Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 336

I

. .

iy


,



-
19 79

22.151.5
63
516



I

1979 ., 336 .

. .
. .
. .
11406
13.09.78. 09.02.79. 84X108'/*!,
.Vs 1. . . . .
. 17,64. .-. . 16,07. 37 000 . Ni 1273. 80 .
*
-
117071, , *71, , 15
.Vs 2

, , 198052, , -52,
, 29

20203 - 045
12-79. 1702040000
053 (02)-79

*, 1979


.................................................................................. ....

1 ......................................................................................................................
. .
. . ,
.

2 ......................................................................................................................

12

.
.
.
3 . . . . . . . . . . .
. ................................................................ 22

. .
.
4 . . . .
, .................................................................... .......................... 29
. .
.
, , . .
. .
.
5 ...................................................................................................................... 37
.
.
. . .
.
. .
.
6 ......................................................................................................................

46


. .
--
.
.
, .
7 ...................................................................................................................... 56

. .
.
, . .
8 ...................................................................................................................... 64
.

. .
. .

9 i I I < i ; .................. * ..................... ...

75

. *
, . ,
.

J 0 ......................................................................................................... 80

, .
.
. , -*
.
.
.
.

.................................. ...................................................................... 93
.
. .
. ,
. .

1 2 ..................... .......................................................... ........................ 105

. .
.
.
..
. .

13 , . ....................... ................................................................................ 116

. .
. ,
. .
. . .
. .

.................................................. ......................................................125
.
.
.
.
.
.
. .
. .
.

15 ...................................................................... . .... ......................141

.
.
. ,
.
. .
.

. .

16 . . ................................................................................ ....
.
. ,
, .
.
.
.

153

17 . . , .................. 7 *

.................. 159

. .
. .
.

IS .

........................................................................................

!69

, , .
. ,
. , ,
. .
.
.

19 , , .................................. ............................................. ....

180

- .
. -
. .
. .
- .
. .

20 . , , ..................... ; . , ..........................................................188
.
.
. . .
.

2[ . . .................................. .... . * * .......................................... 198


. .
. .
.
.
.

22 , ,

..................... ...................................................................... 209

.
-
. .
. .

23 . . . . . . . . . . .

t . .........................., . . . .

.2 2 3

. .
. .
.
. . .

.
.
.
.

24 . .

..................... ............................................. ........................ 247

. .
. . -
.

25 , .

..................... .......................................................................257

.
. - . - - . .
.
.
. .

28

..................... .... . , . .

263

. . -

. . .
.
. ,
.
27 ......................................................................................................... 282
.
.
. -- . .

. .
28 ......................................................................................................... 296
. . .

.
.*
.
.
.
- -
-
. , ,
- .
. -
. -
.*

- .
.
...................................................................................... .... 334



, -'
-
. . . -
.
,

,
,
, ,

,

,
. ,


.
, -


, . . . .
, -
, . ,
,

. ,

- . 10

. ,
,
, .
7



.

.
, ,
.
,
.
, 28-, ,
. -

.
,
36 ,

28- .
27 1977 .

. .

1
.
. .
. .
.-
.

,
, -
, ()
,
.

( )
, ,
*
.
.
,
, .. ,
.

, , ,
, , .
,
, , ^
, ,
.
,
,
.
,
,
9

-
. ,


. ,


.

.

,
,
.
.

.

, , .

,
,
. .

. , ,
,

.
() ,


,
. -\-
= ,
,
.
b =
:

0 + ==6.
10

,
, .

, . .
(1)

+ ( + ) = ( + ) +

, . ,

= , = = ,

+ (6 + ) = 4 + = 0
^

( + ) + = + .
( )
: + +
.

,
. .
(2)
+ = 6 +
. , ,
= -\- , ~ ,

+ = + = .
.
.
0. ,
, ,

( ,
).

+ =
, 0 , . .
0 -j- = :

(3)
.

,
, .

+ =
,
, . .
(4)

+ ( )

() k
ka,
,
k ,

, k > 0,
, k <L 0.
0
k= 0 .
ka 0.

.


, ,
,
~

+ 0
I

I___

. , ,
( 1) = .
,
(5)
12

(k - f /) = ka + la


(6)

(kl ) a k (la)

k, I (

k /,
).
, , (
)
, ,
(7)

k ( + ) = ka + kb

k .
, ,
(8)

1 =

.
-,
,
. (.
8) , ,
R
.
1. ,
,
. ,
-
, + 6
. ,
,
< ,
- ,
ka
k.
(1) (8), ..

{ -) ( )

,, \
2 a -f- b = b + , ^ \
3 Og F, 0 + =
<=\
4
, + () = 0 ;
5 {k - l)a ~ ka - f la , / <
a e f ;
13

6 {k()a = k(taj k, / e
a s f ;
7 6 ( + b) = ka ~f 6b
, b
8 1 = ,
( )
(, , ).
6
ka
, 1

()
(, )-> + () (k,a)^->ka (
). (
) .
.
1) - (
), ,
. :
,
, , ,
, .
.
2) {0},
0.

0, .

.
3) X
(X)
() ,
X. f g

f g k\ f k
( ), ..

()

(kf)(x) = k(f(x)),

<=,

, 1 8
. ,
(9)
(X) .
,
.
14

4) X = R (, , X,
)
&()
, X.
, f -\-g
kf
.
X)
(
(9)) ( 8
, {X)
(X) , ,
).
,
( ) ,
,
, ,
.

,
, ,
, .
.
, ,
.
III.
5) (
) , , .
, ,
, .
( ,
.)
,
.
6) .
\<. n-
( . . . , ) .
, . .
(tfi* * ) + ( . . . . ) ~ {\ + \9 . . . , 4- )

{ . . . . an) (kalt . . kan),


, , j\rt .

,
.

1 ( ,

). 1 ,
() ,
.
,
( ).
()
. = R
.
(
) , =
= R.
( )
.
, 1
, ( ),
8
. 1
( ).
(-
), .
2. 1 4 ,
3
(. . ) .
5 8 , ()
() .
, , ()
- ( )
() .

2

.

.




,
.

18. , ,

, 18
.
.
1) 3,
, .
,
, . . 0{ 02

Oi - f =

02 + =
f l e f , Oi = 02- ,
Oi 0 2-\- = , ,
02 + 0 i = 0 i t = 02 0[ 4*
+ ~ , , Oi + 02 02. ,
0 i = 0 2.

2) , 4
,
, ..

+ = 0

a -f = ,
17

b=

. ,

6 0 - f 6 = (a + c) + 6 = (a + 6) + c = 0 - f ^ = c*

3) ,

4~ b
= &4~( )- ,
4- ,

= ( + *) + ( ) = + ( )
, ,
+ + ( - * ) ) = ( + ( - )) + 6 - 0 4 - 6 - 6 .

b + ()
.
4)
0 , , :
0 = 0.
,
. ,

0 (0 + 0) = 0 + 0 ,

= 0 = 0.
5. ,

60 = 0

6 s . ,
60 = 6 (0 + 0) = 60 + 60,

60 = 60 60 = 0.

6)
( 1) = a
. ,

+ ( 1) = la + (1) = (1 1) = 0 = 0,
,
, ( 1) = .

, 2

. ,
13

),
,
( + & ) - ( 6 + )= = + 6 + ( - 1) ( & + ) =
= + (6 6) = ~ = ,

6 + = -j- .
7)
1 ,
, .. ,
. ,


. ,

.
,
1 ,
.
, . . . ,

6, 2 ^ k t ^ n f
I, . . . , } ,
+.
|, . . . . a^-i (
),
*. . . . (
). 6 = 2
6 3 -f- 2
; , 6 =
, 6 = 1 *_i -f-
.
6
( ).
^ 3
(, ,
). / = 3
({ -j- 2) - f 3.
1
. . . . ,
+ /,
1 {, . . . , -\.
19

,

( ( . . . ( 1+ 2) + .) . . . + ).
I_____ I
2

, , ^ 3


.
.
3 1.
,

1 .
. . . , .,.
k . k < /?, -fb,
( 1)
*,
,.
, ,
,
( k = n 1
,
, ).
, ,
= ak + ,
(,
) *+
( k = 1
). , ,

fl - = +

4* 0 ( - *) + ,
k-\- 1.
(a k

, ,
, ..
'-{- , ' 1 .

".
<" -\-.

.

,
.
,
20

,
, .
X . (
) X
(1)

]-+
]
[1,

[1,
X.
i, 1 ^ ^ ,
i-
, ('
2, . . . , ) \, 2, . . . , .
(1),
, .. , [ , /= /,
. /i-
X, \ 2, . . . , <
,
( ,
(1)),
.
, /-
\ ,
. ,
-

.
, ,
{\, . . . . )
( X i L, . . X lfn) t 1 < ii < . . . < im ^ .

3
. ~

. -
.
.

. . .
. . . , .
1.
fli, . . . , flm ku . . . . km

(1)

if li+ + kmam.

. . . , .
, 0
. . . (
k\ = 0, k* = 0, . . . , km 0) .
2. (1)
,
ku . . . . km .
.
,
(
).
3. |, . . . ,
,
!,
, . .
k u . . . km,
,
k\a\ +
22

. . . + kmam= 0.

.

,
,
0. ,
. ,
,
,
.
,
. , , , \ 2,
lai + (1) 2 + . +

... +

= 0,


.
\ ,

\ ......... ,
(
).
, '] . . . , '
,
[
.
:
4.
{),
(, , )
()
.

.
( ),
, 0.
, ka = 0, k 0, = k~l (ka ) =
= &-10 = 0 , 0 , , , 1 = 0.

,
.
1)

fli, . . . , atn . . . ,
. . . , ,
. . . , .
23

*
.
2) ( ) ,
(),

.

, .

,
:
5.
,
,
,
.
3) ( ) ,

, .
,
,
1,
0.
2),
.

4) ()

,
.
,

k\ax-\-k 22+ + kmam 0,


, , ki=0,

>=(I?) 2+ + (- ,

\ 122 + + lmam>

( \ ) {

Irflz + *+~Irrfltn = 0,

1 0.

(, , )
;
24

5)
a i,
,
, at,
1^ i
,
\9 . . . , ,_
. , 1 ^ ^ ,

, fli-i ( / = 1,
,
, \ = 0), . . . , ,
( 4) ) , (
2))
,.
, \, . . . ,
. /, 1 ^ i ^ ,
\, . . . , ,- (i = 1
, { = 0).
Mi +

... + ^

= 0


fli, . . . , kt 0, kt = 0
, , ,

...,
k, ,
,

6)
. . . , , ,
,
.
,
:

kiai + . . . + kma,
== hal~\~ + lmam>
ki U i 1, . . . , m. ,
,

(/?i / i ) a i + . . . + (krn lm) am 0
au . , . , am.
,

,1 + . . . + ^mam = ,
25

...

\ ,
,
:
==(&1 + ,|)1 + *


. , ,
. ,
.
1 (
) .
(2 )

*!.


(3)
. . . , .
, > , . . . , .

:
. -,
(2) (3).
, (2) .
s = 0, . . . ,
(4)

c f .........

:
) (2)
(4);
) s (4)
s (2):
= | ......... < s,= s.
5.
s = 0 ( (4)
(3)). s,
s + 1.
(5)

a s+|. ......... -

, as+1
, . . . , cjf. ,
26

5) , - (5)
.
as+i, ( (2)
). i ^ s, at
as-, <*i. . . . ,
i
(2) , ,
. i > s. ,
/,
5+|, c<s>, . . . . tffi
(5) cjs).
,
, ,
(4), ( 1)),
(2). ,
).
, ,
as+i s + 1- .
)
s + 1 .
.
1. ,
, . . (2)
.
. s = n ,
(2), , ,
, '"4= ,, . . . , =
. > , , (1)
.
.
1.
,
,
, .
1
. ,

k\u . . . k\n*
&2 '2>

bmitt
^1 >
27


| k l]bl -|- . . . + k\nbn>

2= k2ibi + .. + k2nbn,

km\b\ +

... + bmnbn.


611* 1 + 621* 2 +

+ 6 [ = ,

22 + . . . + kmnxm = 0 .
> ,
,
. . . , ( \
6 m*i +

, .

4 % ,+ 4 % +

. . . + * < > ,=

- 4> ( * ,+ . . . + 4 ) + 4 ( 4 + + 4 ) +
+ 4 ? ( 4 +

+ 4 ) =

= ( 4 |4 "I" 4 l 4 + + 4nl4n) 4 "


+ (4 * 4 ' + 4 4 0) + + A . 4 S ) =
= 06, + . . . + 06 = ,
, -, . . . ,
.
,
.

4
.
.
,
,
, ,
. .
.
.

,

,
. .

1. ,
.
b .
k /,
,

ka + lb 0.
k

0, =

h = , 1 0 ,

b ha , h = . , , , a hb
= , .
2. , b
, h, b = ha.
, , ,
,
.
29

, ;
,
.
, , ,
, ( )
.

3. , 6,
,
.
(.
4)) , 6,
,
.
,
, , ,

. , ,
,
.
, 6,
.

, ,

( )
.

^
,
.
= b =
. , ,
.
a, b,
ka + lb. , at
,
(, , ). ,
,

>
>
->
, = , = , =
. ,
. 6 ,
. , =
30

6 =
.
. ,
, (
) 1.
= 1 + 1.
OCi
, \ ka . ,
CiC lb. ,

= ka + lb,
. . , .

: ) , 6) ,
) .

, , ,
, , ,
= , , =
. ,
.
,
( ,
, , ),

( ).
,
,
. ,
.
31

, ,

= ,

= ,

d = OD

, , , .
, , , (
, , ). ,
D ,
(
) D\. , 0 0 \
,
, ODx

.
,

OD = OOj + DXD
DXD
, , =

= , d. = OD
.
,
.

, = 3,
(), = 2,
(
). , ,
:
1. ,

, .
2.
, .

1.
1 2 18
.
,
- ,
.
,
:
32

4. . . .
, ,

. . . , .
, ,
,
.
, a[t

,
.
. . . . ,
. . . t -
,
(. 1) ),
, \, . . .
,

a r_i. ,
I,
, fli,
- {
.
5. , (
) ,

.


,
,
,
, .
.
.
, , ,
( ) .
,
( )
. , ,
, .
1, . . . , ,
,
.
1. 1? . . . ,
) , m < \
) ,
.
. \.........
,
a t, . . . , & .
2 . .

33

, 1 ,

, , ^ .
. . . , ,

.

, ^ 1.

.
.
7.
'.
dim = , -
.
, d i mF = 0 ,

= 0.

9.
, 3
( ), 2 ( ). ,
= 1 (
) = 0
( ).
9 ( ).

\\ .
,
1 2
. , 1
) 1, 2
, .
-
) ,
) ,
) .
,
) )
) :

2. -
% ,
, ,
.
. ,
.
,
34

, ,
.
. . . > , , ,
, 1
, , ) 1, .
, , . . . ,
.
elt . . . ,
. , , . .
^ .
. . . , , . + 1
( ) 1)
. ,
.
[, . . . , , , ,
.
. . . ,
. a

( ,
),

e F
1, . . . ,

(1)

= 1{ + . . . + .
1, . . . ,
,
.
8. 1,

{, . . . , .
(1)
\, . . . , . (
)

a = aiei>
, ,
, ,
1 .
.
, 1, . . , , , . . . , ~ ( \, . . . , .,).

= ' ,+ . . .
2*

",

+
,

. . . + ,
35


-\- = ] i 4"

...

- \ - ble1 4*

] i -f* b]e\ + * +

...

-\~bnen ~

4 *b>
nen =

= ( ' 4 ^ ) ^ 4

. . . 4 -(an + bn)en.

(
: ~ aJet -\-blet (1+ bl)et.)
,
, ,
,
.
,

k a ~ k ( a 'e i + . . . +") = ( i + . . . 4 ()
(. . ka = k{aiei) {kal)el), ,

,

5
-
! 1
..


.


I IO.M . OTPE3KII



.
1. '
.
<: - +
'
,
, . .

)= () + (6)

( +

(ka)

()

, b k.
'
, -*-'.
'.
, -+ 1 , ,
, (
) .
, 37

, . . ( ) ,
( \ ' )
(
' F " , F ").
( )

.

( )
,
. ,

.
.
,
, ,
. , ,
,
.
, 1, . . . ,
a e f ( e iy
)
(1,
"),
R n (
-*
).
(1)

() = (1, . . . ")

, ,

: y - + R n.
, *
, , ,
<{ + ) =

()

+ (6),

, ka
k ,
(ka) kq>().
, , . y - + R n
.
2. ,
( 1), ,

.
38

Rrt

(I,

, 0,

. . . . 0),

(0,

1, 0 ,

(,

0, 1,

. . . . 0),

(,

, ,

. . . . 1).

0),

, (
R"),
(1,
fls) e R "
1, . . . . , . .
(1, . . . . " ) a J( 1, 0 , . . . , 0 ) + 2(0 , 1,

0) + . . . + ( 0, 0 , . . . , 1).

(1), ,
T - > R n,
.

. ,

Y
,
( ,
,

R").

:

1. -
Rrt.
, ,
(,
, ).
,
,
.
^ 0
; .
<: -+ '
\,

\, . . . ' *=*',
' = 1[, \, ... '
39

, (, . . . , .
,
.
(
) ,
(I)

.
,
R"
, , ,


( , . ., ,
,
).

,
, . .

'1: ->
. ,
" , ,
( ).
, (I)
, , ",
.
,
. ,
, , ,
,
.

,
( 1) 1
Rrt, ,
,
- .

, , ;
.
, > :
40

3.
s ,
,
) \
) ,
, ,

.
:
10.
/ !
B e i ,
= .
11. , ,

+ = .
11 , ,
, = 0 . ,
, = .

.
d im ^


, ,
^ 3.
1 , 2
, 3 ! .
, , ,

. , ,
, .
,
, .

( )
(
, , , ,
b ;
, b k , , b = ka\
, ,
, = ).
41

1 8,
9 ( )
10 11.
.
1) .
s&,

>
ab = . 10 11, ,
(
c e f
~
, ,
, a b = c \ , b
= ( ) + ( &)). ,
.

2) , , R"
,

'\
( , R"
:
. , , , ;
= ( ' ......... )

= (\ . . . . 6 ") ", Rl!m<



= (1- 1,

).

s t ' ,
' .
4. s&

:

: >' ,
, ^ s&
( ) ( ) = ().
s&' ,

S&
. , 42


.
, -
, (.
1) ), Rn.
: 2 ^ ->

(
<: -> I R . "
,

.
, s i


, .
, s i

( 2)

() = .

, : s i
s i
( -*-).
( 2 ) - 4 . , .
,
:

2. -
s i'1 R*.
,
.

:
.
s i n 8
^ s i ( s in ^)
e\t . . . , (
2 ^ !2).
5. ,
. . . ,
si. \ . . . .
, / =*: 3 ( )
ie2e3, / 2 (
) \2 1 ( )

43


j . . .
: -> X . -


" ).

6. 1, . . . ,
( )
i . . . .

)
: ) , )
, ) .

, >
-
:
=

. . . + .

/2 =====3
= ]i - f 22 +

/ = 2
= ]{ + 22.


,
.
,
1 11,

,
. , ,
. ,
.
44

? ,

- .
, (
)

, .
, ,
, 10 ,
. . /,
Af0Af = .

.

(3)

s&
.
7.

MQ^ s & 7 ,
1 ^ ,
'/ , . .
t (3).

.
.
.,
(
;
).
,


1 (

; ,
).
, ,
) , ,
1;
) ,

----- >

= / ;
) (, 5 )+>
Kf 1 .

/ = 0 0, ,
Mq .
,
0 .
,
(
I) .
1
(3) i.
1. N0
, /0 ,
b ,

. No
.
.
t0 h0 0 ,

MqNq tod b hoa.


,

0 iay

'01 = MQM M0Nq ta - t o a xb>

t-t0
h *

N0M = b,
to

MQM = NoM + MoNo = x6 + i0a = (0 + /<>) =


/ = xh0 + /0.
,
,
.
,
,
\ . ,
( 3 ) tu
yVf0Afi = txa.
,

43


---->
0|. ,
0 Mi .
,
= 1
t . ,
,
0 Mj . = 0
/ = 0 = Mi t = I,
Mj.
:

2.
0 ]

.
M0Mj.
, R
,
:
8. , M0Mt
0 Mi,
t
0 < t < 1.
0
Mf, ,
0 \. ,
0 ^ t ^ 1.
MqM j.

6


. -
. \
.
.
.
,
.

S&
. (3)
, ,
,

(1)

r = ro-f/fl,
__
0 0,

__

(, 0 = 0).
t + - ,
(I),
. ( 1)
.
= 2 ( ).
Oexe2>
, (. .
\, 2), xQy 0
M q /, m (
48

ej, 2). (1)


:

- + ,
= + .

