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Product Design Specification

MECH 2

Team members:
Hussam Abdulhai
Faisel Al-Hamad
Faizrul Yusoff
Jeremy Chan
Sonal VK
Zakriya A Hussain
Dionisios Georgoulis

Introduction
In recent years, electric bikes have created an expanding market due to the fact that they
contribute to reducing particle pollution and overall noise levels. Moreover, their comfort can
convert consumers who are now averse to cycling, and also involve R&D that can contribute
to overall innovation in bicycle industry. The goal of our team is to design a bicycle that can
be propelled by an electric motor, light in weight that can easily be carried around, is
comfortable to use, and in line with the EU and UK regulations. It should penetrate the
medium end market segment of e-bikes, attracting consumers as a comfortable and affordable
ethical choice. In this report, the team goals are reviewed with respect to the customers
specifications. Additionally, thorough benchmark analysis of the e-bike market is presented,
along with preliminary design options considered to achieve the team goals. Finally, several
tests planned to ensure viability of the designs and project management breakdown are also
included in the report.

Requirements Analysis and Design Goals


The design requirements
The team is set to develop and design a fully foldable bicycle with electrically assisted
pedaling and braking functionality that responds to the following requirements, as specified
by the customer.

Light in weight and easily carried by one person


Small in size. It should fit in a car trunk and be able to be taken on transport systems
Assisted pedaling and braking to allow comfortable use in steep hills for a
considerable range.
Meet UK regulations in electrically assisted pedal cycles
Low cost manufacturing to achieve a highly competitive market price.

The team goals


In light of this design challenge, the team is determined to deliver an electric bike design that
should meet the customer requirements in the following ways.

Not heavy. The designed bike will not exceed 20 kg. Could be carried around by one
person.
Small in size. Wheelbase length does not exceed 120cm. Should be easily carried
around and taken on transport systems as well.
Assisted pedal and brake functionality with the use of a motor. Motor power does not
exceed 250 W, in line with EU & UK regulations.
Meet UK regulations in electrically assisted pedal cycles
Low cost design. Should penetrate the mid-end market segment of electric bikes.
Design a folding mechanism.

Benchmark Analysis of the Market


The following benchmark analysis explores the vast array of technical design solutions
currently existing within the market. The electric folding bikes discussed have been divided
into groups for clarity and ease of comparison. The performance metrics and accuracy in
terms of the design brief of each bike are also considered and referred back to. Most bikes
documented are in line with the UK regulations of a max speed of 15.5 mph and 250W motor.
The bikes in the table below are all priced below 1000 and so we can expect them to have
many shortcomings as opposed to an ideal folding electric bike. The Coyote Connect falls
short in the sense that it weighs too much to be as portable as one would hope, which is
proven by many consumer reviews that arrive at the same conclusion. It would more likely be
used leisurely, with its weight more suited to being folded up into the boot of a car rather than
carried on buses and trains during a busy commute. The Woosh Gallego is the most expensive
of the three bikes in the budget category, with small 16 wheels and weighing in at only
18kg. However, with inferior 3 speed gears and roller brakes on the rear wheels that are
renowned for their lacklustre performance, on paper at least, there is little to suggest the
Woosh is the better of the three. The Byocycle appears to have achieved the middle ground in
terms of the compromise between portability and performance within this price range, with a
weight closer to the Woosh Gallego, yet maintaining the 6 Speed Shimano gear set and the
more reliable V brakes. As the cheapest bike, it is perhaps surprising that it even includes an
LED display and a competitive 25 mile range.

Table 1 Table of low-end bikes available on the market

Low end bikes

Bike/ Price
- Coyote
Connect Folding
Electric Bike
- 599.99

- Byocycle City
Speed 20
Folding Electric
Bike
- 579.00

- Woosh Gallego
- 669.00

Dimensions/
Weight

Gears/
Breaks

Battery/
Motor

Other

- 20 wheels
- 24 kg

- 6 Speed
Shimano gears
- Tektro V
brakes

- Lithion Ion
battery 24V 9Ah
- 3 Speed motor
-Pedal Assist

- 5 to 6 hours
recharge
- 20-25 miles
max range
- 120kg max
weight

- 20 wheels
- 20.5 kg

- 6 Speed
Shimano gears
- V brakes

- Yoku/Samsung
Lithium Ion
battery 36V
10Ah
- Mxus 250W
36V brushless
geared motor
-Pedelec/
Throttle control

- 4 to 6 hours
recharge
-25 mile range
- LED
Kingmeter 790
display

- 16 wheels
- 18 kg
- Folds down to
72x64x40cm

- 3 speed Nexus
hub gears
- Front V brakes,
Rear Shimano
roller brakes

- Lithium
polymer battery
36V 7.5Ah
- 8fun 250W
motor
- Pedal assist and
twist throttle

- 20 24 mile
range
- 100kg max
weight

The following table shows the mid-range electric bikes in the market with prices ranging
between 1,000 and 1,500. The Ansmann Folding bike is unique in the sense that it is the
lowest step through bike on the market, meaning it is easy to mount and dismount although as
expected with step through bikes, this is compensated for by the excessive weight. The range
on this bike is impressive and the motor stop function alongside the V-brakes means this
shows some top level attributes, perhaps justifying its slightly higher price point. The Raleigh
Stow-E-Way manages to get a bike with impressive parts merged into a lightweight frame
that means it weighs in at 4kg less than the Ansmann Folding. The inclusion of disc and V
brakes means the braking functionality of the bike is also more than sufficient.
The EBCO LSF is the cheapest mid-range bike listed and keeps up with the competition,
matching the 7 speed Shimano gear set on the other two bikes whilst including an LCD
display to make communication between the rider and bike more efficient. However the
6.6Ah battery appears measly, maybe this was done to save weight, although on Eco mode it
should reach 30 miles.

