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CAMTECH/S/2001/Basic Concepts/SCR-4

COURSE CONTENTS
1.

Knowledge and necessity of Signals Fail Safe Feature of Signaling


System

2.

Definition of Signaling terms as given G & SR

3.

Concept of LQ; UQ Signaling; Colour Light Signals

4.

Overlaps; Braking distances: Sighting Distance

5.

Location of Signals

6.

Subsidiary Signals

7.

Markers, Boards, Signs, etc.

8.

Isolation, Slip Siding & Catch Siding

9.

Simultaneous Reception and dispatch of trains

10.

Classification of stations Minimum signaling equipments required at


each class of station

11.

Standards of Inter Locking Minimum Signaling equipments required


at each standard of inter locking.

12.

Level crossing gates

13.

Inter cabin control

14.

System of train working (Block Working)

15.

Control of outlying sidings through Block Instruments

16.

Station Working rules

17.

Signaling Plan

CAMTECH/S/2001/Basic Concepts/SCR-4

Lesson Plan

Long Course
No. of Hours

Topic
Knowledge and necessity of

Theory

Practicals

Teaching Aids
Theory

Practicals

signals fail safe feature of


signaling system.
Definition of signaling terms as

given in G & SR
Concept of LQ, UQ signaling color

OHP Wallchart

OHP

light signals
Overlaps, braking distance,
sighting distance
Location of signals

OHP Wallchart

Model Room

Subsidiary signals

OHP Wallchart

Model Room

Markers, Boards, Signs, etc

OHP Wallchart

Model Room

Isolation, slip siding, catch siding

OHP

Model Room

Simultaneous reception and

Model Room

dispatch of trains
Classification of station minimum
signaling equipments required at

Block board

Model Room

OHP

each class of station


Standards of signaling minimum

OHP Wallchart

Model Room

Level crossing gates

OHP

Model Room

Inter cabin control

OHP

Model Room

System of train working (block

OHP Wallchart

Model Room

Block instruments, methods of


block working, control of outlying
sidings
Station working rules

OHP Wallchart

Model Room

OHP

Open Line

Signaling plan

OHP Wallchart

Open Line

signaling equipments required


each standard of signaling

working)

CAMTECH/S/2001/Basic Concepts/SCR-4

Lesson Plan

Short Course
Minutes

Topic
Knowledge and necessity of

Theory

Practicals

Teaching Aids
Theory

Practicals

20

signals fail safe feature of


signaling system.
Definition of signaling terms as

30

OHP

30

OHP Wallchart

20

OHP

given in G & SR
Concept of LQ, UQ signaling color
light signals
Overlaps, braking distance,
sighting distance
Location of signals

20

15

OHP Wallchart

Model Room

Subsidiary signals

20

20

OHP Wallchart

Model Room

Markers, Boards, Signs, etc

30

Isolation, slip siding, catch siding

25

Simultaneous reception and

20

OHP Wallchart
30

OHP

Model Room

OHP

dispatch of trains
Classification of station minimum

30

30

OHP Wallchart

Model Room

60

30

OHP Wallchart

Model Room

signaling equipments required at


each class of station
Standards of signaling minimum
signaling equipments required
each standard of signaling
Level crossing gates

30

OHP Wallchart

Inter cabin control

20

OHP Wallchart

System of train working (block

60

60

OHP Wallchart

Model Room

30

30

OHP

Model Room

working)
Block instruments, methods of
block working, control of outlying
sidings
Station working rules

30

OHP

Signaling plan

30

OHP

CAMTECH/S/2001/Basic Concepts/SCR-4

NECESSITY OF SIGNALS
Signaling Concepts :

Railway vehicles move on steel rail track and engines, wagons and coaches
are provided with flanged steel wheels. The rolling of steel wheels on the
steel rail has the least friction and therefore, it is the most efficient means of
locomotion.

Unlike road vehicles, railways have no capacity to steer away. They have to
follow a fixed path, as guided by these rails. They are required to follow one
another.

Precedence and crossings can be arranged only at station.

Drivers of a

locomotive has only control over the speed of the train, he can start and stop.
This communication to the driver to proceed or to stop is through signals.

What are Signals :


Signal is medium to convey a particular predetermined meaning in non-verbal
form. Signals of non-verbal form are also used in road transport, navy and air
traffic control etc.

Fixed Signals :
A signal of fixed location indicating the condition affecting movement of train.
It includes Semaphore arm, or a disc or fixed light used by day or night.

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Semaphore is a Greek word. SEMA stands for Sign, PHERO means bear.
Semaphore signal is rectangular or fish tailed at the end. Fixed on a vertical
post, kept horizontal. Easily distinguishable from longer distances.
There are three methods of display :
i)

Vertical

Parallel to post.

ii)

Midway Position

below horizontal.

iii)

Midway Position

above horizontal.

Various Forms of Signals :


Signals

Visual

Audible

Detonators

Movable

Semaphore

LQ

UQ

Fixed

Voice

Flare

CLS

2 Aspect

Position Light

Multiple Aspect

Whistle

CAMTECH/S/2001/Basic Concepts/SCR-4

DEFINITIONS (As per GR 1.02)


ACT

:Means the Indian Railways Act, 1989.

ADEQUATE DISTANCE

:Means the distance sufficient to ensure


Safety.

APPROACH LIGHTING

:Means an arrangement in which the


lighting of signals is controlled automatically
by the approach of a train.

APPROVED SPECIAL INSTRUCTIONS :


Means special instructions approved of or
prescribed by the Commissioner of Railway
Safety.

AUTHORISED OFFICER

:Means the person who is duly empowered


by general or special order of the Railway.
Administration, either by name or by virtue
of his office, to ensure instructions or to do
any other thing.

AUTHORITY TO PROCEED

:Means the authority given to the driver of a


train, under the system of working, to enter
the block section with his train.

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AXLE COUNTER

:Means an electrical device which, when


provided at two given points on the track
proves by counting axles in and counting
axles out. Whether the section of the track
between the said two points is clear or
occupied.

BLOCK BACK

:Means to dispatch a message from a block


station intimating to the block station
immediately in rear on a double line or to
the next block station on either side on a
single line, that the block section is
obstructed or is to be obstructed.

BLOCK FORWARD

:Means to dispatch a message from a block


Station on a double line intimating to the
block station immediately in advance the
fact that the block section in advance is
obstructed or is to be obstructed.

BLOCK SECTION

:Means that portion of the running line


between two block stations on to which no
running train may enter until line clear has
been received from the block station at the
other end of the block station.

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COMMISSIONER OF RAILWAY SAFETY :


Means a Commissioner of Railway safety
appointed to exercise any functions under
the

act

and

includes

the

chief

Commissioner of Railway safety.

CONNECTIONS

: When used with reference to a running


line, means the points and crossings, or
other appliances used to connect such line
with other lines to cross it.

DIRECTION OF TRAFFIC

: a). On a double line, the direction for


which the line is signaled.
b). On a single line, the direction for the
time being established, under the system of
working to allow trains to move in that
direction.

FACING AND TRAILING POINTS :


Points are facing or trailing in accordance
with the direction of a train or vehicles
moves over them. Points are said to be
facing points when by their operation a train

CAMTECH/S/2001/Basic Concepts/SCR-4

approaching them can be directly diverted


from the line upon which it is running.

FIXED SIGNAL

: Means a signal of fixed location indicating


a condition affecting the movement of a
train and includes a Semaphore arm or disc
or fixed light for use by day and fixed light
for use by night.

FOULING MARK

Means

the

marks

at

which

the

infringement of fixed standard dimensions


occurs, where two lines cross or join one
another.

INTER LOCKING

: Means an arrangement of signals, points


and other appliances, operated from a
panel or lever frame, so inter connected by
Mechanical locking or Electrical locking or
both that their operation must take place in
proper sequence to ensure safety.

INTERMEDIATE BLOCK POST :


Means a class C station on a double line,
remotely controlled from the block station in
rear.

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INTERMEDIATE BLOCK SIGNALLING :


Means an arrangement of signalling on
double line in which a long block section is
split in two portions each constituting a
separate block section by providing an
Intermediate Block post.

ISOLATION

: Means an arrangement, secured by the


settings of points or other approved means
to protect the line so isolated from the
danger of obstruction from other connected
line or lines.

LAST STOP SIGNAL

: Means the fixed stop signal of a station


controlling the entry of a train into the next
block station.

LEVEL CROSSING

: Means the intersection of road with railway


track at the same level.

LINE CLEAR

: Means the permission given from a block


station to a block station in rear for a train to
leave the latter and approach the former, or

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11

the permission obtained by a block station


from a block station in advance for a train to
leave the former and proceed towards the
latter.

