation of CCP
pipelines should always consider environmental
conditions which might adversely affect the
pipeline so that appropriate corrosion control
measures can be taken.

09

9.1 Recommended standard provisions for


corrosion control
The following corrosion control provision are
recommended for all CCP buried pipelines:
FIGURE 7.2-1. DEMONSTRATION OF THE CORROSIONINHIBITING PROPERTIES OF PORTLAND CEMENT. Each jar
contains a bare steel rod immersed in tap water. Additionally,
the right jar contains fragments of portland cement mortar which
have made the water highly alkaline (pH about 12.5). After 20
years of immersion the rod in the left jar is severely corroded.
Corrosion of the rod in the right jar has been prevented by a
protective iron oxide film which quickly forms and is maintained
in the alkaline environment provided by hydrated Portland
cement.
The white precipitate in the right jar is calcium carbonated
formed by chemical reaction between calcium hydroxide in the
water and carbon dioxide in air which has leaked by the jar
seal. This type of precipitate frequently occurs in cracks in
concrete and cement mortar.

+ Apply cement slurry to exterior steel surfaces


during both the wrapping and mortar coating
operations

+ Apply a 19 mm-thick (3/4 inch) mortar coating


over the bar reinforcement

+ Electrically bond the joints of installed pipe, and


provide test stations to monitor pipe potentials

+ Fill interior joint recesses with cement mortar


+ Fill exterior joint recesses with cement-mortar

grout confined in polyethylene-foam-lined grout


bands
Cement slurry having the consistency of thick
cream is applied at time of bar wrapping as shown
in Figure 7.2-2, and again at time of mortar
coating. The two slurry applications and 19 mmthick (3/4 inch) mortar coating ensure complete
encasement of the bar reinforcement in a highly
alkaline environment. The protective properties of
this environment are demonstrated by Figure 7.2-1

+ Establish a pipeline monitoring program.

Bonding the steel joint rings makes the pipeline


electrically continuous, a requirement for pipeline
monitoring and cathodic protection. Suggested
bonding details are shown in Figure 7.2-3.
Filling interior and exterior joint recesses with
cement mortar prevents corrosion of the joint rings.
Cracks which may later occur in the interior joint
mortar heal through deposition of calcium
carbonate after the pipe is filled with water. Cracks
in the exterior joint mortar usually heal by the same
process, but additional protection against
groundwater infiltration is provided by the
polyethylene-foam-line grout band shown in Figure
7.2-4.
Monitoring makes it possible to identify electrochemical activities occurring on exterior steel
surfaces of buried CCP pipelines. Procedures for
doing this are discussed in Section 7.12.

FIGURE 7.2-2. APPLICATION OF CEMENT SLURRY DURING


THE BAR WRAPPING OPERATION. The highly alkaline slurry
of Portland cement and water provides a passivating
environment around the steel bar and eliminates small air voids
which might otherwise be trapped under the bar when the
cement mortar coating is applied.

38

19.05
3.40

NON-COMBUSTIBLE
FILLER STRIP
25.4
BELL END

30.23

T 25.4

57.15

SPIGOT
END

25.4
3.40
RECESSES

6.35 25.4

12.7

RECESSES

BONDING CLIP
THICKNESS = 3.4 MM
WIDTH = 31.75 MM

BONDING BAR
THICKNESS = 9.52 MM
WIDTH = 107.95 MM

FIGURE 7.2-3. SUGGESTED JOINT BONDING DETAILS FOR CCP. Both bonding methods shown provide electrical conductivity
across the CCP joint and accommodate relative movement due to pipeline settlement. Two bonds per joint, symmetrically located
from the top of the pipe, are recommended. To provide access for welding the bonds, recesses are chipped in the mortar coating as
required after field assembly. Separate bonding is not required when the joints are field welded. Dimensions shown are in mm.

FABRIC
CLOSED CELL
POLYETHYLENE
FOAM
CEMENT-MORTAR
STEEL STRAP

FIGURE 7.2-4. JOINT GROUT BAND RECOMMENDED FOR USE ON CCP. The polyethylene foam liner
in the band has a rough cellular surface which mechanically bonds to the hardened grout and serves as
an elastic, impermeable membrane across the joint.

39

09

9.2 Recommendations for potentially corrosive


conditions

09

concrete structures have involved the buildup of


exceedingly high sulfate concentrations on partially
buried or partially submerged structures. Buried or
subaqueous concrete pipelines have proved to be
unaffected by this type of attack. Thus, sulfate
attack does not occur on concrete or cementmortar-coated pipelines submerged in seawater
which contains approximately 2,700-ppm sulfate
ion. Nevertheless, to increase resistance to sulfate
attack, the use of Portland cement containing not
more than 5-% tricalcium aluminate is generally
recommended for pipe installed in soil containing
more than 0.2% water-soluble sulfate ion (SO4=)
or in water containing more than 2,000-ppm sulfate
ion.

The standard provisions recommended in Section


9.1 will ensure corrosion-free service for the
economic life of most CCP pipelines. However,
certain potentially corrosive conditions may require
the use of special protective measures. These
conditions include soils corrosive to cement mortar,
high-chloride soils, stray-current electrolysis, and
connections to ductile iron or organically coated
steel pipelines. Other conditions requiring special
consideration include subaqueous installations,
long-term atmospheric exposure, pipeline
transition from soil or water to air, and conveyance
of corrosive liquids. Criteria and recommendations
for these unusual conditions are given Figure 7.3-1
and discussed in greater detail in the sections
which follow.

When exposed to soils of pH less than 5.0, all


exterior surfaces of CCP should be coated with a
high-build coal-tar epoxy to prevent acid attack.
Application of this type of supplemental coating is
shown in Figure 7.4-1.

9.3 Chemical attack


Acidic soils or soils with high sulfate content are
potentially damaging to the Portland cement matrix
in the CCP mortar coating.
Practically all known incidents of sulfate attack on
Condition

Criteria

Recommendations

Sulfate soils

Soils containing more than 0.2% So4=


or more than 2000-ppm SO4= in soil pore water
Soil pH less than 5.0
Chloride content (Cl?) greater than 350 ppm
Prolonged discharge of direct current

1
2
2
2 or 3

Acidic soils
High-chloride soils
Stray-current electrolysis
Connections to steel
or ductile iron pipelines
Subaqueous installations

Not cement-mortar coated


Continuous immersion in fresh
water or seawater
Above-ground installations Continuous atmospheric exposure
for more than 5 years
Transition from buried
to atmospheric exposure
Corrosive water conveyed Water with pH less than 5.5 or containing
chemicals corrosive to cement mortar

Coat the pipe exterior with a high-build coal-tar epoxy or


other suitable organic coating

Apply cathodic protection

Electrically insulate the connecting pipelines

Weld pipe joints and fill joint recesses with mortar before

5
6 and 7
8
Do not use

installing under water

Use Portland cement containing not more than 5%


tricalcium aluminate for cement mortar in the coating and
exterior joint recess

Coat steel joint rings with a high-build epoxy applied over an


inorganic zinc primer; omit mortar in the exterior joint recess
and omit electrical bonds

Apply two coats of light-colored acrylic latex over the mortar


coating; recoat as necessary to maintain coating integrity

Coat the pipe exterior with high-build coal-tar epoxy or other


suitable organic coating from 91.44 cm below to 30.48 cm
above the ground surface

FIGURE 7.3-1. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR PROTECTION OF CCP IN POTENTIALLY CORROSIVE CONDITIONS. The
recommendations given above supplement the standard provisions of Section 7.2. A qualified corrosion engineer should interpret
and apply the recommendations for specific conditions encountered.

40

of such currents from organically coated steel


pipelines occurs at pinholes or other flaws in the
coating and results in steel pitting at these
locations.

9.4 High-chloride soils


The protective mechanism of Portland cement will
prevent corrosion of steel encased in concrete or
cement mortar as long as:

The effects of current discharge are quite different


for steel encased in concrete or cement mortar. In
this case, both current collection and discharge are
strongly opposed by polarization effects occurring
over the entire steel area, and the anodic reaction
(current discharge) initially consumes alkalinity at
the steel surface rather than the steel itself.4

+ A highly alkaline environment (pH greater than


11.5) is maintained at steel surfaces, and

+ Both chlorides (Cl?) and oxygen (O2) are

prevented from reaching steel surfaces in


quantities sufficient to initiate corrosion.1 2 3

Current discharge from CCP can be tolerated for a


long time before the protective alkalinity is
consumed and steel corrosion occurs.
Nevertheless, it is recommended that current
discharge be avoided or controlled when
recognized. Coating the pipe exterior with a highbuild coal-tar epoxy greatly reduces both current
collection and discharge and is recommended on
new pipelines when cathodic interference is
anticipated. CCP pipelines crossing cathodically
protected steel pipelines should be coated for
some distance on both sides of the crossing.
Coating of CCP pipelines installed parallel to
cathodically protected steel pipelines may also be
justified to minimize current collection.

In most environments, the above conditions are


satisfied for the life of a CCP pipeline, and
consequently, corrosion seldom occurs on this type
of pipe. Further insurance against corrosion in
high-chloride soils can be provided by use of a
supplemental organic coating applied over the
mortar coating. This provision is recommended in
soils containing more than 350-ppm chloride ion
(Cl?). A more stringent limit of 150-ppm chloride
ion may be appropriate in soils subject to cyclical
wetting and drying, an occurrence which
accelerates the buildup of chlorides in the mortar
coating.
High-chloride soils have low electrical resistivity.
Since soil resistivity can be measured rapidly in the
field, it is recommended that a soil resistivity
survey be performed to identify soils of potentially
high-chloride content along the pipeline right-ofway. As a guideline, soils of resistivity less than
1,500 ohm-cm should be tested for chloride
content.

Direct current discharge from an existing CCP


pipeline can be identified from pipeline potential
and current measurements (Section 7.12) and can
be prevented by installing resistance bonds to
stray-current sources or by cathodically protecting
the CCP pipeline.

9.5 Stray-current electrolysis

9.6 Connections to steel pipelines

Buried metallic pipelines may collect and discharge


stray electrical currents originating from nearby
cathodically protected pipelines, electric railways,
and other sources of direct current. The discharge

The potential of steel in concrete or cement mortar


normally lies between -50 mV and -250 mV
measured against a copper-copper sulfate (CSE)
reference electrode. This is 300 t 600 mV more
noble than the potential of bare steel.
Consequently, if an uninsulated connection is
made between a CCP pipeline and an organically
coated steel pipeline, the steel pipeline will be
anodic to the CCP pipeline and will corrode
sacrificially at pinholes or breaks in the organic
coating. The problem can be avoided by insulating
the connection between the two dissimilar piping
materials or by mortar coating the steel pipeline so
that the steel in both pipelines is at the same
potential.
9.7 Subaqueous installations
In subaqueous pipelines the preferred method of
protecting steel joint rings is to fill both the inside
and outside joint recesses with cement mortar.
One means of accomplishing this is to weld the
pipe joints and mortar the joint recesses on land.

Figure 7.4-1. APPLICATION OF A SUPPLEMENTAL ORGANIC


COATING ON CCP. The supplemental coating in this case is a
100-percent-solids coal-tar epoxy applied directly over the
freshly placed cement mortar coating.

41

09

09

FIGURE 7.8-1. CONSTRUCTION OF AN OCEAN OUTFALL WITH STRINGS OF WELDED PIPE. Sections of mortar-coated steel
pipe are shown welded together to form strings. Pipe strings are welded to the portion of the subaqueous pipeline already installed
before being pulled to sea by an offshore barge. Pipes have an extra thick cement-mortar coating to provide negative buoyancy.

After curing of the joint mortar, the pipeline is


pulled into the subaqueous trench, generally
several pipe sections at a time. An ocean outfall
being constructed in this manner is shown in
Figure 7.8-1.

recommended from 91.44 cm to 30.48 cm above


the ground surface.

9.8 Atmospheric exposure

CCP has been widely used for the conveyance of


seawater and sewage. It should not be used to
carry water of pH less than 5.0 or containing
chemicals corrosive to cement mortar. CCP
pipelines should be kept filled with water to prevent
drying shrinkage of the mortar lining. Sewer force
mains should be designed to avoid trapped air
which may lead to collection of hydrogen sulfide
gas and subsequent oxidation to sulfurous and
sulfuric acid.

9.10 Quality of water conveyed

Application of two coats of a light-colored acrylic


latex to the pipe exterior is recommended for CCP
continuously exposed to the atmosphere for more
than 5 years. In this case, the function of the
supplemental coating is to reduce drying shrinkage
in the mortar coating and to prevent loss of coating
alkalinity due to reaction between calcium
hydroxide in the mortar and carbon dioxide in the
atmosphere (a process known as carbonation).
Recoating may be necessary every 10 to 15 years
to maintain coating effectiveness.

9.11 Monitoring
Buried pipelines should be monitored periodically
to determine pipeline potentials, current flow, and
effectiveness of insulated connections.
Measurement of CCP pipeline potentials (Figure
7.12-1) is especially significant because of the
unique potential of steel in a Portland cement
environment. As noted in Section 7.7, the potential
of steel in concrete or cement mortar normally lies
between -50 and -250 mV (CSE). Pipeline
potentials in this range indicate that exterior steel
surfaces in the pipeline are passivated and
protected from corrosion by the mechanism
illustrated in Figure 7.2-1.