Table 2 Table of mid-range bikes

The high-end bikes are the more expensive range of electric bikes in the market and have
prices starting from 2,000 as shown in Table XX. The GoCycle G2 is by far the most costly
bike, and demonstrates innovation and creativity in its design and features. At 16.1 kg it is
very light, owing to the use of advanced materials for the monocoque frame.
Table 3 Table of high-end bikes.

However the three speed gear set falls short in terms of performance, especially for such a
high priced bike. Clearly the focus for this bike is on portability rather than performance
although both the battery and motor are adequate. The extra features of the bike are more of a
novelty than necessities, the G2 has smart automatic gear changes and its own smartphone
app giving wider control over the use of the bike and how it performs.
With the KTM Macina the performance of the bike took more prominence. With full size 24
and only a folding stem, this bike barely qualifies as a folding bike, but the more upmarket
Bosch motor and battery mean the bike gives a 118 mile range. As you would expect from a
high end bike, the 8 speed gear set and hydraulic brakes further demonstrate KTMs effort to
maximise performance.The BH Emotion Neo Volt Sport Lite appears to have achieved the
greatest balance out of the high end bicycles. This bike makes use of the better gear sets and
brakes on the market and the 9Ah battery gives a more than acceptable range. It is also unique
in the sense that it has two options for folding, both being useful depending upon the
circumstances. There is no use of innovative materials so the bike weighs a lot more than the
G2 yet slightly less than the KTM. Unfortunately this is the only bike on the list that doesnt
follow UK regulations. It can reach speeds of over 20mph, which, although impressive,
means the bike isnt fit for use in our target market (the UK).
From the analysis of the market it is clear that for any bike certain components are an easy
choice. In terms of a gear set it must be Shimano, having a monopoly on practically every
category of bike. 20 wheels also seem to be the norm in folding bikes. Throughout the
analysis it becomes apparent that design of an electric folding bike leaves you with a standoff
between performance and portability. The compromise between the two must be delicate and
differs from bike to bike depending on the manufacturers vision. The Byocycle and the
EBCO LSF bikes seem to have given both equal consideration whereas the Woosh Gallego is
more tailored to those considered with portability, which by the very nature of folding bikes
should take slight precedence over the performance of a bike. It is worth noting that the
design of a bike aimed at the lower end of the market means a more difficult balancing act
between portability and performance and therefore it is harder to design a bike for sale at less
than 1000 that fits our design brief.
Design Options
Following the intensive research done on various bikes under different price categories, we
proceeded with research on the main design components among the different bikes. This
section will include the main design components studied and researched in order to be
included in the final design of our ebike. The research carried out in the previous section
placed us in the best position possible to target a certain market segment which was among
mid to high end bikes.

Battery
The Battery is the first main component researched that this report will present. It is an
extremely valuable component as it powers the motor, ECU, and all electric components
found in an electric bike. The amount of Watt hours and voltage for each battery is extremely
crucial as they provide the overall driving range available to the rider per full charged cycle.
Additionally, the weight of the connected batteries plays a role in determining the overall
weight of the bike. Several different options as seen in table 1 below were found to be applied
in different electric bikes in the market today. The price, weight, life span, and environmental
effects, as well as energy density were the factors determining the battery choice for the teams
electric bike design.
As can be seen from table 1 below, Both Alkaline and Lead acid batteries are the cheapest
choices available but perform weakly in terms of their energy density and environmental
compatibility. Nickel and Lithium based batteries were the strongest choices available on the
market due to their favourable energy densities, size and life span with lithium based batteries
in particular lasting for the longest time.

Table 4: Voltage, energy density, cost and life span characteristics for various battery types considered.

Name

Voltage
(V)

Energy
density

(per cell)

(Wh/kg)

1.5
2
3.6
1.25

70
30-60
130-200
60-120

Alkaline
Lead acid
Lithium based
Nickel based

Cost
(per
cell)
Low
Low
High
Medium

Life span
(re-charge)
200-2000
200-300
500-2000
300-700

Among this battery types, lithium ion based batteries are favourably considered because they
are a more suitable option for an e-bike, considering aspects like safety, energy density to the
cost ratio, life span and weight.
Table 5: Variety of lithium based batteries available on market.

Battery
Lithium cobalt oxide
Lithium polymer
Lithium iron phosphate
Lithium manganese oxide
Lithium titanium
Lithium nickel cobalt aluminium
Lithium nickel manganese cobalt
oxide