MAIN LINE

: Means the line ordinarily used for running


trains through and between stations.

MULTIPLE ASPECT SIGNALLING :


Means a signalling arrangement in which
signal displays at any one time any one of
the three or more aspects and in which the
aspect of every signal is pre-warned by the
aspect of the previous signal or signals.

OBSTRUCTION

: And its cognate expressions include a


train, vehicle or obstacle on or fouling a line,
or any condition, which is dangerous to
trains.

POINT AND TRAP INDICATORS :


Are not signals, but are appliances fitted to
and working with points to indicate by day
or by night the position in which the points
are set.

CAMTECH/S/2001/Basic Concepts/SCR-4

RUNNING LINE

12

: Means the line governed by one or more


signals and includes connections, if any,
used by a train when entering or leaving a
station or when passing through a station or
between lines.

RUNNING TRAIN

: Means a train, which has started under an


authority to proceed, and has not completed
its journey.

SHUNTING

: Means the movement of a vehicle or


vehicles with or without an engine or any
other self-propelled vehicle for the purpose
of attaching detaching or transfer or for any
other purpose.

SPECIAL INSTRUCTIONS

: Means instructions issued from time to


time by the authorised officer in respect to
particular case, or special circumstances.

STATIONS

: Means any place on a line of Railway at


which traffic is dealt with, or at which an
authority to proceed is given under the
system of working.

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STATION LIMITS

13

: Means the portion of a railway, which is


under the control of a station master and is
situated between the outermost signals of a
station or as may be specified by special
instructions.

STATION MASTER

: Means the person on duty who is for the


time being responsible for the working of
the traffic without station limits, and includes
any person who is for the time being in
independent charge of the working of any
signals and responsible for the working of
trains under the system of working in force.

STATION SECTION

: Means the section of station limits.


1) At a class B station provided with two
aspect signals, which is included :
a) On a double Line, between Home
signal and the Last stop signal of the
station in either direction ; OR
b) On a single line
(i)

Between the shunting limit


board or advanced starters (if
any) or

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(ii)

Between the home signal if


there are no shunting limit
boards or advanced starters,
or

(iii)

Between the outer most facing


points, if there are no Home
signals

or

Shunting

limit

Boards or Advanced starters.


2). At a class B station provided with
manually

operated

multiple

aspect

or

modified lower quadrant signals, which is


included ;
a) On a double line
(i)

Between

the

Outer

most

facing points and the last stop


signal of the station in either
direction,
OR
(ii)

Between the Block section


limit board, where provided,
and the last stop signal of the
station in either direction

b) On a Single Line
(i)

Between the Shunting limit

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Boards or Advanced Starters


(if any)
OR
(ii)

Between the Outermost facing


points if there are no shunting
limit

board

or

Advanced

starters.

SUBSIDIARY RULE

:Means a special instruction which is


subservient to the general rule to which it
relates and shall not be at variance with any
General Rule.

SYSTEM OF WORKING

:Means the system adopted for the time


being for the working of trains on any
portion of a railway.

TRACK CIRCUIT

:Means an electrical circuit provided to


detect the presence of a vehicle on a
portion of a track, the rails of the track
forming part of the circuit.

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CONCEPT OF LQ, UQ SIGNALING


Semaphore Signals can be displayed in any 4 quadrants. In India we follow
left-hand rule. Hence we use L H Quadrant.

In lower quadrant only two aspects 0o and 45o is possible.


coincides with post. Hence not useful.

In upper quadrant 3 aspects 0o, 45o and 90o is possible.

3rd position

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Two Aspect Lower Quadrant Signals :

Stop Signals : It is a Semaphore arm Square ended, painted red with


white bar parallel to the square end rear side white painted with black bar to
distinguish approach of signal direction.
-

arm at 0o

Night Aspect-

ON Aspect

arm at 45o

Red light

Night -

Green light

Stop

Aspect-

Proceed

ON Aspect

Indication : Stop Dead.

Indication : Proceed.

ON Position

OFF Position

Need for Warner Signal :


A stop signal when taken OFF indicated Proceed i.e., he has to proceed till he
finds next signal. That means the driver has to keep a continuous watch to
locate the aspect of the next signal in advance. This is continuous strain on
the part of the driver. It affects the speed of trains and punctuality in case of
poor visibility.

It is quite possible the driver may encounter ON aspect

suddenly and unable to stop short of signal. He may overshoot the signal at
ON. This is most dangerous situation, and it may cause accident. Hence,
there is a need for a Warner signal. Warner signal has a different design of
arm, to pre-warn the stop signal ahead.

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Warner Signal:

Semaphore arm: Fish tailed end painted red with white bar. In rear painted
white with black bar. Warner signal can be located on an independent post or
below a stop signal.

ON Independent post:

Fixed
Green

Fixed
Green

1.5 to 2
Green
Red

ON Aspect

Arm at 0o

OFF Aspect -

arm at 45o

Aspect

Proceed with caution

Aspect

Proceed

Indication

Proceed with caution &

Indication

Proceed

be prepared to stop at next


Stop signal.
Night aspect -

Red light below fixed


Green light

Night aspect -

Greenlight

below fixed Green light.


OFF aspect indicates all stop
Signals ahead are clear, the
Train can run through.

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NOTE :
i. A Warner signal must not be capable of being taken OFF for any line
other than that over which the highest speed is permitted.
ii. Until all the relevant signals have assumed OFF aspect that means,
Permission to enter in to next block section is also taken.
iii. Even if any one of the Stop signals ahead is ON the Warner should not
display OFF aspect.

Warner below a Stop Signal :

Under certain circumstances, a Semaphore Warner is required to be place on


the same post of a stop signal. Then the fixed green light is dispensed with.

There are three indication to the Drivers :


Aspect : Stop

Proceed with Caution

Proceed

Indication :

Proceed with Caution and

Proceed. Block

be prepared to stop at the

section ahead is

next stop signal

clear.

Stop Dead

Pre-warning to the driver of an approaching train can be given only when a


Warner signal is placed on a post by itself. In the case of Warner Signal
placed below a stop signal, no pre-warning is available for the Stop signal. In
both the cases, Warner signal taken OFF indicates Run Through condition
All signals ahead taken OFF. Pre-warning of all stop signals is only possible
with MAUQ signaling.

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Multiple Aspect Upper Quadrant Signaling :

Stop Signal : Semaphore arm square ended arm painted red with white bar
in front. Painted white with black bar in rear.

ON Position

OFF Position

Red

Aspect : Stop

Caution

Proceed

Indication : Stop Dead

Proceed and be

Proceed

Prepared to stop at
next stop signal.

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The second yellow light is visible only in 450 position. It is not to be visible in
any other position (00 and 900 position). A mechanical arrangement is made to
blank out the signal (yellow aspect) in any position other than 450 aspect.

ON Position

OFF Position

Caution

Attention

Proceed

Permissive Signals and Absolute signals :


Warner signals in Two aspect and Distant signal in Multiple aspect are not
stop signals. They permit approaching driver to pass these signals in ON
position. Hence they are called Permissive signals.

The Stop signals in 2 aspect and Multiple aspect can not be passed at ON
unless and until they are specially authorised by the SM or the signal is
changed to OFF position. Hence they are called Absolute Signals.

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Distant Signal :

The further most signal at a station and first signal approached by an


incoming train is the distant signal in multiple aspect upper quadrant signaling.
Arm is fish tailed painted yellow with black bar parallel to fish tail.
painted white with black bar.

Night -

ON position - Yellow light


45o Position - Two Yellow lights, one below the other.
90o Position - Green light.

Rear

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Colour Light Signals


Due to the following advantages Colour Light Signals are used instead of
Semaphore Signals.

In Colour Light Signals both day and night aspects are the same
avoids confusion to drives

Signals have longer range of visibility especially during night.

No Mechanical Moving parts Easy to maintain.

Not limited due to range of operation, as in mechanical signals

Improved reliability of signals

Improves punctuality.