()
.
= 3 ( ) (2)
,

= 0 + (U
( 3)

= + 1,

z = 0 + in
(

\ ,
,
3,
) .
10 Mi
- 0 \ ( = 3 *
*. i/. \) , AM'fi =
= I 0 (, , 1 \ . =
= \ = Z] 20). ,
A/qM i,
0 Aij,

r = r0-f i ( r x ro),
. .
(4)

= (1 / ) 0 + /|,

(I 0 Xq

1xlf

( 1 /) i/o 4- /i/i.
2 = (1

/) 20 + / 2 ,

( ;
).
49


(.. ).

\2,
( 2 ).
t,
(5)

( ) ( )1 = 0 .

, ,
, (5).
, , (5)
, , 1 0 , ( 2 )

( ~ - ( ,
/ --1 ~ // ^ , . . .v,
.
(5) ,
10 .
0 / 0, (5)

/\
*'

X
I

t/

,
/ = 0 ( 0) = 0 ( 1 0). ,
, / ~ - 0
* = 0 , 0 0 .
( 6 ) /,
( )
(5)
.
( 6 )
.
10 (',#) ,
0, - ,
(/, ) , /, .
MqM \, (^^/)
Mi (|, / i ) , /
/ = Xq, ~ \ . ,
50

,
10(jfo, </) i (xi, r/i),
*0 _
*1 -0

0 | _
XI

! ~ , = /, ()
:
( 0)

( ) 0.

, ,

0(0,).
= 0 //,

(7)

+ + = 0.

, (7)
, .
, (7),
0, 0, .
, , , 0 -{+
= 0 ( 0 , ,
= /, / = 0, 0 , , ,
/), ,
0(, ) ( , ).
(5)
(7).

.
1. (
) ,
(
).

, (
).
,
( ).
51



(8)

+ + =

(9)

Atx + B tf + C ^ 0 .

,
, , S i, \,
(. . )
, ,
( 8 ) (9) ,

-*
, ,
. .
0 , ,
= 1 pSj. , ,
\>
,
. ,
.
( 8 ) (9) 0(*. )*
. .

+ + 0,
{ }

V o + S E /o -f C t = 0,

, . .
=^0 = 1 S = pSt, ,
( 10)
, , pCi 0. ,

, ^ , *

( 10) ,
( 8 ) (9) .
____ _
,
\ '
( 8 ) (9)
, ( 8 ) (9)
.
52

( 8 ) (9) , . .

^ By

(8 ) (9)
( )

__ , ?,

( ,

). ,
! (
( 11)).

,
. :
1 (


) .

) \
) ;
) .
) ,
_
.
Ai -

By

>

) ,
) ,

, *

) ) ,
) .
, , ( 8 ) (9)
,
.
(
).
Oe\e<i
, , , 53

= 0 0 . 0
( ),
0 .
, 0 (0 , 0 )
2, ,
0 ( 0 , 0 ) ei.

,

+ + = 0

) , 0;
) , = 0 .
, (12)
,
= 0.
0, . . ,
, k AjB 6 = /,

( 12)

y = kx + b.
,
!R .
2.
( 12), \, 2 ,
( 12), (
( 12)), , ( \

2) Mi12 (12).

F(xf ) = .
1. [{\,\) 2(2, 2),
( 12), , ( ) F(x\,y]) F(x2,y 2)
.
.
, \ 2.
\2,

* = (1 /)*! + / 2,

= {1 *)1 ~\~1%
54

(. (4)).
112 ( 12) ( ),
( 12)
t.
, ,
( I - / ) / (*!,
,
(13)
/=

+tFfa, 2),
(*|, //|)

F { x u i)

( F(x[, \) = F{x2, 2) . ,
.. \2 (12)).
, \ 2
( 12),
(13) 0 <
< t < 1.
, , Afi 2
( 12), F{x\, \)
*F(x2,y 2)
<

_______F ( |, |)

i) F (*2. )

< 1.

F{xi,tj[) > F{x2,y 2),


, F(x\,y\) > 0 F(x2,y 2) <! 0,
Flxuth) < .F {x2,y 2), ,
^ ( * b * / i ) < 0 F{x2,y 2) > 0 .
f ( x i,i/i) F(x2ty2) .
Mi 2 ,
.
1 ,


.
3.
, ( 12).
, M\{xi,iji) 2{2, 2),
( 12), , \2
, .. \ + -f
2 + 2-\~ .

7
.

.
. .
.
.
. 11 .

,

. ,

. , ,
.

(.. ),
,

(), , ,
.
,
.
, ,
,
) ;
) ;
) .
( ,
.)
)
; ,
, , .

= b = . ,
6

,
(,
, = =
!
,
).
,
(, b ) .
(, ,
), -

), ) ).
(
) .
), ) )
, , ,
,
, .
,
. ,
,
,
.
1. , , \ \
. , ( \)
(, ) }>,
(,
>,),
( 1)

{= a, 6 i = 6 +/?fl

kb, bi b,

k ( ),

(2)

{= ,

{= ^ - ,

X 0 , .
57

, , *
, \ .
:
2.
, *
,

.
, (, ) (, ) ( (I)
k = 0 ). , {, ) =5> ( i), {, &i) =->
=^> {, ) (I) = bx - f k xax =

Si

/ >

<0

5)

) (1), )
(2).

+
b bu k x k, (2 )
= ~ -
~ . ,


.
3.

. , (, ),
,
.
, ,
- ,
, ( ) . , ,
,
58

2 ,
, ), ) ).
, ,
, b -{- ka , , ,
.
( )).
( ) ) , ,
,
( )). }

( 2 ). ,
()

2 ,
.
, (,
) (fl|, b |) .
a, b, ay, by
(
) ) ,
b , , ,
.

by. ,

of[ = - lb,
(3)

k ta+ /| 6 ,

6,

= kly lk\
0 (
\ by ).
k I


, U
.
/. a, b, ay, by
(3), 6 ^= 0 ,

(, )

6^ .
. k 0 ,
(, )=>( + , b ) = > ( k a + l b , \ b ) = >
=> (/ +

l b , j b+

(ka + lb )) =

{ka + lb> j ( M + ) = ( 1. y b i ) 39

, k ( / . k\ 0), ,

(4)

{, ) =>{, ) =- ( + (6 ), )*=
= (&, - ) =(&, - )

( )

(, - ) = ( , - } ) = > ( / 6 , - 1 - 7^ - ; 6 ) =
= ( / 6 , | ( f c ia + /i 6) ) = (a i, | | ) .
,

(, )
.
,

-3-&1) {, b ),
, ( [ b\). ,
(fli, ^-^ (ai, 6 t),
w
1
-,
,
> 0. (
) ) ) 6 = 1. , ({, \)
(, )
.

1 -3 .
, , ,
.
0.
, , b
, b = 0.
b { A b j.
, ?
, :
, , , \,
b |, .
,
.
60

1.
b [ ' &1 ,

at = ka + lb,
()

= + /^

= kl{ Iki

k l
k\
- hi

. 1,
(5), /\ * = { - &i-
= 1 1
\ .

, , ,
) (, ) -> ( 6 j),
(5) 6 = 1;
) ( () (, )
(5) 6 == 1 (2, 2)
( &i), (2, 2)
(, b ) (5)
6 = 1.
) , )
:

ka

2 k'a.y - f I'bu

Ifi

b2=

+ l[b[t

2 = ( ' + k xV) a - f (Ik' + /,/')

( * * ' + * ,/ ' )

*2~(**I + *iOe+ (rtI + VI)*


+ v o - (/*' - 1- / / ) (**; + v O =

(

-
.)

4. ,
,
|1, .
61

0 , , , ,
eiia .
I ,
(
).
, , 4,
.
, , ||.
:
2. || 0,

,
= .
. a = ,
( 0 ). a = a i A & i = ^ 0 .
k /,

e = kai + lb[.
ki It, kU lkt \ (, 0
= 0 lx k~\
k k\ =
h = 0 ;
k ~ 0 / = 0, 0, ),

{- f
, 1,
a = .
, ,
9.
, = dim
3 (
3).

3.
, e(ia
|}.
.
,
.
, 0 0.
a a ) b A b t. a, a it
b, b 1 ^ 3
, . . ,
ku I / ,

ka -j- \ lb
62

/i&i = 0 .

e = k a + k xax= - { l b -j- 1{{).


, || \\. , ,
1 .

5.
(a - f &).
, ,
(6 )

+ = ( + ).

3 2 ,

: 3,
0 , [[ \\\ , 2,
6 , ~ = \
,
a -f- = ( + ),
, +
.
, ..
-}- , .
.

8






. .


+ = " b
.
= ' ' = ' ' ,
0 0. , 1
,

'= ke -f- Id,

' = ' -{- 1',

! { 4*

'=* k[e + 1[,

k l{ //et = 1 k'l[ l ' k\ \.


1 = 0, . e, e' = ke, k=/=0.
(k' ) e + I'b = 0 H k' = k /' = 0 (
).
, h = l[ = ~ \ ,

('.

+ ) =

{ k e , (ki

+ k'i)e + k~l (a + b))*>


=>(, ft(ki + /ti)e + (a + 6))=>(e,

+ 6),

' (' + ') = ( + ).


/ = 0
.
/' = 0

64

(
, , , ).
,
.
/ 0 V 0.

(' + ') ( - - f -^ '


I

= V + Ip + k[e + l[b - j - ( k e + la) - -j- (k'e +


( ^

i L +

^ - ^ e

( r + t ) e ' = 7 {ke + /fl) + T

( k ' e

= ( + *) + ( T + r ) e
( + ') - ( r + r ) ) -

<', ' + ' )

== ((a + fr) + ( j + -yr) e, e~)=>(a + b, e) =s>

=>(a 4- b 4- e, e)

(a 4- b 4~ e, a 4- b) => (e, a + b),

. e.

e' ( ' + ') = ( + ).


,
, ' , .
0, ke, k
(, , , ^ ) .

(, 4- ) = (, ke+ b) => (, ),
. .
=
b , a = 0 a 4- &
,
, .
, a 4~ 0 = , , a 4* 0
.
3

65

,
.
, ,
,
, .. a~j-0 0 + a =
.
, , (6)
0, . .
, , .
,
k
(, ka)=>{ke, ),
,

ka ke .
1. ka =
k ke = A ka.
,
(I)

k { ) ke A ka.

,
.
= 0, ke
a = 0. , a =
.
0, =

0, . . ka = ,
0 ka
' ', . .

' = k xe 4* lxa, ' k2e + l2a,


kil2 l[k2= i. k=0
ke' = k { {ke) + (lxk) a} a' - y {ke) -j- /2,
k xl2 lxk ~ = k xl2 lxk2 \. ,

ke' A ^ ke A a.
k 0 , ,
, 1
.

,
66


, .
,
&
(6) ,
,

.
, (1)

.
(4)
,

),

. ., ,
6 { ).

.
, b 0,
. ,

(
). ,

= 0 . , = ,
.
,

,
.
.
,
:
ie 6 p t jn . iL / ( 0

^
) :

{ -V ) = +
, ,
) :
k{a 6) == ka = kb
, k\
3*

$7

) :

b ( )
\
) :
6= 0
, b
.

,

a ' k a -Y lb ,

' k xa-{~ l(bt

(2)
, ,
1 ,
,
,
.
, , || 6,
A b .
(
, d im T ^ 3 )
, :

?
2. dim ^

.
. 18,
1 ,
. , 7
( = & ~ ):
M + b) = jfe(eA(a + 6)) = e A f e ( a - f &) =
= ka + kb

+ kb.


1, .. ,
, b

(3)
68

( + ) + = + (+ ).

,
, (3) .
, ,
0 0.
3 2 ,

,
= ,
0. , .. (. 2
) , ,
:

(4 + ) + ( + ) 4- = (( + ) 4- ) =
= ( + ( + )) = + { + ) =
+ ( b + ) = + (6 + ).
,
, e}jfb.
b = bi 2. ^ , ejfb
, b 1, 62 . \\
d im ^ = 3, , 1
2 .
:
= ke + kib[ + k-ib-i.
= \ ' = k i{ -j- k%bz- ,
,
||&.
, , .
, ,
= k {b{ - f 2

1[\ 4" l-2b-2-

(. (2))

6 ({ 2) = bbt
&{/2
k\ ^2 [
U h \
, 0,
4- = 4 - - ~1( ) = (

, ,

= = ( - | ) ,
69


(4)

( + ) + = ( -j-c) ( +
,
+ = j ( ) + = (-j- + ) ,

(5)

+ ( + ) = ( + <?) ( + ).

( 6=^=0) *
, (4) (5)
:
( I ) ( + ) ( j + ) ( + )
= ( -

j-c J - ) ( + ) =
=

= 0.

, 6 = 0, ,
= ha. , \\,
, = .
( + ) + = ( ) + ha =
= ( ) + he = ({h + 1) )

II, ,
- + ) = + ( + he ) =
= ((/* + \) ) .
, (3), , 2 *
.
= 1 , ,
. ,
] = 0,
, , dim ( [ ^ !) = 0.
= 2 e\t %
2. (2),
a = a ,e l + '22, b
- f b2elt
70

(6)
,

1 2
' 2 { e2V

# 0, ,
dim (*

*)=1.

, 2 ( )
\, 2
2 \ 2 2 2.
Q, ^

? I

, 2 2,
, .

.


-
, , do
ka0,
do \k\.
, d0 ,
. d0 , ,
, \k\.
(6) :

1. \, 2
, ,
\ 2, ,
,
(1, 2) (1,2),

j ' 2 I
..

U 1 2

{ '2 21\.

,
~ = ,
, .
, ,

(1, 2) {\2),

71

, , ,
, {0,), { \) {2, 2), 1 =
*=*1 * a2 = y i 0 1= 2 , 62 = //2 -
,

{0, 0), (\) {2, 2)

I \
/1 - 1 1
1 *2 *0 2 - ;1
2

'
] 1
*2 2

1
1
1


, , :
0 0 ,
= 0
| &| .
, , .

.

. k.
= 3 ,
2, 3
3. ,

alB\ + 2 + 3,

]\ + 22 + 3

, , ,
,

(23 2) (2 ) +
+ (31 '3) (3 <?,) + (2 21) ({ 2).

:
2 3
(7) 2 63 (2 A )
1 3
1
1 (<? *i) + 6' 2 (<?i 2).

( ,

):
2 <?3 <?
2
1
2

()
6'
2
72

,
, *
(7).
3, } 3 :
dim {3 3) = 3.
. (7) ,
, 2 3, 3 \
2, .
k[, k2 ,

\ (2 ej) + (j ,) +
,

, ,

= 2*1 + kxe2t
-{- pft = 0,

2) = 0.
* 1 =^ 0 ,

b= M i + V s-

(&2 + &) \ + (A^i) 2 + (p&i)

0,

, A/?i = 0 p&i 0, . . = 0
0. ,
, , , 0.
, ,
= ( k2ex- V s ) ( V i h V a )
= *(2 ) + kxk2( {) + k vkz ( 1 ,) =
= k l [ki (e2A ) + k2(3 ,) - f k3 ({ 2)] = 0.
, k\ = 0 , ,
k2 (<? ) - f ki (ej 2) = (k2e3 k3e2) = 0,
, {, 2> 3,
k2 == 0 k3 = 0.
,
2 3, 3 \ e i A e 2
, ,
, ,
.
, },
2, 3 3 2 3, 3 { \ 2
3 3.
(7)
( (8)).
73

, , , I
/, , ( , 2, 3)
0 , , (
2 3, 1} 2),
(9)
1 + + = 0.
, = , Ij|a
, I
. , 1, 2, 3 \ 2,
,

1 2 3
2

( )


, , , .
, ,
,
. (10)
( 6=^=0). ,
,
, . . l\|.
, 1(1, , )
= 6 ,
1

o i)


2 3
2

(9) :
(10)
, , (7),
(12)

__ l a 2 a3 j
~ \ 2 I

\ '

9
.
.-
. ,
.


,
.

= 5$3 ()
, = 3 ^
.
/.

=
s&, 4 ,
,
(1)

A M f||.

= 6 ,
, v ,
(2)

M^M = ua + vb.


. ^ ' ^
, , ,
|| ' = ka.
, , ,
, 2.
, (. 5),
,
75

2 ( ,
, ).
,
. ,
0 0, ,
0 .
0 b

.


(2) v.
1, 0
,
0
,

MQ

=^0.

,
,
,
. No

.

.
, v0 h0 0,
0/ = 0 - f Vqb

= .

,
0 -f vb,

N0M = 0 M qNq= ( 0) a - f {v v0) b ~ u ' (A0a) - f v'b,


ur = T u
,

v/ v v0.
N0M = ' (hod) + v'b,

TO

M0M = JV0M N qM0 = u a - f vb,


'ho + uq v =vf +

,
,
,
76

s i ,

0= 0,

= .

(2)
(3)

= + + vb.


+ , -,
(3), .

.

12 (3)
:
0 + ! + vb1,
(4)
y ~ y o + ua2 + vb2t

= z0 + 3 -f* vb3.

.
(1), . . ( 0),
.
, , (11)
,
,
0, . , ( , y t z)

,
X Z ~ 2
1
1
3
= 0.
(5)
1
2
3
, () ,
0(, , z )

.
(5)
1 3
I 1 2 I
(6)
3 *
L
! 2 I
,
0(*, , 2 ):

( Jo) +

(
77

D = Bijo Cz0,

(7)

+ By + Cz + D = 0.

(6) (12)
, , ,
(7)
( 2 3, \ 2).
, (7).
( , , ) ( 0, 0, 0) , .
, (7), -
(*, , z0),
(, 0,

// = 0, z0= 0 ) , ,
0(*, , <?) (, , ).
,
(7).
, t{l, m, /?)
(7) (, ,
),
(, , ), . . ( (8)
),

(8)

I + + = 0.
, 0(*, , ) ,

\(\, \, Z{) (7) Af0A/1 (


{ , 1 z \
.
, 0 + 0 -f- Cz0 -(-D = 0 \ -|+ \ -|- Cz\ D 0,
({ 0) - ({ 0) + (zi z0) = 0.

(
),

(
).
,
(, , )
0, Mi, 2 M0M i7\M oM 2

.
78

(5) = MQM\ b ~ M 0Mh ,


, Af0(.vo, {/, z0), Mi (.vi, z\)> M2(x2,y 2,z 2),

X 0 ZZo
, Vo Zt Zo = 0.
(9)
2 Vo /2 Z2 Zo
, ,
.
, (9)
0, Mj, 2 ,
( ) (7),
,
.
:

2.
, \ 2
.
MqM\M2.

10
,
.
.
, ,

,

.
.

(1)

Ax + By + Cz + D = 0

,
R .
1. Af* 2,
(1), ( (1)), ,
\% (1).

F (, , z) = + By + Cz + D.
/. M \(x\yy \%Z\) 2(2, , 2)
(1), ( ) Fi =
F {x\,y\}zi) F2 ===: F ('2, ^) ^ 2)
.
,
, \ 2.
80

\2, #

* = 0 t)xi + tx2,
yz=(\ t)y{+

. = (1 /)

1tJ2,

+ /2.

F(x, , z ) 0,
t

(1 /)/=*! 4-//=*2 = ,
,

( F 1 = ^ 2, , . .
[2 ()).
(. G)
, < t <; 1 ,
F 1 F2 .
(I),
.
1 ,


.
2.
,
(I).

, Mj (* \, *i)
2(2, 2, z 2) , (1),
,
\2 , . .
F(xi, / 21) F{x2,y 2tz2) .
.
3.
.,
( ).

, (

). ,
( ).
81

,
. -,
.
2 3 7
0,

/\ ,

/\ .



= 0 + + va,
0 + + vb.
,
(2)
= + 1
(
u = t, = 0). ,
,
.
,
Mi. (2).
c = /V/0Ml ,
. . || || .
|| || ,
.
/ \ 0, ,
, . .
, , .
,
, ,
.
,
, .
, , . .


( , ,
). ,
By -J- Cz -j- D = ,
<3)
, * + , + , + >, = <>
.
,
, , , \ \ ( ) (, , )
82

( {, ,), . .

~->
1
1
1 ,
- .

-

-f- By -}- D = 0 ^ *4* B\ij -f- D\ 0


= 0, =

.
, (0, / 0)
.
(3) , (, , )
(\ { \) , . .

___
| *
*

, Di '

, , (. *
6 ),

Dx

.
, , ,
:
/ (
) .

) ;
) ;
) .
) ,
______ _ _____

__

, ^
'
) ,

_
JL
|
1 ^ \
,

) ,
___ _ __
|
\

D
Dt

83

) ) ,
) .
(
) , (3)
,
.
, ,

, . .
(4)

Ax + By + Cz + D=*Qt
\ + + C\z + D\ = 0.