Exterior joint recesses of CCP pipelines installed


above ground should not be mortared or
electrically bonded. Instead, exterior surfaces of
the steel joint rings should be protected with a
high-build epoxy applied over an inorganic zinc
primer.
9.9 Transition from soil to air
CCP pipelines extending from below ground to
above ground should be protected with a
supplemental coating in the transition zone to
prevent accumulation of soil salts by wicking action
in the mortar coating. Application of a high-build
coal-tar epoxy coating over the mortar coating is

Pipeline potentials more positive than


approximately +50 mV (CSE) are usually indicative
of direct current discharge from pipe to soil.

42

Potentials more negative than approximately 300mV (CSE) indicate either that steel corrosion is
occurring somewhere on the pipeline, or the
pipeline is collecting current from a cathodic
protection system or some other direct current
source. The occurrence of cathodic interference
can be verified by determining the magnitude and
direction of current flow along the pipeline.
Identification of corrosion activity may require
visual inspection of the pipeline at selected
locations, supplemented by pipe potential
measurements made directly against the mortar
coating.

and only at levels sufficient to counter the


discharge.

+ Damaged pipe. The option of repairing a

damaged or defective pipeline should be


carefully considered; cathodic protection, if
used, is required only at damaged areas.

+ Bare or organically coated steel. Corrosion of


uninsulated steel appurtenances or pipelines
can be prevented by local application of
cathodic protection.

Cathodic protection of limited areas is often


obtained most economically with galvanic anodes.
Impressed-current cathodic protection may be
suitable if more extensive coverage is required.

To utilize monitoring procedures effectively, pipe


joints in the installed pipeline should be electrically
bonded, and connections for test leads should be
provided at convenient intervals along the pipeline.
CCP pipeline potentials shown in Figure 7.12-2
illustrate the value of such measurements in
evaluating pipeline condition.

There are no universally accepted criteria for


cathodic protection of steel in concrete. A
commonly used criterion for cathodic protection of
bare or organically coated steel is a steel potential
of -850 mV (CSE). This criterion can be applied to
CCP pipelines where bare steel is exposed or is no
longer passivated in an alkaline environment. Two
other criteria for cathodic protection are a minimum
negative (cathodic) potential shift of 300 mV and a
minimum negative (cathodic) polarization decay of
100 mV5. While these criteria are intended to
apply to bare or organically coated steel, they have
also been used successfully in the protection of
concrete pressure pipelines.

9.12 Cathodic protection


Cathodic protection of CCP pipelines is seldom
required and should not be applied
indiscriminately. However, the following
circumstances may justify the use of cathodic
protection:

+ Stray-current electrolysis. Cathodic protection


is required only at sites of current discharge

+
TEST
LEAD

HIGH-IMPEDANCE
VOLTMETER
REFERENCE
ELECTRODE

FIGURE 10.12-1. MONITORING CCP PIPELINE


POTENTIALS. The potential of CCP steel elements
encased in cement mortar is measured against a
copper-copper sulfate reference electrode in contact with
the ground surface over the pipeline. If the soil is very
dry it may be necessary to wet the ground surface
before taking potential measurements. Electrical
connections to steel elements of the pipeline are made
at accessible valves or manholes or at permanent test
stations provided for this purpose. Maximum spacing
between test stations is limited by the length of test
leads used. Potential measurements are usually taken at
intervals of 2 m to 30 m (5 to 100 ft) along the pipeline.

STEEL
CYLINDER

43

09

10. Operation and Maintenance

A. Operation

bags, saw dust bags, or wood.

1. General

The location of the padded contact points between


layers should coincide with the internal bracing of
the pipe for the 900 mm size. (Larger pipe should
not be stacked.) The padding material selected
must be thick enough to allow removal and
insertion of the handling slings.

Concrete Cylinder Pipe (CCP) is designed and


manufactured in accordance with AWWA Standard
C303 in diameters 300 mm through 1500 mm,
inclusive. The pipe is supplied in 12.5-meter laying
lengths, except for diameters smaller than 500 mm
which are of 10 and 11 meter lengths.

10

The maximum number of layers for CCP in


storage is:

All materials used in the manufacture of CCP are


listed with their respective standard designations in
the AWWA Standard C303.

Pipe Diameter (mm)


300 to 900
1000 to 1500

Additional information is contained in the Concrete


Cylinder Pipe brochure.

Number of Layers
2
1

c. Long-Term Storage Recommendations


Pipes are designed to be buried and to be full of
water. If they are to be stored for extensive period
of time, their integrity is best maintained by placing
them as close as possible into this design
environment. This means:

2. Handling of Concrete Cylinder Pipe


CCP is easily handled, stored and laid, using
conventional equipment such as cranes,
backhoes, and forklifts. The pipe can be lifted
using either nylon or steel cables. If steel cables
are used, they must be padded to avoid damaging
the exterior protective coatings. Preferably two
slings or padded cables should be used, placed at
the quarter points of the pipe. However, a single
sling or cable can be placed around the center of
the pipe. In this case, extra precautions must be
exercised since the pipe is not restrained against
swaying, swinging or slipping.

+ Reasonably uniform external temperatures.


+ No direct exposure to the intense heat of the
sun as experienced in Saudi Arabia.

+ Maintaining a degree of moisture in the


interior mortar lining.

+ No strong, dry air currents blowing through


the pipe.

There are several ways of accomplishing these


aims:

a. Unloading
During the unloading process, the truck load must
be properly secured to prevent any movement
(rolling or shifting) and to avoid tilting of the trailer.
The lifting equipment must have adequate capacity
to carry the weight of the pipe. All personnel at the
unloading site should be instructed on normal
safety procedures. For example, no one should
stand under a suspended pipe or fittings, nor
should anyone stand between two pipes.

External
+ Cover the pipe with heavy burlap.
+ Keep the pipe under a roof.
Internal
+ Cover the ends.
+ Keep the pipe inside a walled building
+ Introduce humidity by keeping an open
container of water in the pipe. Replenish as
needed.

b. Storage
To prevent long-term corrosion of any exposed (not
mortar-covered) steel components, they should be
smeared with a heavy coat of thick grease,
assuring it does not contaminate any of the mortar
surfaces.

CCP can be stored on sand ribbons, sand bags or


wide lumber (preferably 12" wide) situated at the
quarter points measured from each pipe end. For
pipes 900 mm diameter and larger, bracings are
placed inside the pipe by the factory at the same
quarter point location to match the external
supports. This bracing must remain vertical to
insure the roundness of the pipe during storage
and the laying operation. Before moving any
stored pipe, care must be taken that the adjacent
pipes are secured to avoid their rolling with
consequent injury to people and/or damage to
property. When stocked in layers, the contact
points between layers must be padded with sand

Rubber gaskets should be kept in bags in which


they are shipped. For storage purposes, they must
not be exposed to direct sunlight. Their best
environment is cool, dark and dry. Each gasket
should be tagged with the year it was bought.
Should time allow, it is prudent to obtain and use
new gaskets at the time pipe from storage is
installed. This is especially so if the tag indicates
an age of two years or older.
44

d. Transporting

technicians using standard tapping equipment and


established tapping methods. The pipe design and
pipeline pressure must be checked prior to tapping
to assure that the steel cylinder will not be
overstressed when the rods are cut. If necessary,
the pipeline pressure must be lowered before the
rods are cut and restored only after the tap is
completed.

Trailers should be used when moving pipe from the


storage yard to the pipeline. The pipe should be
placed on bolsters contoured to the outside
diameter of the pipe. The bolsters are to be so
located on the trailer that the pipe is supported at
its quarter points. The contour should be high
enough so they contact the pipe over one-third of
its circumference.

The brochure entitled Tapping Concrete Pressure


Pipe Under Pressure, available on request,
illustrates the easy, step-by-step procedure for
threaded outlet taps (20 through 50 mm) and
flanged outlet taps (100mm and larger).

The bolsters should be padded with rubber strips


to avoid point loading and ensure that the pipe
rests fully on all the contoured surface of the
bolster. The bearing width of the bolster supports
is to be at least 300 mm. To hold down the pipe,

c. Tapping Under Zero Pressure


If it is designed to add an outlet and the pipeline
can be depressurized and dewatered, a dry tap
can be made by chipping away the mortar coating,
removing the reinforcing rod and welding to the
cylinder a steel plate of the proper configuration to
carry the additional stress caused by cutting a hole
into the pipe.
After a hole has been cut into the cylinder and
through the mortar lining, the flanged outlet is
welded to the steel plate. The internal and external
steel surfaces are then lined with mortar, followed
by a coat of coal-tar epoxy. The connection valve
can then be bolted to the flange and pressure
restored to the pipeline.
d. Ordering a Tap
If a tap is required, contact the nearest Amiantit
Sales Office for necessary arrangements. It is
necessary to give full pipe details (pipe size,
operating pressure, depth of cover) so the tap
components can be properly designed.

75 mm wide slings should be used. In no case are


steel cables or chains to be used unless they are
padded along contact area with the pipe to avoid
damage to the protective coatings.

4. Changes to Operating Conditions

3. Adding Connections

Concrete Cylinder Pipes are designed to operate


under certain internal pressures, to be buried
under certain amounts of cover and to carry certain
amounts of external loads such as highways and
buildings. It is important that the design
requirements of each of these three factors not be
increased beyond that originally specified without
first checking with Ameron's design engineers.

a. General
Regardless of how carefully water systems are
planned for the future, there will be requirements
for extensions and services that were not
anticipated. Frequently, new growth areas need to
be integrated into existing water systems with
feeder mains and the individual service
connections.

Internal pressure is the maximum operating


pressure at the lowest point in the pipeline.
Allowance is made in the design for transient
pressures (surge, water hammer) up to 50% of
operating pressure.

b. Tapping Under Pressure


One of the many advantages of Concrete Cylinder
Pipe is that it can be tapped under pressure easily
and economically, thus, providing a permanent
connection without interrupting service. All sizes of
CCP can be tapped under pressure by trained

If depth of cover exceeds 3 m, additional high


loads can be carried without any impact on the
pipe. This does not apply to adding static loads.
45

10

B. Maintenance

the joint recess with water and then fill it with


mortar consisting of 1 part Portland cement to
2 parts of sand by volume mixed with water to
the consistency of thick cream. The mortar
grout must completely fill the outside annular
space between the ends of the pipe and
around the complete circumference.

1. General

10

Though it is very rare that a repair of any kind


becomes necessary in a concrete cylinder pipeline,
it can always happen that new construction near
an existing line may cause a pipe to be
accidentally hit by a piece of heavy equipment.
Under such circumstances, effective repairs can be
made immediately. The damaged area is exposed
and the pipe becomes accessible to maintenance
equipment. The type of repair will be determined
by the extent of the damage and whether or not
the pipeline can be taken out of service.

After having filled the recess, use the flap of the


diaper to close the top opening. Press the foam
lining tightly into the mortar. Allow the mortar to set
before bedding and backfilling the joint.
3. Temporary Steel Repairs
If the flow of water cannot be interrupted long
enough to effect the permanent repair provided by
the use of a closure, then a temporary repair can
be made. This will allow returning the pipeline to
full service quickly until such time that the
damaged section can be removed.
After the flow of water in the pipeline has been
stopped, the procedure to make the temporary
repair is: (See Figure 3.)

2. Joint Repair
This repair procedure is used when a leak occurs
as a result of a cut, rolled, or damaged gasket. It
can also be applied when a joint opens following
accidental movement of the pipeline.
After the flow of water in the pipeline has been
stopped, the method of repair is:

a. Chip away the mortar coating for 150 mm along


each side and end of the cut in the steel
cylinder.

a. Remove enough cement-mortar from the joint


area for the full circumference to allow welding
at the tip of the bell. Thoroughly clean the steel
surfaces to be welded.

b. Carefully tack weld the reinforcing rod to the


cylinder along the edges of the chipped mortar
coating. Weld length should be 12 mm per rod
end.

b. Tack weld into place an 8 mm diameter filler


rod between the bell and spigot end rings as
shown in Figure 1. The filler rod must extend
continuously around the full circumference.

c. Cut the reinforcing rod half-way between


opposite welds. Bend the ends back over the
undisturbed coating, thus cleaning the areas
where the mortar has been chipped away of all
reinforcing rod.

c. Place two initial seal pass welds to stop leaking


water. After the seal weld is made and joint is
dry, make the full finish weld passes for the full
circumference of the joint.

d. Cut and fit in place a steel plate 200 mm


narrower and shorter than the chipped-away
mortar area leaving a 100 mm gap between the
plate and the undisturbed mortar coating.

d. Leave the repaired joint exposed for close


examination during the retest. Preferably the
re-test pressure should not exceed the design
pressure by 25%. In no case should it be more
than 44% higher than the design pressure.

e. Fully weld the plate to the steel cylinder all the


way around, making sure not to burn through
the cylinder.

e. After successful completion of the re-test,


encase the welded joint completely with
cement-mortar, using a foam-lined plastic
band, called a diaper, available from Ameron.
After centering it across the joint opening, bind
it down tightly onto the original mortar coating
with the steel straps provided or by an
equivalent method such as a steel wire or
nylon rope. The joint must be totally covered
except for an opening at the top where the
mortar will be poured into the joint recess.
(See Figure 2.)

g. Restore full operating pressure to the line.


Check for leaks. Any leaks which appear will
require additional welding until they are
eliminated and repair is 100% watertight.

f.

h. Cover the exposed steel with 25 mm of cement-

f. Bend the reinforcing rods back over the steel


plate and tack weld them to the plate. Total
weld length should be 50 mm per rod end.
There is no need to fill the short gap between
the ends where the rods were cut.