M A C L S 3 Aspect Stop Signal

ON Position
Aspect : Stop

OFF Position
Caution

Proceed

G
Y
R

Indication : Stop Dead

Proceed and be
Prepared to stop at
Next stop signal

Proceed

CAMTECH/S/2001/Basic Concepts/SCR-4

ON Position

24

OFF Position

G
Y

Aspect : Stop
Indication : Stop Dead

Caution
Proceed and be

Attention
Proceed and be

Prepared to stop at prepared to pass


next stop signal.

next stop signal at


Restricted speed

Proceed
Proceed

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M A C L S 4 Aspect Stop Signal


M A C L S 3 Aspect Distant Signal
ON Position

OFF Position

Caution

Attention

Proceed

C L S 2 Aspect Stop Signal


ON Position

Stop

OFF Position

Proceed

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Warner ON a post by itself


ON Position

OFF Position

Fixed
Green

Fixed
Green

G
R
P

Aspect Proceed with caution

Proceed

Indication Proceed with caution and be

Proceed

Prepared to stop at the next stop signal


Warner below a Stop Signal

ON Position

OFF Position

Aspect : Stop

Proceed with caution

Indication Stop

Proceed with caution and Proceed Block section ahead


be prepared to stop
at the next stop signal

Proceed
is clear

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DESIGNATION OF SIGNALS
Signals are necessary to provide the required space interval between the
trains. Signals are necessary to control the entry of trains in to the block
sections, into the stations and with in the stations for different purposes.
Signals are designated describing the function of the signals.

APPROACH SIGNALS :

Signals provided for receiving a train is known as


Approach Signals

HOME SIGNALS

Stop signal at the approach of a station. It gives


entry to the housing point i.e., station.

Home

Platform

BRACKETED SOME SIGNAL : Where there is more than one line, each
line is provided with Home Signal. All such Home signals are bracketed on a
common post or a gantry.

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ROUTING SIGNAL : In cases more than one receiving line may be available
for different groups. Distance between home and station stop may be longer.

Routing

May have different places for the trains to stop. These are called Routing
signals.

OUTER SIGNAL : Where the reception of train is controlled by more than


one signal, then the first stop signal (F S S) is called the Outer Signal and the
second stop signal, Home signal.

Home

Outer

An outer signal can also be placed above a Warner signal on the same post.

Warner

Y
Outer

Home

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PERMISSIVE SIGNAL : Warner/ Distant


There may be additional one or more permissive signals to pre-warn the
presence of a stop signal. in two aspect signals, we have Warner signals on
independent posts.

Warne

Home

Outer

In multiple aspect signaling, we have distant signals.


Distant

Home

In case more than one distant signal is used, the second one as approached
by driver is called Inner Distant (Provided in some multiple aspect signaling
sections).
Distant

Inner
Distant

Home

DISPATCH SIGNALS
Signals are also provided to control departure of trains. The signals authorize
the drivers to start the train and also enter into next block section. If only one
departure signal is provided, they are called Starter signals, they also control
the entry in to next block section.
Starter (LSS)

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If more than one stop signal controls the movement of trains to start and enter
into next block sections, then the last stop signal is called ADVANCED
STARTER signal which controls the entry in to next block section other Starter
signals are provided near the fouling marks.
Starter

Advanced
Starter

Starter

In some stations, more than one-dispatch signals are provided and this signal
between starter and advanced starter is called Intermediate starter signal.

LSS

LSS

Starters

Intermediate
Starters

OVERLAPS
Overlaps are referred to as adequate distance.
Block Over Lap (B O L) : It is the extra length of track in advance of the first
stop signal of a station, which must be kept clear, before Line clear can be
given to the station in rear.

Signal Over Lap (S O L) : The length of track in advance of Stop Signal,


which must be kept clear before the signal next in rear could be taken OFF.

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Two aspects

B O L : 400 Mts.,

S O L : 180 Mts.,

Multi aspects

B O L : 180 Mts.,

S O L : 120 Mts.,

For Automatic Block Signaling BOL/SOL 120 Mts.


By increasing the number of aspects, Overlaps can be reduced without
sacrificing Safety because signal aspects can be repeated by signals in rear
in a rational manner.

BRAKING DISTANCE :

The distance traveled by a train after its brakes are applied is known as
Braking distance.
There are two methods of Application of Brakes :
Normal Service application
Emergent application including setting in reverse.

Braking distance depends on :


(i)

Speed

(ii)

Brake power available

(iii)

Gradient

(iv)

Rollability of wheels

(v)

State of rails, curvelence of track

(vi)

Wind velocity, weather condition (dry or wet)

(vii)

Type of train

(viii)

Load of train

CAMTECH/S/2001/Basic Concepts/SCR-4

After all tests, it is now decided that for a full load passenger train on level of
gradient at 65 kmph, the braking distance is 1 km approximately.

SIGHTING DISTANCE :

The distance over which the most restrictive aspect of a signal is visible from
the driving compartment of an approaching train under normal condition of
visibility.

REACTION DISTANCE :

It is the distance traveled at the permissible speed during the time taken by
the driver to react to the aspect of signals.

Minimum Sighting Distance = NBD + RD

Sighting distance is an uncertain factor In two aspect signaling signals are


not pre-warned.
In multiple aspect all signals are pre-warned by aspects of signals in advance.

PRESCRIBED SIGHTING DISTANCE :

TWO ASPECT :
Outer 1200 Mts. Where section speed is 100 kmph and above
Warner : (on independent post) 400 Mts.

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Home - 400 Mts.


Main Starter 400 Mts.
All other Signals 200 Mts.

MULTIPLE ASPECT :

Distant 400 Mts.


Inner distant 200 Mts.
All stop signals 200 Mts.
Where not possible to have continuous visibility as above, speed of trains is to
be suitably restricted.

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LOCATION OF SIGNALS
Signals are normally located on to the left side of the track. However, for
better visibility a signal may be located on the right side also.

Two Aspect Homes :


Should be located close to first set of facing points clear of lock bar. If it is
necessary to increase the distance between the Home and Facing points
beyond 180 Mts. Other arrangements should be made for holding the route.

Multi Aspect Homes :


Should be located at 300 Mts. Is (180 + 120 Mts.) from the first facing points.
Facility for shunting in face of approaching if provided, the home may be
shifted outward. So that block overlap is available between the home and
opposing advance starter or shunting limit board. On double line, Home may
be located at 180 Mts. in rear of facing point or Block section limit board.

Starter Signals :
Should be located at the leaving end fouling marks or lines in the case of
parallel lines at distance exceeding train length from the signal in rear. The
distance between the homes and starting should not be less than 400 Mts. In
the case of LQ signaling and 180 Mts. in case of Multi aspect Signaling. An
alternative location is signal overlap in rear of fouling mark. This provides
more operational advantages.

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Advanced Starter :
On single line at 180 Mts. from Outer most trailing point. The distance may be
increased if required, provided the opposing outer in B class station, the
home in MAUQ as the case may be can be located at a distance of at least
block overlap from the adv. Starter. On double line it should be placed at full
train length plus signal overlap in advance in Starter signals.

But in the

present practice the advance starter signals are being located at 120 Mts.
from Outer most trailing points.

Outer :
On single line at 580 Mts., between Outer home (so that the BOL & SOL for
an opposing train being received at stations is available). Where there is an
advance starter or SLB; it should be ensured that block overlap of 400 Mts. is
available between it and opposing outer. On double line, a distance of 400
Mts. should be provided between it and corresponding home.

Warner / Distant :
These signals are located at normal braking distance plus reaction distance in
rear of the stop signals in advance of them.

Where it is not possible to

provide normal braking distance at least emergency braking distance equal to


1 km to be provided.

Double Distant :
In accordance with GR 3.07(6) two distant signals (Distant signal and Inner
distant signal) have been provided in some multiple aspect signaling sections.

CAMTECH/S/2001/Basic Concepts/SCR-4

36

The second distant signal is generally placed at a distance of 2 Kms from the
first stop signal eliminating Warning Board.

The meanings of the aspects of these signals are as under :


Indication to Distant
Driver
Signal

Inner
Distant

Home
Signal

May stop at

Yellow

Red

Double

Home
May stop at

Main line
Starter

Adv
Starter

Red

Yellow
Green

Double

Yellow

Main line starter

Yellow

To Run through Green

Green

Green

Green

To stop at Loop

Double

Double

Yellow

Starter or Pass

Yellow

Yellow

with route

Via loop

Green

Indicator.

Subsidiary Signals :
Subsidiary signals are those signals, which control the movement of trains
with in the station section.
Shunt Signals :
1) Authorize movement only at such a slow speed, so as to be able to stop
short of obstruction and Control shunting movements.
2) Shunt signals, when taken OFF, authorizes the driver to draw ahead even
though Stop signal above it is at ON.
Shunt signals can be a Disc type, Position light; Miniature arm type (under spl.
Instructions)

CAMTECH/S/2001/Basic Concepts/SCR-4

37

Disc type : Circular disc painted white with red horizontal bar in the front
and white with black bar in rear.

ON Position

OFF Position

R
Red

LQ
Green

UQ
R
Yellow

Red

Aspect: Stop

Aspect: Proceed slow

Indication: Stop Dead.