, , , , \,
1, Cj .
,
, . .
(4).
, (. 5)
(,,),
0 V/, Af0(*o, , <) , a{l,m yn). ,
0

(5)

I/O

Z Z0

. . , , 1
:

. .
( 1 { 0 10) = 0 ,
\ lz ( lzQ) = 0,
84

(4) (
= , I, = = ,
= 0 , Ci = /).
(5)
.

:
2.
,

.
.

\' _

Af|

2 i)

__ 2

.
, .

a(l,m ,n) A/oAJi


Al0Afi (
) .
,
Ali Al0Ali .
.

: , 10 ^
Al0Af. .

~ 2 2
*1 *0 \ 0 2 = 0.
I


.
4.
, a (l,m ,n )
(, , )
.
(. (9) ),
,
(6)

1 + + = 0.
85

2 7 ||
6, = 6 . ,
0
- 0,

(7)

= 0+



(8)

0 + 4-

vb.

(7) (8) ( = t
0), ,
(
),
.
,

0 +
= * + 1,

Z Zq+ In

+ By -j- Cz -j- D = 0.

(9)

(1 + + ) t + (0 + 0 + 0 - f D) 0.

, , . .
(6), (9) /
( t
) (
0 , . . 0 +
-{- BijoA- Czq + D = 0),
( ).
, (9)
+
0 ,
,
.
.
2 (
f ).


86

) ;
) ,
) ^
) ,

1 4- + 0

4 0 4 Cz\> 4 D ,

) ,
1 4 4 ,
) ,
A l A-Cn = Q /4*0 4 0 4 Cz0 4 D 0.
) ) ,
) .

.

(. 6),
, .
,


.
,

(*i, \, 2 i ) ,
2(2, 2, 2),

( )

= /*1 4 ( 2 0 4 v a ,

a { l,m ,n ) ,
2 - \ 2.
2 \ (
),
(10) .
= 0 \ 4 va ,
= 1 r = r2-\~va ,
, ,
.

1
1
!5

*2 " ~
/

( )

22 \

= 0.

,
, , , 87

\ 2
(, ,
MiM2A a ) ,
(10).
.
(
,
). , ,
, ,

(),
.
,

= 4- Hflj + 002,

- /VI ,
| 2 , ,
, ( , ,
= 0 = 0).
,
( )
flj 2.

z 0
/,
m,
= 0,
l2

tn 2

/2, 2 2 { 2,
', , Zq .

ai 2 (
),
. , '

a i A f l 2, . .
, .
|
\ 2, ,

. 2
\2

1, 2 , , \2, 1 2
88

. , ,
, :
*2 *1

2 1

11

Z2 ~ Z l

rti

3 (
) .

) ( )
;
) ;
)
;
) .
) ,

2 1 Z2 Z i \

j J
2 /
; ) ,
(12) ,
; ) ,
(12) ,
, ,
, ) , (12)
.
) ) ,
) ) .
.

(12)

I
\

, 3

. , 2

.

(
) ,
.
,
(
)
.
9

,

.
5 , (
)
.
. ,
5,
(
).
.
, !
= 1, 2, 3.
:
\, . ,

\' . . . ,

( ,
;
; ,
, ,
;
).
,
, ,

(13)

.

,
. (,
90

e nf .)
-
= (*?],

) ' = (<?!',

')>

(13)
:
(14)

' = .


,
,
k ak ka. ,

. , '
()' ().

, . . ,


. .

= [*>
" = '',

'
, . . . ,

% " (, . . . , "), ,
( ) '= ('),

" = (').
,
. . . , , . . . ,
, . . . , ' , . . . ert",
'

, . . . , ,

: el., = c |,e i ^[1.,,
ej. = c;(e',e() = (c ;e.)e
, " , ' = ,
, . . ' ~
, . . . ,
- ,
en'f ~{

ev , . . . .

,
"1 1' (. .
).
"1 ,
.
, , ,


... ( )
,
', .., ,
, . . . , ,
(13), .
, (

, ,
).

11


. .

.
, .
.

,
. . . , ?, . . . \
\ . . .
* .

x = xieh
, ' *, -

(I)


eVy . . . , >

= 1'.

( 2)

,
(3 )

* = * '' (!'.) = (*'<v) , = (| * 0


, ,
(4)

'- '',

. .

} \,1' + . . . + 1'\
X tl

= cnvxv + . . . + ,\

, (3)

> . . . .
93

(4), , !, . . . :*
\ . . . , \ ,
,
.
, (3)
, ( 4)
.
,
.

1' ~ [1.
, ,
.
-1
: ,
,
( ).
( ,
, *
, )
(
).
(4) (
)
.
, - ~ { ^ . .. )
(. ), -

(1) :


( ,
, ). , (2)

V ,
94

e' = (er > . . )

' =
(. (14) ),
() ' (')
, ,
(5)
= ',
(4) (
,
(5)
).

.
, \ . . .
i ... :
- ,
elt . . . , . ,
... O'er

',
\ ... . . .

.
,
,
. . j . . . O'e t . . . .

= + (,
\ . . '\ . . . , '

x l ~ x ' 1+ bl, i = 1, . . . , ,
1, . . . , ( , . . . , )
'.
, ,
. , \ . . . ,
95

i . . . ,
1', . . . , ' *
' ... .,
(6)
1 c\,xv + bl,
(cj/) ev . . .

, . . . , ens [, , . '
. . . , .
(5) :
X c\,xv

1,'

1,

...

= * +

...

+ '' + \

:
(7)
' + ,
b -


,

( ),
(
) ( ).
,
, [<
R.
1, . . . , , . . . , >
,

:
detC>0.
del < , .
i . . .
' . . . '
( ), (96

) \%. . . . ev, , . *
.

(..
),
( )
.
2. (
)
( S4-).
, :
( ),
, , .
, ,
.
( )
.

......... \, ... ,

.
. \ (
*) *,
a i, . . . , ( b . . .
). , , , ,
___
ai, . . . , . 1
\, . . . ,
,
* .
3. ( )
,
.
,
. , (
), () ,
(),
( ), ()
,

().
,
()
.
, (,
),
4

97

,
.

,
. (
,
),
(
). ,

( ) :



.
,


.



(
),
,


.
,
,

.

( , - ).
, , :
.
,

, .

,
.
,
, ,
,
9

.

;
.
,

,
(
).
.

( 2)

(
1)
.
, , ,
.
4. ,
d
,
,
.

.
,
.
,
d (, , ).
,
, . . No,
5. , No,
, ,
.
, , ,
. . , No,
. . ,
Mi d M\N

= 4- +

m"i&, =

, , NoN\ d~ M o M \.
, No Ari
d.
4*

99

d.
, ,
rii
:
I = /ifl + In.

d (, ,
1 0 ). , , \
d,
, I > 0. ,
M0^ d - 0
, Afi d -j- 1\ In.
, [ In.
iV0 N ^
[ = Af^Vj,
o~f- tn
/ = 1 / = / /, , ,
N qN i
1 ^ t ^ /.
, 10 (

d)
t = 0. , N0 N i
d,
/ > 0.
d
( ),
at ka
, k > 0.
d (
) (
). , .
, ,
,

d. , \ \
, ,
,
\ ha + /,
100

,* k > / > 0

k /,
/ = kl > 0.

, :
) d ,
) d,
)
.
, ,
.
( )
( ),
() ( ),
, ,
.
, .
,
.
6.
.
,
,
5.


.
,
,
,
. ,
.

, ,
.
, ,
,

, .
.
, ( )
.
{2
( , UI

*2 ). *
,
(8)
+ + =
, ,
( , ) - f By -j- > 0.
, ( ,
),
.
(8)
( ) ,

.
,
(8) (, ). >
, = MQN0, 0(*, ) (8),
, 0 - f N0

A fvo + )

{ + )

= 2 + 8 + (. + By + ) = 2 + 2 > 0.
, (8)
( , ).
,
]
I = 2 + 2 > 0.

.

7. ,
,
,
.
, ,
,
1)
0 ,
No, = MqN ,
. . ;
, ;
2) a -J- In, ,
,
, , I > 0;
102

3)

:
) ,
) ,
)
.
,
, , ,
, ,
, , .
a\ k {a -j- kiby

\ = k\U -j- kob


, 6 ,
[ = l\CL -j- 1> -j- l i t

, , ,
, b, b \ ,

*1 < *1
ft. *2 h
0 0 l

kt k\

, ,
*. k\

>0

/>0.

*2 ^2
, ,
, by , .
,
( ) .
,
(
)
.
, ,
, ,
,, .

\2^ .

-J- By

Cz

( + By -f Cz + D > 0 ).
,
(9)

.
,
, ,
(2). (9)
,
, ,
,

()

1 2

1 2

63 > 0 ,

\ 2, 3 \ 2, .
(
.)
, b
. ,
1 7 ,
fl| \ , , b

2, , .


. ,
,
,


.
(12) 9
,
(9), [ 6, . .

(10), , ,
.
(10) 2 4- 2 + 2 , ,
. ,
(9)
(, , ).

12
11 . ,

.

,
,
.

( ,
) ,
.
,
- .
/> a(f) ,
.
, 0 ^ ^ 1.
\, . . . , t ^ a ( t )

(1)

1(0, . . . . (/)

( / ) , .
1. t\- ^ a ( t)
, (1) .
(1)

.
, 1 .
2.

(2)

(I)

(/),
105

0 ^ ^ 1, /
(2) .
,.........
,,
,

(,

, (/),

,{0) = 1.........

(0) =

Oi(l) = 6...........,1(\) = .
,
.

1.
.
. ,
Ai, . . . ,

ai (/) <*!

an (t) = an

, , ,
. ,
, (, . . . . an(t)

6,(0 = 1(1- , * 0 = 1 - 0
, 6, =
fli (1), . . . , bn = (1) , = , (0 ).........
= (0). ,
......... an(t) 6, ( 0 . . . , bn{t),
, \ (1) = 6, (0), . . .
. . . , { 1) =
(0),
/(2/),

6^(2/ 1),

0 < /< ,

Ci (/) =

/=1,

-^</<1,

, , =
= , (0), . . . , == , (0) , = 6, (1), . . . . =
= 1).
,
. , ( / )
[ = , ( 0 ) , . . . , =
= (0) (0* , (/)

/, 0 ^
106

/ (0) = 1 . , (/)=^=0
1. ,

,
. ( 1 ) > 0 , ,
, & i = f l 1( l ) , . . . , bn = an(i)
f li,
, .


= 1 (.. ).
, 1
,
. b ,
. . ik\ b . ,
, 6 > 0.
(3)

(/) = ( 1 + / ( - 1 ) )

= {0) 6 =
= (1), > 0, 1 + / ( 1)
1 .
, \
.
> 1,
, ,
.

3. . . . ,
(
). ,
,
/,
(1), ,


--, (2).

(1):
(
(2):

. . . , afl) =>-(! + ka>, >, . . . . ,{),

( 1( , . . . , )= > { } . j 2, . . . ,

fl).

2
1 7.
a]t . . . , ,
\, . . . , . 6,, . . .
, ,
, /?,
107

, , %,
-|-- (
k X)
,
. . . , .

( (1)
(2) ).
4. ( )
,
.

1.
.
.
'.
, '
k = , , ,

. ,
,
,
, , ,

, .
(
Ci)
,
,
. ,
, ,
- .
( )
,

,
, (

, , ).
, ,

.
108

, 7 (. (4)
7) (,
, ,
, ),

( )
()
. , , 1.
,
(1).

2.

6 = det .
. 1 .

]2 . . . det 0. ( *
,
.)
1 (2),

2, 3, . . . ,
. ,
.
2 :
3. ,
,
(, . . . ,
\......... ,
(4 )

1= 6flj,

62 = 2, . . . , .


, ,
.
109

, 1
fli, . . . , \, . . . , ,
. , , ,
6] = + 2,

2, . . . , = ,

fli (/) = flj - f kia2, a2(/) = a >, . . . , an (/) = an,


b\ = |,

b2 y fl^

= bn = flfj,

> 0, \ 2
, = 1 (.
(3)). , = 1 (
) ,

{ (/) = (cos nl) fli (sin nt) A),
a>(0 = (sin /) fl! -|- (cos nt) a2,
3 (0 = ......... an {l) = an.

1. , .
. ,
, .
3

. . . , &i,
bh, (4),
> 0. > 0, fli \
(3). ,
.
,
.

4 .
,
,
, .
, ,
.
.
110

,
(
-
).
= 2 4 ( ,
. . , )
2 7.
m-
tn-,
-,
m-
.
- (.. I 7),
:
5.
,

.

, ,
. a i,
,
b j, . . . bm

1= !1 + +
= %
'
5,
,
*\ 4-1 *. . . 4-1
nrffl'

. . . , 1
\,
, ,.
:
det = 1,
. . . , \, . . . , -

.
, 3

. <|> ltl

, = 2
1 7:
2.


, 4
(
) , ..
-.
.
, ,
. ,
,
(
),
,
. , 3

( 6 = 1 ) , , .
2- ()
7 8. 3-
( ).

.
(,
, )
, k ,

1 .
,
,

.

.
, (, , )}
.
,
, 0.
, 0 ,

, .
2
( 1 7):
2

3. '/ 0,
A h A c i = a A c
& ,

-{- 1\ -}- iH\C ,


&1 = koCl + /26 +
=

cj =

k \d

- +

+ /7?3 ,

h h
h h
m1 m2
( )
, -

.
, .
,

, .. ()
. ,
,
)
;
) .
,
,
, , ( (2) ,
(1) ,

), (,
, ) (
(, , )
). ,
, .
,
) ).
,
,
3.
(, ,
, ) ( ,
, ) (6, , ), ,

) ). <,
, = 1. ,
(

) .
3 ,
6 ^ 0 k ^ O

(5)

= =

di

{ ,

{ 6, ci = ka .
, ,
= 0 = 0.
:
6. 2 =
(5).
31.
,

k ( ) k a A b / \ c = a A k b A c = a A b A k c .

(
, ,
), , }
.
, ,
.
7.
~
. ,
( ) =--= .

:

( ) = .
, ,

:

( ) = ( ).
114

(7)
.
/\ .\/\ .. (. 1
7; , ,
/\ )
, = ka + /6,

\k kx __ t
Il h
k *1 0
1 h 0
0 0


] &1 A c = a A b A c .
, 6 | Ct = 6
,
A ci = 6 .
,
'
( ) . ,

b f\ / \ = ^ ( / \ ) /\

/\) f \ c ~ / \ /\ .

13
.

.-

.

. .
.
.
. -
.
. -
.


. ,
,
, ^ 4 (
, / ^ ) .
= 4
^ 3.
^ 2
, ^ 2 ,
, . ( ^ 3
m- m > 3.)
= 3.
, , \

(1)
,
6, b,
Ci
, (. 6
),
(2)
, &! A ci = ( 6 ).
, 3
,
6

(1),
.
(2) ( ) , ,
\
.
, (2), ,
I, .
, ( ),

eiy 2, 3
, b ,
1 2
' 2 3 (*i 2 6),
/\ /\ ( 3)
!

/.2

3 i

\ 2, 3, \ 2, , 1, 2, 3
, , \, 2, 3 (. (6) 8).
, , ,
% 0,
St
2t = St0,
k (, )
.

1. 3t = 2to
83 /Sto
91 + S3 = (* + /)*<>.
51 = 1, ?. 0,

23 = - (0'.

( - + - ) 91, , (k + /)St0, , 1
.
,

/ \
1.
- ,
Sto , k%
k 0 \k\. , (3),
,
\ 2, 3, , 117

1 2 3

1 2 63 ,
1 2 3
>
,
> >
^2, -



\k\ k,

= k%.
k
.

,
1 11,


.
,
- .
b (>)
.

, .
2n-f
: < 2 <,
.

ab = ab cos ,

(4)

b b ,
ab
2. ab, (4),
.
= 0 6 0, , , = 0.
, \^ ':.
, :

ab
.
118

, , , ..
(5)

k (ab) (ka) b a (kb)

a, b k.
, 0 6 0, k (5)
. 0, b 0 0,
ka \k\a, ka b
6, k > 0,
, k < 0.
k cos = | k\ cos ,
, ,

(ka) b ( \k \a ) b cos =
= a b (\k \ cos ) abk cos =
= k (ab cos ) = k (ab).
a(kb) k(ab)
(

).

,

. , = 0 = ,
,

! 1,
2 = (
), , ,

cos

ab

5 V 2

, ,

2 ^ 0 , 2 = 0
, 0.

.
:
2 = 2 + 2 2ab cos
119

( - ) 2= < + 1-2 ,
, , .
6 b , ( ) =
= ,

( - )2 2 + 24- 2ab,
, ,

( + 4- )2 ( + (6 + ))2 = 2 4- (6 4- )2 4- 2 ( 4- )=*
= 2 4- 2 4- 2 4- 26 + 2 (6 + ),
( + + )2 = (( + 6 )4 - )2- ( 4 - 6 ) 2 4 - 24 -2 ( 4 -& ) =
== 2 4- 62 4- ? 4- 24- 2 ( 4- 6) ,
,
(6 + ) ( 4- 6) = .
, ,

(6 4~ ) 4- (6 ) 26.
,
,
- ( 6) ~ ( ) ,

>

2 ( - ^ ) = (6 + ),
,

(6 4- ) = 4- ,
..
(
a, bi^ a b
) .
, ,

.
120

(
R ).
3. *
, ^
,
(
):
12 ( ) .

, > ^
(-\-) = -\~ .
g

13 ( ) . , 6
F h k

k (ab) (ka) b a (kb).


14 ( ) .

,<=
ab ba.
15 ( ) .
^
2> 0.
ab
.
. ab ,
, , .
ab (, ).
.

4. T t

a, b ^ * a b ,
, . (

,
, .)
( )



(..
).
,
, .
,
121


( )
12 15.

( | |, ||||)

| | = 2

(6)

( : | \ /(, }),
b

(
2).

| 0 11

_____
]

|= |

, | = -

(7),
b
. (

, 0 ^ ^ ,
. )
15 ,
(6)
| |,
. | | > 0 , 0, | | = 0 ,
0 (
13 6 = 0).
(7).
,
, ..

|aft|<|a| | H
, ,
(8)
122

(6)2< 2.

}(t) = (a + tb f
t. 15
t / ( / ) ^ 0 . ;ipvro"i
,
/ (/) 2 -{-21 () + ,
,

, (
)
. (ab ) 2
22, (8).
b , (8)
. , (ab)2= a 2b2, ,
,
/(/) = 0 , /0
. + / & ~ 0.
,
.
0 ,
,

(
), ( ).
^ ,
| + |2= ( + )2= 2 + 2 + 2<
< | , * + 2 | ; . | & - ! | 2= ( | - ! 6 ' ) 2
, ,
1 +

= { + )1= 2 + 2 + 2>
> ; 2 1 ! | ^ i + 12 = ( ! I I * I)2.

,
(9)

I; a - . f t l K l n + b K l a l + lftl.
123

ABC ,
= , + (9)
:
11 | - 1 11<| |< \ | + 1 |
(
).
(9) *
.

. ,

. .

. =
, , =
= a - f b b .
I |2 + \ |2= ( e + b f + {)2
2 (a2 - f 62) = 2 (| A j2 + I |2) =
= | |2 + ! |2 + | |2 - |2,
. .

.
5.
, ab
:

= 0.
0 0 ,
b - .
b ,
(10)
( + *)2 = 2 + & 2.
, b , =*,
:
| |2 = | |2 + |
( ).
(10)
,

14

.
.
.

.
.

. -

. . -


.
. . .
,

== \
= ', + . . .

= (',)

(y'ej)= (<>,

. .

xy = gi,xiyl,

0)

( 2)

gij = elejf

i, / = 1,

.
125

,
(3)

gii = gii i, / = 1 , . . . .
= 1 (1)

gn = e,e,\
= 2

xy =

g l \ X ]y 1 +

* = * >

g l2x ' t f +
=

g 2iX ?lj' - f g

22X2y 2 =

g i 2 {X l y 2 +

g u x 'y 14

* ) 4

22x

811 = 61*1*
g

12 ^21 6 l e 2>
g22 ~

e 2e 2\

n = 3
xy ~

g n * 1//1 +
4
=

g l 2x l l f +

* 4

ffn * V 4

g u x 'y 3 4

g s i^ V 4

ffaa x V

i2 ( a4 / 2 4
4

21*

) 4

g 22X2y 2 +

4
13(

22X2( f

* =
x lt f 4

g23 ( x 2y 3 4

a;3#

1) 4

x ? y 2) 4

* ,

8 ~ 1 \*
g l2

g \ 2 g2\ ~

^1^2.

f3 = 31 =s= *1*3*

= e2e2* 23 32 ~ 23

&23


:
= < g n X iy i 4
i

Z g t ! ( 1 1 4
i< i

* ).

i 1
, j 1 ,
i < /.
(1)
. , 11,
V
-

G -
\\ . . .
#2 . . .

g 1
gm

. rtl *

126

xTGy,
= ( 1,
) (
).
1X1. . .
. , ,

(5)

g ,ix ij',

. . (1). ,

= .