After the diaper is properly secured, moisten


46

mortar using 1 part of cement to 2 parts of sand


by volume mix.
i. Apply Amercoat 78HBB coal-tar epoxy over the
repair area.
j. Replace the backfill.
k. Schedule the permanent repair.

cement-mortar as described under Joint


Repair, Section B.2.g.
u. Encase all exposed steel in the closure area
with concrete.
v. Replace the backfill, tamping it carefully under
pipe haunches and compacting the backfill as
the repair area is filled.

4. Complete Pipe Replacement


Several methods of replacing a concrete cylinder
pipe is available. The two described herein are:
(Buttstrap Closure (Figure 4)
Flange Adaptor Closure (figure 5)

5. Partial Pipe Replacement


If it is not practical to replace the entire pipe which
was damaged, that part of it which was damaged
can be cut out and replaced. (See Figure 6.)
The procedure is:

The procedure, after the line has been fully


drained, is:

a. Decide which length of replacement pipe to


install. Standards lengths are 1000, 2000, and
3000 mm.
b. Place and tighten the backing clamps onto the
undamaged sections of the pipe along the line
where the cuts will be made.
c. Chip the mortar coating and cut the steel rod.
Thoroughly clean the steel cylinder.
d. Place the cutting template around the cylinder
circumference. Ensure it is straight and at right
angles to the pipes center line.
e. Cut the cylinder along the template edge. This
is best done with an oxygen-acetylene torch.
Remove the template. Carefully chip the lining
to minimize spalling.
f. Remove the damaged section.
g. Grind smooth the edges of the cylinder and the
outside helical weld of the exposed cylinder
and replace any spalled mortar lining.
h. Insert the repair piece after slipping a flexible
coupling over each end.
i. Slide the flexible coupling across the joint gap
and against the coating shoulder of the pipe.
j. Tighten the coupling bolts following the
manufacturers instructions.
k. Pressurize the line 125% of design and check
for water tightness. Reduce pressure to
operating.
l. Leaving the banding clamps in place, encase
the entire repair area in concrete.

a. Cut the pipe to be replaced into two at any


convenient place along its length.
b. Remove the two pieces.
c. Thoroughly clean the newly exposed joints of
the pipe in the ditch. Remove the gasket from
the spigot groove.
d. Prepare the trench bottom for closure
installation.
e. Use vegetable soap to lubricate the bell joint
rings just before inserting the spigot.
f. Snap a new gasket, also lubricated with
vegetable soap, into the spigot groove just
before inserting it in the bell. Wipe the spigot
groove area with the same soap after the
gasket has been snapped in place.
g. NOTE: Steps e. and f. apply to every bell and
spigot no matter which type of closure is
needed.
h. If installing a buttstrap closure:
i. After joining pieces a. and b. with the bell and
spigot of the existing pipe, the plain ends facing
each other should be about 154 mm apart.
j. Install the two halves of the buttstrap closure by
fitting them over the plain ends and centering
them across the 154 mm gap.
k. Weld the two halves to the plain ends of the
repair pieces. A suggested welding electrode is
1/8 No. 6010.
l. Weld the two halves together.
m. Grout the inside of the buttstrap and the two
newly laid standard joints.
n. If installing a flange adaptor closure,
o. After joining pieces e. and f. with the bell and
spigot of the existing pipe, slip the flange
adaptor over the plain end of piecee.
p. Grout the interior of the newly laid joints.
q. Place piece g. in position and bold to piece f.
r. Bolt the flange adaptor to piece g. and tighten
the adaptor ring.

NOTE:Some clamp-type flexible coupling require


prior lubrication of the steel faces against which
they will seal. This allows the sealing strips to
move slightly circumferentially as the clamp bolts
are tightened.

In all cases,
s. Pressurize the line to 125% of design pressure.
Check repair area for water tightness.
t. Externally grout all newly laid joints with
47

10

SEAL PASSES
CHIP BACK COATING
CHIP BACK COATING

WATER SEAL WELDING

10

FINISH WELD PASSES

COMPLETED WELDING
DIAPER
CEMENT MORTAR

COMPLETED REPAIR

THREAD
(TYP.)

(TYP.)

THREAD

150

SEAL
STRAP-SEAL POSITION DETAIL
DURING INSTALLATION

Figure 2

48

6.5 mm thick x 150 mm wide Ethafoam

270 mm wide Polypropylene Sack

0.406 mm thick Steel Strapping

6. Lining Repair

which is not in intimate contact with steel cylinder


and reinforcing rods must be removed. To achieve
the necessary strength and corrosion inhibiting
properties of cement-mortar requires careful
control of material and proper methods of
application.

a. Manual
When the damage is limited to an area measuring
less than 1000 cm2, it can be repaired by hand.
All loose and damaged mortar must be removed
and the lining cut as nearly vertical as possible.
Care is to be taken not to damage the steel
cylinder while removing the lining mortar. Prior to
the application of the new mortar, the repair area
must be saturated with water. The ratio of sand
and cement should be 2:1, measured by volume.

Repair mortar is to consist of 2 parts of sand to 1


part of cement by volume, mixed with just enough
water to produce an earth-moist mortar. A general
rule of thumb is that when the mortar is squeezed
with the palm of the hand and the hand is opened,
the mortar should retain the shape into which it
was squeezed. This mortar consistency can be
attained by using approximately one part of water
to 2 parts of cement by volume. No mix using
only cement and water is to be used since this will
inhibit the proper bonding of the subsequent
external seal coating to the repaired cementmortar coating.

Enough water must be added to achieve a good


workability to the mix, taking into account where
around the circumference the area is located.
b. Mechanical (Gunite)
This method should be used when the repair area
exceeds 1000 cm2. Sufficient water must be
added to the nozzle to provide the necessary
workability and moisture for hydrating the cement.
The mix ratio should be two parts sand to 1 part
cement by volume.

b. Mechanical (Gunite)
The gunite mix is to consist of 1 part of cement to
not more than 2 parts of sand by volume.
Sufficient water is to be added to provide the
necessary workability and moisture for hydrating
the cement.

7. Coating Repair
All loose mortar must be removed with a hand
chisel or chipping hammer.

a. Manual

Patches more than 38 mm deep are to be repaired


in two or more passes. The use of reinforcement
may be required in deep patches. Repair areas
must be cured until the seal coating is applied.

Damaged coating areas smaller than 1000 cm2


may be hand-repaired. All loose mortar coating

For both manual and mechanical repairs, it is best


to follow the application of the repair mortar
immediately with a coating of coal-tar epoxy over
the repair area. This achieves the best curing of
the mortar and the most effective protection
against the external environment.

150 mm
(Typ)

50

150 mm
(Typ)

50 50

50

12 mm
(Typ)

50
TOTAL
50 mm WELD
LTH. PER ROD END

Figure 3

49

10

Buttstrap closure

(----) GAP

10
ALL

2 HANDHOLES FOR
INSIDE GROUT
(SEE DETAIL A)

154

500

3a

254

200
B
> 500

3b

TWO ALTERNATIVES:

100
ONE HANDHOLE TO
INSERT LIGHT, SMALL TOOLS
OR MATERIAL (SEE DET. A)

254

Manhole tee is needed when no


nearby access to inside is
available.

3c

Eliminating the manhole tee


provided a nearby access to
inside is available.

> 500

3c

3b

154

FIELD APPLIED CEMENT MORTAR COATING


REINFORCED WITH 50X100X2.5mm
WELDED WIRE MESH
SPECIAL
DIAPER

(TYP)
TY

TY

50
CYL. O.D.
PIPE N.D.

154
254

DETAIL A

50
FIELD APPLIED CEMENT
MORTAR LINING REINFORCED
WITH 500X100X2.6mm
CRIMPED WELDED WIRE MESH

INSERT WOODEN SPACER


UNDER MIDDLE STRAP
THEN REMOVE AFTER
MORTAR FILLING

FIELD APPLIED CEMENT MORTAR COATING


REINFORCED WITH 50X100X2.5mm
WELDED WIRE MESH
(TYP)
SPECIAL
TY
DIAPER
TY

50
CYL. O.D.
PIPE N.D.

100 or 154

50

200 or 254

SECTION B

50

FIELD APPLIED CEMENT


MORTAR LINING REINFORCED
WITH 500X100X2.6mm
CRIMPED WELDED WIRE MESH

FLANGE ADAPTOR

FLANGED T

CCP SHORT WITH


PLAIN END

CCP SHORT

10

CCP SHORT

FLANGE

FLANGES

12.4 m

FLANGED ADAPTOR CLOSURE

L+80+2A

L+80

L
L=1000, 2000 or 3000 mm
BONDING
CLAMP
CUTTING
TEMPLATE

FLEXIBLE COUPLING

BONDING
CLAMP

About 40 mm

51

SPIGOT
85 (Typ)

11. Guide Specification for the Installation

Section 1. General

1.2.3 Manufacturer
The word "Manufacturer" shall mean the person,
firm or corporation who actually manufactures the
pipe, acting either directly as the contractor, or as a
subcontractor or supplier. If the manufacturer is
acting as a subcontractor under the obligations of
the manufacturer under these specifications shall
be considered as obligations of the contractor, and
the contractor shall be responsible for their
performance.

1.1 Scope
This standard covers the usual procedures
involved in the handling and installation of
Concrete Cylinder Pipe for buried pipelines,
including excavation, laying, jointing, bedding,
backfilling and testing. This Standard does not
cover sheeting or bracing of trenches, restorations
required, special obstructions or conditions, or
general contractual obligations. Figures 1 and 2
show a typical section of the joint, and Figures 3
and 4 show typical trench sections.
11

1.2.4 Engineer
The word "Engineer" shall mean the engineer
employed by the purchaser and acting as his
representative, or the purchaser himself acting as
his own engineer, and their respective assistants
and inspectors.

1.2 Definitions
In this Standard the following definitions shall
apply:

1.2.5 Approved
The term "approved" shall mean having received
the approval of the engineer.

1.2.1 Purchaser
The word "Purchaser" shall mean a person, firm,
corporation, or government subdivision entering
into a contract or agreement to purchase any
materials or have any work performed according to
these specifications.

1.2.6 External Loads


The term "external loads" shall mean all
superimposed live and dead loads applied to the
outside of the pipe during and after installation.
1.2.7 Pipe Diameter
The term "pipe diameter" or "size" shall mean the
nominal inside (waterway) diameter of the pipe.

1.2.2 Contractor
The word "Contractor" shall mean the person, firm
or corporation executing the contract or agreement
with the purchaser to furnish materials or perform
installation work according to these specifications.

LAYING LENGTH OF STANDARD PIPE = 12.5 M. (FOR DIA 500 TO 1800 mm)

85 mm
JOINT LAP

DIAPER
HELICALLY WOUND
REINF. ROD

CEMENT MORTAR
LINING

BELL RING

CEMENT-MORTAR
POURED IN THE
FIELD

STEEL CYLINDER

FIGURE1 . CONCRETE CYLINDER PIPE LONGITUDINAL SECTION THROUGH PIPE

52

SPIGOT RING

RUBBER GASKET

1.2.8 Special Pipe and Fittings


Any piece of pipe other than a normal full length
straight section shall be designated special pipe or
fitting. This includes, but is not limited to, elbows,
outlets, angle pipe, short sections, reducers,
adapter sections with special ends, and other
special sections or fittings.
1.2.9 Field Test Pressure
"Field test pressure" shall be defined as the field
hydrostatic test pressure to which the pipe will be
subjected at the lowest elevation of the pipeline or
section of the pipeline when the pipeline is tested
for acceptance.
11

1.2.10 Appurtenances
The term "appurtenances" shall mean all special
equipment and special items attached to the
pipeline including, but not limited to, blow-off
valves, air release valves, line valves,
instrumentation, meters, pressure regulators and
other connections.
1.2.11 Pipe Zone
The "pipe zone" for bedding and backfill shall
mean the area of the trench extending from an
elevation of the subgrade to an elevation of 100
mm above the top of the pipe in its installed
position.

1.5.2 Any work, either in progress or completed,


may be rejected if found to be non-conforming with
the job specifications or this Standard.

1.3 Safety
The responsibility for the safety of both workmen
and the public shall be assigned by the contractor
to an authoritative person with full knowledge of
the rules, regulations and requirements of local or
governing agencies.

Section 2. Pipe Delivery And Site Storage


2.1 Transportation
Pipe shall be loaded, transported and unloaded in
accordance with this Standard:

1.4 Inspection
1.4.1 For the purpose of inspection, the purchaser
or his representative shall have access to the work
whenever it is in preparation or progress. The
contractor shall provide proper facilities for access
and inspection.

2.1.1 Equipment used to load or unload pipe from


transporting vehicles shall be padded or otherwise
designed to avoid damaging the pipe.
2.1.2 During transport, pipe shall be adequately
blocked, cradled, and separated. Tie-down, chains
or cables must be padded to prevent coating
damage. The leading ends of pipe shall be
covered when being transported to prevent
excessive drying of the interior mortar lining.

1.4.2 Material
Material, pipe or pipe appurtenances which for any
reason do not meet the requirements of the job
specifications, will be subject to rejection at any
time prior to final acceptance of the pipeline.
Rejected material or pipe shall be promptly
removed from the jobsite.

2.2 Site Storage


2.2.1 Pipe, whether strung along the trench side or
in a temporary storage yard, shall be properly
supported along the bottom for its entire length and
blocked to prevent accidental rolling. Stacking
pipe without the approval of the manufacturer is
not permitted.

1.5 Workmanship
1.5.1 All work shall be done in a thorough,
workmanlike manner by mechanics skilled in their
trade.

53

When the pipe has interior cross bracing installed


by the manufacturer, the bracing shall remain in
place until the pipe is installed and backfilled.