Energy
density
(wh/kg)
150-200
130-200
90-120
100-150
70-80
200-260

Cost

Cost/Energy
density

Safety

Medium
Expensive
Medium
Medium
Expensive
High

Good
Low
Low
High
Low
Low

Less
Good
Good
Medium
Good
Poor

150-220

Medium

Medium

Medium

Lithium cobalt oxide displays good energy density but less safe to use. Additionally, the
power provided by the battery is less. Lithium polymer battery is safe and lightweight but
manufacturing cost is higher compared with other battery types resulting in poor cost to
energy density ratio. Lithium iron phosphate is cheap, safe and also has a better lifespan when
compared with other lithium based batteries. However, it displays low energy density.
Lithium manganese oxide has a moderate performance on energy density and safety factor but
life span of the battery is comparatively low. Lithium titanium battery has a very good life
span and very low heating effect, but relatively expensive and energy density being too low.
Lithium nickel cobalt aluminium displays good energy density and energy but the battery is
very expensive when compared with other lithium based batteries. Lithium nickel manganese
cobalt oxide shows an overall performance. This battery is safe and cost efficient. The battery
also has a good energy density and also delivers a nominal voltage of 3.7V with 13-15AmpHour. This type of battery is commonly used in E-bikes.
Motor
The motor is a crucial component of the electric bicycle, since it is used to drive the bicycle.
It also needs to be able to assist the pedalling of the cyclist. In order to determine optimum
specifications of the motor, the forces acting on the bicycle should be considered. The forces
acting on the bicycle include rolling resistance, weight, air resistance and force due to
inclination which depends on the angle of inclination, air speed, ground speed, mass of the
cyclist and type of terrain.
There are different types of mounting position and types of power train for the motor which is
common for most types of electric bicycles. There are pros and cons of each type of mounting
positions.
1. Motor Hub Drive
a. Front Wheel
The motor hub is placed at the centre of the front wheel. The system is
isolated from the other components of the bicycle.
b. Rear Wheel
The motor hub is positioned at the centre of the rear wheel. The motor
incorporates with the pedalling.
2. Chain Drive
The motor is mounted near the crank of the bicycle. It powers the bicycle through the
crank set.

Figure 1 Chain drive mounted near the crank (Electric Bicycle Guide, 2015)

3. Friction Drive
The motor is placed separately from the motor and connected to the bicycle by an
extended shaft from the motor that is in contact with the wheel, either one wheel or
both. The shaft rotates the wheel by friction.

Figure 2 Friction drive on rear wheel (Electric Bicycle


Guide, 2015)

4. Push Trailer
The propulsion system is place completely isolated from the bicycle in a trailer. The
trailer contains the motor, battery and control unit and is used to push the bicycle.
This drive train is the least common due to lack of commercial value and is rather not
useful as compared to other drive train.
Table 6 Comparison of different power train (Electric Bicycle Guide, 2015)

Power Train
Front Wheel
Motor Hub

Rear Wheel
Motor Hub
Chain Drive

Friction
Drive

Advantages
Simple installation
Better weight distribution
if battery is placed at the
back
Good balance and traction
Possible to use more
powerful motor
Centre of gravity is low
Has better torque

Push Trailer

Disadvantages
Less comfortable ride
Uncomfortable handling
Need sturdy fork

Simple and cheap


installation
Protected from dirt

Can be connected to
multiple bicycles

Higher stress on rear wheel


Tend to cause wheelies during
acceleration
More noise
Harder to pedal
Relatively expensive
Efficiency is really low
Low speed and torque
Do not work well in wet
condition
Increase tyre wear
Occupy more space
Less efficient

Based on the table, motor hub provides more flexibility in terms of configuration since it can
be used on either wheels. Of all power trains, the most common choice is rear wheel motor
hub due to its reasonable price, good handling and good traction. Chain drive is mostly used
on high-end electric bicycle since it is very expensive and has relatively high performance.
Motor Types
There are basically three major choices in electric bicycle motor. Brushed DC motor is the
least common nowadays due to its disadvantages. Most of the electric bicycles these days use
brushless DC motor.
Table 7 Comparison of different types of motor (Rye, 2014)

Motor
Types
Brushed DC
Motor

Brushless
Geared DC
Motor
Brushless
Gearless DC
Motor

Advantages

Easy to install
Cheap

Small in size
Produce high power output for less
weight
Possible to be freewheel
Smooth performance
Very quiet
Has regenerative ability in direct drive

Disadvantages

Brushes will wear


out
Noisy
Heavy
Produce noise due to
friction
Gears will wear out

Bigger and heavier

Even though brushed motor has relatively lower cost and easy to install, but it has high
maintenance and low efficiency which is not feasible for an electric bicycle. Both types of
brushless motors have similar range of price. Geared motor is lighter which can increase
range due to decrease in mass but has shorter lifespan.

Control and Driving System:


The control system and electronic drive train of an electronic bike is extremely influential in a
bikes design as if programmed right can produce a well functional, comfortable, safe, and
law abiding driving experience. The control system and drive train consists of the motor,
which is controlled by an ECU (Electronic Control Unit), as well as the battery providing the
electric power, and the different sensors (Torque sensors or Cadence sensors depending on
the choice of control systems). Additionally, an electronic display unit is normally found in
high end and highly performing electronic bikes in the current market which displays the
driving speed, battery level, and different pedal assist modes available to the driver. Research
done by the group has revealed the three main types of control and drive systems
implemented within the electronic bike market today. These three systems are the throttle
only driving system, the pedelec driving system as well as the dual control system. This
section of the report will explore the three different control systems found on the market
today and analyse their features in order to come out with the most suitable system that would
fit the specifications and aims of our design perfectly.
Throttle only driving system:
Throttle only driven control systems are the simplest of the control systems found on the
market today, as they simply entail a throttle which is connected to an ECU which is powered
by the battery and is connected to the bikes motor. This driving system is also the cheapest to
implement. The throttle and the motor are proportionally related where a 30 degrees twist of
the throttle will provide 30 % of the motors power as pedal assistance and driving push ( 0
degrees twist will provide 0% percent of the motors power and so on). The ECU is connected
to the throttle and through the different sensors placed on the throttle, it will determine what
level of the motors power should be provided as pedal assistance to the driver. The throttle
only driven electronic bikes can function without pedalling at all, and this feature can appeal
to some consumers once fatigued of pedalling. One major drawback of the throttle driven
systems is that to maintain a certain driving assistance level, the driver must continuously
twist the throttle the same extent which over a long drive can lead to hand spasms and
fatigues.
UK regulations for electronic bikes, need for any Twist and Go throttle driven bike to be
individually type approved by January 2016 which although applicable can complicate the
retail process of the bike. This legal complexity has led to a lack of throttle driven electric
bikes in Europe as they face a long process of regulation. The throttle driven bikes however,
will not be considered as motor vehicles by the British government, as a result the bike would
not require registration, tax, insurance, or riders license. Additional regulations also entail
that the speed of the bike assisted by the throttle driving system must be capped at 15.5 mph
as of British regulations. Foldable electronic bikes currently on the market successfully using
the throttle driving system are the FreeGO bike as well as the COYOTE Connect Folding
Bike.
Pedelec:
The pedelec driven control system involves setting the motor power provided to the bike as
pedal assistance, to a certain level (High, Mid, Low, etc each bike has a different amount of
levels available), which in addition to the pedalling done by the rider will be able to move the