(6)

2= g, jXlx] = gu (1)2 4 -2 gl}xlx 1= xTGx


t
/
, , 1
(7)

*2 = (*')2,

= 2

~ = gu ( )2 4- 2

g 22 (X2)2

3
*2 = g u (' +

2+ 2i>nx ,x3 +
+ * 1)2 +

(1)
(
(5))
'1, . . . , \ . . . , ,
.
,
(5) . (5),
(3),

.
i/1= , . . .
(. (7))
\
, ..
, . ,

(.. g.,).
127

15 (7)
,
g t i > ,
(-1,
)=(0, . . . , 0).
(
) .
, (1)
( (6)) ,

,

.
, :
/.
, \ .. . glfxy '
,

\

1,
. (1)
.
.
( 12 13) :

' = 8 , { + *2'.

( + 1)

g,/(')

1=

( 14)
:
'' =
gi.y'x= ' = g,lX
,
, ,
;
:

gjiX}yl gaiXayi ( j ),
g a i^ y 1 ( i /),
gtfxtyf ( /).
, ( 15)
, ,
gtJxlys.
, ,

, . .
.
128

1. g 4xly} ( > gt/xlxl)


.
,
g ,, .

gt) oi .
, ,

gii > 0
= 1,
gn > 0

2,

i = 1, . . .

g,i.
, , ,
.
gu > 0.

(x'Y + 2 g l2x'x2 - f g22{x2f =

,
, g w g u
?> > 0. ,

g\2 = g2\,


,
11 | q
gu > 0,
21 2 2 I

gu > 0,

12

21

= 3

|3

21

-2

23

31

32

gu

22

> 0.

.

\, . . . , . ,
.
.
5

129

>

;1 ,


, = ({,) e[t ...
........ . , O' (gu)
eh . . . .

= '

~ = xTGx.

*2 = (')

(') =

'1 ( c t gc ) '.

, G' = (gr / ) , . . . , '

( = CTGC.

(8)
,
(9)

Sit.=

c [,c lr g i r

2. \, . . . ,
,
) ;
) ,
. .
1, i ~ /,
, / j.
3. .
.

\ = \, . . . . .

, , , .
jci 0,
= 0 , * = 0 ,
\.
. .
2 ( ) .
\, . . . . , ,

- '1 +
130

' = \ . . . xmem
elt . . . , , (. .
elt
em
).
. ,

0 < | * ' = '2=

m ?

(X^i) "{

i-1

S X(Xj

m
= 2 ~ 2 ] +
1= 1

**
I ! \

i =-1

i=l

et (x

&iX -

= 0

t=* 1, . . . , /.
, (
) ,
.
4.
,

.
3. \ . . . , :
1) ;
2) ;
3) ;
4)

I- *. ,

. . . , \
5)
()
= *\ \+
+ \
6)
=

. . . + 2*

. . .
.
1)
=^>2).
\ 0,
= 0, , 5*

131

.
2 ) ) .
e]t . . . , , 1
'
.
3 ) =>4). x = kie\-{- . . . + knen,
Xt

XSi

ki

(*,,) = ,.

4 ) =>5). x YuXiei - * //* ? /,

* 0 = (X

( X , ^

X X Xiijf (^/) = X .

5 ) =>6). (10) .
6)
=>1). ^, . . . ,

,
l = * 2 = .v?+ . . . 4 - ^ =
, . . . , ,
\,
.
(10) .
. , xt = ki (.
3)~^>4)), }, . . . , (
) x ~ k \ e \ - \ - . . . -f- knen-
= 0, xi 0 ki = 0. ,

.
5.
, , .
3,
,
, ,
, ( n = dim^,
). ^
-
( 4) 3).
132



, , .

.Vi,
.

i\,
i ( = 2
i, /, 3 *, /, ).
6. \ . . .
,
, ,
( ,

) .
(
) .

.
,
G
.
:

xy = Xiy{+ . . . -]
=
i

... +*,
i

+ *

[AB\==^/{yl x l)2 + . . . +{
(* . . . , .

) . .

.
( d im ^ > 0) '
3.
, ,
---,
= -j - ( ,
), . .
, . 133

,
.
( )
= d i m F ,
, . . .
,

. , G

(. . , x r Gx
).
(, ?<") [} . . . , >
, x y = ^ x T Gy
, ^ (. 1), . .
G
\, . . . . .
i\, ..., i n. i\, ..., i n eit ..., .
, , G =
= ,
i 1, . . . , i,h . .
. ,
, i 1, ..., i n
\,
., - , i\, ..., i n
. G
(, ,
)

= Cr . , G


,
,
G = .

(11)


, ,
G .
,

i\
in.

....

134

.
, ,
\, . . . .
. 0 ^ k ^ . . . . ,
k,
eit . . . , .
0,
, ,
, .

\, . . . , ,
k < ,
k + 1
, +\>

ek+i = ek+\

x\ev

xkek>

xit .. . Xk = ek+\

( 6 = 0, , ).
, .
(. 2), ' +1
\, . . . . .

, . . . ,
, ,
+1.
,

. ,

(11), ,

G
(11) .
,

. ,
,
.
135

, , ^

( ) .
7. '
. q>: -+ '
,
(. I 5) ,
, , . .
(*) () =
E f .

,

.

1.
.

.
. ,

:
=

+ .

R"
,
, . .
= ( \ , . . . , ) ~ { \ , ... ) ,
,

= |/1 -f . . . 4-.
ii,
in

-R"
.

, , .
,
.
8.

.
136


,
,

(12)

, (12)

( +

+ c2lC2j +

1,
,

-{

i = J,
i /,

/ ,/ = 1,
i ^ /, ,

() " (
,

) .
(12)

~'=,

= .
,

1,

/ /,

i+ U

\ / = 1 , .
, . .
.
,
:

4.
, (
) :
) =
;
) ;
) - ' = ;
) = ;
) .
137

)
, det 1 = d e tC ,
(det )2= 1,
. .
detC=*= 1.
,
+ 1 .
9.
( ), det = 1.
, , (
) ,
( )
(
) (, Cj C\ C j 2 ,
(,2) (,2) = c j (Cj,)2= c l c , = ).
,

(
)

.
() (
SO ( )).
1 = ()
, , cooi
, = 1. , 0 ( 1 )
1 , S 0 ( 1 ) :
(1) {1, - 1 } ,

SO (1) = {1}.

2 :
2 _L 2 = 1
HlCl2 + ^21^22= ,

+ ~22= 1
,
| 3 ,
\\ = cos ,
-21 sin ,

12= cos ,

22 = sin ,


cos a cos + sin sin ,
138

. .
cos ( ) = 0.
, = +

-^-> = + -^ . .

/ cos
\ sin

sin \
cos /

/ cos
sin

sin \
cos /

,
.
, ,


cos
sin

sin \
cos /

, i,
/ i', /
i' cos i + sin /,
/" = sin i -j- cos /,
a x, x \ '

= cos ' sin ',


sin ' - cos '.
i'i = c o sa , / = s in a |<| = | i ' | = l , ,

i, j
.

,
.

(
; . (7) 11):

- ( b
). , = 2 (
)

cos sin ' + *


= sin :' + cos ' + /,

,
{,) '
.

15

.

.
. ,

. .
.-
.-

. .

.

()
,
, .
, .

(). ,

i, /, k.
i \ j', k' i> /, k
.
+ 1, ,
(. (2) 13),
i' /' k' i j A k .
, f y i A j A k
, /, k> . .
141

(
).
210 0, 21

= ,
.
1. (
) 21,
\\ 21.

1 ,
21. ,
(. . 1)
. , ,


.
2.
( )
, , abc.
(3) 13, +
- a2j + , b = b\i -j- b2j + c c\i -J- c2j -J- ,
(1)

ai 2 3
abc , 2
% ^3

,

.
,
, , :
( ), (
), (
) ( ,
).
,
. ,
,
.
, ( !)
(
- ) ( *
142

),
.
,
, .
= 6
( ).
^ - ,
, , , .

.
, . . ,
,

(2)

= (<?} 2),

\,2 , > 0.
(2) ( 0) = 0.
, (2)
^ 0 .
,

(1 2) = ' ([ <?'),
>> 0, ' >> 0, ev 2 e'v ,'
, ,
'\ = k (a e {) + 1,

2 k' ([t) -j- l'e 2,

(,

143

ala' 1 .
, ' . ', , . ' = .
3. (2)
.

,
,

( )

,

() .
,
(
,


) , , .
, ,
\, 2
3,


<?2, 3.
,
, \%2, , ,
( 3 ),
, 3,
2, 3 .
,
3 . ,
\, 2, 3 ,
3 .

'3= + 2 + ^,
\ 2
et, 2, '

144

2, 3
ei> 2> , ,
, = 0 = I.
3.
4. , ~
(2), , 1,

a-i =
3 , 2, 3

.

, , ,
, ev 3 ', ' 3
, \ ' { 2,
^
*2 h \
h h j
m2 J

2, [,
e'v ' ,

k] + k2 + kl = 1,

kx *2 *3
h /2 h
/, /W2 mz

/? + /* + / = 1 ,
m\ + m] + ml = 1

, \ f \ e \ ~ e vf \ e v

\ 0,

2 =

t k x k2\
h)

Wi

(, ) . ,

k\ -j- k\ = 1,

If+ 1

I *1 *2 I _ 1
I /| h I
145

,
63 = 0, / = 0 3 = 1. , ' = 3.

5. b
,
:
X &= ( &^
abc.
/. , ,


abc ( X ) .
. ~ 0
. 0. &

b 0
= a (*i 2),
a > 0, a ei, 2 .

, , ,

= 1
= \\ -f- b2e2.
, 2(\ 2) .
= 2 , , X &= \2, 3 ,
>2
{, 2, 3.
,
= \{ -f- 22 -J { ) = 2^ ,

abc

*1

^2
0

^2

= a\b2c$.

*3

, ( a Xb ) c = abc.

2.
, . .
( + ) =
, ,
146

.
. , *
,

( X ( 4- )) = ( + ) = abx + =
e t, 2, ^,
,
flX(& + c)
f lX c . ,
.

.
,
. .
( + ) = -1 +


2.

3.
, . .
k(aXb)=-kaXb^aXkb,
b
k .
.

(. 2).

.
. k


(ka)-1 = &
,
. , = (i 2)
ttx } ka = ka(e . 2) k ^ 0 (ka ) =
= kae^ ka J . k < 0 , ka = \ k \(2 3)
(ka)1 \ k\a(-~ei ) kae2~ kaL,
2, ~~
.
3
(
2, -, ).
147

1. ^
.
.
2 3 ,
1
, . .
, !- .
, . . = 3,
3~~ 1 ( ,
0, , = 0). , , \
2 , ^2, 3

( ), =
( \ 2). , , - = .
.
,
, , ev , 3 ', ', 3 '~ 3
[ \ = , 2.
. , 3 = 3,
2, 3 \ '2> 3


\ + 1-- 1 = 1,
, j = 0 2~ 0.
< = V i +
2 = kA + l-A>

, [ '2= 2.

. , . . X
X 0 , ~
.
148

, 1


.
,
i, /, k

*) =

I,(kM)x = j,

/)"*=

. .
/ * = <\

* /\

* X / = fe.

(. (8) 8),

= j* + a2j

ask

b = b j -f b2j -j- bjk

aXb =

k
.

, <, /, k
,
().
| & |
5 ,
.
2 3 I2
j +

:= 2

Oi I2
I

& I +

la, 2 I2


( )
.
, .

0.
, ,
0, . .

(3)

= ,
149

, 40.
, (3)

( 0) + ( t/) = ,
, , , *,
0.
, .

.
(4)

+ + *=

( )
(, ), .
( 1), . . A2 -j- 2 = 1,
^ , (4)
.

(5)

cos + sin = ,

i
. (4) (5),
/ 2- )-# 2, ^ ,
/ 2 + 2,
- (, )
(cos a, sin ) , (5)
:
(6)

= 0.

6.
, .
/ ,
(6)
( ,
), (6). d ~ \ N M \
NM (6).
, ,
nNM = ( s ), 5
- N. N
(6), ns . ,
(7)
150

d = | nr | = | jcc o s + sin |.

,
.
0 ? - (, ,
d ) ,
,
0.
,

- . (. 13),

,
, .
0 ^ ^ (
-),
(
) .
(
)
(8)

-(- By -j- = : 0

\ -(- \ -{- ==: 0.


(, ) ( i) (
,
; . 12). ,
(9)

COS =

, 4 - ,

2 + *

:.

\ + \

0 ^ <
. A A i - j - B B i ^ O ,
\ +
< 0 \ + \ = 0.
, , (8)

,
AAt + BBi + 0.
,
- 0 ^ < ,
, + ^
(, ) \{ {).
151

cos (cp +
= sin , ,

( )

sin

, - , ______

's! A2-f 2aJ

+ \

(9) (10) ,
< ( < .

-
.
,
- ,
, ,
. ,

, ,

( )

tg = , +

0 ^ < .
,

(12)

y ~ k x - \ - b

y k \X -\-b v

()

kx k

tg<P

1 + kkx

, , (12)

1
,

( k

> \ , t

k u

kk\

t
1.

16
.
.
,
, .-

.-
.

.


.
(, , )
(, , z ) ,

\ = ,
0(*, , <0) ,

{ 0) + ( 0) -\-C{z zo) = 0.
, .
, ,
.

.

(0

Ax + By + C z + D = 0

( )
(, , ), .
153

, . . 2 + 2 + 2 = 1, D ^ ,
(1)
.

cos .

(2)

cos + 2 cos 0,

, (3,
i, /, k, ^ 0. ( 1) (2),
2 + 2 + 2, D < 0
2+ 2 + 2, D > 0 .
(2)
(3)
= 0.

L
(3), . N ,
.
(3), . d ||
NM
(3).
,
, ,
(3)

d = \ \,
- .



.
,
, .
,
. ,
Ax + By + Cz + D = 0

A tf + B tf + Ctf + D ^ 0

(. .
/2),
| + 1 + , = 0.
,

-j- -*
154

(/, , ) ( , , ),
,
,
,
1+

________

S in

__________

+ 2 + 2 /2 _|_

+ * *

, ,
,

Al -f- -}- Cw = 0.
,
(
(/, , ) , mi, /ii))>

_____
COS = 7 -

Hi + //! + 1
----- ,

/2 + w2 4- 2

f+ n f


.
= 0 + /
( )
( ,
0(0)
--->
) . d

.
, ,
N, NM
, . . NM
. d >
NM, ..

NM = delt
\ , ,

-- >
NM ad ({ 2)
2 ~*.1 .
2 (. . 155

. ), , | | =
= ad, . .
d= l|AWXe!.
, N , - s 0 -f* / },
t\ . NM (r0-M ia)
= ( ) t\a, , ,

NM = ( 0) X .
,

d ^ 1 1(** r) X !>
, ,
I

rf2

2 *o I2 I ] *0

I ' I

2 0 I2 I j X ~ *0 |2


(4)
r = = r 0 + sa,

r = r t + /6

,
( ).
,

(s0l to), N0N],


0~ + s0a,
~ \
t0b,
(4).
, NoNj
\ 0 ( r i 0) + tob Soa,

No(rto)

(4),
(nj 0) = 0 ([ ) 0, . .
(! 0) + toba s0ar = 0,
(ri ) 6 - / 0&2 S0ab 0.
,
s<),

1 ( 0)
1 (. -
1 ab j
2 1
156

I * (, ) I
1 (, 0) 1
*

1 1

( , b
.)
iV0iVi
, / =| 0^|
N$N\ .
d , ,
, 0 0 sa
\ = | + tb
I 40/j | > | N0N \ !,

0 '0
\ ~ N\. ,
| //[ = (({ ) - tb sa)2
{[(^1 0) + t0b s0a] + (t t0)b (s So) a}2=
= (([ ) + (/ to)b (s s0) a)2
= (/Ii )2 4* [(/ / 0) b (s So) a]2,
(! ) = 0 { \ ~ 0) 6 = 0 ( ).

\M0Mi ? > ( n , - n o f = \NoNx|2,


s = s0, t
= / 0.
,

---\ 0 Mi
(4),
M0Mj
. s = 0, / = 0

( 1 r0)ab, s = so t to N qN\ (aX&)


=
d b |iV o iV i I I a X |
( N qN i a X &
). ,
I ( r i ) |

X1 \ ~
/

\
h

(5)
V i;,

+ 1'
1

"

| *1

*
1
N2

I2
\ 1
157


/, , ,
/ 1,

', /, 2 0 - 0,
/ Zi - rt.
, (5)

* * 0 __

1W

__ z 2o

*1

/,

___t/ / l ___ 2 ,

iVoNi -
N0 N qN\.

.

0 0+
i
(, )
( )

(1

1
1

-(1 - / )
2

ib
ab
b2

ab I
2 1


: ,
M q ( x q , , Z q)
NoNi (, ,
( ) ) , ,
Mi (jfi, yi, z\) b
(> ), . .

17
. . -


. -


,
. ,
,
.

1.
,
, ,

(1)

2= 2,

>0.

,
, ,
.

,
, .

,
, (, )
.
,
.
:
, , ,
159

. ,
( ),
() .

,
. ,
1 :
,
*, > ,
(,)
, 2 =
= 2.

1
,
,
(1)

.
(
(1) ).
(
*-/2

).
< 0 , (1),
. ,
^ 0.
0 (I)
0 ( 0 , 0 ) , .
,

\ 1 _ /2

VX
, -> -+ . , ,
,
,
. ,
,
,
160

( |^ |- > + , -*
-(-).
,
,
- : ,
. ,

:
, ,
.
(
, ,
).
, ,
(.. )}
.
,
,
, (. . -
) . :
, ,
- j ,
,

= , .
,
,
) ,
. ,
_____________
(,

|*+1| = /(*-1)2+'

( 1), , , 2 =
2, , , .

2.
,
, ,
6

161

(2)

- + - = 1,

>>0.

,
( 2 ) , ( ),
( 2 )
.
=

(3)

2= 2,

, ,
0 ( 0 ,0 ) . ,

.
b <
( 2 ) (3),
k = .
, ~*~ (3),
, ky
" I {k y 2)) _
( 2 )
(
' >2 ~~
_ *2 + 2 _= 1^ .
, (2)

(, k y) ,
(3) (, )

k. ,
( k <. 1), ,
( , 0 ), (2 )
(3).
= ,
0 ( 0 ,0 ) , .
( 2 ) ,

. ,
0 (0 , 0 ) .
, b <
. ,

.

162

0 ( 0 , 0 ) , ,
(3).
(3) ( 2 ),
, , (d=a, 0).
,

(, 0 )
(-, 0 ), .

,
.
, b <
,
. .
.
b <Z ,
,
(
),
.
:
, ,
b , ;
'/2 2

;
2, ;
()
(, 0 ^ < 1);
= ,
( );
, ( )
;
, ;
0 (0 , 0 ), ;
( , 0 ) (0 , ), ;
(ztc, 0 ), ;
=

/l

=^ 0 x = * .-j,

.
(, 0 )

, ( , 0 ) ~ .
,
6*

163

. ,

, ()
() ()
.
b ~ , 0, = 0, = ,
, .
, ( , )
, .
.
\

r? = (* + < f + ^ = (* + <0*+ ft2 ( l - - ) =


= (l

')

2 +

2 + 2 + ? =

? + 2 +

22 - f 2 - f a 2 (ex + a)2.
\\ ^ , , \\ < , ,

, = a - f ex.
, 2

2= .
,
Tj - f 2 2.
, (, ) ,
2 :

/( - f )2+ 2 + (* )2 + 2 = 2.
, ,
,
,
(2). , (2)
,

2.

.
164

{>) ( 2 )
: =

,
(* )2 +

2 =I V

( )2+ 2= ( )2,

(1

- 2)2 + 2= 2- 2,

, , (2).
, ( 2 )
,

.
.
,
= 1 .
= 1.

3.
,
, ,

(4)

Af |

= 1,

> ,

b > 0.

,
(4), (
), (4)
.
= . -/

= ~ ~ ( ),

v = - ( 4 - )

(, , )
(5)

2 2= 2
165


uv

22,

, v

*
.
, , , -2-.
- > ( y-^d=oo)

v ~ 0 (
= 0 ), .., ,
().
,
= =
.

(5)
(4),


(,)\~>(, ky)
= (.
, 0>
,
,

).
.
, ,
, , , >
> < ,

~ ,
, .
,
.
(4)
,
, 0 ( 0 , 0 ) .
,
( = ).
,

166

2 + 2= 2 ,
(4)
( , 0 ).
(, ,
),
(, ,
).
,
, ..

. ,
,
,
. , ;
, ;
c = V ^2 + 62
;
2, ;

/' +
7 ()
(, 1 < < );
=
;
, (
) ;
, ;
0 ( 0 , 0 ), ;
( , 0 ), ;
(zfcc, 0 ), ;
x = dh-~, .
, ,

, .