Indication: Proceed with caution for


shunting

CAMTECH/S/2001/Basic Concepts/SCR-4

38

Position light : Position light shunt signals are considered on Colour Light
Signals. They are same both for two aspect of Multiple aspect; LQ or UQ day
and night aspects are the same.
ON aspect

OFF aspect

Two lights Horizontal

Two lights inclined

White
Light

White
Light

Miniature Semaphore type :


Arm Square ended. Painted with Red with white bar provision of this signal
only under special instructions.
ON Position

OFF Position
OFF

ON

G
R
LQ

UQ

CAMTECH/S/2001/Basic Concepts/SCR-4

39

Calling ON Signal :
Always provided below a Stop signal. Generally for the approach of a train. It
is taken OFF when the main stop signal has failed (unable to be taken OFF)
should be taken OFF only after the train has come to stop.

Callings on

Signals are two types.


1)

Miniature arm type : Arm Square ended painted white with Red
bar in the front while with black bar in the rear

ON Position

OFF Position

UQ
R

RED

R
R

No-Light

ON Position

OFF Position

LQ

Red

No Light

Red

Yellow

CAMTECH/S/2001/Basic Concepts/SCR-4

2)

Colour Light Type :


marker plate.

40

Colour light type are provided with C

Under approved special instructions, calling on

Signal can be provided below a stop signal, except LSS.


ON Position

OFF Position

NO LIGHT

MINIATURE
YELLOW
LIGHT

Repeating Signals :
Repeating Signals are used.
1) When ever minimum visibility is not available for a fixed signal
2) To inform the driver about the condition of the main signal in advance.
They are provided with R marker and are required only for two aspect signals
(In MA all signals are pre-warned).

CAMTECH/S/2001/Basic Concepts/SCR-4

41

Types of repeating signals are :


Square ended Semaphore arm type :
Painted yellow with black bar in the front painted white with black bar in rear.
ON Position

OFF Position

Banner type :
Disc painted whited back ground.

A yellow rectangular arms with black

boarders at the top and bottom. It rotates on a central pivot it takes 45o
position in LQ, when main signal is taken OFF. It is not lit during nighttime.
ON Position

OFF Position

Y
Y

CAMTECH/S/2001/Basic Concepts/SCR-4

42

Colour Light Type :


It is generally provided in 2 aspect CLS.
ON Position

Signal
with it
repeats is
at on

OFF Position

Signal
with it
repeats is
at off

Co-acting Signals : All the fixed signals must have a minimum visibility to
the driver and be continuously visible to the driver. When it is not possible to
have continuous visibility due to foot over bridges or tunnels or any other
obstruction, co-acting signals are provided. Co-acting signals are duplicate
signals fixed below running signals on the same post at such a height that
either main signal or co-acting signal is visible. Main signal and co-acting
signals are rigidly connected. They work together.

CAMTECH/S/2001/Basic Concepts/SCR-4

43

Markers provided on the Signal post :


P marker for permissive signals

P letter in black on white disc fixed


between the signal

C marker for calling ON signal

C letter in black on white disc

R marker for repeating signal

R letter in black on white disc

G marker for Gate stop signal

G letter in black on Yellow disc

IB marker for intermediate BLOCK IB IB letter in black on white disc


Stop Signal
Repeating Signal in CLS territory R

R white illuminated against black


back ground

A marker on automatic stop signal A

A letter in black on white disc

CAMTECH/S/2001/Basic Concepts/SCR-4

A marker lit on Semi automatic

44

Signal

A lit on black back ground disc


When working as automatic mode.
A extinguishes when working in
manual mode

Indicators:
Point indicators (target type)
Points set straight
Day

Night
WHITE
LIGHT

WHITE
TARGET
POINTS SET FOR TURNOUT

EDGE OF TARGET

GREEN LIGHT
TARGET TYPE

DAY

TRAP

OPEN

NIGHT

OPEN

CLOSE

CLOSE

RED TARGET

GOODS RINGS
ON SIGNALS
TO READ
GOODS LINE

INDICATORS

RED TARGET

EDGE OF TARGET

R
DOCK PLATFORM SIGNALS

GREEN LIGHT

SIGNAL NOT
IN USE

CAMTECH/S/2001/Basic Concepts/SCR-4

45

Indication Boards :
Shunting Limit Board : Provided on single line. To distinguish limit up to
which shunting can be performed in the face of an approaching train. A black
across on yellow back ground. Temporary lit during night. Visible from both
sides. Fixed on a post-painted white and black alternately.

Shunting Limit Board

Block Section Limit Board :


Provided on multiple aspect double line territory only. Provided where there
are no facing points or when the outer most facing points at the approaching
end is a trailing point. A black cross on yellow back ground. Temporary lit
during night, visible from both sides. Fixed on a post painted white and black
alternately.

BLOCK SECTION
LIMIT BOARD

CAMTECH/S/2001/Basic Concepts/SCR-4

46

S Marker
Provided at an intermediate siding taking OFF from main line. Provided in the
facing direction. A circular board with black letter S on yellow back ground.

S
S
S

Warning Board :
Provided in rear of first stop signal or gate stop signal at a minimum distance
of 1400 Mts. place left side of line to which it refers. To give an indication to
driver that he is to be on the look out for stop signals. Where double distant is
provided Warning Board is dispensed with

CAMTECH/S/2001/Basic Concepts/SCR-4

Indication boards are also provided to give warning to the driver about change
in type of signaling or block working etc.
The board will have suitable legend like
ENTERING TOKEN TERRITORY
ENTERING TOKENLESS TERRITORY
ENTERING AUTOMATIC BLOCK TERRITORY

ISOLATION :
The term Isolation denotes the condition in which line for a particular
movement is separated from all adjoining line connected to it in such a
manner that the isolated lines cannot be fouled or interfered with by any
movement-taking place on the adjoining lines.

Rules regarding Isolation :


1) A line which train movements at speeds higher than 50 kmph are
permitted, the line should be isolated from all connected lines.
2) Passenger lines should be isolated from all connected lines and
sidings, what ever the speed may be.
3) Isolation of goods reception lines from sidings is considered
desirable
4) To maintain safety in thorough running, points and trap sidings
should not be inserted in the main or through lines. Exceptions to
this rule, may be adopted with the special sanction of CRS is
obtained are :

47

CAMTECH/S/2001/Basic Concepts/SCR-4

48

i. Where other means cannot be adopted, to permit simultaneous


reception of trains on single line sections.
ii. To trap vehicles running away from a station
iii. To avoid trains entering from block section due to heavy falling
gradient.
Methods of Isolation :
1) Connecting to another line or a siding
Siding

Loop
Main

2) Provision of short dead end sliding (Vehicles should not be stabled on


this siding).
Loop

Siding

Main

3) Provision of traps, derailing switches (inexpensive, popular dependable)


Loop

TRAP

MAIN

4) Long dead end siding with trap (Vehicles can be stabled on this siding)
Loop

Trap

SDG

Main

5) Provision of sand humps.


Loop

Main

Sand Hump

CAMTECH/S/2001/Basic Concepts/SCR-4

49

Slip Sidings and Catch sidings :


For all gauges the maximum gradient permitted are 1 : 400, where as 1 : 1200
is usually allowed with in the station yard. No station yard should be steeper
than 1 : 260 except due to geographic conditions, where such a gradient can
not be avoided with in the station yard, CRS condonation has to be obtained
and special arrangements like Slip Sliding has to be provided.
Slip Sdg

Block Section

1 : 250

Slip Sdg

Slip Sliding due to gradient steeper than 1 : 100 falling away from the station
in the close neighborhood.

SLIP Sliding

Block section
L
1:90

If the gradient is steeper than 1 : 80 falling towards the station. Arrangement


of Catch siding is to be provided. It is to trap vehicles coming uncontrolled
from the block section and trying to enter into the station.

CAMTECH/S/2001/Basic Concepts/SCR-4

50

CATCH Sdg

Block section
1:75

1: 75

Catch siding due to falling gradient while approaching the station if steeper
than 1 : 80.
Slip Sliding and Catch Siding points must be interlocked with the block
instruments and such sidings should not be used for shunting or stabling
purposes.

Simultaneous Reception and Dispatch of Trains :


Taking OFF at the same time, of all signals pertaining to the reception of two
or more trains approaching a station at the same time is called simultaneous
reception.

Advantages :
In single line section, track/section capacity will increase, if at all the
stations, such facilities are made available.
In double line, one train can be started from one line, while another train
can be signaled to be received on another line.