bike. The range of pedal assist levels available on each bike on the market today is from 2 to
7 with 5 levels of pedal assist being the norm. Two types of pedelec driven electric bikes are
on the market today, which differ by the type of sensors that are used to detect the movement
on the pedals (unlike throttle driven electric bikes, pedelec bikes can only use their motors
once the pedals have been moved). The cadence sensor pedelec control system uses a cadence
or Hall Effect sensor placed either on the bottom bracket of the pedals or on the crank. These
sensors use magnetic fields interaction to detect when the pedals start moving (they only
detect the movement of the pedals and not how hard your pressing the pedals or by what
speed are the pedals moving). Once the ECU detects the pedal movement through the sensors,
it goes through its routine of activating the motor and providing a level of power which is
controlled by the driver through either a digital display or a manual button placed at the front
of the bike. On the other hand, Torque assisted pedelec systems include a torque or weight
sensor normally placed at the low rear drop out of the bike, which in addition to the cadence
sensors, is able to sense how hard the rider is pressing the pedals. Correct programming of a
microcomputer connected to the ECU can lead to an extremely accurate and enjoying driving
experience, as in addition to the already set pedal assist levels, the motor provides additional
power depending on how hard you press the pedals. This type of pedelec control system is a
more expensive and much more complex form of pedelec control system to program, while it
also provides a better riding experience. The BionX and Eflow control systems available on
the market today are two of the leading torque assisted pedelec systems currently on retail.
The pedelec control system is the most common applicable system on electric bikes in the
European markets as it complies with all the governmental regulations placed on electric
bikes. The pedelec control systems if programmed right and implement on a suitable electric
bike can be sufficient and efficient in providing proper control over the electric bike,
however, it also presents an amount of drawbacks. The motor lag and surging effect for
instance is a drawback normally faced while riding a pedelec driven bike. This effect
basically occurs when there is a delay between the motor powering up once the rider starts
pedalling and the motor powering down once the rider stops pedalling. Some electronic bikes
avoid this issue by being able to implement a short lag response within the programming as
well as adding a cut-off switch that automatically turns of the motor when pressed. In general,
the pedelec control system is also more expensive than the throttle driven control system and
is normally present in mid to high end electronic bikes on the market today. A well
programmed pedelec control system can allow for a very smooth and enjoyable driving
experience without any motor lag, surge or sudden motor functions due to slight pedal
touches, which makes the pedelec control system a front runner for our design.
Dual-Control:
Dual Control driving systems involve combining both the throttle and pedelec control systems
on one bike in order to give the rider a multitude of driving choices and experiences. This
system is very rare as it is difficult to correctly implement and program both systems on one
motor and also avoid the disadvantages of the pedelec control system by itself. It obviously is
also the most expensive system as it includes both systems. This control system is going to be
avoided by our design team as it is highly complex and is the most expensive.
Braking System:
As mentioned previously within this report, our aim is to design a general all-purpose foldable
driving bike that is able to compete with certain mid to high end electronic bikes currently
present within the market. Subsequently, a suitable braking system in terms of its price,
performance and further maintenance has to be installed which will place the bike in a great
position to compete with the similar designed bikes on the market today. Research carried out
on the market revealed that V brakes, Cable disc brakes, and Hydraulic Disc brakes are the
most common options present in the targeted segment.

V brakes:
V brakes have recently become the go- to type of rim brakes used in multiple electronic bikes,
as they are simple, cheap to make and effective in terms of their stopping power. They
comprise of a pair of arms placed on the edges of the rim area, pivoted on either the lower end
of the frame of the bike or its forks, and with blocks and brake shoes aligned with the side
walls of the rim. The upper ends of the arms are joined above the wheel by a transverse cable
which operates the brake by squeezing the arms together with a direct pull. Additionally,
most V-brakes include cartridge style brake pads, making break pad replacement as simple as
possible, by having to remove a tiny retaining bolt or pin, then a simple sliding motion of
replacing the old pad with the new ones. The figures below show two different industry
leading types of V brakes sold and implemented on different bikes found on the market today.