\ = (ex - f )2,

\ = ( )2


( ). 167

,
\\ > |'|

> 0,
(
+
[ '

< 0
(

> 0,
< 0.

(
2
' ~ >=

> 0,
< 0,

(' +

. .
, 2| = 2.
, *
(, )
2, . .

I (* ) 2 +

2 (* +

c f

-f

| = 2,

,
, (4),
, (4)
,

2 (
).
,
,
, . .
,
.
, ,
- .
.

18
, ,
.
. ,
. -
, , .
.
.

.

,
.

2

~ "fr

> ,

b > ,

' = ,

' = ,


.

( ' +
2

'*
2

. . ( )
( 1)

y2= 2px + qx2f

= ~ =
1 > 0 ( =
).

(, 0 ) , ,

169

( 1), q

, , 1 ^ q <3
<0.
, </ = 0 (1)
.
, ,
( 1),
> 0 , a q > 0 , <7 = 0 1 ^
^ q < 0 ( q = 1
).
(1), ,
<7, q
, .
q ,
(

, , q 0
( ),
.
q
(
, , q = 1
.
, ,
(1) q < 1.

(1) (
)

x^= 2 p { y - ^ ) + q ( y ~ j ) 2*
,
. .
2
_J
2=
62 = -. < ,

.
(
170

). ^ 7= = , V 1
, , q
1 , ,
,
().
<?-> .
, q 1
,

q <

; . . . q - +
V
( - > 1),
.
1


( ),
.
,

. .

) ( . );
) , ;
) ,
(

).


0
,
()
().
, 0 ;
, = ; 0

(), 0 < < ,
< < 0 .

. / =
(
171

, < )
0
( = 0 ).
,
, , . .
) ;
) ;
) ,

= cos , = sin

= V ^ 2 + tf>
/*

sin == =====
/2 - { - 2

(,
).

2= 2

( 2)

.

+ -.
,
,


.

^ ~ cos ,
r = x + -j
,

. .

, (3) .v cos ,
= sin ,
+

172

COS + =

= =

),

(, ) (2). , (3)
( 2) , (.

^ > ,
,
- .

-\- , , ,
-j- = cos .
,
\ = + .

= + ( + cos <) + cos


( = ), . .
(5)
' ;

1cos

, (5) - f cos <, =*


= sin ,
+
7

c + r C0ST + f = + ?; C0S^

-L

( )

(, ) (4). , (5)
(4) *
, .
,
vJ
()
jr -fa =* 1>
0, b > ,
173

(, 0 ) *
( * > 0 ) .


cos <,
,
(7)

1 cos

(7) *
( 6 ) ( + cos < > 0 = sin )
, (7)
( 6 ) , .
, , (, )


(8)

1 cos '

.
, *
,
, ,
.
,

, ,
.
.
,
(
, . . ),
(8 ), (
, , ).

, .

, . . .
,


, .., ,
/7 4

. , ,


.
1.
,
,
2
17.

.
,
, ,
,

(
)
(9)
2 + 2= [ .
,
,
(9).
-
.
,

, 1 (
). ,
,
, ^
.
,
, *
, . .

2 */2 = 1
, -

t f = 2x.

175


-.
, F(x, )
\\ axpyq,
. 0, ,
axpyq .

q, F(x,y)
.
,
, . .
\\ - \2

' 21 + 22 + 23,

, ', '
( ,
).

2. -
( )
, (, )
( )

()

F( x, y ) = 0,

F(x, ) .
.

, , . 159 160,

.
, 2
. ,
,

, , .

, ( 10).

-f- By -f- = 0,
176


. (. 6 ),
.

( 11)

2 + 2 + 222 + 2 + 2

+ = ,

, (2, 22
.
.
[ 1]
2 -I- 2 1 = 0 .

.
[2 ]

2 + 2+ \ = 0 .
.
[3]
2 + 2 = 0.

.
[4]

2 2 1 = 0 .
.
[5]
2 2 0 .
.
[6 ]
2 2 0 .
.
[7]

2- 1 = 0 .
.
[8 ]

1 - 1 - 0 .
.
177

[9]

2 = 0.
.
3.

.
[ 1], [4]. [5], [6 ], [7]
(
, , ,
).
[9]
, ,
2 ; ( )
.
, ,

. [2]
, [3]
, [8 ] .
, ,

;

( , , ,

).

, .
, ,
( , )
,

, ,

, , .
10, 11
, ,
(, ,
),

(
). (
178

, )
.<
(
), 15
.


. , , [1] [2]
, .
' = , ' = iy
.
,

- ,
,
() (),

. ,
,

(

, ).

.

19
-
.
.
-
. .
-

.
. -

.

.

1.

-
(. .
) Y ,
Y R,
,
(
):
16. a,
fl + f t e 7 R.
17. a e F R, k a ^ Y R
/?.
18. c ^ Y
,
Y R,
( 1)

a-\-ib.
19. a + ib 0 , a, 6 g F r, = 0 QrT

19 ,
18 (1) .

Re . ,

180

Im . 18
= 7 ' - f i V p.
16 17 ,
R
.
3.

,
R, dimRF R.
,
dimc F .

1.
dimc r = d\mfir .
R .
. \%. . . ,
, =
ib ^ . , =
= a le j + + b ble\-\- . . . -\-,
= ( 1-J- ibl)e{ + . . . 4* { 4* ibn)en. ,
. . . , .
, cle , - f . . . - f = 0, 1=
= 1 + ib \ . . . , = - f ibn, (, -J- . . . + ) -f- f i(blei -}- . . . + bnen) 0 19 alet
. . . - f 0 blei - {- . . . -f bnen = 0 . 1 = 0, . . .
.
= 0 , 1 = 0 , . . . . = 0 , , 1= 0 , . . .
. . . , = 0. ,
. . . , *
.
,

.
, ^
, .
-
",
,
.

(Cnf = Rn.
2, -
\ ,
-+ \ ,

181

* (
>^).

. . . , -
C rt , ,

-
.
-
,
, .
-

.
,
,
e i , . . . , * ,
. ,
16 19 .
, ,
,
- ,

( ).
,

-
,
R (, ,
).

( R ).

(, ), , ^ .

(, ) + (fli, \) (fl + ai, &+ &i),



(k + ) ( , ) = (ka - lb, kb + la).
,
.
-
,
182

(, 0). ( 16 19
; , 17 ,
kb + la = 0 0 / = 0, 18 ,
(0 , b) = i(b, 0 ). (, 0)
^ , ,
j r = r R.
.
~.
.

3. -

;
)
- ,
.
20. A,
:

,
21. ,
:

Y* = <=
21 ( 17) ,
,
( = ) .
20 21 , s fl

T R.
-
s. ()
()
\ . . .

,
\, . . . . .
,
,
.
183

s i -,
( )
-
.
-
.
, , -


.
-
, ,
.
,
- ,

\ ... ,

.
,

.
, , ,

& -
s i = $ (
<%), s l li = $ .
=

,



{, ) (. .,
, (, ; ) )

= a -f- ib
= .
-
,
( )~ ( ,, ci)
>
, Cj \ ( 1 =
= Im ci). ,
, .
(, ) ,
.
184

,
.
^
. ,

[, <?], [5, d ] ^ [ A ~ c ] [ B , d]<=r

[, ] [, d] = + d .

: (, ) ~{ j, ,) ( , d ) ~ { B ,, d\), . .

d dx {,

\[[ -j- d\ Cj = \\ -j- d [ + | =

+ d .

1,]

10 :

[, ] [, + ] = ,

[, ][ , i ] = ,
+ d = , ( + ) d , . .
{, d] = [A, + *].

. .

11:
, ] [, d] + [B, d][C, ] =
=

AB + d - c + B t + e - d = AC + e - c = (, ][, ].

, .5# ()

3,
,

. [, ]
, .
, (, ) ~ ( i, Cj)
, Ci = c -f-y 4 A .
185

20 21 . ,
[, \

B e l , , = .
[At ] , , 4TOiS^R=
=

-
.
4. -
,

.
,
() ,
.
( )
(,
).
.
= 2 , . .
- ( )
.
5.
- ,
( )

,
.
,
( 11)
, , 12, 22, , .
3
- [1] [9] .
(, ,
[9]) .
,
(,
[3], ).

. ,
; [ 1]-
19] ,
186

.
, R.
, , ,
[ 1]
1 ,
, ,
, (, ,
)
,

. ,
, , ,
, ,
, ( 2 + 2 =
= 1 = dzix).
, ,
[ 1] [9] (,
).

,
-
( ) [1] [9]

.

20
. -
.
.

. . . : .


R ( ,
).

, . .
. ,
,
-.
,
,
( , R).
( , R)
( R).

, .
( , .4), , ,
, ..
.
. ...
(^?^ ,'
)

( 1)

2 + 212 + 222 + 2aVix + 2a2zy + 33 = 0 .

(
, )
, , ,
188

, ai 2, 22
. ,
.
, R) .

2 1 32, , ,
21 ~

^12

a Z\ fll3>

a Z2 23*

,
( 1)
1( 0, | / ) . .

0,
' =
[ (, ).
(1) F(xy ),
, ', ' -*

F(x' + x , ' + ) =

0.

F ( + 0, ' + ) =
= ' (')2 + 2'12'' + <4 ( + 2;' + 2'23' +
,
=

(2 )

1 2 ~ \21

,3 ^ ] j Xq "j \2

13

2 2 ~ %2*

23 ^

21* ~ ^22^0 l 23

fl33~

F (*> )'
, ,

.
1. 10(< )
< 1),
.

*0 +

12^0+ =

^21^0 Hh 22 " 2 =
3

0,
0

. .
( 1) .

,
189

(1). ,
(
) (3) , .
1 .
,
.
,
, , (1)
, ..
. ,
(1)
, .
, 1 .
,
( , ,
)
(
). , ,
'

( ), '
.
(,
),

'.
F(x, ) 0,
F{x, ) = 0 F ( , ) 0.
,
) (,
, ).
, (1)
, .. (1)
,
F(, ) ~ F{x, ),
.
, ,
(1), ( )
(1) F(x, ) 0
F( , ) = 0,
F(x , ) F ( x, ) = 0, . .
(4)
190

^ + a2iy = 0.

^ , {)
(4), (1)
. ,
(1) ,
.
, (1),
,
. 1
.
,
(1).
, (3) , *
(1) :
(5)

\\ + 12 +

= 0

2\ + 22 + 23

( (5) ),
( (5)
), (
(5)
). , , ,
(5) ,
, , ..
, (
= 0 , 12 0, 13^=0).
(
(5) ,
, ,
). , (1)
3 :
I. .
II. .
III. .
2. I (1)
, II
.
6
, I
,
22 , . .
*
0;

II =
<*21

4U- = = .
<*21

<*22

<*23

<*22

<*23

> III

191

j I
121 22 1

12

12 13
21 22 2
| 32

, ,
(1).
6 = 2> 212, , 6=?^0
I = 0 II III. , = 0
III (
). , = 0 6 = 0.
,
,
2\ 0.22
All 12
flu |2
=
23
32
fl31 fl32 + 13 2] 22

. , 6 = 0 ,
k, a n = k a 2u 12 = 22,

101] 12 I ^ I Al2 22 1
31

32

31

32

, 6 = 0
= ( ka2J

12 22
31

32

, = 0, 13 = &2 (, ,
),
12
22
= 0 , /,
31

/12,
32 = = /22,
,
, 3 1 = /12 = /&22 =
= kai2 &2,
. ,
III ,
6 = 0 = 0. 6 = 0 0
II.
,
:
1 ( ) .
,
6 =j^=0.

31 =


, 6 = 0 0.

, 6 = 0 = 0.
192


0.
0 1 ( = 0
),
6=^=0.
1. == 0
, (1)

.
. 0(*, )
(1) .
(3), (I),
= *
(3) , (1), ,
,
* + 320 + = 0.
(3) ,
', 0, 1

+ {2 + al3z 0,
21 X + 0 2 2 # + 23? ~ 0
a3lx + 32 + a33z ,
. , 6=^ 0
.
, = 0,
0, , z0. ,
6 0 .
, z0= l . ,
0( 0,) (1).
, (
= 0, ~ z = 1) ,
, , ,
(1) ( = , = )>
, (, ) (1).
. [1] [9].
[1] : 5 = 1 = 1.
(0,0).
[2] : 6 = 1 = 1.
(0, 0).
[3] : 6 = 1
= 0. (0 ,0 ).
7

. .

193

[4] : = 1 ~ 1.

(, 0).
[5] :
6 = 1 = 0. (0, 0).
[6] : 6 = 0 = 1. .
[7] : 6 =
= 0 = 0. 0.
[8] : 6 = 0
= 0. 0.
[9] : 6 = 0 = 0. \*
?/ = 0.
, ( [1]
[ 9 ] ) ,
( ).
, ,
.

.

(
, ).
, [9),
[9], ( ( C, R) )
,
.
(1)

x = x0 + tl.
= + tm.
(1) (6)
F(x0 - f il , y0 + tm) = 0 , . .

(/22a12/m -f- a22nF)t2~h 2(/*0 4~ 12(^0 + )-


+ 0.22 0 +
+ 2tn) t + F (0> ) 0*
3. \\12 + 2\21 -j- 22 2 0
, (6)
( (1)),
()
a\\lz + 2a12/m + a22m2 = 0
.

(7) .
194

( ) ,
() , .
(6) (1)
,
(1) , (6)
(1) .
.G ( C , R ) ,
(, R)
( R
), *
, (
R ).

4. , (7) ()
, (1),
( ,
(1)) .
.
(1)
x2jr y 2 = 1, 0(0, 0) (6)
. (7)

(12 + m2) t2 + 2 (lx + ) I
,

1 + = 0, . . I: = 0 : 0.
2 2 1 70 (0, /)

* = *0 ty0i

(9)

= + tx0.

,
(
),

0 ( ) + 0 0,
- . ,
(9) 0 ,
,
.
,
,
,
.

7*

195

(1), ,
,
.
2 = 0 , y ~ k .

(7) (
t ),
( t ,
),
( ).
(6) (1)
( !),
(1) ,
(1).

, , , , ,
(1) ,
.
5.
, (1),
.
.
[1], [2] [3] (8),
, /2 + 2= 0
,
(/, ) = (0, 0), , .
, R
,
(, R) : 1: i
1 : i. [1] (2]
y = ix ix. [3] ( )
.
[4] [5]
/2 2 = 0. (
, 2)
(1:1 1 : 1). [4] ()
, , .
[5] ( ) .
[6], [7], [8)
2 = 0,
() 1 : 0.
(6) () , [7] [8) (
196

)
, .
(1) ( )
(8) 0, 1 2 . 0
( )
, / 6, ,
, 6 = 22 - 2
12. ~ - = ,
:
^

/: = ( ,2 ) : 1

I*ttl= <
2% ( \2~F ).
22 0 ,
= 0 2 ,
.
, 0.
,
(, ) ( R ). (1)
.
6. (1)
, ^
( 6 > 0,

, f
, )

\ 6 < 0,
I 6 = 0.


,
,
()
.
,
.

21
.
. ,

.


. -
.

-
(1)
2+ 212 + 222 + 213 +

+ =


.
1: 0,
0(*, ),
t (7) ,

(2)
(/ + aI2m) + {21+ 2) + (aVil + 23) = 0.

/ . /: ,

\\1-\-2 0,
# 12^~b a22tn = 0;
.
(2)
.
, I : .

\\12

2a\2lm a22tn2 = (1 a\2ni) l -|- (aX2l "f* a22ni) ,


,
198

, ', . ,
6 ^ 0 (3) I
(/, ) ~ (0, 0) (
),

( ,
).
6 = 0, (3)
( )
(/, ) (0, 0). / : =
= \2 : = 2 : \2. ,


|2 : = 22 ' -
(10) ,
6 = 0 ()
. ,
.
,
,
,
.
(2),
/: . ,
, . .,
( ) /
(2),
( (2)
).
(2)
(1)
. ,
,

(2) ,
,
(1).
I : (2)

( 1 a22m) : (a u l-\-a\2ni). ,
/: (
, , 6=^0) , ,

(/

a \ 2tn ) I

-j- ([21 4- 22?) = 0,

(2).
199

, , (*, tjo)
t (7)
. (2)
1: (
),
/: , (1) (
(1) , ,
). ,
1: (2)
.
/:
.

(. .
(1,)). ,
(1) \ 2,
MiM2 0(.,),
(/, ) .
(4)

x = xQ+ //,

= -\-!

,
*1 t2 t> \
2. MqM\ = t\a MqM2 = t2a .
>
Af0Afi = A/0AJ2, t\ -f- t2 = 0.
, , t\ -\-12

/2
t (7)
,
,
.
, (*, )
,
(1)
/: , ,
1:, . .
(2).
, (*, )
(2). , (4)
/: , , (1)
\ 2.
t\ t2 t

(7) . , (*, )
(2), t
. t\ - f t2 0, , ,
0 }2.
2. /:
. ( (1)),
,
(1) .

.
(1),
I : ,
,
, (1)
.
, ,
, .
,
,
,
.
, [1] [8] (
) .
2 .
, [9]
,
, .
, 2 .
(2)

( + \2 + 01) t + (a2ix + 22 + a2i) = ,


(. (3)
),
(1). ,
(1) .
, ,
, ,
, .
(. . )
.

I' '

(aj2/ +

a22tri) \ (1

\2 )
201

(2), /: ,

(anl + al2m) I' + (12/ + 22) ' = ,
. .

11' - 12(/m' + ml') - f 22 ' ,


:
3. /': '
( (1))
I : , (5).
/,
,
, .. l:m
V : '.
I : /': '.
I :
I'\ '

(5)

.
/: .
, I : ( )
,
, . . .
4. (1)
,
, . .
.

.
, . .
, .
, ( )
.

(1)
.
(4) , 1 :0 0: 1
,

\2= 0.
, (4) I : m = 1 : 0
I' : ' = 0 :1 ,
\2.
202

, ,
, (1)
.
,
.
:

1.

, ,
(I) 2 + 2 + = 0,
0, 22 0.

,
,
,
\\ 0, < 0 ,
(I)
.
,
1 .
,

, ,
(1) .
, ,
, (1),
, ,
(1) . .
, 1.

,
.
1.
( (I))

.
2. (
( ! ) ) .
3.
( (1)).
.
4.
,
.
203

5.
\ \
:
0.
(6 ) (* + 2< 2* + '22 ( + 2'' + K t f +
? 6. ,
,

\2= 0,

' = 0,

'= -

, (6) (I) (
).
:

(6), (1)!
, ,
, (6)
. , ,
(6) ,
(1)

X =
{

CnX' +
C2\ X f

Ci2t / +
22'

X ,
0

\ '.
, , ,
.
(
, , ).

\[11\ -j- #12 (IfftI " ftlli) -f- Q,22ftltTl{ 0
( ( l ) )

V 021 22 /

, (1)

)
(

(*.
204

) + 2 (13. 2 ) ( ) +

,
(7)

- + :).

=('"

\ %1 22 /

.
(1) ,
(7)

[( + (;:) 4 (+(;:)]+
+ 2 (, 2,) [ ( * , ) + ( ) ] + aZi =

( * ' , ')

( * , ' ) +

( ' ,

( * ) +

+ t o , ) ( , ) + (0>

0)
(

+ 2 (|3, ) ( ^ ) + = ('.

+ 2 [(ai3, 23) + (0,

( *, ) +

+ ( ,
(

) +

) (

) + 2

, = , (a, b) ( * )
= (, < * ) ( ) ) , (6)
(1) (7),


' = ,
('3, ') '^
(13* 2 )

[( 1 3 * a 2 i ) " ( 0 ^ )

~ (> ) ( ) + 2 (, 23) ( ) + *
205

, /, /',
'
,

')

{ D - C

( L ) = ( fi- " (
, ,
(*. .

(V m ,M (I) = 0

'

(/{, raj)

( )

.
,
fli
(1) , ,
(6)
\ \ ,
(
: (6)).
.
,
(1)

ci[\x + + ,
0-2\ ~ &22+
= ,

(8)
(, ) + (13, 23) = (0, 0).
' ,
(6)
(9)

(*', / ' + (*[3, '3) = (0, 0).


(*', ') ' + ('3, '23) =
=

[_1' [( *) - ( 2 )] + [(<3123) +

[(* , ) ~ ( *

(,

, / ) ] ( " 1) + ( ( 13, 23) + ( 0,

= [(*, ) + (, 2)].
( ) (8) (9)
.
206

6 1
.
0 :1
(. .
) ,
,
( ,
).
( 2 ) , 0 : 1,

12* + - + #23 = 0
( , ,
( 6 ) ', '
). ,
= 0 , ,
= 0 , 22 0 # 2 = 0 , , , ,
= 0 ( 22~ \2=*0 ,


( 10)

222 + 2#13* + # = 0 ,

# 22=^ 0 .

0
0

0
13
22 0
31 0 33

(10) #1=0 II (
), #13 = 0 III (
).
ai 3 = 0 , ,
:

2.
, III, . .
,
, ,
(III)

#22*/2 +

0,

#2 0.