3.1.1 Trench Depth


Trenches shall be excavated to the grade shown
on the profile. In general, where no profile is
provided, the trench shall be excavated to a depth
to provide a minimum of one meter earth cover
over the top of the pipe.

Section 3. Excavation And Subgrade


3.1 Trenches
Trenches shall be excavated to the line and grade
shown on the drawing except as amended and
supplemented by the manufacturer's tabulated
layout schedule.

3.1.2 Trench Width


The narrowest practicable trench width at the top
of the pipe which will allow proper densification of
pipe zone bedding and backfill materials shall be
maintained regardless of the type of soil in which

11
Original Ground Surface
Bd

Pipe Zone
OD + 100 mm
(min.)

Trench Depth
(Varies)

Backfill to be densified
where required

(At top of pipe)

Densified Pipe Zone Bedding

OD

25mm Loose Material


W/2

Over-excavate a minimum of
100 mm in rock or unsuitable
materials and replace with
densified backfill.

W
OD + 400 mm
Minimum
Figure 3
Normal Trench
(Typical Section)

Original Ground Surface

Bd

Pipe Zone
OD + 100 mm
(min.)

Trench Depth
(Varies)

(At top of pipe)

Densified Pipe Zone Bedding

OD

OD

Backfill to be densified
where required

25mm Loose Material


W/2

W
OD + 400 mm
Minimum

Figure 4
WIDE TRENCH
(TYPICAL SECTION)

54

Over-excavate a minimum of
100 mm in rock or unsuitable
materials and replace with
densified backfill.

the pipeline is to be laid, the depth of the


excavation, or the method of densification. If the
sides of the trench remain vertical after excavation
bedding and backfilling are to be consolidated by
hydraulic method, the minimum width of trench at
the top of pipe shall be pipe outside diameter plus
400 mm. If the pipe zone bedding and backfill
require densification by compaction, the width of
trench at the bottom of pipe shall be determined by
the space required for proper and effective use of
tamping equipment, but not less than pipe outside
diameter plus 400 mm.
3.1.2.1 Normal Trenches
11

Normal trenches shall apply when the trench sides


in the pipe zone will stand vertically. The trench
may be excavated with vertical sides or with sloped
sides at the option of the excavation contractor for
the portion of the trench extending from the ground
surface to an elevation at the planned top of the
pipe. The trench shall have vertical sides for the
portion of the trench extending from an elevation at
the planned top of the pipe to an elevation at the
planned bottom of the pipe. For normal trenches,
the trench width, Bd, from the bottom of the trench
to the top of the pipe shall not exceed the
following:

trench shall be excavated to a depth at least 100


mm below the established grade line and filled with
well densified material in accordance with Section
6.3 to a depth of 25 mm below the grade line. The
subgrade shall then be completed with 25 mm of
loose selected materials as described in Section
3.2.1.

3.1.2.2 Wide Trenches


In soils where the pipe zone trench walls will not
stand vertically and other areas where the trench
width, Bd, cannot be controlled in accordance with
Section 3.1.2.1, the trench shall be considered as
a wide trench. Figure 4 shows a typical "wide
trench" condition.

3.2.2.2 Unstable Material


When excavation is in soft, unstable material which
is unsuitable as a foundation for pipe, such
material shall be removed as directed by the
engineer and replaced with well densified material
in accordance with Section 6.3 to a depth of 25
mm below the established grade line. The
subgrade shall then be completed with 25 mm of
loose selected material as described in Section
3.2.

3.2 Subgrade
3.2.1 Normal Grade
The contractor shall prepare a subgrade which will
provide continuous uniform support under the
haunches of the pipe after bedding and backfilling.

3.2.2.3 Non-Uniform Material

Trenches shall be excavated to a depth not less


than 25 mm below the established grade line of the
outside bottom of the pipe. The excess excavation
shall then be filled with loose bank run material
from which all stones larger than 25 mm in
diameter have been removed. This loose
subgrade material shall be graded uniformly to the
established grade line for the full length of the pipe.

Voids formed by removal of boulders or the


interfering objects extending below normal
excavation limits shall be filled with suitable, well
densified material in accordance with Section 6.3.
3.3 Special Support
Special means of support may be provided but
under no conditions shall the pipe be installed
permanently on timbers, earth mounds, pile bents
or other similar supports unless specific pipe
designs which are adequate for these abnormal
conditions are provided by the engineer.

3.2.2 Special Subgrade Densification


3.2.2.1 Unyielding Material
Where excavation is in rock, hardpan, shale or
other similar hard and unyielding materials, the
55

Section 4. Laying And Jointing


4.1 Laying

11

The pipe shall be laid to the lines and grades


shown on the contract drawing except as amended
and supplemented by the manufacturer's tabulated
layout schedule and approved by the engineer.
The work shall be scheduled so that the bell end of
the pipe faces in the direction of laying wherever
practicable. Pipe shall be laid uphill when slopes
exceed 15 percent. When laying pipe, the pipe
trench shall be kept free from water which might
impair the integrity of bedding and jointing
operations.
4.1.1 Handling
Handling of pipe shall be in accordance with the
recommendations of the manufacturer. All
necessary precautions shall be taken to maintain
the protection afforded by the lining and coating.
The pipe shall at all times be handled using proper
equipment and must never be pushed or dragged
along the ground. Pipe shall further be handled so
that the dimensional integrity of joint configuration
is assured.

control while lowering the pipe into the trench and


making the joint.
4.1.3 Placing
Pipe should be supported free of the bedding or
foundation during the joining process to avoid
disturbance of the subgrade. A suitable excavation
should be made in the trench bottom to provide the
necessary clearance required for grouting the
exterior joint space as described in Section 4.3.5.
Any adjustments required to maintain grade should
be made by scrapping away or adding foundation
material. The pipe is normally laid by inserting the
spigot of the pipe in hand into the bell of the pipe
previously installed.

4.1.2 Equipment
The equipment to be used in placing the pipe in
the trench must provide the operator with adequate

Because of the close tolerances in the pipe joint


and the compression of the rubber gasket,
considerable force may be required to engage the
spigot and bell. Come-alongs or power winches
may be rigged in the pipe to provide this force. On
smaller pipe, the backhoe or other laying
equipment may be used to force the pipe together.
It should be emphasized, however, that the joint
should be made with a straight in pull. Raising the
far end of the pipe so that the top of the spigot is
inserted first and then lowering the pipe to insert
the bottom half may result in a rolled gasket.
4.2 Interior Bracing Of Pipes
Design, installation and performance of pipe
bracing used during installation shall be the
responsibility of the contractor. Use of bracing
placed wholly or in part by the manufacturer shall
not relieve the contractor of this responsibility.
Note 1: Uniform distribution of the rubber rings may be
accomplished by passing a smooth, round steel rod under
the rubber ring and up onto opposite edge of spigot groove,
then moving the rod in this position around the entire
circumference of the spigot.

56

4.3 Rubber Gasket Joints

provide back-up against which the mortar is


squeezed while the centered spigot is pushed into
the bell, and (2) to hold mortar in place in the
assembled joint while alignment and grade are
adjusted. The accessory shall screed off excess
mortar to leave a smooth and continuous surface
between pipe section as it is drawn through the
pipe.

4.3.1Before Assembly
Before joining the spigot into the bell of the pipe
previously laid, the spigot groove and bell shall be
thoroughly cleaned. Then the spigot grooves, the
rubber rings and the first 50 mm of the bell shall be
lubricated with a soft vegetable soap compound.
The rubber rings shall be positioned in the spigot
grooves so that the rubber is distributed uniformly
around the circumference.

4.3.4.2 Pipe 600 mm Diameter and Larger


After the pipe zone bedding and backfill have been
densified the inside joint recess of pipe 600 mm in
diameter and larger shall first be moistened with
water, then filled with a stiff cement mortar
consisting of water and 1 part cement to 1 parts
of sand. The finished joint shall be smooth and
flush with the adjacent pipe surfaces. Interior joint
filling operations shall not be conducted within two
joints of pipe laying operation. The exposed
surface of the mortar shall be coated with a liquid
membrane forming compound for curing concrete.

Note 1: Uniform distribution of the rubber rings


may be accomplished by passing a smooth, round
steel rod under the rubber ring and up onto
opposite edge of spigot groove, then moving the
rod in this position around the entire circumference
of the spigot.
4.3.2 Assembly
Pipe shall be joined together to provide the proper
space between abutting ends of pipe. To maintain
the laying length shown on the contract drawings,
the width of the space provided at the joint may be
varied to compensate for the permissible
manufacturing tolerance in pipe lengths. Metal or
wooded spacers can be placed against the inside
shoulder of the bells. Joints in smaller pipelines
shall be prepared in accordance with Section
4.3.4.1.

The interior joint recess shall not be less than nor


greater than the applicable dimensions given in the
following tabulation.
4.3.5 Exterior Joint Recess
After joining mortar coated pipe, the foam lined
plastic band furnished by the manufacturer shall be
centered and secured over the exterior joint
recess. The band shall be bound to the pipe by
the use of steel strapping or by an equivalent
method and shall completely and tightly encase
the outside joint except for an opening near the top
where mortar grout is to be poured into the joint
recess.

For long radius curves and for slight changes or


corrections in alignment and grade, joints may be
pulled on one side of the pipe. In pipelines 600
mm and larger, the joints may be partially closed
on the opposite side. The amount of deflection
must not exceed that shown in Table 1.

After the band is properly secured, the joint recess


shall be moistened with water and then filled with
mortar consisting of 1 part Portland cement to 2
parts of sand mixed with water to the consistency
of thick cream. The mortar grout shall completely
fill the outside annular space between the ends of
the pipe and around the complete circumference.
After the recess has been filled, the opening shall
be closed and the mortar allowed to set before
bedding and backfilling at the joint.

4.3.3 After Assembly


After a joint is assembled, a thin metal feeder
gauge approximately 15 mm wide and 0.5 mm
thick shall be inserted between bell and spigot and
the position of the rubber gasket around the
complete circumference of the pipe. If the gasket
is not in the groove, the pipe shall be withdrawn,
the gasket checked to see that it is not cut or
damaged, the pipe re-laid, and the gasket position
is again checked.
4.3.4 Inside Joint Recess
4.3.4.1 Pipe 500 mm Diameter and Smaller
Prior to assembling the joint, the inside shoulder of
the bell shall be plastered with a stiff mortar
consisting of 1 part Portland cement to 2 parts of
sand. An accessory such as specially designed
ball as shown in Figure 5, shall be used (1) to
57

11

material moved in excavating the pipe trench; but


when sufficient, suitable material is not available
from this source, additional material shall be
obtained from other sources.

4.3.6 Beveled Joints


Pipe with beveled joints, specifically made for
alignment or grade changes in the pipeline, are
joined and completed in the same manner as joints
for the standard pipe.

Bedding and backfill material shall not be dropped


directly on the pipe and all materials placed within
the pipe zone shall be free from rocks or clods
larger than 75 mm in maximum diameter. The
material shall be placed and densified in layers
having the same top elevation on both sides of the
pipe to prevent unequal loading and displacement
of the pipe. The difference in elevation of the
backfill on both sides of the pipe shall not exceed
150 mm at any time. The material shall be
densified in accordance with Section 6.3 around
the pipe to the height over the top of the pipe, as
shown in Figures 3 and 4.

4.4 Special Joints


Special pipe and fittings with other type of joints
shall be installed in accordance with the
manufacturer's recommendations.
Section 5. Anchorage For Thrust
11

5.1 General
The necessity of anchorage of the pipeline for
thrust arises at angle points, side outlets, valves,
and on steep slopes. Where indicated on the
contract drawings, suitable means of anchoring the
pipeline against movement shall be provided.
Details of anchorage shall be as specified by the
engineer or as submitted by the contractor and
approved by the engineer. Anchorage of the
pipeline may be provided by casting concrete
thrust blocks or by field welding joints or by a
combination of these two methods.

6.2 Backfill

Field welded joints shall be welded in accordance


with the manufacturer's recommendation.

Backfill above the pipe bedding may be placed as


soon as densification of the pipe bedding material
is completed. Backfill shall be placed to a
minimum depth of one meter above the top of the
pipe before power-operated hauling or rolling
equipment is used over the pipe. The type of
material used for backfill, the amount thereof, and
the manner of depositing the material shall be
subject to the approval of the engineer. Where
densification of backfill is required, the material
shall be placed in horizontal layers and densified in
accordance with Section 6.3.

5.1.2 Concrete Thrust Blocks

6.3 Densification Of Bedding And Backfill

Concrete blocking shall be cast-in-place between


undisturbed earth bearing surfaces and the special
pipe or fitting to be anchored. Should any
sloughing of the pit sides occur, additional concrete
required after removing the loose earth shall be
placed at the contractor's expense. Blocking shall,
unless otherwise shown or directed, be so placed
that joints of pipe and fittings will be accessible for
repair.

Bedding and backfill shall be densified in


accordance with the contract documents, as
specified in this section, or as directed by the
engineer.