Figure 3 showing the Shimano Alivio T400 V brake calliper

Figure 4 showing the Avid single digit 7 V-brake

Disc Brakes: These are found in two leading forms, hydraulic or cable activated disc brakes,
and share the same functionality and features as those found on motor vehicles except with
the disc being necessarily much thinner for weight shedding. They are made up of a hub
mounted disc containing a calliper situated on the edge of the disc which holds side braking
pads that lock onto the faces of the discs parameter. Two different attachment mechanisms
for disk brake calipers exist. On one, the calliper locks on to an adapter, which is followed by
the adapter locking on to the disk mount tabs situated on the frame of the bike. These allows
minimal lateral modification of the position of the calliper. On the other hand in the second
arrangement, the calliper attaches directly to the disk mount tabs and has to have
supplementary shims added to laterally adjust the calliper. The discs and calliper mountings
have many variations, the IS types for both are usually ignored in favor of customized
systems.
In addition to laterally adjusting the calliper above the disc, the brakes are adjusted by placing
the side friction pads at a minimal distance from the disc while avoiding contacting between
the surfaces. Older calipers and other cable actuated calipers have a single motionless pad and
another moving pad. At first, the stationary pad is adjusted to be at a minimal distance before
completely adjusting the moving pad. Cable actuated calipers normally adjust the moving pad
or pads through altering the length of the cable with barrel adjusters located either at the
calliper or at the brake lever. Maintaining the disc brakes entails replacing the brake pads
when worn out. The best performing cable disc brakes satisfactorily supply efficient braking
power, but many, particularly ones found on the cheaper end of the spectrum, are not as
effective.
Hydraulic disc brakes offer a much better braking performance than cable operated ones, as
they operate smoother, more powerful and contain friction pads which are often selfadjusting. Hydraulic disc brakes function through the use of a lever which is attached to the
pistons (or calliper) by a hose that contains an incompressible fluid, which is the reason
behind them being more powerful. They also automatically compensate for pad wear, making
the occasional change of the braking fluid the form of maintenance needed. The fluid also
helps in the removal of the heat released by braking friction, leading to more predictable and
controllable power on longer runs. The number of pistons also affects the performance of the
hydraulic disc brakes, in which adding another piston multiplies the amount of force provided

by the brakes but at a cost of adding extra weight to you electric bike. Hydraulic brakes
definitely offer the best performance in terms of braking power and maintenance in
comparison to the cable operated disc brakes, but come at a much greater cost. Figures of the
different types of disc brakes can be found below.

Figure 5 showing the Shimano Deore M416 mechanical


disc brake calliper.

Figure 6 showing the Shimano XT M785


Hydraulic Disc brake

As seen in the table below, both braking systems perform favorably in different categories
where the V brakes are an obvious cheaper, simpler to implement, and lighter choice. This is
all due to its simplistic structure and its position on the rims which gives the bike better aero
dynamic performance and a lighter weight effect. However, the position of the V brakes on
the rim can also cause an amount of wear and tear to the rim over time as it continuously acts
on it. Disc brakes on the other hand, offer a larger amount of stopping force which can also be
easily manipulated and controlled by different lever pulls. They also perform much better
under different weather conditions and do not cause any damage to the rim or the structure of
the bike over time which decreases maintenance costs. Additionally, the greater cost of the
disc brakes will not be an issue in this design as the bike we are aiming to produce is designed
to compete with mid to high end bikes currently on the market, which allows for the added
expenditure in order to supply better performance features for the consumer. The
compatibility advantage of V brakes is also drifting to irrelevance as modern disc brakes are
currently available on the market allow for different adjustments and configurations on
different wheels and rim sizes. As the current landscape of electronic bike breaking systems
shifts to accommodate the better performing disc brakes, so will the braking system chosen
for this group.
Table 8 comparing the performance of the different types of brakes considered under different

Category
Braking Power and Control
Compatibility on different Wheels
Performance in different weather
conditions
Cost
Ease of Installation and Maintenance
Weight and Aero Dynamics
Rim Wear
Look

Disc Brakes

V brakes

Folding Mechanisms
The most fundamental part of a foldable bicycle is its ability to fold to a more compact and
portable package thereby being able to easily carried onto public transports or small enough
to fit into the boot of a car. However, there are various methods of folding a bike and each has
its own advantages and disadvantages. The following are the methods of folding that are the
most common on the market.
The Half Fold
The half fold makes use of one or two hinges which allows the bike to be folded in half.
Simple clamps are used to retract the seat and handle. The two basic half fold includes the
horizontal and vertical half fold. Due to its simpler folding method, this mechanism could be
used even on full sized bikes if overall compactness isnt the priority.

HORIZONTAL HALF FOLD

VERTICAL
HALF FOLD

Figure 7 showing the horizontal and vertical half folds

The triangle hinge


The other type of folding mechanism is the triangle hinge where there are usually two latches.
The rear hinge allows the rear triangle and wheel to be folded forward towards the main body
and the front hinge folds the front wheel. This mechanism henceforth has the most compact
configuration when folded.

Figure 8 showing the triangle hinge fold mechanism

The break-away:
The ability for the bike to be partially disassembled for better transportation makes use of the
break-away folding mechanism. It can sometimes be disassembled to be fitted into suitcases
for air travel due to its compactness.
The table below shows the breakdown of how each mechanism differ from each other and its
advantages and disadvantages. From the table, it can be seen that the Half fold and Triangle
hinge type mechanism has the advantage of simpler folding that can benefit the ease of use
for the rider. Thus, these folding mechanisms were taken into account in the early design
sketches of the electric bike.
Table 9 showing the advantages and disadvantages of all the three main folding mechanisms

Folding Mechanism

Advantages

Disadvantages

The Half Fold

Easy to fold, good ride


comfort

Not compact

The Triangle Hinge

Easy to fold, compact

Rough ride

The Break-away

Very compact

Complex assembly

Tests Planned
British Standards
The design of the electric bicycle needs to meet the requirements of two major safety
standards which are EN 14764 which concerns on bicycle parts and EN 15194 which
concerns on electrical part of the bicycle. The summary of the standards is as follows
(GME/25, 2015) (Electric Bicycle Guide, 2015)

Maximum continuous power output: 250W


Maximum speed with power assistance: 25km/h (15.5miles/h)
The pedal should be able to propel the bicycle
The battery must not leak
The control must default to off
The mass should be less than 40kg
The front wheel can be braked independently of the rear wheel and both need to work
efficiently.
Lights and reflectors are required to be used between sunset and sunrise with an
exception when the bicycle is pushed along the roadside or not moving