,
, ,
,
207

\.
(10) -4.
13
(
), ,
(10) 3 .
:

3.
, II, ..
,
, ,
() 2 / + 2j > = 0, 22 0,
0.

,
, ,
,
.

:

1.

, ,
1 :
(I) 2 + 222 + = 0,
(II)
22* 2[: = 0,

0, 22^ 0 ;
22 ^ , ^^*,
(III)
222 + = 0 0.

,
.
, :
,
.
, 1
.

22

.
-
.
,
.
.



, , 1

:
(10 * + *= 1,
(10)

(II) 2 = 2,
( )

() 2 = 0,
, ^ 0.

.
,
( ,
, ), ()
(10) xf , '

_
_
*' = .,
1 /By,
209

(II)

(III!)

:
1 (
) .


, ,

:
[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]
[5]

*2 + </2 = 1 ,

2 2 = ,
2 =* 2,
2+ 1 = 0 ,
2 == 0,

,
.
,
[2] ,
[ 4 ] , [5]
, [3]
(), [11
( )
( t

(* - /)2+

tm ) 2 =

1,

/2 + 2 = 0,

*0/ +

= 0,

1 -\- 1 = \,

(/, ) (0, 0) ).

(
) .


) [1],
,
) [3],
) ( [2], [4], [5]),

210

)
.

.
) .
(, R ),
, (Ij) (1)

' = ,

' = \ tjt

(II) (|)

I,
:
2 (
(, R ) ) .

-

,
-
:
[1]
+
1-0,
[2] 2+ 2 + 1 = 0 ,
[3] 2 + 2 = 0,
[4] 2- 2- 1 = 0 ,
[5] 2- 2 = 0,
[6] 2- 2* = 0,
[7] 2 1 = 0 ,
[81 </2 - = 0,

* = 0.

,
.
[9]

,
[1] [9]
:
[1] ,
,
211

[2] ,
.
[3] -
.
[4] ,
.
[5] .
[6] (
).
[7]
.
[8] -
.
[9] (
).
,
2
, ( ).
, [1]
, [ 2 ] ,
[4] [ 6 ]
( ).
(
(, R) ) .

-

) ( [1] [2]),

) [4],
) [6],
) ( -
[3], [5],
[7],
- [8],
[9]).
(
(, R) ) ,
.
,

F (, ) ,
F(x, ) , 212

kF(x , */) = 0,
k ,
.
.
, ( (, R ))
:
3 (
) .

-

F (, ) = , G (, )
(
, ) ,
:
G(x, ) = kF (, ),
k=0.
,
1
, , . ,
, 3
,
(, ,
).
3
, .
.
,
\\2 4* -{- 222 +

2|3 4- 22# -

0(0, )>

+ 2 !>*</ + ,\ + 2 + 2 0 + = ,



(2)

0 ,

2, ^22,

,\,

. (

, ,
213

,
),
+ 1

,
. ,
(3)

2, 3, 4, 5

,
(1) (2)
( 3
),
, (

,
, \2, 22),
. ,
:

1.
,
( F(x, ) = 0 , F(x , )
) .

:
. (3) ,

.
. , (3)
, .. (1),
(, Ms),
,
. ,
, ,
5.
MiM2 34. Ms
.

MjM3 24. ,
,
, . .
2, 3, 4 .
Mi, 2 3.
, MiM2
, 4,
2, 3, 4
214

5. ,
, 5 [2.
, , |, 2, 3 Ms
.
.

3.
3.
1
.
(.0 , ) ,
(
, ).
, ,
.

(. .
), ( )
. ,
.
3 .
, ,
,
.
3 .

.
F (x,y) = 0, F(x>y)
,
. (
) ,
:
' = + 12 +

c2ix " ^

,
F(xy ) ,
' ' ,
'2. , F(x,y)
(21 + 22 - f /')2.
,
( + By 4* )2 = 0, :
= 0 -
.
215



.
3 .
.
( 2) ,
() (11) (. )
, (1) ,
, (IIIi)
,
. ,
(II) ,
(Ii)
(!). ,
,
R.
, X ,
3
,
.
.

( -
) . ,
.
1. 1:

2 + 22 + 222+ 213 + 22 + 3 = ,
: I
(, , ).
, ,
\2 : = 22: 2. ,
(. .
,
) .
,
.
. ,


.
216



(II) (III),
,
:

. ,


-
, ,
(II) (III).

, , ,

(, , ) .
. ,
I : m
m : I ,
/ (a2\l + a22m) (aul + 12) ,
. .
(4)

2[12

(22 )1 2~ 0.

, I :
,
(4).
( ,
, , i.m .)
12 = 0 0 = 0 2 2 (4)
, . .
. 012^=0 (4)

I ; ,
:

I ~ ( 22
l - 2, : (,,

azz)1 "t" ^ 12) ' 20 12,


//( )2 + 4)-

0 (2 = 0, 0 22;
,
, . . ,
, .
, (,, 22)2 4af2 > 0,
I : .
217


( ),
.
, , ,
,
(I), . . (1<),
(10).
( ) 1, ,
> 0.

v m
, () > 0,
(1) , ^ b (
). ,
(10) ,

, (II) (,
) , > 0.
= .
(IHi)
> = | .
:
4 (
) .
( )

-
( )
,
:
^ > 0;
1>

> b > 0;

^ b

----- [ == 1;

> 0, > 0;
S18

*.2
,,2
[5 1 ^ -f^ O ,

>

[6] 2= 2,

> 0;

[7]

62 = 0,

6>0;

[8] /2 + 2>2 = 0,

6>0;

I/2

0,

6>

~2 +

[9] /2 = 0.

, {
1] ,
2] ,
3] ,
4] ,
5] ,
6] ,
7] , ,
8] ,
9] ,
-
[1 ,
[2 ,
[3]
-
,
4] ,
5J ,
6] ,
7]
,
[8] -
,
[9] .
* ,
,
,
.


,
, ( [1] [8])

:
219

[1] b ,
.
[2] ( -
.) ia ib ,
.
[3] ( -
.) ~
, , (
), b
2 + b 2

q 2
1 ,1
,

= 1
b,
^ b > 0.
[4] 2 ,
,

.
[5]
~ ^

, .
[6] ~
.
[7] 2 b ,
.
[8] ( -
.) 2 ib ,
.
(

) .

- (

, )

) ( [1] [2]),

) [4],
) [6],
) ( -
[3], [5],
[7],
220

- [8],
(9)).

,
.

, . .
, ()
R. ,
( , ) ,
,
(5)

( x - a r + ( y - b ) 2= R \

, , . .
(6)

2 + i f - 2 a x - 2 b y + c = ,

= 2 + 62 R2. , ,
, [2 0 = 2
-
:
2.
-
, fli2==0 = 22, . .
(6).
() , b
, /? /2-\-2
.
,
, . .
, .
:
2 + 2 > 0. R

.
R
(, ).
[1], ..
.

.
2 2 ~ 0. R
.
> (0, 0 ) . 221

[3J
( (0, 0))
- .
2 + 2 < 0.
# = *J\ d1 -{- 2 |
iR.
. [2]
.

-
,
.
.

23
. -

, -

.-
,
,
,
,
.
.

.
.

F (. , , z) = ,
F(x, , z) , , z
.

.
, ,
.
.
[1]. ,

, , z

^ ^ > 0. .
= .


, ,
. ,
, z h,
. ,
( //*/, /,
/
(, , h ) ) t ,
(1),
* 1 , j / l _ 1 _ *1
2 - 2 ~ 1

2 '

. .
+

(*V 1 ?)
, z
(1), |/|

-h || >
(1)

((0, 0, )
(, 0, ) h )
\h\ <.
(1)

V
1~
(
) h 0
, ||
.
, = h
\\ > b (1), \\
(1) ((0, 0),
, (0, , 0), ~ ) \ \ <
(1)
.

( ), = 0 ,
, \h\
6,
224

x = h \h\ >
(1), |/ | =
(I) ((, 0, 0), = ,
(, 0, 0), h = a) \ h \ C a
(1)

( b ), / = 0,
, \h\
.

(1). , ,
(1)

zn
(
___ ^

(0, 0, 0),
,
! / \ </ \
\
,
,
2, 2 2.
,
(I)

, , z, ,

(1),
.
> b >
.
[2]. ,

, /,

( 2)
^ ^ > 0.
.
[3]. ,

', , z
(3)
8

225

a ^ b ^ c > 0 - + * + -^3- = I.
0 ( 0 , 0 , 0 )


.
[4].
,

, z

(4)

~
7 + JL
2

^ b > 0, > 0.

z = h \h\ <
(4),
| / |
(4)
((0, 0, ) h = c
(0,0, ) h = )
\h\ >
(4)

/ - ? - 1 '
( 0
-)> \h\
-foo.
/ =
(1)

C/\ f l + J ?

(
+ ) , \h\ + .
x h
(1) -

2
cV i+ JaL
526

V 1

+ ?

( -j-oo), |/*|
-f- .

. , ,
(), , , ^

^ .
, ,

,
.
Z

[5]. ,

>, z
.*1 I ^__
ni "

/
W
^

> 0,

__1

> 0.

z = h
(5)

a

/\J 1 +

baJ 1 +

h*_


\ h \
+ .

b + 00.

2 . 2
2

I --

|
1,

h ~ 0,
(5).
y h x h,
h \ h \ < L b (5)

/ ' /1
, ||
\ \h\
8*

227

(5) ,

, z (, ,
)

| / ! >

-f-, ||
+ - ()
, \h\ > b,
() ,
\h\ C b .
, = / |/t| <
(5)
/ 1--?-'
( b ), ||
4*; ||
(5) ,
, - (, ,
)

| h | >

/?"-1,

/ ^ ~

-{-, \h\
+ . ()
, | | > ,
() ,
|/| < .
, ,

, .
(5)
, .
1.
l- ,
228

I ( /)
, .
.
1. (5)

.
. 0U'o, , <0) (). ,
0
a(l, , ),
(5),
t
( + t l ) 2

( +

(?<> + 1

'

~ *

, ,
,

1.

, 0 (
(/, , ) = (0, 0, 0) ).
,
= .
/ m
_

__ 1

2 ' 2

2 '

10

__

Zp

* = *1 + *

= 1 + - ^ >

( ),

14 I
2
229

. . (*j, \)
(5).
{ \ ,
, ,
iL + J ^ i =
2 1 2
/: 2 \\ 2

l = j y 1

*|,

2 = 1, . . 1 . ,

Xo = Xi

, * 0

2
~ ~

\ + = \ +
{ \\
.

^ - 6^ 0

(*)

1/1 =

2 +

2 + 2

, ,
t

x = x0 U j yxtt
230

= + j x {t,

z = z0 + ct,

u ~ d r \ , \ { (*);
(5) ( ( \ )
).

: = ,v0 ~ ,
.
.
= + x j ,
Z =

Zq + C(

(5)
( -, ,

. . t = ----- (jfi, yi, 0).


, /' = / + -- ,
,
, \, \ 0.
:

2.

.
, ( i)
,

1.
(5)
,
.
:
,
.
(5),
231

1 (


.). :
A.

.
.

B. .
.


.
. ([, {) (2, 2)
. , 1,

, ,
( 1

U i - ^ x l f c y

2 ~ 2,

Un ~ ~

-2> )

\ = + 1 U2 1 ,
,

2 --

2 *

1/2 1 0
_

1
2

_
2

(2

{2. I,
(*2

Xj) (2 V,) ,
2

~1

(2 \)(2
2

__ ( * 2 - * | ) 2
2

"1

( 2 1)2

( = I \ ~ x2t \ ~ 2 ,
),
232

= I,
( 2 \)(2~ })

, (/2 ) {2 \)
"t"
2

a2

.

,
(* I/O (^2, /, {3, )

1)
\

*1 )

t1
*2 ) >
*'
1

>

*3> CJ1
If

;1 . .

-- Xj

V2
2 U--b

- ---

*1 \
= X2

,
(* 1, i), (2, 2 ) (*, )


.
[6]. ,
> i
, , z
(6)

= 0,

> ^ > 0 , > 0


^ "" 2"= ** 1 .

(6),
.
233

, ,

, .
0(*, , 2) (6),
0 ( 0 , 0 , 0 ) ,
( t x 0 , t y 0 , t z o ) , T . c .
,
:
(**)2 .
+

(*?
2

>

z = h y

v
2 )

, ( 6)
.


,
,

.

(6)
0.
|1 h

4-1 ft I

|/| + .
, ,
h , . . O z ,
. , ,
(6) , ,
(!).
(6)
, ,
, ,
. ,
,
,
, , , ()
.
234

(6) , , -*
. = h ht
h ,

f l

I h I

fl*l*

\h\
+ .
z = 0
(6) ,
0 = 0
(
).
(
) (6)

,
. , ,
(6)

= - - x-\-h, h= 0.
, ,

(
!)
,

,
(6),


, ) ;
) .

,
,
235

, , ,
(6).

.
[7]. ,

, , z
)
^

> 0.

.
z = h h < 0
(7), h 0
(0, 0, 0) h > 0

V2

h - y h = h
(7)

q,
^0, h,
(/i, 0,
,
.
.
* = 0 0

(7). p=q
.
, (
)
.
[8]. ,

236

, , z
()
> 0, q > 0.
.

.
z = h
< 0 2
(8)

V 2q h 9

Y 2ph,


+ , h

.

, ,
.
= 0 (8)
, ( , )

z h h > 0

h + ,
h < 0,
, .
y=z h ~ h
(8)
q , ,
^0, h, j-) (/, 0,

, . ,
y h , ,
= 0, ,
x h , ,
= 0.
237

jc =====
(8).
.

3.

.
0(*, , 2)
(8).
10

0 + tl,
~\~ ,

z = z0 + (
(8),
/

( + ?

( )2

2 (z0 + tn),

. .

1 : : = / : ^ : ( ^ - ^
1.
, ,

_
= + t v > >

= +ut V q>
z=zo+' ( ^ - w )
(8).
238

*0~ -=? 0, / =
Vp
V

Zo
_

V?
V?

= 0 , ,

VJ

Vp
V?
.

+ Vp 1
Vp
+

+_1<7
V*

+ * ) + 2''--


=
V
Vp

=

</ ,

= V V

< < -J- .

( - *

+ ^ i VS")

Xi~
Vp
7 + 1' -
. ti
,
(V/? u ^ q ) , . . / p + q t
,
=

0+

I/~

(0

+ ,1V p )

= + / V ? = (> + *> ? ) + (/ /,) ? =


,) ,
* = z + ,

VV p

V? /

~-^= - ^ = 0

V</ /

Tl.

( -

Yp
V<7
(8)) ^0 = 0,
239

2 - 0
. - t' =
~ t 11,

tf

til'^fq ,

z = 0,

. . , , ti = 0.


( t* /, xi ):

4.
(8)
0 .

= {1 + )/>
~ u(t ) V ? .
z = 2tx>
= 1 , (
z = 0),
/ + q
0.
,

(
), .
2 (

) . :
.


,
240

. (, ,
).
.
.
.
.
,

(

).
.
2.
\ .

' = (/ + /,

= (/ + ) V p

y = Ul(t ri) V?

= 2 (( 2) V ? .
= 2/!
2'2
, ,

2Vp , Vp U2x2V7
Vp
Vp

V?

iV<T

2,

ttaV?

22
~ 2 1 ({ 4- ti2) (2 Tt)2.

.
, ,

V7 IV ?
=
("2 l),

Vp Vp

.
, , ( V , ]> 2)

= 0.
.
[9]. ,

241

, ,
)

2
2
j r + j r = l,

^ b > 0.
.

(9),
. =/=

(9) .
,
,

.

, ,

,
(
).
,
.
4(0, , 20) (9)
(x0, */, z), ..
, (, )
, .
, (9)
. Oz.

,
.
, , * ,
. , z = h (
(9))
(9) , , ,
, (9).

(9).
,
(9) (!).

242

, ,
,
,
,
,
. ,

, . . , = ,
(9)
.
,

.


(



).
[10].

,

%
,
(10)

+ $ ---1 .

^
0.

.
[11].

,

, ,

()

+ = 0 .

> 0, > 0

I.



243

. -

(11)

(-
) ,
.
[12].
,

, , z

-*2
2 _ 1
( 12)
2
62 ~ 1
> , b > 0.

. z = h
(12)
, ,

(12).
[13].
,

tjy z

(13)
.

244

0,

> 0, > 0
+ -- 1


.
[14].
,

} z

(14)

y '^ Z p x .

> 0.
.
z = h

(14) , ,
(14/.
[15]. ,

, , z
(15)

1'!,

b > 0.
.
[16]. ,

, , z
(16)
2+* = 0,
b > 0.
(-
) .
[!7].
,

, , z
(17)
yq~ 0 .


.


,


,


,

(1) (17). ,

) ( [1]
[2] ),
) ( [5]
[4]),
245

) ( [7]
[8]),
) ( [3]
| 6]),
) (
[9], [10],
[14] [12]),
) ( [11],
[13],
[15],
[16] , [17]).
,

.

24

.
- - .


. . , ,
,
.
().
,
,,

, ,
(1)

+ + = 0.

,
, .
.

,
.

,
, ,

{ : : ) .

, , ,
,
,
,
.
247

( ) ,
, .
.
(1) ,



.
, (1)
(" ) -
0.
, .
( ) ,
/(*^)
I/O ,
,

= {\ 0 * 0 + /*!,

(A0: B0:Cl )

// = (1

( A i : B i : C i ) 9 -

-^)>
( : : ),
_

Bj_
l
(2)
= ( 1 - 0 + / 9


, .
(2)
*

(1 /) A \B q 4* |
|
(I - + ,
i

"

1 1 - t ) A x 1 0 4 - [M o l
10 0 4 + [ ]
[ 0 /) ]] 0 + [ 6 7
1(1 /) |1 4~ [M o l

,
{ '
1
, *

, ,
:

[ ( 1 - '1 | +

['>]|,

= [(1 - .4 1]0 + [/]1.


= [(1- 1]+[/1
,

= (1 0
248

V = / -1 0>

(3)

\xBq-{ vBi,
= 0

vC|.


, . .
. (3)
(0 :( ),
( 1 : : j)
v (. . , 0, 0)
( : : ). ,
, (A q: B q:Cq)
(! : [ : |) , (0 : : ) =
= ( |: \ : |), v
(0 : 0 : 0) .
:

1. (::)>
(3)
v,
, (0 : 0 :)
(| : j : Cj) ( ).
, ,
.
/ = 0 + - ^ = y4ix-h
f ]i/- { -C b (3)

+
= 0.
.

, (1).

( : : ) ,

, ( ,
^),
KB + LC + MA = 0,
*49

, L, M .
,

0 4" 0 4~ c z 0 = ,

(4)

0, , Z q .
,
, 0 .
( )
,
0, 0, Z0 (
cooTFiomeime (4) ).
,
.

1.
,
(::) (4).
(4)
.
1
:
. (0 : BQ: 0)
{\ \\ :\) (4),
(3)
, (4).
. ( : : )
(3),
0 4- 0 + 0=
= ( + v ^i) 0 4- ( + vBr) 4- ( + vC[) Z0 =
= - (0 4 BqYq4- C0Zo) 4" v ( 10 + B[Yq4" CiZ q) 0.
, ( : : )
(4).

,
.
, . .
.
, , , ( : : )
(3).
250

1.

(3).
:

A qX -j- BqY + CqZ ,


AtX + B iY + C tZ * * 0.
,
(, , Zo)=^(0, 0, 0).
(4),
.
, (3)
.
, (4).
, ,
(0, 0, )
( |), (4)
(. . ,
, , ,
). .
, , Zo 0,
Z q,
| = 0,

0 0,
B| Zq,

= 0,
, 0.

1
(4).
, Z o^ O . ,
X
Y
f
(4)

-j- = 0,

, ( : : )
0(,). , ,
, 0,
.
2. , . .
(4), Z0=7^0,
. ,
, .
, (4) Zo = 0,
.
<251

,

0 + 0 = ,
, , ( : : )
, Yq.
,
, , \
(. .
a(X0yYo)).
,
(3)
. -A JiL

0 ^

|i v
( . : ).

(, v),
, : v = \ : 0.

.
.

:

2,
f = 0 g 0
(5)

/ - vgr =

, ,
, , (5).
,
f = 0 g 0 (5) ,
, (5).
(5)
V,
( )
( p : v /41 : 0) -

( ),

.
,
,
252

, .
,
.
.