CAMTECH/S/2001/Basic Concepts/SCR-4

51

Methods of Providing Simultaneous Reception Facility :


1) In double line sand humps may be provided replacing traps.

loop

DN main

UP main

loop

2) Provision of sand humps on single section

Maximum flexibility but expensive

CAMTECH/S/2001/Basic Concepts/SCR-4

52

3) Provision of two sand humps

Economical but platform facility may not be available for passenger train in
one direction
4) Extending loops to have signal overlaps on reception lines beyond starter

SOL

SOL

SOL

SOL

5) By providing calling on signal (after trains come to a stop at FSS).

CAMTECH/S/2001/Basic Concepts/SCR-4

CLASSIFICATION OF STATION AND MINIMUM EQUIPMENT REQUIRED


AT EACH CLASS OF STATION
Irrespective of the system of working in force the stations are classified as
block station and non-block stations.

Station : Means any place on a line of railway at which traffic is dealt with, or
at which an authority to proceed is given to the driver of the train under the
system of working.

Block stations : Block stations are those at which driver must obtain an
authority to proceed under the system of working to enter the block section
with his train.

Non-Block station : These are outlets opened for commercial purpose and
no block working is carried here.
To cope up with different working conditions stations are categorized in to
various classes.

Class A Station : Where line clear may not be given for a train unless the
line on which it is intended to receive the train is clear for at least 400 Mts.,
beyond the Home signal or up to the starter.

Class B Station : Where line clear may be given for a train before the line
has been cleared for the reception of the train with in the station section.

53

CAMTECH/S/2001/Basic Concepts/SCR-4

54

Class C Station : At which no train is booked to stop. This includes IBS, line
clear may not be given for a train, unless the whole of the last proceeding
train has passed complete at least 400 Mts. beyond the Home signal and is
continuing its journey.

Class D Station : Situated between two consecutive block stations and do


not form the boundary of any block section.

Minimum signaling equipment required for each class of station

Class of Station

Minimum Equipment

Additional
Equipment

Two Aspect

Warner, Home, Starter

A Class

Under approved
Special instruction,
Outer, Warner
behind outer.

B Class

Outer, Home

Starter on double

(on Single Line)

line, Warner if

Outer, Home, Starter

speed exceeds 50

(On Double Line)

kmph. Adv.
Starter or SLB
where shunting in
the face an
approaching train
is required.

C Class

Warner, Home

D Class

Non Block Station

CAMTECH/S/2001/Basic Concepts/SCR-4

55

Multiple Aspect
B Class

Distant, Home, Starter

Advance starter or
SLB where
shunting in the
face of an
approaching train
is required. Block
section limit board
where no points or
outer most point is
trailing point at the
approach end.

C Class

Distant, Home

On Double Line : Starter signals are included in the minimum equipment for
A and B class as entry in to next block section is controlled by signal
indication above. Warners are provided for high-speed operation to provide
the means for adequate interlocking, starter signals are not used in C class
working because trains normally do not stop at such stations. In all these
types of stations, before permission to approach is given, the line must be
clear up to the first stop signal and the adequate distance beyond it.

Standards of Signaling :

Interlocking :

Interlocking can be defined as an arrangement between

points, signal appliances either electrically or mechanically or both to secure


the following objectives :

CAMTECH/S/2001/Basic Concepts/SCR-4

56

1) It shall not be possible to take OFF signals for a route unless all the points
are correctly set and the facing points are locked for the route, including
overlap.
2) Once the signals are cleared, it shall not be possible to alter the points on
the route unless the signals are put back to ON.
3) Even though the signals are put back to ON, it shall not be possible to alter
the points unless the intended movement over such points is completed.
4) It shall not be possible to operate signals leading to conflicting
movements.
5) The points and signals can be operated only in a sequence to ensure
safety.
6) Where signals are connected through any devices, the signal shall not
obey until the conditions for working such devices are fulfilled.

Standards of Interlocking : In the interests of safety, train speeds should


depend on the signal and telecommunication equipment provided.
standards of interlocking are prescribed.

Zero :

Uninterlocked. Speed up to 15 kmph.

One

Standard I for speeds up to 50 kmph.

Two

Standard II for speeds up to 75 kmph.

Three :

Standard III for unrestricted speed.

Four

CAMTECH/S/2001/Basic Concepts/SCR-4

57

Minimum Signaling Equipments required at each standard of signaling

Minimum Equipments

ZERO

STD1

STD2

STD3

Points:
1. How gauge is maintained A gauge tie

Plate where

Steel sleepers-

Are not provided

2. How Operated

May - be

worked

locally -

From a frame
where points and
signal levers are
grouped.

3. How Locked

Bolt and
Colter

A key lock of
approved type
locking each
switch
independently

A plunger type
of FPL locking
each switch
independently,
which may be
hand operated

A Plunge type of
FPL worked from
the frame.

No Spl.
Arrangemen
t

Interlocked

With signal.

Lock bar/track
circuit or such
other means

5. Switch detection

Not required

A means for
ntly should

Detecting each
be provided

Switch
independently

6. Lock detection

Not required

Not required

Yes, if plunger
is hand
operated or is
of the
economical
type

Desirable

1. Isolation of main line

Not required

Not required

Required

Required

2. Isolation of Passenger
lines from goods lines and
sidings.

Required

Required

Required

Required

Grouping of Levers:

Not required

Signal lever grouped & enable SM -

Should be
Signal and point
key provided to levers should be
lock up frame
grouped

Interlocking

NIL

Indirect
by
means of key
lock
Warner
should
interlock
trailing points.
Direct locking
between signal
levers.

Indirect
interlocking
should
be
extended to all
trailing points
direct locking
between signal
levers.

4. How Switches are


prevented from being
unlocked under a train

Isolation :

Signals
Two aspect

Direct
between
point & signal
levers and where
there are different
locations
SMs
supervisory control
should
be
provided.

CAMTECH/S/2001/Basic Concepts/SCR-4

58

A Class

Not usually

Adopted

Warner

Home Starter

B Class

Outer,
Common
Home

Outer, B/Home

Outer; B/Home
Warner to be
interlocked
with block
instrument if
starter is not
provided

Outer; B/Home
and Starter

Distant Home
starter

Distant Home

MAUQ / MACLS
A Class

Not usually - Adopted

MAUQ / MACLS
B Class

Distant
home

Distant Home

MAUQ / MACLS
C Class

Not usually - Adopted

Thus it can be summarized that signaling arrangements provided at a stations


should be based on.
1) Compatibility of the signaling equipments with speeds obtaining on the
section.
2) Ensuring optimum utilization of line capacity.
3) Efficient and smooth train working with in the station limits.
4) Economical use of man power.
5) Promoting flexibility, safety and reliability in yard operation.

CAMTECH/S/2001/Basic Concepts/SCR-4

Even though the existing signaling equipments cater to the above


consideration, the arrangements can not be satisfactorily interfaced. With the
technology updating programs to user in better and faster train services.
Provision of signaling equipments at station should be spelt out in real terms
with capacity to absorb the fore seeable changes in the near future with as
little alterations, in the signaling arrangements as possible.

Thus in this context a new format has been brought out under M, Chapter VII.
Part I of the revised signal engineering manual 1988.

Level Crossing Gates :


Level Crossing means the intersection of road with railway track at the same
level. Any form of movable barrier capable of being closed across the road
traffic at the level crossing is known as level crossing gate.

Level Crossing gates are three types :


Single leaf, Double leaf; Lifting barrier. Single and double leaf gates open
away from the track. They are locked in succession by E type locks.
The lifting barriers when operated for road traffic, it is vertically lifted up and in
closed condition it is horizontal across the road traffic.
Boom gates are provided in single or double units on each side and are
mechanically or power operated.

Classification : Level crossing gates shall be classified as special class, A


class B Class C class and D class. The classification shall be settled mutually

59

CAMTECH/S/2001/Basic Concepts/SCR-4

60

by engineering department in consultation with the local government


authorities after conducting the railroad traffic census.

Special Class
A Class

B Class
C Class

For Road Vehicles

D Class

For Cattle Crossings.

Location : As far as possible level crossing shall not be located near stations
and marshalling yards. If inevitable they shall be located beyond shunting
limits in the station yard.

Control and Protection : The working of the level crossing gates with in the
stop signals is under the control of the SM and the working of those out side
the stop signals is under the control of permanent way department.

TWO ASPECT
1.4 K.M

B:O
400 m

>

>
MAUQ

1.4 K.M
1 KM
B:O
180 m

>

>

CAMTECH/S/2001/Basic Concepts/SCR-4

61

Protection of level crossing gates inside the station limits :


In the case of level crossing gates inside the station limits of block station
worked under absolute block system the stop signals on either side of the
level crossings are utilized to function also as gate signals by providing
interlocking between them and the level crossing gates.

