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2010

85.103(3)
51
, . .

51


/ . . . .:
; -, 2010. 292 ., . ().
ISBN 978-5-8465-1027-2 ( )
ISBN 978-5-98187-615-8 (-)

, ,
. . XX .
,
(95 . . . 846 . . ).
VII-IX . - (1617-1682)
.
- XX ., ,
.
.
- ,
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85.103(3)

Elikhina, J. I.

Cults of Main Bodhisattvas and their terrestrial reincarnations in the his


tory and art of Buddhism / J. I. Elikhina. St. Petersburg : St. Petersburg
State University Faculty of Philology; Nestor-Historia, 2010. 292 p.,
ill. (Asiatica).
ISBN 978-5-8465-1027-2
ISBN 978-5-98187-615-8
In the book the cults of bodhisattvas of Avalokiteshvara, Manjushri and Vajrapani are
considered, and also features of their worshipping on the territory of the whole Asian region
from the beginning AD to the beginning of the XX century. The main attention is given to
the specificity of the Tibetan cults, history of the basic governors of the Yarlung dynasty
(95 BC-846 AD). The crucial question is the propagation of Buddhism in Tibet in V IIIX centuries. The activity of the fifth Dalai-lama (1617-1682) and the forming of a theocratic
monarchy is analyzed. The line of terrestrial reincarnations of Dalai-lama to the beginning
of the XX century, their activity and the historical events connected with the properties
of the theocratic monarchy in Tibet are described. The iconography o f bodhisattvas and their
terrestrial reincarnations is reviewed. The publication is intended for orientalists and anyone
interested in history, culture and art of Buddhist Asia.
: ,
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ISBN 978-5-8465-1027-2

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3. 266: Ary-a Avalokita svari-yin arslan-u dayun neretu tarni.
4. 281 (14): Qutuy-tu niduber ujegci erketu-yin jayun naiman neretu
kemegdeku.
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6. 367 (53): Ary-a Avalokita isvari-yin turbel ugei niyuca-yin sang sedk.il
metu kurdun-ujiruken neretu tarni [, 1993, . 66, 84, 86-87,92,
106, 109, 111, 129, 253].

127



( phags-pa spyan-ras-gzigs dbangphyug gis dge slong rab gsal gzhon nu la
sprin-pa iyig) [ ., 1989, . 123].
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1987.

SUMMARY
At the beginning of the monograph the author gives the history of
the study of the cults of the bodhisattvas of Avalokiteshvara, Manjushri and
Vajrapani.
The author considers original Tibetan historical compositions on gen
eral Buddhism of the XIX century, and historical works of Russian and
foreign experts, as well as iconographic works and art criticism. Three com
positions of the fifth Dalai Lama devoted to the Avalokiteshvara cult are
used in the book.
It is clear from the above-stated list of publications that the cults of the
bodhisattvas of Avalokiteshvara, Manjushri and Vajrapani were widespread
in all countries of the Buddhist region. The Avalokiteshvara cult had great
significance not only in peoples daily religious life, but also as an important
element of the sacred supreme authority and prominent lamas in different
countries of the Asian region from the period of the distribution of Buddhism
to the beginning of the XX century. In the monograph the brief issue of
Buddhism as a religious doctrine is given. The Buddhist concept of bodhisat
tvas is considered. The author gives a definition of the bodhisattva. This is
a being (sanskr. sattva) aiming to reach enlightenment (sanskr. bodhi ).
The purposes of the bodhisattva cover four main vows: 1. To achieve clear
ing of the ocean of Samsara for all living beings, however numerous they
are; 2. To achieve refinement from all defects, however numerous they are;
3. To study all words of Buddha, however many of them there are; 4. To reach
the state of Buddha, however infinite the enlightenment. Bodhisattvas rep
resent the highest beings, growing spiritually on seven levels (sanskr. bhumi),
and traveling to various worlds, where they listen to Buddhas instructions
on how to help all beings to be rescued from the infinite cycle of reincarna
tions.
The meaning, purposes and ideals of bodhisattvas are revealed in early
Buddhist compositions. Considering that the main purpose of Mahayana
Buddhism is to liberate oneself from suffering, believers were accompanied
and supported by bodhisattvas with high moral ideals. These beings were
reflected in the early Buddhist compositions. Avalokiteshvara, symbolizing