,
,
.
,
, . . .
, ,
,
. :
3. sl+
,
s i d >^ /
d s i s l * \ s l t
:
) s l + \ s l d+
d ;
) d t d t , d\
cfe .
s i
- ,

.
s l \ s l
- s l t
s i .
() s i
d si,
d+.
d, d+
d. , ,

si.
, , s l v\ s l
,
d .

-
253

- $1+
! s& (,
,
)
9/, .
?
,
(
).
.
- ,
,
, , (,
),
.
, -

( )
.
, 3
,
i
, -

[(. ,
[< = -
. -
,
-
- .
,
3
.

-
: -.
,
, , .

, ,
, , . .
.
, ,

.
- ,
254

, *
.
,
.
(
),
(,
, ,
).
,
,
(,
,
).
,

(

).


s&o
,
(
). d .
,
.
,
.
d. ,
- *
()
- .
(
),
, .
- .
( )
, (
, ,
). .

(),
255

. ,
. ,
(
jtfo).
.
,
<?, (
,
). ,

<.

5)

) , ) , ) ^

, -

-
.
, , -


.
, -, ,
,
.
, , ,
( ).

, , ,
. , ,
-
,
.

25
. -
, -
.
-
-.
.- ^ . ^

.
. -

.

$1+ -
,
d

,

\2.
S&+7
( )
(
) . 1

X, , Z (.
(4) ; 0, , Zo
).
"/* .
, . . *
.
1. X, , Z ,

X, , Z
( : : ) .
9 , .

257



,

( )
1, (X : : Z)
, Z 0.
( ) ,

* = -

= -

(X : : 0)

a(l, ) ,
X : = /:m ^

, (X, , Z)=^(0, 0, 0)

- .
.
1
( : : ) ^

() + () + =0. .
(1)

+ BY + CZ = !

-
,

{ : : ) (1).
( : : ) , ,
, , , 1,
, ^
( : : 0 ) .
, , (1),
, -
(1), 0, 0,
.
= 0, 0, =^0 (
(1) ),
258

(1) (
). , , 0
(1)

, -
(1) (, , ) ( 0, 0, 0)
. ,
(A, , Z) (0,0, 0)
,
(, , ) ^ ( 0, 0, 0)

.
,

. ,
(1) (
, , ', , Z)
( , , X, , Z)
, . .
.
, -

.

:
2. (, )
, , , Z

2 + 212 + 222 + 2, XZ + 2a^YZ + a uZ2 = 0.

(2)


.
, ai2, 22
, ^ (2)

\\2 + 2^ -j- a22f/2 - 2a, + 22 + = 0.

(3)

( : : 0)

aA2- f 212 + 222 = 0,


9*

259

,
(3).
,
(2) -
(3)

.
, (3)
, (2)
(. . ).
(2) ,
, , , ,
(3).
, -
(
-)
, ,

,


(,
),
.
, = 12 = 22 = 0, (2)

2anXZ + 2a2,YZ + a^Z2 =

Z SSB 0

2atiX + 2ar Y + aSiZ 09


( 13^ 0
2=^=0 ) ( )3 = 0 2 = 0).
, (

( , R) ) :
1 (

-
-
) .
- 260


:
1] (X2 + 2 Z2 = 0) .
2] ( X 2 -f- 2 -j- Z 2 0 ) .
3] & ( -) ,
(2 + 2 = :0 ).

[4] (X 2 2 Z2 = 0).
[5]
, (X2 2 = 0).
[6] (2 2ZZ = 0).
[7]
, (2Z2= 0 ) .
[8] (-
) ,

(2 -j- Z2 = 0).
[9]
(2 = 0).
[10] ,
(y z = 0).
[ 11 ] ,
(Z2 = 0).
,
()
.
, ,
- -
. (
),
- .
, X, , Z
-
, . .
[2 \%2.

3. -
-
,
X , , Z (2),
= 22^0,

<212= 0.
261

(": : 0)
X2 - 2 = 0, . .
( 1 : * : 0 ) .
- .
, *,
- ,
.

,
.

.
(
) ,

(
,

).
. <
,

(
= 22=::0 12 = 0).


,
. , (2)
X = + 1 , Y = i Z = 0,
( 22) i t 2mi2 = 0,
, = ai 2 = 0.
,
, .
, , ,
.
? :
.

(, , )
- .

,
262

.
, ,
!
,


-.
4, - ,

,
,

.

,; .<. ,
, ,
, ,
, - .

- ,

. ,
(
) -
, -

. ,
4,

- . ,
,
, , .
- ,

( ), $&
( , , ). ,

, , ,
,
.

,
. &.
s^o
263

. 1
- *
\2
(
). - so
, ,
, s&o
,
0 '\ 2 ( ).
, ',
- 3 = ',
2

], 2, 3
. , ei, 2,
3, '
3 = '
, ei, 2
,

'\2

s&o.
s&o, . .
,
. X , Y, Z
( ei,e2, 3) 0,

X

x== jr - ( 0'^2)^
Z = 0,
,
X Y ( \, 2).
1 ,
2, 3 (. .
0'\ 2)

- s&o
, , Z
,
.
-

264

^ .
,
^ *
. ,

(4)

p X '^ C u X + cnY + diZ,


pY' = ,{ 4 c22Y 4 c^Z,
Zr CjjX + ci2Y 4 ^Z9

C il

Cl2

Cl3

21

^22

23

32


, ,
.
,
,
(
,
).
, , (4)
3\ 32 ,
.
,
X : : Z

X ' : Y' :Z' -



X' =-, \iX 4 \*Y 4 \Z y
' = 2\ 4 c22Y 4 C2 3 Z ,
PZ ' = z,
\ ,
,2 j j 0
C2I 22 I
,
- . 1
,

1.
,


.

5.
&0 X,
, Z
2, 3
\ .
05

, ,
.
,
\, 2,
.


(4).
, 5
, , &-

X'f ', Z', -
(4).


.
, X 2 Y2 - 22 = 0

X '= Y ,

Y' = Z,

Z' = X

1, ( )
'2 + 2 Z2 = 0. ,
2 = 2XZ

X' = ,

Y' = X - Z t

Z' = X + Z

.
, (
)
(. . ) ). , ,
-,
,
, , ,
, , ,
.
- ,
, >
X2 - 2 -j- Z2 = 0,
.


.
266

, ,
:
2 (

) . -


:
[1] (X2-\-Y2
Z2 = 0).
12] (X2 -f- Y2 -j- Z2 =
= 0 ).
[3] (X2

2 = 0).
|4] ( -)
IX2 + Y2 = 0) .
[5]
( )
(X2 = 0).

:
[ 1] (X2 + Y2 + Z2 = 0).
[2] (X2 -{- 2 0).
[3] (2 = 0).
.

26

.

. -
.
. .
.

. ,
.

,
-
.
,
-
.
. ,
, , , -,
.
,
.
,
^ 1

tf \ 1+ . . . + \,
( 1)

.....................................
?X + . . . + *X,

268

X .

X (. . ).
,
, .
G L( ai; X)
.
.

X (.
6)

(2)

- + ,

(
a s
sC o o r (> ) ,
(2)):
1. a ^ C o o r () ( p s G L ( / 2; X) ,
s ().

2. a , a ' s C oor(F ), a'c o H s G I .(; ).


2 ,
(1),
1 1, . . . ,
],
(I)
(, , ).
( ),
1 2
:
/.

()
-+ '.\, 1 2 (
2),
,
(>)
(, 1).
.
a s (),
X , . .

kx

= a-1 (a (*) + aty)),


= -1 (6 (#))

, ^ ,
, , a
(
260

o r ! (ei), .
a~'(en), e[} . . . , en
X).
1 ,
.
2 ,

. , ' < <,
GL(/i; X),
' *(' () + ' ()) =
=

"

1( -1 ( ( ( * ) )

- h ( ( )))) =

-1 ( (* ) + ())

' (ka' ()) = - 1(qT1(& ( ()))) = " 1(ka (.))


, j e F k <= X.
.
, 1
.
(1),
1 2 .

.
Af f ( n; X)
, . .

] = \ 1 + . + 1 + \

I |
,
= |
-h . . . +

n > *



C oor(F)
a:
1 2 ( , ,

() C o o r (^ ), a GL(rc; )
(; ) ) . 1:

2.
(^ )

1 2 ( 270

Aff (; ) ),

, (^ )
,
.

, Coor(ls^)
(^ ), (5^ ),
(0,
0) . ,
, Coor(F) = (^ ),
1.
.
>
,
->,

~ ( () ()),

9">
Coor(cS^). ,
e F , ,

.
.
-
(
/1 - 2 ; -
= 2),
-
. , .

\ 0
+|,
(*, \ . . . , #) =7^ (, 0, . . . , 0).
:
(0, 1, .
) ~ (0, \ . . . . ),
k 0,

if = kx\

1 k x \

...,

i f kx n,


. ,
(0, 1 . . . , ) ,

(3)

( : 1:

. . . : ).

( ,

", (0,0, . . . , 0).)


271

1.
(3) '1

.
Pr-Aff(?, ),


0 =

*,

1 1
0 + \1 - . . . + '*9

= ^ -

rp . . . +

.
, ... ,

A ff (; ).
, = 2 P r-A ff(2; ),
(
x = Z, 1 = X, 2 = Y)
:
' [\ - C[oY - c^Z ,
'

ssss 21 - 22 "

Z ' Z ,

I 12 =7^0.
I 21 22

2. -


Coor(j^)
a: ^ - * K P rt,
:
1. (^ ) cp Pr-Aff (; ),
g Coor(j^).
2. , ' (^ ), ' _1
=- //(, ).

() (0 : 1: . . .
) ( ^ )
272

( , ),
-

,
-
2
-
3
24. -
,
3 24.
,
.
Proj(n; )
XP'S
V
(4)

: + \ ' +
:

+ ^ ' +

...
| ...

...

=7^0.



-j- 1 ,
.

3.
X
ZP, (^)

: ^ - * " ,
:
1. ( ^ ) <p^Proj(/z; ),
Coor (ZP) .
2. , ' (^ ), - [
Proj( \ ),
273

^ )
,

0, 1, . . . , >
{&) = (: ' : . . . : "),
,
.
, 2
4
,
.


.
,
.


-j- By -f- Cz -f* D = 0
x , , z;
.
( : : : D ).

(5)

0 CqZ -f- Do = 0 \-\-\ A~C[Z-\-Di = 0.


4. ,

(5),
( A : B : C : D ) y v
(, ),
()

A sss 0 + v /l|,

B = pB0 - b v ,,

C = p C o-fvC b

D = p.D0 + vDi

( (A : : : D) , ,
: v).
1
24.
,
24, ,
, .
:
/ . \{\, z A ,
(5), (6)
274

, Afi.
.
, v

(0 + v/li) \ + ( ) + v() \ "

* (pQ ~ v^i) z \ ~ (pDo " v^i) = ,


. .
(-Vi - flosfi " -i

" Do) *
* v ({\ + B\{f\ + CXZ\ + D[) ,


(7) : v = (A iX i+ Biy^C iZi+ D d (A0xi-\-Boyi-\-C0Zi-\-D0)>
.

v, (7).
5. (6) ,
(5) ,
( (5) ).

3.
, ,
(5),
, (5).
. (5)
. (5),
, .
Af0(*o, , ) (5),
v

By + 0 ~ D

= (04* v A {) :04" () - VA) *

+ ( + vCO 2 + ( 4 vDi) =

{A qX4" * CqZq + Do) 4"


4~ v (A{xq + */ +

+ D|) ,

(6) .
, (6) (5). ,
,
(5).
M\{x\,y\,Z[), (5). ,
1, (6)
( : : : D), .
275

, ,
(5) Ali. . ,
(6).
(5) .

Al

, _ ^1
0

v (
jLb4o + Vi4b \[0-{-\ {, pC0 -)-vCi
)
/1 ~4~ v 1

~ |

- vCi

, (6)
(5). ,
, (5),
\{\, ij\, Z[). 1
,
. (5),
.
, ().
,
(,
, - ),
,
,
, ,
.
.
.

0 -f- 0 -f- CqZ - f D0 = ,


(8)

AiX -f- B\ij -f- C[Z

Di = 0,

A2x + B2y - f C2z + D2 = 0


(..
,
).
6. >
(8),
276

( : : : D ), ,
2 (, ),
= 4 Pl^l "h 2^2
^ 4* Pi^l 2^2>
+ PiCi + 22,

(9)

Do 4- Pi^i 4- ^2-

, (8)
( ),
, (8) (. .
(8) ,
;
).
(8) /,
/[ /2 ,

()

/ + Pi/i 4 2/2 0.

4,
, ,
,
.
. (9) ,
(, , 2) . 0,
<, 2 (10) 0

/ (* >

> Z o)

4~ P

i/ i

( ' ,

> 20)

2 / 2 (* >

> 0 )

, , . ,
(10) 0.
, ,
0 (9),
| ( Z\) 2(2, 2, z2) ,
- , (10)
, ,
Hofo (xi, z,) + Pif 1{ Zi) + / ( , 21) = 0,
/ (* 2 >

z2) +

P i/1

(2, Z 2 ) +

2 /2 ( 2,

2>Z 2 ) == 0.

0, (
277

) *

< Pi 2 =

I/l (*2 #2, 2) /2 (*2- 2> 2) /2(*2, 02, Z2) / (*2. Z2) I *
. /(* y b Zx) fliXU 2{\
fo (*2- 2>22) /l (*2> 02 ^2}

0, 2
. ,
.
(9) , (1,, )
.
(8),

AqI + q/ -f" CqH= ,


\ 1 4~ B[in 4~ \ = ,

4 B 2IT1 4 C\ti = 0.

, , 2

(( 4" Pi^i 4" P'2^ 2) 1 4- (# 4- Pi#i 4- 22) tn 44 (PoQ>4* Pi^i 4" P2C2) fi = 0.
, (8)
. , ( : :
: : D) ,

1 4- + = 0.

D
Do
X , Dx
2 2 d 2

( /,
, , 0), .
,
( (8)
). ,
.
278

, ( : : : D)
(9).
,
,
,

,
.
,


,
, .

, (. ), .

.
-

(. 3 24
2).

, (.
4 25 3).
,
.
,

.
, (, )
,
: ,
,

. . ,

, . . . ,
,
.
(. 14),

( )

27:)

, . ., ,
S4-
Oil . . . in, s t'
0 'i\ . . . * '

'

0 'i\ . . . i' ,
OiL . . . in.
s^' S4-
,
, ,
(
, = 2
= 3):

7. -
S&

. ,

Oil . . . i- Ori[ . . . in (
)
', 0 'i\ . . . *'
, Oij . . . i.,.
,
A aJi-\- + anin,

'=

...

.
.
Ort <-(/?).
7
, .
.
O rt(/i),
Ort+(/i).

.
,

.
280

,
,
.
, . .
(,
,
), .
.
,
- (,
, -), . .
,
- (
).
,
.
,
. *
.

27

.
.
. , .
.
.

1, . . . , "
s&.
s&,
,
1', . . . , ' ,
, 1', . . . , \
.
A s i
' = () :

1' =

' .

...

,
, ' (
1, . . . . )
1', . . . , '
:

yl = c\xv -f . . . + clnxn' + bl,

282

1' I
,
\ + . . . +

" | ,

( \ )

>

1', . . . ' '


1, . . . , , ,
c Jat1 +
. . . + \ -\- \
...................................................
\1 + . . . + + ,

/' =

, ,
(2)

= + ,

:
/. s i


- .
\ . . . , '
1, ... , (1)
(2).

( ).
, (1)
.
,
\ . . . , \ . . . ,

, ,
\ . . . , ', . . . ,

.
,
,
- (,
. .).
283

1.
. (
), = R >* I
:
,
, .
> 1 , , , = I

. X = R .
, ,
-
, (
( I) ) ,
. ,
(
), R .
.

,
. ,
.

( )
.
1)
. (
)

, .. kE, .
( , .)
284

2) ,
( , )
-*1 = , iji = ky ,
k > 0, . *

, ,

\ = kx,
iji ly,
k >*0, l > 0.

k /.
, (
) ,
. , -. , -
, (
, , ).
, ,
- . . 22.
285

3) ,
\ = * +

\ ,

, .
, *
.
,
()

()
. ,
:
/.


.
. *
I.
,
' (?).
0'[ 0' \ , '
( ),
[ '2 ( *
1), , , . , [ '
286

0 ' \ 0 '

\ 2 .
\ ~ \ 2 2 ,
OEi 2 .
,
, , !/

'E[ 0 ' ', , ,


\ 2 . -

,
, \, 2 .
,
\2 [', ,


.
,

, , 0 ' '
[
( k /, , >

, 0' \ 0 ' ').



,
,
.
,
,
( )

28


,
.
I
. 1
f(M) =
= () ', ,
, / : t> / ( ) .

,
. , 0
0 d (
)
'' d ' . ,
' N'0
, ' d ' (
6 fN'0\ < | 0 'M q\ = f ( M 0)), \,
No, N o ~

, ( , \
ON , , M j ~ f ( M 1)
O'N q)
0
/ 0 , ) = | ' [ | < | ''' | < f (/v g .


(, ,
, ).
1 (
288

)
.
1, ,

.
(, ,
).
.
,

(2):
(3)

+ 6,


, (
) (. 14)
.
(3)
,
( 1).

.
1. = (3)
= + ,
.
,
. (
b 0) .
,
, .
, R o to ().
,
(3) - b
( ). ,
Rot0 ()
SO (n).
(3)

+ .
,
( )
:

289

2.
, .
. 14

, (
, )

/
' = cos sin -f- blt
/ 4)
' = sin + cos + 2.
= 0 .
, - 0 (4)

.
, Af0(*o, )
(4) , :
= XoCOS 0 sin + \,
= sin + cos + 2,
. .
(1 cos ) + (sin ) 0=
( sin ) + (1 cos ) 0 2.

0,

1 cos
sin

sin
1 cos

(I cos )2 + sin2 = 2 ( 1 cos ),

0, 0
( ).


' cos sin ,
' = sin cos ,
,
< < .

.
2, , ,

290

. ,
, .
2.
,
, ( )
. ,
, .

' = + +

' = 2\ + 22 + 2
0.

=

\2 +

\,

22 +

2,

, \2 = , 22 1 \ = , 2 0.
(
) 2 \ = 0
1. ,

, ,
.

.


S
, ..
. = 5 ( ) ,
,

S (
).


' = ,

3.

.
10*

291

.
( 14)
,

,

' = cos + sin -+- \>


;
' sin cos 2.
, /, ,
' {1, ) ,
0 = /~1 ,
. ,
,
= 'PoQ .
I Q = '-1
, ,
' = cos -j- sin + by /,
' ~ sin cos + 2 .
,

( I cos ) sin { /,
^
sin + (1 + cos ) = 2 .
, I , ,
-, ( Q

,
,. . ).
, I ,
(7) :
1 cos __ sin __ by I
sin
1 + cos
b ~ *

1 ~ cos __ sin
sin
1 + cos

,
sin ______ by I
1 + cos ~~ bz

I
(&2- ) + ( 6 , - 0 = 0.
292

,_

sin
1+ cos

-, ,
(/, ), ..

I _ sin _J_

1
-c o s
, I
:
(8)
1 -\-
U tn 0.
,
(8)
% - b\
, -4 |
= 1 + 2 '
1 +
,
. ,

,
(
).
, ,
, ,
.

, ,

.
,
,
,
,
, . . . ,
, . .

' = + ,

' = >

' = ,

'=


== ,
293


.
,
.

.
, .

. *
,

x' = CuX + C i2y + C l3Z ,


' = <- f 22 + 22,
z ' = C 3 lX + 32 +

C33Z.

{, , z) (0, 0, 0),

(0, 0, 0), . . ,
(9)
= *, ' = /, 2 ' = ,
X . , ,

(\\ ) X + \2 + C\3Z = 0,

CftX ~h ( 22 )

-f- C23Z0>

+ 32 + (33 ) 2 == 0,

, ,
,
Cji X

()

12

31

12

2 2
CZ2

13

23

= 0.

33


, ,

. ,
(, , 2 ) (0, 0, 0),
(9 ) , (
(1 0 ) ).
, , =1.
,
, ,
294

( , 1),
**
( = 1).
, -*
, .

' ,
, ,
~ 1 ,
' ~ I
. ,
, ,
. ,
, .
,

.
.

,
(?).
. ,
,
,
, . (,
^ ;
, .)

28
. -
. . -
.-



- -
. .
- -
- -

- -
,

-


-
. - -
.
.-
-
.


, ,
, .
,
,
, .
,

.
(
):
296

1 ( ) .
/, 2 , 3, 4 , 5, 6 14, 25 36
, 16.
13 46, 35 62, 51 24 .
, , 13 ,
1 3, 13-46
13 46.
, .
,
,
.
, .

,
.
. ,
0
,
.
, ,
pa -j- v6 , (, v)=t^ ( 0 , 0 ).