To ensure viability of the designs considered, several tests were designed as part of a testing
plan. The plan is divided into two major components, namely, mechanical and electrical. The
mechanical part of the plan involves mechanical testing, suspension, pedal, folding
mechanism, friction brake and frame of the electric bicycle. In the electrical testing, the
motor, sensors, battery, display and control system is tested.
Mechanical Components
1. Mass
The mass of the bicycle with no load will be recorded using digital hanging scale.
2. Suspension and Overall Structure
The overall structure suspension system of the bicycle should be able to hold a
vertical force acting on the seat due to the mass of the cyclist and the unsprung mass

of the bicycle. Virtual test will first be done using ANSYS software to analyse the
stress and stiffness of the whole structure. The physical test will be done by applying
vertical force on the seat with variable mass, taking into account anthropometric data
for the average UK weights of males and females.
3. Pedal
Pedal is attached to the crankset which drives the rear wheel, and should be able to
hold an amount of torque applied by the cyclist. The test is first carried out virtually
using ANSYS software to analyse and determine the maximum torque that can be
applied before failure. Physical test will be done with cyclists of a range of body mass
riding the product at different speeds.
4.

Folding Mechanism
The average time needed to fold the bicycle and unfold it completely will be recorded
for comparison and marketing purpose. The folding test will be done by a number of
people of different physical characteristics to mimic varied range of possible buyers.

5. Friction Brake
The distance needed to stop the bicycle will be recorded for various loads and speeds,
to show the effectiveness of the friction brake. The friction brake should be able to
stop the bicycle safely and in the shortest distance possible.
Electrical Components
1. Motor
The motor should be able to assist pedalling when the button is pushed. When the
motor is initiated, the motor should be able to rotate at the speed set by the user. The
speed of the electric bicycle will be recorded for different loads. If the continuous
power output exceeds 250W or the bicycle speed is over 15.5 miles per hour or 25
km/h, the motor should stop assisting the pedalling.
2. Control System
All components should be connected to the control system. The components should
also be waterproof.
a. Sensors and Display
The sensors are tested to make sure all the values can be interpreted into the display
which helps to aid the user. The speed sensor is tested to show the same speed as the
measured speed. The torque sensor should work to adjust the speed of rotation of the
motor to maintain the speed. Battery sensor should provide an indication of the
amount of power left. The display should be able to show the speed, power output
and remaining battery.
b. Battery
Average time to charge the battery fully will be recorded. The average range of the
bicycle will also be recorded to show the usage of the battery.

Project Management
WBS
A breakdown of the work and activities that will be carried out by the group upon meeting its
goals. The WBS shall help visualize and distinct among the various task the team needs to
undertake in order to successfully design the electric bike.
Foldable e-bike
A0
Research ebike market

A1

A2

A3

Mechanical

Electrical

Testing

A1.1

A1.2

A1.3

A2.1

Design

Analysis

Component

Powertrain

A4
Project
manageme
nt
A4.1
WBS

A1.11

A1.21

structure

Materials

A1.12
Foldable
mechanism

A1.31

Battery

A1.22

A1.32

A2.3

FEA

Suspension

Motor

A1.13

A1.33

CAD

Wheels

A1.14
Ergonomics

A2.2

Braking
system

A1.34
Safety
component

A4.2
Gantt chart

A2.4
Control
system
A2.5
Sensors

Gantt Chart: A very helpful way to visualize and brake down the work that will be carried
out from day 1 until the end of the project. This chart shows an effective distribution of the
workload among the different resources available between the team members, hopefully
leading to a more efficient and better performing design.
Table 10: Project Gantt Chart

Table 11 showing the gantt chart legends

ALL
HA
ZK
DG
FY
JC

All staffs
Hussam Abdulhai
Zakriya A Hussain
Dionisios
Georgoulis
Faizrul Yusoff
Jeremy Chan

SVK
FA

Sonal VK
Faisel Alhamad
JC SVK FY
SVK and ZK
FA HA DG ZAK
DG HA
ZK FA

The Resource Sheet showing the different resources available for the project can be found in
Appendix A, as well as the Activity list which explains the different tasks and activities that
will be carried out to complete the Foldable Electric Bike Project.