288

the mercy of Buddha, Manjushri, representing wisdom, and Vajrapani,


personifying energy and force, became the most prominent bodhisattvas.
The author addresses written sources and the origin of the cults of the
bodhisattvas Avalokiteshvara, Manjushri and Vajrapani in India, and their
consequent dissemination to Eastern Turkestan.
The author also considers the cults of bodhisattvas in Southeast Asia.
The migration of the peoples and ideas from India has rendered a huge influ
ence on the culture of Southeast Asia, and on shaping art, writings, mythol
ogy and sciences. In the first millennium there were three dominant ethnic
groups in the continental part of South-East Asia: the Cham people along
the southeast coast, the Cambodgian people in the central part of the valley
of the Mekong River, and the Mon people in the west.
In some countries of Southeast Asia and in Sri-Lanka there was a con
nection between the cult of Avalokiteshvara and state authority. Such beliefs
took place in relation to various Hinduist and Buddhist deities. Philosophy
dominated in all countries of Southeast Asia in which the cult of a divine
origin of the kings predominated. The king was identified with a Buddhist
or Hinduist deity and was considered to be the deitys terrestrial reincarna
tion. Among Buddhist deities, only the cult of Avalokiteshvara was consid
ered to be a state cult during dissemination of the philosophy of Mahayana,
who was then replaced by Theravada.
The cults of the bodhisattvas Avalokiteshvara, Manjushri and Vajrapani
were very popular in China. This section of the book tells about the cult of
Avalokiteshvara in China, and of his transformation from a male deity into
a female one. In Chinese Buddhism both images of the bodhisattva are wor
shiped. The mountain Wutai Shan is a special pilgrimage place. It is con
nected to the cult of the Manjushri in China and is considered to be the de
itys residence. The famous terrestrial bodhisattva reincarnations in China
are considered in the book.
The cults of the bodhisattvas Avalokiteshvara, Manjushri and Vajrapani
were also widespread in Japan.
The largest section of the monograph is devoted to the cults of the bod
hisattvas in Tibet and their terrestrial reincarnations. This part of the work
considers the concept of the sacred imperial authority in Tibet in the period
of the Yarlung dynasty (from 95 to 846 AD). Special attention is given
to the founder of the uniform Tibetan state, Songtsen Gampo (613(?)649).
He was esteemed to be a terrestrial reincarnation of Avalokiteshvara. A similar
analysis is made based on data from Tibetan compositions, such as Mani
Kambum and Gachem-Gakolma, The author tries to reconstruct
the religious perception of the person and to compare historical events of
the time.

Summary

289

Two historical figures in Tibet Trisong Detsen and Relpachen


are considered to be reincarnations of various bodhisattvas of Manjushri and
Vajrapani.
In the composition of Londol-lama Ngavan Lobsan (1719-1795), all ter
restrial reincarnations of the bodhisattva Avalokiteshvara are described in
Tibet. All Tibetan compositions confirm the ideas of heredity of imperial
authority in Tibet from Avalokiteshvara and its sacred conception. These
sources consider the early Tibetan governors as kings-bodhisattvas, and
determine a line of reincarnations, including the famous teachers, leading
up to Dalai-lamas. The Avalokiteshvara cult receives written confirmation
as a state cult starting from the second half of the VIII century.
The author gives much attention to the activity of the fifth Dalai-lama
Ngavan Lobsan Gyatso (1617-1682) and to the transformation of the cult
of Avalokiteshvara into a state one. The activity of the Dalai-lama as the re
incarnation of Avalokiteshvara and his policy, both external and internal,
and spiritual practice and religious deeds are considered for the creation in
Tibet of a special type of government a theocratic monarchy, whereby
spiritual and secular authority are held in the hands of one person.
The line of reincarnations of Dalai-lamas is given in the book from
the beginning to the XX century, as is their activity and the historical events
connected to features of the theocratic monarchy in Tibet.
The author also considers the cults of bodhisattvas Avalokiteshvara,
Manjushri and Vajrapani in Nepal and Mongolia.
At the end the iconography of Avalokiteshvara, Manjushri Vajrapani,
Dalai-lamas, Songtsen Gampo, Trisong Detsen and Relpachen is applied,
as compiled by the author from various publications.

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86

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Summary.......................................................................................................................... ..287

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