:
2,

.\, , 5, 6
1, , , 4, as, ,
(1)
, + 44= 22 + 55 = 3 -f 6.
( , 4, ),
( 75, , ), (65 ,61, 62, 64),
,

M i + == 4 +
+ Y55 = YeflEc + Y2 2,
63^5 *4"
62 2 + 64 4

.
.
ai _ 6

a i _6 , *
a,at. (1)

aj + a4 = a2 + a5 = a3 + a6,
297

= * + #6
tf6 + 2>
{ = 2 + 4.

(1 3) + (3 ) + (5 ,
.
!

, 1 6 ,
:
14 25 = 14 36, 13 46, 35 62, 51 24.
( )
, 7, 8 , 9. 09
:
25, 37, 49, 06, 01, 19, 28, 64, 35, 78.
( )
0 9,
:
(*) 18 ,
, 9
9.

.
298


.
,
,
( ).
, 135
246 0 .
,


(
).

(
),
: ()
( )
.
, 1, 3, 5 2, 4, 6
,
( 7, 8 , 9 ).
:
2 ( ) .
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 1, 3, 5

2, 4, 6
( ),

, 14-23, 45 36, 52- 61
.
.
,
1) \, 2, , , 5, 6
,
2 ) }, 3, 5, 2, 4, 6

,
3) alt 3, 5
2, 4, 6 2, 4, 6
5, 3, 5,
, &, ,
7=
+ 4 4 = v2a 2 -f- v3a3,
as = 22 +
= v,*! + ^6,
9 = 3 3 + = v4a4 + v5a5>

,
209

, 2 - ,
, , =
* / \ ^ - / \ 2
(. 2 3 7). , 0,
\, 3 aj_6
.
, % ( 2, 4, ) , e lt 02
2 ( ) ,
( 2) .
|_6
, ,

flj k xeo 4* 0 i>


fl3 =
4" e h
a 5 ks^O 4" e)

62^0 4- ^2
fl4 = 640Q4~ ^2

a2

6fieo 4" e2y


fci_6 .
7} ,
7 = ( ,^ + ) * + Pi*t 4- Pie2 =
= (v262 4- Vjfc,) e0 + vjet 4- v2e2.
, ei, 2 ,
, 1 = \,
P4 = v 2 pi&i 4* 4^4 v262 4- V363. ,

Pi ( k \ h ) p4 ( k 2 k/i).
a7
, , pj = 62 64
(, 62=7^ 6 4) , , p4= 6 i 6 3 .
,
= [(^4) 4 - (k\k3)k A]e0 4- (^2 ^4) 4- {k\ 63) 02
~

{k\k 2 6364) eQ 4 (62 64)

4" (6j 63)

,
a 8=

(662 656) e0 4- ( k 2 66) ex 4- (6, 6r>) e2,


= (6364 ^ k M e0 4- (64 k b) e x + (63 65) e2.
f l y - f a g s, a7, a8, a 9
.
16,
7 14-23, 8 = 45-36 9 = 52 61,

69, 46, 27, 58, 13, 38, 14, 78, 25.
300

( )
1 9,
:
(*) 18 ,
, 9
9.
,
, !
,
. , (*) (,
, )
.
.


.


. ,

. ,
-
.

:
3 (
).
1, 2, 3, 4, ,
301


12 34,

13 24,

14 23

.
. ,

2, , 4
, , 6,
=

+ 22 .63 -|- 4<*4,

(2) p jflj 4" = 22 4 4#4,


= Y22 4 * = Yi! 4 44
.
,
,

0\\ 4 22

044 ,

Pifll Pe#2 4 3
.

&4

Yii Y2<*2 Yi3 4 Y4fl4= .

a lt 2, a3
(.. ),
, .
, k 0 1 ,

pi = 6at, $> = 02, pj = a3. 04 = ka4,


Yi = /ab

Y2 = ^2

= /

Y4 = /a4.

, (2) ,
, 6,
2, 3

(cti, %, 0),

(Pi, 0, 3),

(0, y2>)


at a2

Pi 0 3 = a2pj Y3 ^ = 2kl (^) ,

\2
.
,
,
.
302


.


.
, ,
.
,
.
,

(3)

-f s r - f c z = o

(X : Y : Z) ( : : )
.
, ()
() ,
, ..,
, , ,
, , .
:

.
,

,
.

.
,
,
, .


. ,
, .
,
, .
.
4 ( ) .
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
1, 3, 5 2, 4, 6

( ),
303

- Kit - '
,
14 23, 43 36, 52 61

, , 14
1 4, 14-23 ,
14 23.
,

.
,

anno.
, ,
5 (*), , ,
( ,

).


,
,

.

,
.
(,

, , ,
),
.
, , ,
1, 2, 3, 4,
, 12-34,
13-24, 14-23 (
) .

.
,

(). ,
,
304


.
, ,

, .

,
.
ab !,
,
.

(*
.

,

. ,
( ),
11

303

,
.
,
(
). ,
,
.

.
, (
, )


.

(,
)

.

.

(
)
. ,
,

.
,
( )
(.. ),
. ,
. ,

.
()
.



.
, , .
. 0
= | | , 0 < ^ .


(
).
( 0). ,

.
,

,
.
,
Roto(3)
.
SO (3),
, SO(3)


.
, , SO(3)
(0 : 1: 2 : 3) ,
.

, .

." = 1
( 2
4
).
. 1, , ,
(zq\ z \)
(zq>Z\). Zo
= ,
Zo
20 = 0 (0 : 1).
,
,
,

.
z x -\-iy
(
) (,).
(

,
*

307

,
4),

S

N
,
S
.
S,
N,

,
.

' NM ,
> ' (
) S N
.
, ,
,
,
N. ,

+ S.
JC+
.
, ,

.
, b, , d,

Ia

bI

\ ad be ,

(4 )

az 4-

cz -jr d
zt* w
+ . (
, W - Z = W = Z
, = 0, w ~ .)
308

J. + -*-- (4)
- .


!. ,
,
*"
,

(. 27), . . (4) 26.
= 1

= cz0 + dzu
dI
i, a b I =0,
pttfj azQ+I bz
,

0
(4). , -
(4) ,


+.
, -
, . . ()
- ,
- ,
- .
,
(4),
__ dw 4-
cw

, -
Proj (1; ).
(4)
, b , , d
0. -
(4)

ad be 1.
-
. -
,
309


1.
a ~ d 1 = 0
(5)
+ .
b b\ - f

( \ 2), ,

.
d \ b = 0 ,
(6)
= .
| | = 1, . .

= cos + i sin
(, , = ), (6)
(7)
etaz
(
, (7)
= y = lm z).
= > 0
(6)
. a ret(X (6)
= a r g
| | .
(5) (6)
-
(8)
= az + b,
= 0 d 1.
.

(5)
(6). , | | = 1
( ,
(8)
| | = 1). ,
.
, (8)
( 1).
R
. N ( ) 310

) ,
\
)
| 0 | 1M0N | = .2.
, ,
.
0, n N
, ;, ) )

:
) 0
; 0 :
arg ( 0) = arg (w 0);
)

| | | W I = R 2.

),
w 0
D2
-__ ,
Z Zq

) . ,
:
(9)

w 0= R2
= -.

, ,
; (, , ;),

R 0,
(9),
, (9)
z\>w +
.
2. (9) 4*,
;,
,
.
311


, , ,
( 1 z0 = 0),
(9)
(10)

K) = j .

, ,
z\> z y
-
(11)

w .

z-+ z
0. , ,
- (11)

.
-
.
-
,
(12)

( + 2) + + + = 0

0 ( 2 -{- 2 > 4) ,
= 0 .

. ,
, , -
(11) .
R
z0 = 0

(10)

w = R2z ,
. . R2.

R2, , , ,
312


.
(. 27),
(
). ,

( )
.

az +

cz + d

________________

c{cz +

d)

( , ad b c 1) ,
0 - (4)
z icz -f rf,
-

->---- - z - f - .

L -
.

ZZ = X2 + y 2,

X 2 ,

2 1

(12) ( )
:

Ezz +

+ = ,

. .
(13)

Ezz + P z + P z + C =

, \ ^
.
( )

- f Pz - f Pz + Czz = ,
. . ( 0
). , ,
-
313

, . . (
),
(11)
, ,

-
.
-
.
(9) ,
.

1. ( )
(14)

(2+ 2) - f + By + =

(15)

(2+ 2) + AlX + 1+ =

(
),
(16)

+ = 2 ( + {).

. 0
(14) ^
, R2

(17)

* =

, 0 (15)
, *<7 ) Rf

(18)

? =

2 + 2 - 4 1[

4\

, -
, (14)
(15) ,
R2 + Ri
, . .

314

(17) (18),
(16).
| = 0 , . . (15)
4- \ + \ = 0,
(14)
,
(14), . .

- 4 ) + (- )+ -= (16) (
i = 0).
, = 0 \ 0 (16)
:{-\ = 0
.
, (14) (15)
(13), . .

Ezz + Pz + Pz + = 0

Exzz + Pxz + Pxz { + Cj = ,


(16)
(19)

\ + \ = 4 {,

, (11)
(14) ,
,
,
- .
, :
(20)
^ , = > , ^ .
(15)

(21)

i=^Ch ^

=^{.

, (20) (21) (19)


( ).
, - (11)
, . .
.
-
315

(11), ,

( ,
,
).
. -
( )
(, ,
) ,
.
-
oi
, /V
,
, ,
. ,
.
-
()
(), , N,

,
-
' = ( ) N' = 0 (W ),
' = ().
, - (41
,
.

____ +
cz + d *

. .
(22)

cz2 + ( d - a ) z - b = 0.


, ,


.
{ad b e 1)

(d - )2 + 4 = (a - f d )2 - 4,
-316

(4)
,

[26)

z U2 -

a-d (V + d )2 - 4

= 0 ( )
,
( d , . . ,
) .
-
,
. (23) ,
(4)
, + d
2 .

.

- (4)
Z\ 2.
, ,
,
. -
,
(4)
,
, , 317

,
.
,
(4)
, . (
, ) .
- .

,
.

0 .

0, ,
.

(4) ,
, ,
, , ,

.

w = az, > 0,
. ,
w eiaz.
, -

, .
318

(,
).

2. (zb z2, z3)


(w w2, wz) C +
- ,
.
.
. ,
- 7,
(zi, 22, z3) ( , ),
- z z2, z3,
-
, , .
,
, (wlf w2t ws)
= (0, , 1), , (zb z2, z3)
(, , 1), a * ( w2, w3) (0, , 1),
(zj, z2, 3) ( 2>3).
,
- , (zi, z2, z3)
(0, ,1). ,
z = zi,
z = z2, = z3
.
319

,
(24)
' '

Z Z i Z i Zl

1. (24) zu z2, z3
( ).
z\

II

*|

, ,
z,

Z - Z1
-
22

2 2 = ,

== .


(24) , .
2,
2 - ,
{zu z2,z 3) (wl t w2,w 3),
, z w.
, ,
/-

w w{

Ws

'

W Wi

W 3 W1

'

w2

Zj

z3 2

Z Z%

Z3 Z\

(4) w
, w .
, zu z2, z3 wu w2,
w3 , (25)
1.
(25)
,
( z i,z 2,z 3, z ) (w t,w 2,W 3,w ) +,
- (
2, ) -
. z z4, a w
104,
24 , ' 2 2 _

Zi , . 3 {

24 2

42 23 2

2 2 j

zlt z2, z3, z 4,


:
320

' 3, Z\, z2, z3, z4


C + -
w2y w3, ,
.

-
z z2. , z3
3 = (3).
- ,
(z \,z 2, z 3) (z\yz2,w 3), , ,

w Z\ Wa zi
z Z\ z 3 z2
W Zi
Z[
z Zi z3 ZL '

(26)

w3 Zi

z3 Zi

w3 Zi

z3 z t

:
> .
,
(27)
W Zi

Z Zi

, -
Z\, z2 ( i ; , , z2 = ,
w z t K (z Z\ ) ).
(27)
- (
, .. ).
( ) .
(27),
-

-
(28)
: z ^ K z .
(27)
Q o<D =

K o Q,

. .
0 = Q_ i oKoQ,
321

,
-

Q.
Q Z\ z<i
, , ,
, 0,

0. > 0
, ,
\\ 1, ,
, . Q -1
,

. > 0
,
, . .
, | / ( | = 1 , ,
,
, . .
.
| /| =7^= 1 .

, , ,
- Q
Q_1 K Q ,
. ,
(28) > 0,
\\ = 1 .

(
) (4) - .
(26),
,
= , , w3 afe (,
z3 ).
,

z j, (23)
, ,
,

z l - 2-2 =

322

----------------- --------- f

Z l? 2

>

(22{.

z\ " z\

(z i 2)2

2z{z2

(d - )2 + 2be
t
2

2 2 - 2

(, + 2) + 2 (? + ])

2 (ei + 2) + c*2iz2
2 + 2 (d ) + (d )2 + 26
2 + (d ) 6

( + rf)* - 2 (ad - be) .


(a + </)2- 2 .
orf - b e
{a


(29)

K + ~ = ( a + d)*-2.

(, -

;
. - (29)
~1.)
(29) (
),
(, ,
(4) ) ,
+ d \a-\-d\ > 2 .
, | /| = 1 (, , (4)
) , + d
\a - \ - d \< 2 . (4)
, + d
(, \a-\-d\ = 2
-
, ,
. .
).
:
5 ( -
) . -
323


az-\~ d
w
cz-\- d
,
a-\-d .

'i
>,
)

(\a + d \> 2,
\\a - \- d \ -2y
( | + of | < 2.

.
S
+.
S ,
, ),
i 2 + v + s 2= i
(
, z , z
).
, +
z + iy,
= 0 S (
1/2). N
( 0, 0, 1) .
NM , N
M (!,ri, ) S,

(30)

__

I ~

__

Z - I

-1

(
X , , Z)
(

) . ,

Af (, |* 6)

(31)
324

4- /

AJH
1
1 -

( | = 0 , \ = 0, = 1 , ,
z ).
*( ), ) ,
(|, ), z*
.+
I+
(32)
1+5
, ,
ZZ

=3

+ \3

1.

, z*z = 1 z (31),
z* (32).
, z z*


,
(33)

*= 4-.

2
5.
: S >+ 5 +, -
= 2<>_1 +,
,
2. 2

, ,
(33), ,
(33). ,
() (4),
* z*z = 1,

( az* + b \ ( + \ _

l 4 < i A w + r f/
. . z
a b z \ / + \
\ c - d z )\cz + d )

( bz) (az - f ) -f- { dz) (cz -f d) = 0.


.525

,
, . .

ab + cd 0,

bb + dd = 0,

ba + dc 0.

( ) ,
= 0, d b = .
( 1 ?) ( + ) 0,
( a a - f - c c > 0 )
1 , = 0, . . || = 1 .
, ad be = 1
( + ) = 1,
, , ,
. = 1 , , d = , b = .
, -

+, ,

(34)

w ^ ~cz + d > *~ -f- = 1.

(34) a + d = 2 R e a
. , 0, | a | 2 = a a 1
< 1 | Re | ^ | | < 1, Im 0,
| Re | < | | ^ 1, | Re a| < 1
, , \ + d\ < 2. = 0 Im a 0
(34) , ,
, ,
(34) .
'0.
( !), 0
.
. (34)
. ,
,
= 2 -1 +,
2 , -
.
,
.
,

( ) .
2 , ,
, ,
326

. , , ,
( )
+ , ,
-. ( ,

.)

Zo. -
Q, z0 .
* ~ Q , -
,
.
: + +,
. , ^ ( 00) = ,

( )
. , +
, ,
W
. , ,
. (. I
27),
. ,
'F
, .
,
, . . ( I),
( II). I
, ,
, - ( )
. II ,
, , ,
z
2 -
.
,

. , ,
,
,
(
),
II,
327

,

+ -.

(34) ,
= 2 -1 ,
.
,
,
.

.

,
(33).

- ,
, , -
, ,

, Z\
1*

,
^
,
, Zj
_1 ^ z +, z. .-, 11
w +
= eiQ, . .
w
WZx +

___v

z Z\

22, 4-

w,

(35)

( + + (\ - ,

( l - / C) * i - * + (l + K*i*i) '

= .

(34)
-
, . 0

, z i
. (
) , 0 .
328

(35) - ,
, .
(

+ ) +

- 0 -

)2

, ,
(35) = (1-}_ ,
+ ) 1 2 .
,
= (: + ) ,
(35) (34).
(35) .
, , .
( 1 , 0 , 0 ) ,
1 .
(35), z { = \.
, - ,
0
,

== ,0

+ + - ,
I I - * ) + (1+/

~ *2,
=
cos

eia + e~ia

sin

2i


cos z i sin
i sin z -f- cos g

. = /4, /2, /4, . .


0 = /2, , /2,
(36)

__

z i
iz + 1

J_

z1

z+ i
iz + 1

,
(35) Z\ = ( z \ -~i).
329

, -

<1+)2+(1-*
= *,
-(1-*)** + (!+*) '

cos z + sin
sinz + cos

< < ,

= 0/2. = /4, /2, /4, . . 0 = /2,


, /2,
1
2 -1
2+1
(37)
w

- 1'

* + 1*

(
),
- 0

w = eiQz
. 0 = , , - -

(38)
w = iz, z , iz.

,

W ' 7 f)'

Z' =

W T

(35)
, 9 = 2/3, ._.

1+ / "

------ 2

4:

0- ,

(2 + V3) + / 3
* ------- 2V 1

2+1

330

1 i /

. . / = ------

* =

(39)

2+1

W = . --? - ,

w~i

2+1

+ i
z I

. ,

,
( ----- \= -, ~~=, -= , zx - ~ i + 1 =

V.

-1 = I V


2+ /
2 J

( '

/ 1

2 1
2

+1


1 ) /(
1 1, ==,
?=, =

V3

/
2 /
.2+1
(41)
W= z + i '
2-1

2 1
. 2 1
(42)
+ f
'*+1

1 \


| = 0,
^0, -^=-,

0 = , . . ~ 1)

(43)

1
w = i 2 +
i *

,
| = 0,
^0, -^=,


(44)

w=

2 I
+i 9


] = 0 = 0

2+1
2 1
i
I
(45)
W 2- 1 *
2+1 2 *
2*
, -
(36)(45), ,
(
331

f W , W .
. ., ,
V /
/
V3 /
.
(36), (37) (38)* ^



,
, (39), (40), (41) (42)
- - ,

, , , (43), (44) (45)-^
,

.
,
. ,
24 = 3 X 3 + 4 X 2 + 6- f - l .
( !),
, . .
24 .
(38)

(46)

' = ik2 ,* = 0 , 1, 2, 3.
(36),
(45), (37)
(45)

w=

(47)

(48)

w = ik ^ | ,

* = 0,1, 2,3,

(45),
(39), (37)
(41);
(49)

* = 0,1, 2,3,

(37),
332

(40), (45)
(42);
(50)

* = 0,1, 2,3,

(39), (43),
(40)
(36); , ,

w = ik T
7-

(51)

* = 0,1, 2,3,

(41),
(36), (42)
(44).
, :
4. 24
.

(46) (51).

.
12 ,
(46), (47), (50) (51) 6 = 0 ,2
(48) (49) 6 = 1 , 3.
,
(, , )
60 ,
-
-S * . + '- + 1
' - +
^ '

' 5 ' + ' .* - ( ! +


6 (1 + {){- ' 2 I

= 5 , 6, / = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4.



67
196
11
, 106
33
132
39
181
105
96
96
() 108
57, 58
9,13
, 145
, 61
, 29
29
30
, 22
- 22
289
41
- 253
121
165
, 166
, 175
, 167
, 166
, 168
, 167
, 167
, 167
, 167
, 167
, 167
, 167
, 167
226
227


270
-

309
269
309
280
321
202

334

122
42

136
38
37
40
312
195
, 234
233
, 234
44
35
171
265
130
,
41
121
33

-
181
37

176
186

197
---------- 191
---------- 197
---------- 191
---------- 197
136
138
90

24
-
321
255
194
216
194
198
-- 198
201

316

130
*- - 123
* 124

118
142
211
221

97
101
103
133
159
175
110
161
, 160
, 1GI
. 161
, 161
237
236
289
- 253
,
75
263
253
144
I 228
()
23
181
,
55
,
81
328
280
- 309
318
------ 319
- 317
------ 318

310
280
281
66
146
114
114

42
136
41
------- 183
- 272
121
()
97
180
273
272

134
45
, 85


274
249
251
132
- 43
35
34
122
154
-------- 150
334
334
332
333
333

67
276
-*
111
130
------ 33
236
190
311
312
43
- 176
133

96
------ 96
308
99
63
- 117
308
296
303
- 299
302
301
,
54
,
80
295
154

121


77
---------- 48
50

- 177
127
------ 127
127

335


128

129
189
190
242
244
, 242
- 244
242
243

161
175
, 169
227
163
, 163
, 163
, 163
, 163
, 163
, 163
, 163
, 163
223
225