5.1.1 Field Welded Joints

Section 6. Bedding And Backfill


Bedding and backfill in pipe trenches shall be
placed to the lines shown on the contract drawings
and as specified in this section. Bedding and
backfill required to be densified shall be placed
and densified in accordance with Section 6.3.
6.1 Pipe Bedding
Material used for pipe bedding and backfilling
within the pipe zone shall be clean and free from
solid unyielding chucks, such as rocks or broken
pavement, and organic materials. In so far as
practicable, the material shall be obtained from
58

6.3.1 Location of Densified Bedding and


Backfill
a. Pipe bedding as shown in Figures 3 and 4 shall
be densified for the full length of the pipeline.
b. Backfill where pipelines cross under locations
of future open drains shall be densified to the
original ground surface up to 1 meter minimum.
c. Backfill placed where other pipelines cross the
pipeline shall be compacted to the horizontal
centerline of the crossing pipeline.
d. Where over-excavation of the trench is
required to remove rocks or unsuitable
material, the over-excavated area shall be
refilled and densified to the elevation specified
in Section 3.2.2.

11

6.3.2 Densifying Clayey and Silty Materials


Where densification of earth materials containing
appreciable amounts of clay or silt is required, the
materials shall be deposited in horizontal layers
and densified by compaction. The thickness of
each horizontal layer after compaction shall not be
more than 150mm. The excavating and placing
operations shall be such that the materials, when
compacted, will be blended sufficiently to secure
the highest practicable unit mass and best
impermeability and stability.

compacted material shall not be less than 90% of


the laboratory standard maximum soil dry density.
Note 2: The standard maximum soil dry density is
the dry mass per cubic meter of the soil compacted
at optimum moisture content by laboratory
procedure.

Prior to and during compaction operations, the


materials shall have a moisture content of not
greater than 2% wet or less than 2% dry of
optimum moisture, and the moisture content shall
be uniform throughout each layer.

6.3.3 Densifying Cohesionless Materials


Where densifying cohesionless free-draining
material is required, the material may be densified
by compaction or by consolidation at the
contractor's option.

In so far as practicable, moistening of the material


shall be performed at the site of excavation but
such moistening shall be supplemented by
sprinkling at the site of compaction, if necessary. If
the moisture content is less than optimum for
compaction by more than 2 percentage points or is
greater than optimum for compaction by more than
2 percentage points, the compaction operations
shall not proceed until the material has been
wetted or allowed to dry out, as may be required,
to obtain optimum moisture content within the
tolerances permitted above.

Note 3: In this Standard, a cohesionless freedraining material is defined as a soil whose dry
density in kilograms per cubic meter at 70%
relative density (See Note 4) is greater than its dry
density at 90% of laboratory standard maximum
dry density (See Note 2).
6.3.3.1 Densifying by Compaction

When the material has been conditioned as herein


before specified, it shall be compacted by rollers or
by hand or power tampers. Where hand or power
tampers are used to compact soils in confined
areas such as within the pipe zone or around
structures, they shall be equipped with suitably
shaped heads to obtain the required density.

When cohesionless free-draining material is


densified by compaction the materials shall be
deposited in horizontal layers and compacted to
the relative density specified below. The
excavating and placing operations shall be such
that the materials, when compacted, will be
blended sufficiently to secure the highest
practicable unit mass and best stability. Water
shall be added to the materials as may be required

The dry density of the soil fraction in the


59

to obtain the specified density by method of


compaction being used.

be consolidated shall not be greater than the


penetrating depth of the vibrators being used.
During a consolidation operation, the material shall
be wetted thoroughly throughout the entire layer. If
the material is not saturated or wetted for proper
compaction, the consolidation operation shall not
proceed until such time as proper wetting is
secured. Saturation shall be accomplished by
water jets, flooding, or by any other method that
will provide suitable saturation when vibration is
begun. Vibration shall be accomplished with
immersion-type vibrators of adequate power to
consolidate the mass to the required density. If
water jets are used, the vibrator shall not be
removed from the material until after the jet is
removed. The relative dry density of the
consolidated material shall not be less than 70%
(See Note 4).

This thickness of the horizontal layers after


compaction shall not be more than 150 mm if
compaction is performed by tampers or rollers; nor
more than 300 mm if compaction is performed by
treads of crawler-type tractors, surface vibrators, or
similar equipment; and not more than the
penetrating depth of the vibrator if compaction is
performed by internal vibrators.
The relative density of the compacted material
shall not be less than 70%.
11

Note 4: The relative density of a cohesionless


free-draining soil, expressed as percentage, is
defined as its state of compactness with respect to
the loosest and most compact states at which it
can be placed by laboratory procedures. The
relative density will be based on the following
formula, wherein the maximum density is the
highest unit mass of the soil; minimum density is
the lowest mass of the soil; and in-place density is
the unit mass of the soil in place. Tests for
moisture content are made on the materials and
the unit masses are expressed in terms of ovendry masses.

Where material is densified by consolidation within


the pipe zone, consolidation shall be performed
concurrently on both sides of the pipe.
Consolidation of pipe zone material shall not begin
until eight hours after the exterior joint recess has
been filled, as provided in Section 4.3.5.
Consolidated material shall be placed so that the
first lift shall not exceed 0.5 times the outside
diameter of the pipe above the bottom of the pipe.

6.3.3.2 Densifying by Consolidation


6.3.4 Densifying Cohesionless Material
Containing Clay and Silt

Consolidation of bedding and backfill material shall


be accomplished by saturation and vibration
methods. The thickness of the layer of material to

Cohesionless materials containing clay and silt

60

at least 48 hours. The pipeline shall then be


brought up to the test pressure and that pressure
shall be maintained on the section under test for a
period of not less than 4 hours. Accurate means
shall be provided for measuring the quantity of
water required to maintain full pressure on the line
for test period. The volume of water required to
maintain the test pressure shall not exceed 5 liters
per millimeter of inside diameter per kilometer of
pipeline per 24 hours.

may not be free draining. When densifying


cohesionless materials containing clay and silt is
required, the materials shall be compacted to a dry
density in accordance with either Section 6.3.2 or
Section 6.3.3.1, using whichever method that
results in the higher dry unit mass of the
compacted material in the placement.
Section 7. Hydrostatic Testing Of Pipelines
7.1 Preparation

In the event that rate of loss of water during the


test is greater than that stated above, the
contractor shall locate the source of leaks and
perform the required repairs. If necessary,
additional tests shall be performed until a
satisfactory test has been completed. Regardless
of the test results, all detected leaks shall be
repaired by the contractor.

Each completed length of pipeline required to be


sectionalized for testing shall be bulk-headed and
filled with water as soon as practicable; but until
the final field hydrostatic test is made, as
hereinafter provided, the pipe will not be required
to be subjected to greater water pressure than that
necessary to keep it filled.

After the pipe has successfully met all of the test


requirements, the entire pipeline shall be filled with
water and so maintained until the completion of the
contract. The contractor shall assume all
responsibility for any damage to the pipe as a
result of pressure imposed during the operations of
filling the pipeline with water and conducting the
tests.

Any unwatering necessary on account of defects,


and the subsequent refilling, shall be done by the
contractor at his expense. After completion of the
entire pipeline construction included in a test
section, but in no event sooner than 14 days after
said completion, the contractor shall test the line
under the hydrostatic pressure hereinafter
specified.

Before acceptance of the contract work, all test


bulkheads shall be removed. At each location
where the bulkhead is removed, the pipe shall be
completely restored to a condition conforming to
the requirements of the specification for the
finished work.

The bulkheads used for testing shall be of


adequate design and construction to withstand the
required pressure without causing injury to or
excessive stresses in the pipe. The planned
schedule of testing and the details of test
bulkheads shall be subject to the approval of the
engineer.
7.2 Test Section
The section of the pipeline to be subjected to
hydrostatic field test shall be planned so that
during the field test no pipe section will be
subjected to a pressure less than 100% nor more
than 133% of the pipeline design pressure.
The contractor, at his own expense, shall provide
adequate anchorage acceptable to the engineer,
for the restraint of pipe sections while under test.
Any such special anchorage shall be removed by
the contractor upon completion of the pipeline test.
The contractor will be permitted to utilize for the
required testing, any sectionalizing valve or head
installed in the portion of the pipe included in the
contract.
7.3 Hydrostatic Test
Prior to testing, the section of the pipeline to be
tested shall be placed under a slight pressure for
61

11

12. Procedure of Hydrostatic Testing in


Field After Installation
Hydrostatic Testing:

heavy rain falls which occur reasonably through the


area where joints are harnessed to restrain thrust.
The harnessed sections must be fully backfilled prior
to testing in order to develop the weight on the pipe
and soil friction which where used in the design.

Pressure pipelines are usually required to be


hydrostatically tested by the contractors as a
condition of final acceptance by the owner, with
extremely long lines it is sometimes more convenient
to test short sections as they are completed.
Hydrostatic testing provides proof of pipe system
integrity.

Apparent Leakage:
During the pressure test, the contractor is generally
required to meter the amount of water that is added
to the line to maintain test pressure. If the quantity
falls below a predetermined value preferred to as
leakage allowance, then the line is considered
acceptable. The term leakage allowance is a
misnomer. It is intended only to give the contractor
some allowance for trapped air, absorption of water
by the pipe walls, take-up of restraints, and
temperature variations during testing. Because of
these factors, water may have to be added to
maintain test pressure even if the line is not leaking.
More appropriate term for this quantity of water might
be apparent leakage. Most specifications require
that observed leaks be repaired regardless of results
of leakage measurements through metering
equipment.

Test Pressure:

Backfilling before testing


The reliability of the rubber and steel joint used for
concrete cylinder pipes allows backfilling prior to
testing.
Doing so avoids the safety hazard
presented by an open trench and permits restoration
of the right of way in the shortest possible time.
Since, as empty pipe weighs less than the water it
displaces, backfilling is also essential to avoid
lengths of pipeline floating during the sudden and

Trust restraint device A


2 to insure uniform
50R
distribution of force
accross the surface
of test plug (by contractor)

10
10
3
3

Preparation of line
Proper preparation prior to hydrostatic testing can
help to keep apparent leakage to a minimum. Air
valves should be properly located and checked to be
sure they are operational. Lines with several high
and low points should have small taps and

50
60

./2

3
1

N.D

12

To test the system, the hydrostatic pressure should


be at least equal to the maximum operating pressure
of the line requiring a test pressure considerably in
excess of the operating pressure serves only to
increase costs since the pipe strength and size of
thrust blocks or number of harnessed joints must be
significantly increased. Test pressure are commonly
specified as some value slightly greater than the
operating pressure such as 120 percent of operating
pressure.

N
.D
./4

5
(Typ)

4
3
75

+ Recommended field test pressure is design test


pressure times1.2

75

+ Design of test plug based on pressure test


required

Section A-A

N.D.=Nominal pipe diameter

Notes: Apply Amercoat on all exposed steel


requiring temporary protection

Spigot test plug for 300mm - 1800mm

62

corporation stops to bleed air while the line is being


filled. All outlets should be plugged prior to testing.

to be braced against a thrust block. When bracing a


flat type bulkhead against a thrust block. The flat
plate forming the back of the bulkhead though heavy,
must be uniformly supported when bracing it to the
thrust block. Failure to do so can lead to bulkhead
distortion and consequential loss of water tightness
of the bulkhead joint. Special care will be needed if
timber is used to avoid a crushing type failure in the
wood.

Pretest Soaking:
The line should be filled at a slow rate to prevent air
entrapment and should be left with a low pressure for
24 hours. This assigned value is intended only to
give the contractors some allowance for apparent
leakage attributable to absorption by the pipe walls.
Before testing, connections and equipment should
be checked to see that they are in satisfactory
condition.

Safety Precautions
A newly laid line is generally filled for the pressure
test by connecting to an existing line, when this is not
feasible, water can be pumped from a nearby
source. The pump should be adequate to fill the line
in a reasonable time it will usually be different than
the pump used to conduct the pressure test. Pump
should always be monitored while in operation to
avoid accidental over pressuring of the pipeline.
Positive displacement pumps should always have
pressure relief valves in the system. Centrifugal
pumps with shut-off head within limitations of the
pipeline are preferred to piston pumps.

Leakage Allowance and Test Period


Leakage allowance are generally specified in the
range 10 50 gallons per inch of diameter per mile of
pipe per 24 hours. This assigned value is intended
only to give the contractor some allowance for
apparent leakage, since any observed leaks must be
repaired. A one or two hour test is generally ample to
permit inspection of the right of way for evidence of
leaks.
Bulkheads and Thrust Restraints.

Two gauges are desirable to provide a means of


ensuring a correct pressure reading. Valves should
be located at the air bleed outlet and between the
pump and the bulkhead. Meters for measuring
leakage and pressure are generally furnished and
calibrated by the owner.