But if the stop

signals are not available new signals are to be installed for protecting
important level crossings.

1.4 K.M

Gate cum
Distant
Less Than B.D Gate

Distant 1 KM
G

180 M

120 M

G
180 M

180 M

1 KM
ADV.STR
cum GATE
DISTANT

Inter Cabin Control


Principles of Slotting: The control of signals by more than one source, other
than the operating source is called slotting. The source, which releases the
slot, is called slotting agency. The source, which actually operates the signal,
is called Operating agency.

CAMTECH/S/2001/Basic Concepts/SCR-4

Purpose of slotting :
1) To ensure that the points located on the line controlled by the signal
including the overlap are set correctly and facing points locked and the line
is clear, before the signal is taken OFF.

2) These conditions are maintained until the train movement is completed.


In other words no other conflicting or fouling movement is allowed to take
place and the points are not altered until the train movement is completed.
Because a slotted signal can be replaced to its most restrictive aspect by
any one of the slotting agencies.

Extract of SEM.

Para No. 158 : Except where qualified cabin men are employed, the SM
must be provided with interlocked mechanical or electrical control over
Warner, home and LSS.
Para No. 159 : Control of Starters / Advanced starters on single line.
At single line stations, where token instruments are used, the advance starter
or where there is no advance starter, the starters must be controlled by the
block instruments of the corresponding section.
Para No. 160 : Control of Starter / Advanced starters on Double Line. At
Double Line stations where block instruments are in use the advanced starter
or where there is no advanced starter, the starter must be controlled by the L
C indication of the block instrument of the corresponding section.

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CAMTECH/S/2001/Basic Concepts/SCR-4

System of Train Working Block Working


Control Over movement of trains :
Basically control over the movements of trains can be achieved by two
methods.
Time interval method
Space interval method

Time Interval Method :


Movement of trains can be controlled and adequate interval between two
trains in the same direction can be maintained by dispatching the following
train with sufficient time interval after the departure of the preceding one.
In this system, safety is not fully ensured. Since the driver has to ensure that
the earlier train is moving forward and proceedings without stopping. This is a
definite strain on the drivers he has to keep a continuous watch over the
earlier train to avoid collision.
Further this is not practicable in respect of Railways due to
-

Different types of trains, viz., Goods, Passengers, Express


trains.

Different types of Powers / Locomotives.

Different speeds of trains.

Different haulage capacity of trains.

Different braking capacity of locomotives.

Different terrain.

Different loads of trains.

Different stoppages.

63

CAMTECH/S/2001/Basic Concepts/SCR-4

64

Space Interval System is one in which, in to a given length of track only one
train at a time is permitted to enter. Second on subsequent train is permitted
to enter the same length of track, from one of the two sides, only after the first
train has cleared the said track.
This ensures safety
Length of the track is divided into sections called Block Section.
At the end of each Block section, there is a Block Section.
Entry into each Block section is controlled through electrical block
instruments and is protected by signals.
Information is conveyed to the driver to proceed or stop by signals.
The object of the Space Interval system is to preserve a definite interval of
space between trains running on the same line.

Systems of Block Working :


To maintain space interval, for safe running of trains, in Indian Railways, six
systems of train working are adopted. They are :
1. Absolutely Block System
2. Automatic Block System

Normally used

3. Following train System


4. Pilot Guard System
5. Train staff & Ticket System.

Used only with permission of Rly. Board

6. One train only System


Absolute Block System :
Essential requirements (as per para 8.01 of GR).
a) No train shall be allowed to leave a block station unless line clear has
been received from the block station in advance.

CAMTECH/S/2001/Basic Concepts/SCR-4

65

b) On double line such line clear shall not be given unless the line is clear not
only up to the first stop signal at the block station at which such line clear
is given but also for an adequate distance beyond it.
c) On single line such line clear shall; not be given unless the line is clear of
such trains running in the same direction not only up to the first stop signal
at the block station at which such line clear is given but also for an
adequate distance beyond it and is clear off trains running in the direction
towards the block station to which such line clear is given.
This adequate distance is the block overlap which shall not be less than
400 meters in LQ / two aspect signaling / two aspect CLS
180 meters in UQ / multiple aspect signaling or modified LQ signaling.
Any reduction to this block overlap requires specific sanction of CRS (under
approved special instructions).

STN. B
STN A

LSS OF
STN.A

FSS OF
STN.B

Block Section to be Adequate


kept clear
Distance

Before granting Line Clear SM should ensure that


-

the whole of the last preceding train has arrived completely

all the necessary signals have been put back to ON position


behind the said train.

Complete arrival of the train is checked by

CAMTECH/S/2001/Basic Concepts/SCR-4

physical verification with LV board / tail lamp

provision of last vehicle check device.

Continuous track circuits.

Axle counters, etc.

Ensuring signals put back to ON is done by


-

providing reverses on mechanically operated Semaphore


signals.

Through arm type circuit controllers, relays etc.

In case of colour light signals through relays.

By treadles or track circuits.

Automatic block system on double line :


Essentials of Automatic Block System :
1. Provision of continuous track circuits or axle counters
2. Line between two stations is divided into a series of sections known as
automatic block signaling sections.
3. Entry into each block section is protected by a Colour light stop signal.
4. Track circuits/axle counters should control the aspects of such signals.
-

It cannot display yellow aspect unless one block section and


overlap are clear.

Double yellow aspect - unless two block sections and overlap


are clear.

Green aspect unless three block sections and overlap are


clear.

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CAMTECH/S/2001/Basic Concepts/SCR-4

67

Signal is replaced to ON automatically soon after the passage of


the train.

5. Where three aspect signals are provided double yellow (second yellow
provided on the top) is dispensed with.
6. A markers are provided below the colour light signals.

I
>

Overlap

I
>
Berthing
track

Overlap

Block Section

Overlap

Overlap

I
>

Overlap

Overlap

Block Section

Block Section

I
>

I>

I>

I
>

Overlap

I>

Overlap

Block Section

Manual & Semi-automatic signals :


Manual controls can be introduced for any special purpose. They are then
called Manual signals.
Manual controls introduced or removed at are known as Semi-automatic
signals.
They can be worked either as automatic mode or manual mode.

A Marker signals :
Under normal circumstances, there is no need to distinguish between manual,
automatic or semi-automatic signals. In case of failure procedure for passing
of manual signal is different from passing signals at ON in automatic territory.

In manual signaling authority to pass the signal at ON is required to be


given to the driver of the train to pass.

CAMTECH/S/2001/Basic Concepts/SCR-4

In case of automatic signaling there are no stations and SM to give such


authority to proceed. Hence, there is a different procedure for passing
such signals at ON.

Procedure for passing signals at ON in automatic signaling :


1. The driver has to bring the train to a dead stop.
2. Then, wait for one minute by day and two minutes by night.
3. Then, proceed cautiously at such low speed so as to able to stop short of
any obstruction at short notice.
4. Only after ensuring that the track ahead is in tact.
5. He should arrange guard or assistant driver to walk ahead with hand
signals.
The train must resume normal speed after passing the OFF aspect of the
signal in advance.
Since procedures for passing signals at ON is different for automatic and
manual signaling modes, it is necessary to inform the driver whether the
signals of that particular moment are in automatic mode or manual mode in
semi-automatic mode; therefore, A marker lit is used in case of automatic
mode. If A marker extinguishes, then the driver will know that signals are
working manually and he will follow the rules regarding manual working for
passing signal at ON.

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CAMTECH/S/2001/Basic Concepts/SCR-4

Gate Signals :
Automatic signals interlocked with level crossing gates are distinguished by
the provision of G marker, yellow enameled disc with a letter G in black in
addition to an illuminated A marker. A marker light is lit only if the gates are
closed and locked against road traffic.

Procedure for passing the gate signal at ON :


With A marker light lit same procedure for an automatic signal displaying
the Red aspect.
With A marker light extinguished
-

wait for one minute by day and two minutes by night

draw the train continuously ahead and stop of the gate

ensure that the gates are locked against road traffic and after
getting hand signal from gate man, proceed cautiously up to the
signal in advance.

Automatic Block Signaling on Single Line :


The main purpose of this system is to increase the section capacity by
reducing the headway between two consecutive trains moving in the same
direction.
The system is particularly suitable in a single line where pattern of traffic is
such that trains follow one another in quick succession during certain parts of
the day.