Bibliography:
1. Amazon.co.uk, (2015). Raleigh Stow-E-Way folding Electric Bike 20" Wheel:
Amazon.co.uk: Sports & Outdoors. [online] Available at:
http://www.amazon.co.uk/Raleigh-Stow-E-Way-folding-ElectricWheel/dp/B00G7NUFE0 [Accessed 27 Oct. 2015].
2. Bike, A. (2015). Ansmann Folding | Electric Bikes | OnBike Ltd. [online] OnBike
Ltd. Available at: http://www.onbike.co.uk/electricbikes/ansmann-folding-bike/
[Accessed 27 Oct. 2015].
3. Bike, B. (2015). NEO VOLT SPORT LITE | Electric Bikes | OnBike Ltd. [online]
OnBike Ltd. Available at: http://www.onbike.co.uk/electricbikes/emotion-neo-voltsport-lite/ [Accessed 27 Oct. 2015].
4. Bike, G. (2015). Gocycle G2 Portable Electric Bike. [online] E-bikeshop.co.uk.
Available at: https://www.e-bikeshop.co.uk/Gocycle-G2-ElectricBike?gclid=CMWRlOvy4MgCFRFsGwodV58HPA [Accessed 27 Oct. 2015].
5. Bike, K. (2015). KTM Macina Compact | Electric Bikes | OnBike Ltd. [online]
OnBike Ltd. Available at: http://www.onbike.co.uk/folding-electric-bikes/ktmmacina-compact-electric-bike.html [Accessed 27 Oct. 2015].
6. Baikbike.com, (2015). New Arrival: ANEMOS Zippy Series Folding Bikes |
BaikBike.com. [online] Available at: http://www.baikbike.com/new-arrival-anemoszippy-series-folding-bikes/ [Accessed 27 Oct. 2015].
7. Batteryuniversity.com, (2015). Advantages & Limitations of the Lithium-ion Battery Battery University. [online] Available at:
http://batteryuniversity.com/learn/article/is_lithium_ion_the_ideal_battery [Accessed
27 Oct. 2015].
8. Bike, A. (2015). Ansmann Folding | Electric Bikes | OnBike Ltd. [online] OnBike
Ltd. Available at: http://www.onbike.co.uk/electricbikes/ansmann-folding-bike/
[Accessed 27 Oct. 2015].
9. Bike, B. (2015). NEO VOLT SPORT LITE | Electric Bikes | OnBike Ltd. [online]
OnBike Ltd. Available at: http://www.onbike.co.uk/electricbikes/emotion-neo-voltsport-lite/ [Accessed 27 Oct. 2015].
10. Bike, G. (2015). Gocycle G2 Portable Electric Bike. [online] E-bikeshop.co.uk.
Available at: https://www.e-bikeshop.co.uk/Gocycle-G2-ElectricBike?gclid=CMWRlOvy4MgCFRFsGwodV58HPA [Accessed 27 Oct. 2015].
11. Bike, K. (2015). KTM Macina Compact | Electric Bikes | OnBike Ltd. [online]
OnBike Ltd. Available at: http://www.onbike.co.uk/folding-electric-bikes/ktmmacina-compact-electric-bike.html [Accessed 27 Oct. 2015].
12. Chrtiantopoulos, G. (2015). Batteries - Learn. [online] Ebikes.ca. Available at:
http://www.ebikes.ca/learn/batteries.html [Accessed 27 Oct. 2015].
13. Electric Bicycle Guide, (2015). Electric Bicycle Motor Mounting Positions. [online]
Available at: http://www.electric-bicycle-guide.com/electric-bicycle-motor.html
[Accessed 21 Oct. 2015].
14. Fatima, S. (2014). Bicycle Drawing. [image] Available at:
http://c21.phas.ubc.ca/sites/default/files/imagecache/full_article/BicycleDrawing.png
[Accessed 26 Oct. 2015].
15. Halfords.com, (2015). Coyote Connect Folding Electric Bike. [online] Available at:
http://www.halfords.com/cycling/bikes/electric-bikes/coyote-connect-foldingelectric-bike [Accessed 27 Oct. 2015].

16. Halfords.com, (2015). EBCO LSF-40 Folding Electric Bike. [online] Available at:
http://www.halfords.com/cycling/bikes/electric-bikes/ebco-lsf-40-folding-electricbike [Accessed 27 Oct. 2015].
17. Halfords.com, (2015). Byocycle City Speed 20 Folding Electric Bike. [online]
Available at: http://www.halfords.com/cycling/bikes/electric-bikes/byocycle-cityspeed-20-folding-electric-bike [Accessed 27 Oct. 2015].
18. McCracken, S. (2015). 10 of the Best Folding Electric Bikes 2015 | 10 of the Best
Folding Electric Bikes 2015 - Total Women's Cycling. [online] Total Women's
Cycling. Available at: http://totalwomenscycling.com/commuting/urban-bikes/10best-electric-bikes-2015-folding-42616/1 [Accessed 27 Oct. 2015].
19. Pedelecs - Electric Bike Community, (2015). 2014 KTM Macina Compact. [online]
Available at: http://www.pedelecs.co.uk/bikes/2014-ktm-macina-compact/ [Accessed
27 Oct. 2015].
20. Rye, C. (2014). Whats the Difference Between Electric Bike Motors? ElectricBikeReview.com. [online] Electricbikereview.com. Available at:
http://electricbikereview.com/guides/difference-between-ebike-motors/ [Accessed 25
Oct. 2015].
21. Sanders, L. (2015). Batteries - Learn. [online] Ebikes.ca. Available at:
http://www.ebikes.ca/learn/batteries.html [Accessed 27 Oct. 2015].
22. Stan Smith, F. (2014). Ask Flecc: How to choose a bicycle brake system?. [online]
Pedelecs - Electric Bike Community. Available at:
http://www.pedelecs.co.uk/news/electric-bike-brake-system/ [Accessed 27 Oct.
2015].
23. Stepehenson, K. (2013). E-bike Control Systems---Which is Best for You?. [online]
Turbo Bob's Bicycle Blog. Available at:
https://turbobobbicycleblog.wordpress.com/2013/11/21/e-bike-control-systemswhich-is-best-for-you/ [Accessed 27 Oct. 2015].
24. Thompson, B. (2015). Road Bikes: Rim Brakes Vs. Disc Brakes. [online]
Performance Bicycle Blog. Available at:
http://blog.performancebike.com/2015/01/06/road-bikes-rim-brakes-vs-disc-brakes/
[Accessed 27 Oct. 2015].
25. Wooshbikes.co.uk, (2014). Woosh Gallego | 5 seconds to fold | Electric Bikes with
hidden battery from Woosh. [online] Available at:
http://www.wooshbikes.co.uk/?gallego [Accessed 27 Oct. 2015].