Bulkheads for use in conducting a hydrostatic test


are available from pipe manufacturing. Generally,
they have outlets for filling and draining the pipeline
for bleeding air from the line. A system of thrust
restraint is needed at the bulkheads.
Most
manufacturing furnish a flat type bulkhead designed

Trust restraint device A


2 to insure uniform
50R
distribution of force
accross the surface
of test plug (by contractor)

10
10
3
3

50
60

3
1

N.
D./
2

N
.D
./4

5
(Typ)

12

75
5
5

40

+ Recommended field test pressure is design test


6

75

pressure times 1.2

+ Design of test plug based on pressure test


required

Section A-A

N.D.=Nominal pipe diameter

Notes: Apply Amercoat on all exposed steel


requiring temporary protection

Spigot test plug for 300mm - 1800mm

63

12

Appendix A - Typical designs

As

Designs for 600 kPa


ty
dr

Cylinder
Pipe Steel Area
Thickness
Dia. mm mm2/m
mm

app.

tb

Rod
Diameter
mm

Bell
Thickness
mm

Mp

As

Designs for 700 kPa


ty
dr

Cylinder
Pipe Mass Steel Area
Thickness
ton/pipe
mm2/m
mm

tb

Rod
Diameter
mm

Bell
Thickness
mm

Mp

As

Designs for 800 kPa


ty
dr

Cylinder
Pipe Mass Steel Area
Thickness
ton/pipe
mm2/m
mm

tb

Mp

Rod
Diameter
mm

Bell
Thickness
mm

Pipe Mass
ton/pipe

300
350
400

1833
1833
1833

2.0
2.0
2.0

6
6
6

3.5
3.5
3.5

1.74
1.99
2.24

1833
1833
1833

2.0
2.0
2.0

6
6
6

3.5
3.5
3.5

1.74
1.99
2.24

1833
1833
1833

2.0
2.0
2.0

6
6
6

3.5
3.5
3.5

1.74
1.99
2.24

450
500
600

1925
1925
2200

2.0
2.0
2.0

6
6
6

4.8
4.8
4.8

2.76
3.04
3.59

1925
1925
2200

2.0
2.0
2.0

6
6
6

4.8
4.8
4.8

2.76
3.04
3.59

1925
1925
2200

2.0
2.0
2.0

6
6
6

4.8
4.8
4.8

2.76
3.04
3.59

700
800
900

2283
2356
2796

2.0
2.0
2.0

6
6
6

4.8
4.8
4.8

4.14
4.68
5.23

2283
2374
2796

2.0
2.0
2.0

6
6
6

4.8
4.8
4.8

4.14
4.68
5.25

2393
2713
3034

2.0
2.0
2.0

6
6
6

4.8
4.8
4.8

4.14
4.71
5.33

1000
1100
1200

3236
3318
3392

2.5
2.5
2.5

6
6
6

4.8
4.8
6.5

5.91
6.47
7.03

3236
3318
3392

2.5
2.5
2.5

6
6
6

4.8
4.8
6.5

5.91
6.51
7.15

3355
3676
3997

2.5
3.0
3.0

6
6
6

4.8
4.8
6.5

5.97
6.63
7.30

1300
1400
1500

4107
4189
4263

3.0
3.5
3.5

8
6
6

6.5
6.5
6.5

8.16
8.50
9.08

4107
4189
4263

3.0
3.5
3.5

8
6
6

6.5
6.5
6.5

8.16
8.50
9.18

4308
4629
4959

3.0
3.0
3.5

8
8
8

6.5
6.5
6.5

8.25
8.97
9.71

1600
1700
1800

4547
4831
5115

4.0
4.0
4.5

6
6
6

6.5
6.5
6.5

9.80
10.50
11.14

4568
4854
5140

4.0
4.0
4.5

6
6
6

6.5
6.5
6.5

9.82
10.50
11.12

5290
5620
5950

4.0
4.0
4.5

8
8
8

6.5
6.5
6.5

10.36
11.00
11.65

tb

Mp

As

tb

Mp

As

As

Designs for 900 kPa


ty
dr

Cylinder
Pipe Steel Area
Thickness
Dia. mm mm2/m
mm

Rod
Diameter
mm

Bell
Thickness
mm

Designs for 1000 kPa


ty
dr

Cylinder
Pipe Mass Steel Area
Thickness
ton/pipe
mm2/m
mm

Rod
Diameter
mm

Bell
Thickness
mm

Designs for 1100 kPa


ty
dr

Cylinder
Pipe Mass Steel Area
Thickness
ton/pipe
mm2/m
mm

tb

Mp

Rod
Diameter
mm

Bell
Thickness
mm

Pipe Mass
ton/pipe

1.74
1.99
2.24

300
350
400

1833
1833
1833

2.0
2.0
2.0

6
6
6

3.5
3.5
3.5

1.74
1.99
2.24

1833
1833
1833

2.0
2.0
2.0

6
6
6

3.5
3.5
3.5

1.74
1.99
2.24

1833
1833

2.0
2.0

6
6

1916

2.0

3.5
3.5
3.5

450
500
600

1925

2.0

1970
2328

2.0
2.0

6
6

4.8
4.8
4.8

2.76
3.04
3.59

1989
2191
2585

2.0
2.0
2.0

6
6
6

4.8
4.8
4.8

2.76
3.04
3.59

2182
2402
2842

2.0
2.0
2.0

6
6
6

4.8
4.8
4.8

2.76
3.04
3.63

700
800
900

2686
3053
3410

2.0
2.5
2.5

6
6
6

4.8
4.8
4.8

4.16
4.79
5.42

2988
3383
3786

2.0
2.5
3.0

6
6
6

4.8
4.8
4.8

4.20
4.85
5.51

3282
3722
4162

2.0
2.5
3.0

8
8
8

4.8
4.8
4.8

4.42
5.09
5.79

1000
1100
1200

3768
4134
4492

3.0
3.0
3.0

6
8
8

4.8
4.8
6.5

6.08
6.99
7.69

4189
4583
4987

3.0
3.0
3.5

8
8
8

4.8
4.8
6.5

6.40
7.11
7.84

4602
5042
5482

3.0
3.5
4.0

8
8
8

4.8
4.8
6.5

6.49
7.17
7.99

1300
1400
1500

4849
5216
5573

3.5
3.5
4.0

8
8
8

6.5
6.5
6.5

8.43
9.17
9.93

5390
5784
6188

3.5
3.5
3.5

10
10
10

6.5
6.5
6.5

8.87
9.65
10.46

5922
6362
6802

4.0
4.0
4.0

10
10
10

6.5
6.5
6.5

9.04
9.85
10.68

1600
1700
1800

5945
6317
6689

4.5
5.0
5.0

8
8
8

6.5
6.5
6.5

10.60
11.26
12.00

6600
7012
7424

4.5
5.0
5.0

8
10
10

6.5
6.5
6.5

11.16
11.86
12.56

7255
7708
8161

5.0
5.0
5.5

10
10
10

6.5
6.5
6.5

11.40
12.20
12.95

1) The proportioning of the total steel area between cylinder and the rod reinforcement may be varied from that as shown.

64

As

Designs for 1200 kPa


ty
dr

Cylinder
Pipe Steel Area
Thickness
Dia. mm mm2/m
mm

Rod
Diameter
mm

tb

Mp

As

Designs for 1300 kPa


ty
dr

Bell
Cylinder
Pipe Mass Steel Area
Thickness
Thickness
ton/pipe
mm2/m
mm
mm

Rod
Diameter
mm

tb

Mp

As

Designs for 1400 kPa


ty
dr

Bell
Cylinder
Pipe Mass Steel Area
Thickness
Thickness
ton/pipe
mm2/m
mm
mm

Rod
Diameter
mm

tb

Mp

Bell
Pipe Mass
Thickness
ton/pipe
mm

300
350
400

1833

2.0

1852
2090

2.0
2.0

6
6

3.5
3.5
3.5

1.74
1.99
2.24

1833
2008
2264

2.0
2.0
2.0

6
6
6

3.5
3.5
3.5

1.74
1.99
2.24

1879
2163
2438

2.0
2.0
2.0

6
6
6

3.5
3.5
3.5

1.74
1.99
2.24

450
500
600

2383
2622
3098

2.0
2.0
2.5

6
6
6

4.8
4.8
4.8

2.76
3.04
3.67

2576
2842
3364

2.0
2.0
2.0

6
6
8

4.8
4.8
4.8

2.76
3.07
3.84

2778
3053
3612

2.0
2.0
2.0

6
8
8

4.8
4.8
4.8

2.79
3.22
3.88

700
800
900

3584
4061
4538

2.5
2.5
3.0

8
8
8

4.8
4.8
4.8

4.47
5.16
5.87

3878
4391
4913

2.5
3.0
3.0

8
8
10

4.8
4.8
4.8

4.52
5.22
6.15

4170
4730
5289

2.5
3.0
3.0

8
8
10

4.8
4.8
4.8

4.57
5.29
6.23

1000
1100
1200

5014
5491
5977

3.0
3.0
3.5

10
10
10

4.8
4.8
6.5

6.81
7.58
8.38

5436
5949
6472

3.0
3.5
4.0

10
10
10

4.8
4.8
6.5

6.91
7.71
8.53

5848
6408
6958

3.5
4.0
4.5

10
10
10

4.8
4.8
6.5

7.02
7.83
8.68

1300
1400
1500

6463
6930
7407

4.0
5.0
5.0

10
10
10

6.5
6.5
6.5

9.20
10.06
10.91

6994
7508
8020

4.5
5.0
5.5

10
10
10

6.5
6.5
6.5

9.38
10.25
11.14

7517
8075
8635

5.0
5.5
6.0

10
10
10

6.5
6.5
7.0

9.55
10.44
11.36

1600
1700
1800

7900
8394
8888

5.5
6.0
6.0

10
10
12

6.5
6.5
6.5

11.65
12.38
13.15

8555
9090
9265

6.0
6.0
6.0

10
12
12

6.5
6.5
7.0

11.90
12.65
13.40

9210
9785
10360

6.0
6.5
7.0

12
12
12

6.5
7.0
8.0

12.12
12.88
13.65

tb

Mp

As

tb

Mp

As

tb

Mp

app.

As

Designs for 1500 kPa


ty
dr

Cylinder
Pipe Steel Area
Thickness
Dia. mm mm2/m
mm

Rod
Diameter
mm

Designs for 1600 kPa


ty
dr

Bell
Cylinder
Pipe Mass Steel Area
Thickness
Thickness
ton/pipe
mm2/m
mm
mm

Rod
Diameter
mm

Designs for 1700 kPa


ty
dr

Bell
Cylinder
Pipe Mass Steel Area
Thickness
Thickness
ton/pipe
mm2/m
mm
mm

Rod
Diameter
mm

Bell
Pipe Mass
Thickness
ton/pipe
mm

300
350
400

2017
2310
2613

2.0
2.0
2.0

6
6
6

3.5
3.5
3.5

1.74
1.99
2.25

2145
2466
2787

2.0
2.0
2.0

6
6
6

3.5
3.5
3.5

1.74
1.99
2.27

2283
2613
2960

2.0
2.0
2.0

6
6
6

3.5
3.5
3.5

1.74
2.00
2.28

450
500
600

2970
3273
3868

2.0
2.0
2.5

6
8
8

4.8
4.8
4.8

2.81
3.25
3.92

3163
3483
4125

2.5
2.5
2.5

6
6
8

4.8
4.8
4.8

2.83
3.15
3.96

3364
3703
4382

2.5
2.5
3.0

6
6
8

4.8
4.8
4.8

2.85
3.18
4.00

700
800
900

4464
5060
5665

3.0
3.5
4.0

8
8
8

4.8
4.8
4.8

4.63
5.36
6.12

4758
5400
6030

3.0
4.0
4.0

8
8
10

4.8
4.8
4.8

4.68
5.43
6.40

5060
5730
6408

3.5
4.0
4.0

8
8
10

4.8
4.8
4.8

4.73
5.49
6.48

1000
1100
1200

6260
6866
7460

4.0
4.0
5.0

10
10
10

4.8
5.0
6.5

7.12
7.95
8.82

6673
7315
7948

4.0
4.5
5.0

10
10
10

4.8
5.5
6.5

7.22
8.08
8.96

7095
7773
8443

4.5
4.5
5.0

10
12
12

5.5
6.5
6.5

7.33
8.44
9.36

1300
1400
1500

8058
8653
9249

5.5
6.0
6.0

10
10
12

6.5
7.0
7.0

9.72
10.64
11.90

8590
9220
9863

6.0
6.0
6.5

10
12
12

7.0
7.0
7.0

9.89
11.13
12.12

9120
9790
10468

6.0
6.5
7.0

12
12
12

6.5
7.5
7.5

10.33
11.32
12.34

1600 9865
1700 10482
1800 11090

6.5
7.0
7.5

12
12
12

7.5
8.0
8.5

12.70
13.50
14.30

10520
11178
11835

7.0
7.5
8.0

12
12
12

8.0
8.5
9.0

12.93
13.75
14.60

11165
11862
12560

7.5
8.5
9.0

12
12
12

8.5
9.5
10.0

13.20
14.15
15.10

65

As

Pipe
Steel Area
Dia. mm
mm 2/m

app.