69

CAMTECH/S/2001/Basic Concepts/SCR-4

70

Essentials of automatic block system on Single line :

1. The line shall be provided with continuous track circuits or axle counters.
2. The direction of traffic shall be established only after line clear has been
obtained from block section in advance.
3. The train shall be started from one block section to another only after the
direction of the traffic has been established.
4. It shall not be possible to obtain line clear unless the line is clear not only
up to the first stop signal but also for an adequate distance beyond it.
5. The line between two adjacent stations is divided into two or more
automatic block signaling sections by provision of stop signals.
6. The movement of trains in automatic block signaling is controlled by
automatic stop signals.
7. All stop signals against the direction of the traffic shall be maintained at
ON.

Automatic Block
Signalling
Section

DN

>
<
Automatic Block
Signalling
Section

UP

CAMTECH/S/2001/Basic Concepts/SCR-4

71

Minimum equipment of fixed signals :


-

Manual stop signals at a station Home and Starter.

An automatic stop signal in rear of Home signal

Additional automatic signals as may be necessary in between


block section.

Description of Panel :
A control panel is provided at every station of automatic signaling section.
Each station controls the movements of trains in one adjacent section.
Two illuminated arrows for each direction.

When direction of traffic is

established, arrow gets illuminated White when line is clear. It changes to


Red when block section is occupied or due to failure of track circuit / Axle
counter.
Signal normal indication to prove that signals of that side of station are at
ON.
Permission from (green indication) to indicate pressing of Push button at
the controlling section.
Direction switch to establish the direction of traffic.
SMs lock up key to lock up the panel in the last operated position to
prevent unauthorised or inadvertent operation.
Emergency push buttons to permit change of direction of traffic in case of
failure of track circuit / axle counter.
Counters (digital) to register each operation of emergency switches.

CAMTECH/S/2001/Basic Concepts/SCR-4

Rules for passing the automatic signals at ON :


To bring the train to a stop in rear of signal.
Wait one minute by day and two minutes by night.
Driver to contact the section controller or SM of adjacent block section on
telephone near the signal.
To proceed cautiously only after being authorised to pass signal at ON.
If no telephone / telephone has failed, driver to proceed after giving code
whistle to guard up to next stop signal in advance.
Be prepared to stop at short of signal.

Following Trains System :


Where trains are worked on the following trains system, they may be
dispatched from one station to the next following each other in succession in
the same direction on the same line in such manner and at such intervals of
time as may be prescribed by special instructions.
Trains shall not be worked on the following trains system unless the SM of the
block station in advance has exchanged messages regarding his readiness to
receive the trains and has in addition, given his assurance that no train will be
allowed to leave his station for the station from which the following trains are
to be dispatched, until the latter have all arrived at his station and until he has
received permission to dispatch trains in the opposite direction.

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CAMTECH/S/2001/Basic Concepts/SCR-4

Pilot guard system :


Where trains are worked on the pilot guard system
a) A railway servant shall specially deputed to pilot trains; and
b) No train shall leave a station except under the personal authority of the
pilot guard.

The trains shall not follow one another in the same direction between stations,
unless :
The driver has been properly warned of the time of departure of the
proceeding train and of the place at which it will next stop.
All the trains are timed to run at the same speed shall not exceed 25 kmph
except under special instructions.
An interval of fifteen minutes has elapsed since the departure of the
proceeding train.

The train staff and Ticket system :


Where trains are worked between two stations on the Train-staff and Ticket
system.
a) A single Train staff shall be kept at one of such stations
b) No train shall start from either of such stations to the other unless the said
Train-staff is at the station from which the train starts and has either been
handed to or shown to the driver by the station master when giving such
permission.

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CAMTECH/S/2001/Basic Concepts/SCR-4

Trains shall not follow one another in the same direction between train staff
stations, unless :
i. The driver has been properly warned of the time of departure of the
preceding train and of the place at which it will next stop.
ii. All the trains are timed to run at the same speed, and such speed shall
not exceed 25 kmph except under special instructions, and
iii. An interval of fifteen minutes has elapsed since the departure of the
preceding train.

The One train only system :


Trains may be worked on the One train only system, only on short terminal
branches on the single line.
Where trains are worked on the one train only systems, only one train shall be
on the section on which this system in force at one and the same time.
A driver shall not take his train into the section unless he is in possession of
the authority to proceed.

Control of Outlying sidings:


Sidings taking off from running lines and located between block stations
known as outlying or intermediate sidings.

Minimum equipment required :


Facing Point Lock :A gauge tie plate where steel sleepers are not provided.
Facing point lock or equivalent mechanism. Plunger shall
lock each switch independently.

74

CAMTECH/S/2001/Basic Concepts/SCR-4

75

Speed Restriction :Speed Restriction of 50 KMPH on running lines over


facing point.
Where sectional speed is more than 50 kmph S

marker

to be provided.
In addition a caution and termination indicator shall also
be provided.

Points control through Block Instruments :


The points should be controlled through the block system in use only in the
case of facing points on the single line as well as in the case of double line
trailing points.
The points normally set and locked for the running line are released by token /
by key interlocking boxes and electrically transmitted keys.

At station X a token key interlocking box with a spare token locked in it and at
the siding, a similar box, but with the points key locked in it are provided.
An EKT circuit is provided between station X and the siding, a key is locked in
the EKT at X and there is no key in the EKT at siding.
A train proceeds from X or Y with a token and is stopped at the siding and the
token is exchanged for the points key on the token key interlocking box, the
points key is used to unlock the points, the train then enters siding.
The points are then reset in normal, and after ensuring that the running line is
clear, the key is transmitted to X to clear the section.
For the train to come out of siding, the guard informs X on the telephone. X
obtains a token, exchanges it for the key and transmits the key to the siding.

CAMTECH/S/2001/Basic Concepts/SCR-4

The key is used for unlocking the siding points, the train enters the running
line, the points are reset to normal and key released from the points
exchanged for the token originally deposited in the token key interlocking
box.
The train proceeds with the token to either X or Y.

Disadvantages : Only one train can be dealt with in the siding at a time.
On the double line, the block instrument can not be restored to the normal
position until the train is received at the receiving end.
Interlocking may, however, be provided between the block instrument and the
points so that the points can not be unlocked with out the block instruments
being in TOL position.
When it is necessary to clear the block section, when train has entered the
siding, the intermediate siding is worked as block station and switched out
when the use of the siding is not required.
However, where double line block instruments which provide for an
occupation key to enable trains to enter block section in the right direction and
return to the same station.
The occupation key when removed locks the key in normal position.
In such cases, the occupation key can be used for sending trains into
intermediate siding and section cleared after the train is berthed in the siding.
The train can only return to the station from which it entered into the block
section travelling in the wrong

76

CAMTECH/S/2001/Basic Concepts/SCR-4

77

ON SINGLE LINE

50

SIDING

MINIMUM 800 M

RUNNING
LINE

TRAIN
LENGTH

30 M

on double line

50

SIDING

T
RUNNING LINE

MINIMUM 800 M

30 M

trailing point on double line

SIDING

RUNNING LINES

CAMTECH/S/2001/Basic Concepts/SCR-4

General : To avoid unauthorised interference, all bolts, studs, pins etc of


apparatus used for blocking and control of siding points are revetted or
otherwise adequately secured.
In view of the rule that isolation must be provided, and the isolating traps
locked for all movements on the running lines at all outlying sidings. A trap
indicator has to be provided but it is not lit during night hours.

Station Working Rules (SWR) :


1. The object of SWR is to regulate safe working of traffic in and between
stations depending on the local conditions that exist at the station.
2. The SWR are intended to draw attention of the staff concerned to the rules
for giving line clear, taking OFF signals, reception and dispatch of trains,
working of level crossing gates, shunting, stabling of vehicles on the
running lines, etc. and also instructions regarding working during failure of
points , signals, interlocking, communications etc.
3. SWR should be self contained, brief to the point and in unambiguous
language.
4. General and subsidiary rules and block working manual rules should not
be extracted in SWR. Relevant rule numbers of G & SR, block-working
manual may be mentioned.
5. DSO, DSTE and DEE are empowered to issue, modify SWR.
6. SWR should be reviewed once in three years or three amendment slips
whichever is earlier.