Appendix A:
Table 12 Showing the Resources available for the project

Resource sheet
Project: Foldable e-bike
Resource
name

Initials

Type

All staff

AS

Work

HA

Work

ZH

Work

DG

Work

FY

Work

JC

Work

SVK

Work

FA

Work

Hussam
Abdulhai
Zakariyya
Hussain
Dionisios
Georgoulis
Faizrul
Yusoff
Jeremy
Cham
Sonal
Valiyakath
Kaithakkal
Faisel
Alhamad

Table 6 showing the activites that will be carried out to complete the project.

WBS activity and responsibilities list

WBS

Activity

A0

E-bikes on
market

A1

Mechanical

A1.1

Design

Project: Foldable e-bike


Activity Description
Consider e-bikes on the
market and the difference
between them
Consists of design, analysis
and component
Consists of structure, foldable
mechanism, CAD and
ergonomics

Working days

Resource

3 weeks

ZH

10 weeks

AS

10 weeks

AS

A1.11

Structure

A1.12

Foldable
mechanism

A1.13

CAD

A1.14

Ergonomics

A1.2

Analysis

A1.21

Materials

A1.22

FEA

A1.3

Component

A1.31

Braking system

A1.32

Suspension

A1.33

Wheels

A1.34

Safety
component

A2

Electrical

Show the elements and parts


of the e-bike
Illustrate the kinds of foldable
mechanism for the e-bike as
well as the advantages of it
Represent e-bike in two or
three dimensional graphical
Discuss the possibility of the
dimensions of the e-bike

2 week

JC

1 week

JC

6 weeks

JC, FY, SVK

3 weeks

DG

7 weeks

AS

2 weeks

DG

5 weeks

SVK, JC, FY

3 weeks

AS

3 weeks

HA

2 weeks

ZH

2 weeks

FA

3 weeks

SVK

Consists of powertrain,
sensors, battery, pedal assist
and control system

12 weeks

AS

FY

Consists of materials and FEA


Choose the appropriate
materials of the e-bike
Shows how e-bike react to
real world forces, stresses,
stiffness, fatigue and other
physical affects
Consists of braking system,
suspension, wheels and
safety component
Discuss a suitable braking
system in term of its price,
performance and further
maintenance
Choose the type of
suspension and a test will
conduct on the e-bike
Specifications of three
different wheels and discuss
about the rim, spokes and tire
Safety features used to meet
the requirements of British
Standards like reflector, front
and rear light and battery
light

A2.1

Powertrain

Illustrate the mechanism


transmits the drive form

3 weeks

A2.2

Battery

Discuss which type of battery


is better and why

2 weeks

SVK

A2.3

Motor

A2.4

Control system

Sensors

A2.5

A3

Testing

A4

Project
management

A4.1

WBS

A4.2

Gantt chart

Specify the type of motor that


will be used in the e-bike

3 weeks

FY

Explain the process of pedal


assist, sensors and the overall
control system

12 weeks

HA, FA, ZH,


DG

Debates about the speed


sensor, torque and battery
sensors

6 weeks

FA, ZH

2 weeks

AS

1 week

FA, SVK

1 week

FA

1 week

SVK

Discuss what type of test to


be conducted such as mass,
suspension, pedal, folding
mechanism, friction brake,
sensors and battery
Consists of WBS and Gantt
chart
Work breakdown structure of
the project
Chart to show the duration
and the working days of the
structure

Appendix B:
This is model shows the electronic bike on an incline plane analyzing the possible forces that
might be acting on the bike. The model and equations will be used extensively to determine
the correct motor to use in the Design.

Figure 9 Forces on a typical bicycle (Fatima, 2014)

Where m= mass, g=gravitational force, =angle of inclination, Crr=rolling resistance


coefficient, c=air constant, v=velocity of the bicycle
The force due to inclination is 1=sin

The force due to rolling resistance is 2=


The air resistance is Fr=-cv2

Appendix C
Several rough sketches of different configurations were drawn up for the electric bike. This
provided a basic idea of the structural design of the bike and the mounting position of some of
the more essential components. After several design decisions were made, the common
denominator of all the designs drawn were rear mounted motors, small sized wheel and have
folding mechanisms.
The figures below shows a variety of early sketches of the design of the e-bike at different
specifications.
Figure C1: Design Option 1

Material: Aluminium
Battery: Li-ion
Brakes: Rim brakes
Throttle control
Damper suspension
18 inch wheels
Triangle Hinge Folding

Figure C2: Design Option 2

Material: Aluminium
Battery: Li-ion
Brakes: Disc brakes
Pedal Assist
Spring and fork suspension
16 inch wheels
Vertical Half Fold

Figure C3: Design Option 3

Material: Aluminium, Carbon F


Battery: Li-ion
Brakes: Rim brakes
Throttle control
Spring and damper suspension

20 inch wheels
Horizontal Half Fold

Figure C4: Design Option 4

Material: Aluminium, Fibre Glass


Battery: Li-ion
Brakes: Disc Brakes
Pedal Assist
Damper suspension
16 inch wheels
Triangle Hinge Fold

Figure C5: Design Option 5

Material: Aluminium, Carbon Fibre


Battery: Li-ion
Brakes: Disc brakes
Pedal Assist
Damper suspension
20 inch wheels
Horizontal Half Fold

Other specifications included the use of sustainable materials for components such as the
seats and handle, a colour display to display vital information, LED lights for visibility, direct
charge capability and possible Bluetooth for smartphone connectivity. The battery pack was
also thought to be integrated into the body of the bike for a cleaner appearance but still able to
remove for charging or replacement. The decision to implement a suspension system in the
bike is so that the rider can benefit from better ride comfort therefore reducing fatigue on
longer journeys.