Designs for 1800 kPa


ty
dr
Cylinder
Thickness
mm

Rod
Diameter
mm

tb

Bell
Thickness
mm

Mp

As

Pipe Mass
ton/pipe

Steel Area
mm 2/m

Designs for 1900 kPa


ty
dr
Cylinder
Thickness
mm

Rod
Diameter
mm

tb

Bell
Thickness
mm

Mp

As

Pipe Mass
ton/pipe

Steel Area
mm 2/m

Designs for 2000 kPa


ty
dr
Cylinder
Thickness
mm

Rod
Diameter
mm

tb

Bell
Thickness
mm

Mp
Pipe Mass
ton/pipe

300

2410

2.0

3.5

1.74

2540

2.0

3.5

1.74

2677

2.0

3.5

1.75

350

2770

2.0

3.5

2.01

2925

2.0

3.5

2.03

3070

2.5

3.5

2.04

400

3125

2.5

3.5

2.30

3030

2.5

3.5

2.32

3475

2.0

3.5

2.44

450

3548

3.0

4.8

2.88

3750

3.0

4.8

2.90

3940

2.5

4.8

3.03

500

3914

3.0

4.8

3.21

4135

3.0

4.8

3.36

4345

3.0

4.8

3.39

600

4630

3.5

4.8

4.04

4886

3.5

4.8

4.08

5143

3.5

4.8

4.12

700

5344

3.5

4.8

4.78

5647

4.0

4.8

4.83

5940

3.5

10

4.8

5.04

800

6060

4.0

10

4.8

5.74

6398

4.0

10

4.8

5.80

6738

4.0

10

4.8

5.87

900

6775

4.5

10

5.0

6.57

7160

4.5

10

5.5

6.65

7535

5.0

10

5.5

6.73

1000

7500

5.0

10

5.5

7.43

7920

4.5

12

5.5

7.75

8323

5.0

12

5.5

7.85

1100

8223

5.0

12

5.5

8.56

8670

5.0

12

6.0

8.68

9120

5.5

12

6.5

8.80

1200

8938

5.5

12

6.5

9.51

9420

5.5

12

7.0

9.65

9910

6.0

12

7.0

9.80

1300

9650

6.0

12

7.0

10.49

10175

6.5

12

7.5

10.66

10698

7.0

12

8.0

10.83

1400

10360

7.0

12

8.0

11.52

10927

7.0

12

8.5

11.71

11495

8.0

12

9.0

11.91

1500

11073

7.5

12

8.5

12.57

11678

8.0

12

9.0

12.79

12283

8.5

12

9.5

13.01

1600

11812

8.5

12

9.0

13.42

12457

9.0

12

10.0

13.65

13102

9.0

14

11.0

13.88

1700

12550

9.0

12

10.0

14.27

13235

9.0

14

11.0

14.52

13920

9.0

14

11.0

14.75

1800

13288

9.0

14

11.0

15.12

14013

9.0

14

11.5

15.38

tb

Mp

As

tb

Mp

As

Pipe
Steel Area
Dia. mm
mm 2/m

Designs for 2100 kPa


ty
dr
Cylinder
Thickness
mm

Rod
Diameter
mm

Bell
Thickness
mm

Pipe Mass
ton/pipe

Steel Area
mm 2/m

Designs for 2200 kPa


ty
dr
Cylinder
Thickness
mm

Rod
Diameter
mm

Bell
Thickness
mm

As

Pipe Mass
ton/pipe

Steel Area
mm 2/m

Designs for 2300 kPa


ty
dr
Cylinder
Thickness
mm

Rod
Diameter
mm

tb

Bell
Thickness
mm

Mp
Pipe Mass
ton/pipe

300

2805

2.0

3.5

1.76

2943

2.0

3.5

1.77

3070

2.5

3.5

1.78

350

3218

2.5

3.5

2.05

3373

2.5

3.5

2.07

3530

2.5

3.5

2.17

400

3640

2.5

3.5

2.46

3813

2.5

3.5

2.47

3988

2.5

3.5

2.49

450

4143

2.5

4.8

3.06

4336

3.0

4.8

3.08

4538

3.0

4.8

3.10

500

4565

3.0

4.8

3.41

4776

3.0

4.8

3.44

4987

3.5

4.8

3.59

600

5400

3.0

10

4.8

4.30

5656

3.5

10

4.8

4.34

5913

3.5

10

4.8

4.37

700

6230

3.5

10

4.8

5.10

6536

4.0

10

4.8

4.92

6820

4.0

10

4.8

5.20

800

7068

4.5

10

5.0

5.94

7398

5.0

10

5.5

6.00

7737

4.5

12

5.5

6.25

900

7910

4.5

12

5.5

7.01

8278

5.0

12

5.5

7.10

8653

5.0

12

6.0

7.18

1000

8745

5.0

12

6.0

7.95

9150

5.5

12

6.5

8.05

9560

6.0

12

7.0

8.16

1100

9570

6.0

12

7.0

8.93

10020

6.0

12

7.5

9.05

10460

7.0

12

8.0

9.17

1200

10395

7.0

12

8.0

9.95

10880

7.0

12

8.5

10.09

11367

7.5

12

9.0

10.23

1300

11230

7.5

12

8.5

11.00

11750

8.0

12

9.0

11.17

12274

8.5

12

9.5

11.34

1400

12055

8.5

12

9.5

12.10

12613

9.0

12

10.0

12.29

13190

9.5

12

10.5

12.49

1500

12890

9.0

12

10.0

13.23

13503

9.5

12

11.0

13.46

14117

10.0

14

11.5

13.99

1600

13750

9.0

14

11.5

14.12

1) The proportioning of the total steel area between cylinder and the rod reinforcement may be varied from that as shown.
2) Designs based on 16mm diameter rod require special consideration before use.

66

As

Designs for 2400 kPa


ty
dr

Cylinder
Pipe Steel Area
Thickness
Dia. mm mm2/m
mm

Rod
Diameter
mm

tb

Mp

As

Designs for 2500 kPa


ty
dr

Bell
Cylinder
Pipe Mass Steel Area
Thickness
Thickness
ton/pipe
mm2/m
mm
mm

Rod
Diameter
mm

tb

Mp

As

Designs for 2600 kPa


ty
dr

Bell
Cylinder
Pipe Mass Steel Area
Thickness
Thickness
ton/pipe
mm2/m
mm
mm

Rod
Diameter
mm

tb

Mp

Bell
Pipe Mass
Thickness
ton/pipe
mm

300
350
400

3210
3685
4153

2.0
2.5
2.5

8
8
8

3.5
3.5
3.5

1.88
2.19
2.51

3346
3832
4327

2.0
2.5
3.0

8
8
8

3.5
3.5
3.5

1.89
2.20
2.52

3465
3988
4500

2.0
2.5
3.0

8
8
8

3.5
3.5
3.5

1.90
2.21
2.54

450
500
600

4730
5207
6160

3.0
3.0
3.5

8
10
10

4.8
4.8
4.8

3.13
3.62
4.41

4932
5427
6417

3.0
3.0
4.0

10
10
10

4.8
4.8
4.8

3.26
3.65
4.45

5124
5638
6664

3.0
3.0
4.0

10
10
10

4.8
4.8
4.8

3.29
3.67
4.49

700
800
900

7105
8058
9020

4.5
5.0
5.5

10
12
12

5.5
5.5
6.5

5.25
6.32
7.26

7407
8397
9387

5.0
5.0
5.5

10
12
12

5.5
6.0
7.0

5.30
6.38
7.34

7690
8727
9744

5.0
5.5
6.0

10
12
12

6.0
6.0
7.0

5.35
6.45
7.43

1000 9965
1100 10910
1200 11853

6.0
7.0
8.0

12
12
12

7.5
8.5
9.5

8.25
9.29
10.38

10368
11348
12338

6.5
7.5
8.5

12
12
12

8.0
9.0
10.0

8.36
9.42
10.52

10770
11798
12824

7.0
8.0
9.0

12
12
12

8.0
9.5
10.0

8.46
9.54
10.67

1300 12797
1400 13768

9.0
9.5

12
14

10.0
11.5

11.51
12.98

13328

9.5

12

10.5

11.67

13870

9.5

14

11.0

12.12

tb

Mp

As

tb

Mp

As

tb

Mp

As

Designs for 2700 kPa


ty
dr

Cylinder
Pipe Steel Area
Thickness
Dia. mm mm2/m
mm

Rod
Diameter
mm

Designs for 2800 kPa


ty
dr

Bell
Cylinder
Pipe Mass Steel Area
Thickness
Thickness
ton/pipe
mm2/m
mm
mm

Rod
Diameter
mm

Designs for 2900 kPa


ty
dr

Bell
Cylinder
Pipe Mass Steel Area
Thickness
Thickness
ton/pipe
mm2/m
mm
mm

Rod
Diameter
mm

Bell
Pipe Mass
Thickness
ton/pipe
mm

300
350
400

3593
4143
4675

2.0
2.5
3.0

8
8
8

3.5
3.5
3.5

1.91
2.23
2.56

3730
4290
4850

2.0
2.5
2.5

8
8
10

3.5
3.5
3.5

1.92
2.24
2.68

3868
4446
5014

2.5
3.0
3.0

8
8
10

3.5
3.5
3.5

1.93
2.25
2.70

450
500
600

5326
5858
6920

3.0
3.5
4.5

10
10
10

4.8
4.8
5.0

3.31
3.70
4.53

5510
6068
7178

3.0
3.5
4.0

10
10
12

4.8
4.8
5.0

3.33
3.73
4.71

5702
6288
7435

3.0
3.5
4.0

10
10
12

4.8
4.8
5.0

3.48
3.76
4.75

700 7985
800 9057
900 10120

5.5
6.0
6.5

10
12
12

6.0
6.5
7.5

5.57
6.52
7.51

8278
9378
10487

5.0
6.0
7.0

12
12
12

6.0
7.0
8.0

5.62
6.58
7.60

8570
9708
10844

5.0
6.0
7.0

12
12
12

6.0
7.0
8.0

5.67
6.65
7.67

1000 11175
1100 12238
1200 13310

8.0
9.0
9.5

12
12
12

8.5
9.5
11.0

8.56
9.66
10.81

11578
12678
13805

8.0
9.0
9.5

12
12
14

9.0
10.0
11.5

8.66
9.78
11.21

11980
13136

8.0
9.5

12
12

9.5
10.5

8.76
9.89

67

app.

As

Designs for 3000 kPa


ty
dr

Cylinder
Pipe Steel Area
Thickness
Dia. mm mm2/m
mm

Rod
Diameter
mm

tb

Mp

As

Designs for 3100 kPa


ty
dr

Bell
Cylinder
Pipe Mass Steel Area
Thickness
Thickness
ton/pipe
mm2/m
mm
mm

Rod
Diameter
mm

tb

Mp

As

Designs for 3200 kPa


ty
dr

Bell
Cylinder
Pipe Mass Steel Area
Thickness
Thickness
ton/pipe
mm2/m
mm
mm

Rod
Diameter
mm

tb

Mp

Bell
Pipe Mass
Thickness
ton/pipe
mm

300
350
400

3997
4592
5188

2.5
3.0
3.0

8
8
10

3.5
3.5
3.5

1.94
2.27
2.72

4134
4739
5363

2.5
3.0
3.0

8
8
10

3.5
3.5
3.5

1.95
2.28
2.73

4263
4895
5528

2.5
3.0
3.0

8
10
10

3.5
3.5
3.5

1.96
2.39
2.75

450
500
600

5903
6490
7690

3.5
4.0
4.0

10
10
12

4.8
4.8
5.0

3.35
3.79
4.79

6096
6710
7930

3.5
4.0
4.5

10
10
12

4.8
4.8
5.5

3.40
3.81
4.83

6280
6930
8177

3.5
3.5
5.0

10
12
12

4.8
4.8
5.5

3.42
3.96
4.86

700 8855
800 10038
900 11210

5.0
6.0
8.0

12
12
12

6.0
7.5
8.5

5.72
6.71
7.76

9148
10358
11568

5.5
6.5
8.0

12
12
12

6.5
8.0
9.0

5.77
6.78
7.84

9433
10680
11944

6.0
7.0
8.0

12
12
12

7.0
8.0
9.5

5.82
6.84
7.92

1000 12384
1100 13585

9.0
9.0

12
14

10.0
11.0

8.86
10.26

12797
14034

9.0
10.0

12
14

10.0
11.5

8.96
10.38

13210

9.5

12

10.5

9.06

tb

Mp

As

tb

Mp

As

tb

Mp

app.

As

Designs for 3300 kPa


ty
dr

Cylinder
Pipe Steel Area
Thickness
Dia. mm mm2/m
mm

Rod
Diameter
mm

Designs for 3400 kPa


ty
dr

Bell
Cylinder
Pipe Mass Steel Area
Thickness
Thickness
ton/pipe
mm2/m
mm
mm

Rod
Diameter
mm

Designs for 3500 kPa


ty
dr

Bell
Cylinder
Pipe Mass Steel Area
Thickness
Thickness
ton/pipe
mm2/m
mm
mm

Rod
Diameter
mm

Bell
Pipe Mass
Thickness
ton/pipe
mm

300
350
400

4400
5050
5693

3.0
3.0
3.0

8
10
10

3.5
3.5
4.0

1.97
2.40
2.77

4530
5198
5867

2.5
3.0
3.5

10
10
10

3.5
3.5
4.0

2.06
2.42
2.89

4648
5353
6040

3.0
3.0
3.5

8
10
10

3.5
3.5
4.5

1.99
2.43
2.91

450
500
600

6480
7130
8433

4.0
4.5
5.0

10
10
12

4.8
5.5
6.0

3.44
3.87
4.90

6673
7343
8680

4.0
4.0
5.0

10
12
12

4.8
5.0
6.0

3.47
4.02
4.94

6875
7563
8928

3.5
4.0
5.0

12
12
12

4.8
5.0
6.5

3.60
4.05
4.98

700 9717
800 11018
900 12300

6.0
7.5
9.0

12
12
12

7.0
8.5
10.0

5.87
6.91
8.01

10010
11320
12660

6.5
8.0
9.0

12
12
12

7.5
9.0
10.0

5.93
6.97
8.09

10295
11660
13035

6.5
8.0
9.0

12
12
12

8.0
9.0
10.5

5.98
7.04
8.17

1000 13620

9.5

14

11.5

9.39

14034

9.5

14

11.5

9.48

1) The proportioning of the total steel area between cylinder and the rod reinforcement may be varied from that as shown.
2) Designs based on 16mm diameter rod require special consideration before use.

68

As

Designs for 3600 kPa


ty
dr

Cylinder
Pipe Steel Area
Thickness
Dia. mm mm2/m
mm

Rod
Diameter
mm

tb

Mp

As

Designs for 3700 kPa


ty
dr

Bell
Cylinder
Pipe Mass Steel Area
Thickness
Thickness
ton/pipe
mm2/m
mm
mm

Rod
Diameter
mm

tb

Mp

As

Designs for 3800 kPa


ty
dr

Bell
Cylinder
Pipe Mass Steel Area
Thickness
Thickness
ton/pipe
mm2/m
mm
mm

Rod
Diameter
mm

tb

Mp

Bell
Pipe Mass
Thickness
ton/pipe
mm

300
350
400

4785
5490
6215

2.5
3.0
3.0

10
10
12

3.5
3.5
3.5

2.08
2.44
2.92

4913
5646
6390

2.5
3.0
3.0

10
10
12

3.5
3.5
3.5

2.09
2.46
2.94

5050
5793
6545

2.5
3.0
4.0

10
10
10

3.5
4.0
5.0

2.10
2.47
2.85

450
500
600

7068
7773
9185

3.5
4.0
5.5

12
12
12

4.8
5.0
6.5

3.63
4.07
5.02

7260
7975
9423

3.5
4.0
5.5

12
12
12

4.8
5.5
7.0

3.65
4.10
5.05

7443
8195
9680

4.0
4.5
6.0

12
12
12

4.8
5.5
7.0

3.67
4.13
5.09

700 10588
800 11970
900 13410

7.0
8.0
9.5

12
12
12

8.0
9.5
11.0

6.03
7.10
8.25

10863
12310
13778

7.0
8.5
9.0

12
12
14

8.5
10.0
11.5

6.08
7.17
8.53

11147
12623
14153

8.0
9.0
9.5

12
12
14

8.5
10.0
11.5

6.13
7.23
8.61

app.

As

Designs for 3900 kPa


ty
dr

Cylinder
Pipe Steel Area
Thickness
Dia. mm mm2/m
mm

Rod
Diameter
mm

tb

Mp

As

Designs for 4000 kPa


ty
dr

Bell
Cylinder
Pipe Mass Steel Area
Thickness
Thickness
ton/pipe
mm2/m
mm
mm

Rod
Diameter
mm

tb

Mp

Bell
Pipe Mass
Thickness
ton/pipe
mm

300
350
400

5180
5950
6720

2.5
3.5
3.5

10
10
12

3.5
4.0
4.0

2.11
2.48
2.98

5308
6096
6885

3.0
3.5
3.5

10
10
12

3.5
4.5
4.5

2.12
2.50
2.99

450
500
600

7645
8397
9919

4.0
4.5
6.0

12
12
12

4.8
6.0
7.5

3.69
4.15
5.13

7838
8608
10157

4.0
5.0
6.5

12
12
12

5.5
6.0
7.5

3.72
4.18
5.17

700 11430
800 12953

8.0
9.0

12
12

9.0
10.5

6.18
7.30

11715
13292

8.0
9.5

12
12

9.0
11.0

6.23
7.36

69

Great Concrete Cylinder Pipelines of Saudi Arabia

contractors is erecting 65 deep wells and a water


purification plant near Al-Hunayy to the east of
Riyadh in the province of Ash-sharqiyah on behalf
of the Saudi Ministry of Agriculture and Water. The
wells and the plant will cover an area of more than
400 square kilometers. From here, the objective is
to pump up to 360,000 cubic meters of drinking
water per day to Riyadh in a new twin-pipeline
which will be 170 kilometers long and 1200
millimeters is diameter with a working pressure of
12 and 25 bars.

The Al-Hunayy Water Transmission Project


Saudi Ministry of Water installed 335 linear
kilometers of twin concrete cylinder pipeline for
transmission of water from Al-Hunayy to Riyadh
City.
Ameron Saudi Arabia Ltd. has been awarded a
contract by the Ministry of Water and Electricity to
supply a twin pipeline from Al-Hunayy to Riyadh,
the capital of Saudi Arabia, with concrete cylinder
pipe. The value of the constract is around 360
million riyals (USD 100 million).
The commissioning of the project had took place in
late summer of 2004.

app.

Saudi Arabia has hardly any surface water which


could be used to obtain drinking water. At the
same time, this Middle East country has a very
high population growth, with a yearly rate of almost
three percent. The number of people living in
Riyadh alone has increased 500 percent in the last
30 years. In order to safeguard the water supply,
the Saudi government is relying more and more on
the extraction of groundwater.

Type of pipe:
Standard:
Service:
Diameter:
Total length:
Design pressure:
Pipeline construction:

In order to supply Riyadh with water, Aziz

70

Concrete Cylinder Pipe


AWWA C303
Potable Water
Transmission
1200 millimeters
335 linear kilometers
1200 kPa and 2500 kPa
1999 to 2002

Cylinder Pipe was proven by the following projects


with more than 10 kilometers length of various
diameters, working pressures, and applications.

Ameron Saudi Arabia, Ltd. introduced Concrete


Cylinder Pipe to the waterworks industry of Saudi
Arabia in 1978. Since its introduction, the
company has supplied more than three million
linear meters (3,000 km) of concrete cylinder pipe
to customers throughout the Kingdom and gulf
region.

SI #

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30

Name of Project
Client/Contractor
Al-Hunayy I WTS for Riyadh City
MAW / Al Ruwaite Cont. Co.
Al Khobar Phase 2 Lot 2
SWCC - Socea
Jubail 581-C22
RC - MedGulf
Wadi Wasia
MAW - RTCC
Dirab Conveyance of Sewage Effluent
MAW - Someko/HAK
Hofuf & Mubarraz
MAW - Aziz Co.
High Point Reservoirs to Riyadh City
MOW / Al-Rashed Company
Al-Hunayy Contract No. 2
MAW-Aziz Company
Assir Project
SWCC - Saipem-Cat
Hail Water Transmission Main - Stage III
MAW - Riyadh
Treated Effluent Expansion Project )Riyadh-Dirab(
MAW/Swayeh Company
Jeddah Water Supply Cont. 7.5 A/B
MAW - Aziz Co.
Weissa Water Supply
WSD - Fedak Int'l
Makkah Project -Ext. of Saline Water Pumping Station
Binjarallah Est.
Dariyah Conveyance of Sewage Effluent
MAW - Aziz
Qaisuma Hafr Al Batin
MAW - Al Ruwaiteh
Abha Water Transmission Mains
MAW - Al Rashed
Ext. of RWDS B1 B2
MAW - Aziz Co.
Makkah C2
MAW - Rio Trading
Hafar Al Batin Water Line
WSD
Jeddah Water Supply Cont. 7.1C
MAW - Aziz Co.
Ext. of RWDS A4
MAW - Aziz Co.
EJWDS 7.1A & 7.1B
MAW - Al Arabia
Makkah Transmision Line
WSD - Rio Sezai
Riyadh High Point Terminal- Phase 3
WSD - Hashim SAR Hashim
ERWDS Additional Order ML
MAW - Enka
Riyadh High Point Terminal- Phase 2
WSD - Al Ruwaiteh Est.
Weissa Water Transmission System - Ph. IV
WSD - Al-Reda Co., Ltd.
EJWDS 7.2A & 7.2B
MAW
Dammam 71 91
WSD - Al-Reda

Some of them were installed more than 20 years


without failures.

Year
Inst.

Diameter
Mm

Class
Bar

Quantity
Service/
Linear
Application
Meters

Location

2002

1200

16, 25

337,038 Transmission Line

Al-Hunayy

1980

500, 800-1100

9.9,12,0, 13.5

300,000 Potable Water

Khobar

1981

12.5

121,250 Potable Water

Jubail

1980

400, 1200
1000, 1100,
1200

12, 13, 15-18

104,800 Irrigation

Wasia

1980

1000

10, 30

100,000 Treated Effluent

Dirab

1983

300-600, 1000

8, 14

85,453 Potable Water

Hofuf

2003

1200

16

80,000 Transmission Line

Riyadh

2002

400-1200

16, 25

79,600 Transmission Line

Al-Hunayy

1985

500-1100

19.8

79,000 Potable Water

Asir

1998

800

16, 25, 30

66,400 Potable Water

Hail

2005

400-1200

25

63,375 Treated Effluent

Riyadh

1993

600-1200

12

59,875 Potable Water

Jeddah

1992

1000

14

54,216 Potable Water

Weissa

1998

1000, 1100

16, 25

52,413 Potable Water

Makkah

1981

600, 800, 1000

12, 18, 29

51,000 Treated Effluent

Dariyah

1984

600, 900

12

48,025 Potable Water

Jubail

1984

450

16

45,900 Potable Water

Abha

1982

1200

12, 16

44,000 Potable Water

Riyadh

1990

1000

16, 25

43,200 Potable Water

Makkah

2002

900

16

43,000 Transmission Line

Hafr Al Batin

1993

1000-1500

15

42,047 Potable Water

Jeddah

1984

600, 1400

11.8

38,000 Potable Water

Riyadh

1984

600-1200

12

35,670 Potable Water

Jeddah

1986

1000, 1400

16, 25

35,000 Potable Water

Makkah

1991

800, 1000

9, 12, 18, 25

33,000 Potable Water

Riyadh

1986

600-1400

12

31,870 Potable Water

Riyadh

1991

1000

31,000 Potable Water

Riyadh

1995

300 - 1000

14

30,100 Potable Water

Weissa

1988

600, 800, 1000

24

29,360 Potable Water

Jeddah

1988

300 - 1100

8.2 - 12.3

24,180 Potable Water

Dammam

71

app.

Marketing and Technical Information

+ Prestressed Concrete Cylinder Pipe (PCCP)


+ Reinforced Concrete Pipe (RCP)
+ Cement-Mortar Lining of Steel Pipes and Fittings

Major Clients
Concrete Cylinder Pipe (CCP)

+
+
+
+
+
+

Ministry of Agriculture and Water


Saline Water Conversion Corporation
Water and Sewerage Departments
Government Housing Projects
Royal Commission for Jubail and Yanbu
Saudi Consolidated Electric Company

Ameron Saudi Arabia, Ltd. products are marketed by


Sales Office of the Saudi Arabian Amiantit Co. at the
following locations:
Amiantit Export Division
P.O. Box 589, Dammam 31421
Saudi Arabia
Tel. No.+966 3 847 1500
Fax No.+966 3 847 2104

Prestressed Concrete Cylinder Pipe (PCCP)

+
+
+
+
+
app.

Saline Water Conversion Corp. (SWCC)


Ministry of Agriculture and Water (MAW)
Water and Sewerage Departments
Royal Commission for Jubail and Yanbu
Saudi Consolidated Electric Company

Amiantit Eastern Province Marketing


P.O. Box 589, Dammam 31421
Saudi Arabia
Tel. No.+966 3 847 1500
Fax No.+966 3 847 1398

Cement-Mortar Lining of Steel Pipes and Fittings

+ Saline Water Conversion Corp. (SWCC)


+ Saudi Aramco
+ Saudi Arabian Basic Industries (SABIC)

Amiantit Central Province Marketing


P.O. Box 1029, Riyadh 11431
Saudi Arabia
Tel. No.+966 1 465 8665
Fax No.+966 1 463 1389

Reinforced Concrete Pipe (RCP)

+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+

Saudi Aramco
Water and Sewerage Departments
Universities
Saudi Consolidated Electric Company
Ministry of Municipality and Rural Affairs
Ministry of Defense
Ministry of Communication
Ministry of Information

Amiantit Western Province Marketing


P.O. Box 2140, Dammam 21451
Saudi Arabia
Tel. No.+966 2 657 2636
Fax No.+966 2 651 6149
For Technical Assistance
Ameron Saudi Arabia, Ltd.
P.O. Box 589, Dammam 31421
Saudi Arabia
Tel. No.+966 3 847 1500
Fax No.+966 3 847 1311

Approval and Listing


Ameron Saudi Arabia, Ltd.s products are approved
and certified as follows:
a. TUV Certification for ISO 9001:

+
+
+
+
+
+

Concrete Cylinder Pipe (CCP)


Cement-Mortar Lining of Steel Pipes and Fittings
Prestressed Concrete Cylinder Pipe (PCCP)
Reinforced Concrete Pipe (RCP)
Reinforced Concrete Cylinder Pipe (RCCP)
Other Concrete Products

b. Saudi Aramco approval for Cement-Mortar Lining


of Steel Pipes and Fittings
c. Saudi Consolidated Electric Company
certification for

+ Concrete Cylinder Pipe (CCP)

72

Approvals and certifications

app.

Ministry of Water and Electricity Appreciation Letter

TUV Certification for Is0 9001:2000

Saudi Aramco Approval for Cement-mortar Lining of


Steel Pipes And Fittings

Saudi Consolidated Electric Company Certification For CCP,


PCCP, RCP And Cement-mortar Lining Of Steel Pipes And
Fittings

73

This handbook is intended as a guide


only. All values listed in the product
specifications are nominal.
Unsatisfactory product results may occur
due to environmental fluctuations,
variations in operating procedures, or
interpolation of data. We highly
recommend that any personnel using this
data have specialised training and
experience in the application of these
products and their nominal installation
and operating conditions.
The engineering staff should always be
consulted before any of these products
are installed to ensure the suitability of
the products for their intended purpose
and applications. We hereby state that
we do not accept any liability, and will not
be held liable, for any losses or damage
which may result from the installation or
use of any products listed in this
handbook as we have not determined
that degree of care required for product
installation or service. We reserve the
right to revise this data, as necessary,
without notice. We welcome comments
regarding this handbook.

Ameron Saudi Arabia, Ltd.

Ansary Domado Id2926

Head Office
PO Box 589
Dammam 31421
Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Phone: +966 3 847 1500
Fax : +966 3 847 1311
asalfax@amiantit.com
www.amiantit.com
www.ameron.com.sa