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CAMTECH/S/2001/Basic Concepts/SCR-4

7. All the staff required to take up independent duties at the stations shall
sign a declaration register to the effect that they have read and understood
the SWR.
8. Fresh declaration shall be obtained from the staff concerned in the
following cases :
(a) An amendment is issued to SWR
(b) An employee is absent consecutively for more than 15 days.
9. SWR contains twelve paras and six appendices. They are :
(a) Signaling Plan (Diagram)
(b) Description of station
(c) Systems and means of working
(d) Systems of signaling and interlocking
(e) Telecommunications
(f) Trains working
(g) Blocking lines
(h) Shunting
(i) General instructions
(j) Visibility test object
(k) Essential equipment
(l) Names of Fog signal men

Appendices :
A

Working of level crossing gates

Systems of signaling and interlocking

Telecommunications

79

CAMTECH/S/2001/Basic Concepts/SCR-4

Duties of staff

Essential equipment

Names of fog signal men

Signaling Plan
Taking the operating features in to consideration, engineering department
prepares the engineering plan and sends it to S & T department for
preparation of signaling plan. Signaling department taking all gradients level
crossing gates, cabins, etc., prepares signaling plan for arranging signaling
equipment.
The signaling plan consists of :
1. Permanent way plan along with levels and gradients
2. Types of signals to be provided
3. Location of signals with reference to point or level crossing
4. Classification of station-wise class A,B,C etc.
5. Standard of interlocking
6. Decide the size of lever frame for operation of each function and also
consider for space to be provided to cater for the future.
7. Interlocking plan number
8. Location of cabin Points, LC gates.
After preparing Signaling plan, shall be sent to CRS for approval. The work
should be carried out as per approved signaling plan. Any alteration in the
signaling plan should not be carried out without the approval of CRS.
Signaling plan with IP number should be exhibited at the stations office, in the
cabin of bigger size for instant visibility.

80

CAMTECH/S/2001/Basic Concepts/SCR-4

81

DESIGNATION & LOCATION OF FIXED SIGNALS IN TWO ASPECT

LQ SIGNALLING
RECEPTION
END
DESPATCH
END

WARNER ON A

HOME

POST BY ITSELF

STATION
UP
DN

NBD : 1200 M

NOT LESS THAN BOL 400 M TS

BRACKETED
HOME

WARNING
BOARD

1 KM
NBD

UP

WARNER
BELOW
OUTER

DN

SOL
BOL

180 M

400 M

STARTER

WARNING
BOARD

OUTER
WARNER

HOME

BOL 400 MTS

ADV STARTER

1 KM

STARTER
SOL 180 MTS

LSS

CAMTECH/S/2001/Basic Concepts/SCR-4

FOR FIGURE PLEASE CLICK


HERE

82

CAMTECH/S/2001/Basic Concepts/SCR-4

Question Bank :
Subjective :
1. a) Draw a 3-road station B class layout on single line section. Provide
signaling arrangement for two-aspect lower quadrant working.
b) indicate the block overlap and signal overlap ?
2. what are the conditions for taking OFF Warner signal and for what speed
Warner is to be taken OFF ?
3. What are the rules for providing a calling on signal and when it can be
taken OFF ?
4. What are subsidiary signals? Give examples ?
5. Explain briefly on isolation, braking distance sighting distance ?
6. Write short notes on any three of the following
a) Shunting limit board
b) Block section limit board
c) Slip and catch siding
d) Classification of stations
7. Explain with sketches various markers used in signaling ?
8. What are classification of stations and what are the minimum equipments
of signals required for each class ?
9. Write short notes on any three of the following :
a) Signal overlap
b) Block overlap
c) Calling ON signal
d) Shunt signal
e) Repeating signal

83

CAMTECH/S/2001/Basic Concepts/SCR-4

10. Draw a single line B class station with MACLS having simultaneous
reception facilities ? Mark all the inter signal distances.
11. Draw a class B 4 road stations with a common loop facility on double line
section to standard III interlocking MAUQ signaling and indicate the inter
distance ?
12. What is meant by isolation ? What are the rules for isolation ?
13. a) What are the principles of interlocking?
b) Write the Minimum equipments to be provided for STD-1 and STD-III
interlocking.
14. What are the differences between a shunt signal and calling on signal,
distant and Warner signals.
15. Make out a sketch for interlocking on intermediate siding in a single line
with out speed restriction and the sectional speed is 100 km. Describe the
working of siding.
16. What are essentials of Automatic Block Working
17. Write short note on any four of the following;
a)

Illuminated A marker

b)

Co-acting signal

c)

Isolation

d)

Point & trap indicator

e)

Inter-cabin control.

18. What are essentials of Absolute Block System ?


19. What are the requirements of various STDs of interlocking ?
20. Write short notes on any four of the following:
a)

Automatic gate signal

84

CAMTECH/S/2001/Basic Concepts/SCR-4

b)

Simultaneous reception

c)

Station limit and station section

d)

Station and a block station

e)

Block forward and block back

f)

Running train and train

Objective :
Fill in the blanks :

1. The F.S.S in a MACLS Std-III station is __________________________.


2. The maximum speed permitted over the points for straight-line fitted with
standard III fittings is _________________________________ .
3. The distance traveled by a train after its brakes are applied is called
___________________________.
4. The distance sufficient to ensure safety is called __________________ .
5. The place at which the railway line across the road is called
____________________.
6. Shunting in the face of an approaching train is permitted at station
________________________.
7. Block overlap at a 3 aspect section is ______________________
8. What is the meaning of CRS _______________________________
9. G marker is painted with ____________________ colour background and
______________________________ colour letter.
10. Shunt signals should not be provided on ___________________ signals.
11. CRS means _______________________________________________.

85

CAMTECH/S/2001/Basic Concepts/SCR-4

86

12. CSR means _______________________________________________.


13.

Shunt

signal

below

stop

signal

when

at

ON

displays

_________________________________.
14.

An independent Warner during night when taken OFF displays two


__________________________ lights one below the other.

15. Signal overlap in multiple aspect signaling is ______________________.


16. In two aspect signaling advanced starter is located not less than
_______________________ from the top point.
17. Distance between advanced starter and the opposite home signal on
single line MAUQ is ___________________________.
18. A calling on signal is provided with ___________________________.
19. When a block station is approached on a steep falling gradient
_____________________________ is provided.
20. Normal aspect of distant signal is _________________________.
21. Normal aspect of inner distant signal is _______________________.
22. Minimum visibility for distant signal required is ___________________.
23. In LQ territory block overlap is ______________________________.
24. Calling on signal at ON position display _______________________.
25. The light shown by a point indicator when set to straight line is
________________________ and a trop indicator when it closed
_____________________________.
26. The station limits in a MAUQ class B station is demarcated by
__________________________ signals.
27. The minimum visibility for all UQ signals is
meters.

___________________

CAMTECH/S/2001/Basic Concepts/SCR-4

87

28. A gate cum distance signal will have _____________ number of aspects.
29. The warning board shall normally be fixed at ____________________
meters from FSS.
30. In LQ signaling a gate signal protecting mid section on level crossing gate
shall be located minimum ______________________ from the gate.

Choose the Correct Answer :

1. Signal Overlap in Two aspect territory


a) 120 Mts.

b) 180 Mts. c) 400 Mts.

d) 600 Mts.

2. The speed of a train t pass via loop at Std-III interlocking station is


a) 15 Kmph

b) 25 Kmph c) 50 d) none

3. Route indicators are treated as


a) stop signals

b) signal device

c) subsidiary d) none

4. A post type CLS shut signal at ON position displays


a) 2 light horizontally

b) 2 lights inclined at 450 to left c) two lights

5. Isolation of main line from adjoining lines shall be provided if speeds on


main lines exceeds
a) 15Kmph

b) 50Kmph

b) 300 Mts

c) 75 Kmph d) none

6. Visibility of man line starter in MACLS is


a) 400 Mts

c)200 Mts

d) none

7. Maximum equipment of signals at a class A station are


a) Outer, Warner, Home

b) Warner, Home, Starter

c) Outer, Home, Starter

d) none

CAMTECH/S/2001/Basic Concepts/SCR-4

88

8. The signal painted with red band is called


a) Co-acting signal

b) Repeating signal c) calling ON signal d) none

9. A colour light repeating signal when it will display


a) Red light

b) Yellow light

b) 200 Mts

c) Full breaking

d) none

11. In LQ signaling, run through indication is given by


a) Home Signal b) Warner Signal

c) Miniature Yellow d) none

10. The minimum visibility of an outer signal should be


a) 400 Mts

c) Advance Starter d) none

12. Isolation of goods reception lines from one another is


a) Compulsory b) Desirable c) Not required

d) None of these

13. The minimum distance between home and outer on double line LQ
signaling is
a) 580 Mts

[
b) 1 Km

c) 400 Mts

d) none

14. The distance signal (where double distance is working in force) is located
at

a) 1.4 km from home

b) 2 km from home c) 1.4 km from inner distant

d) None
15. The first stop signal of class A station
a) Outer b) Warner

c) Home

d) None

16. Minimum distance required between distant and home signal in MAUQ
signaling on single line is
a) 1400 Mts.

b) 1000 Mts. c) 1200 Mts. d) None

17. Shunting limit board is provided only in

a) Class A station on single line

b) class A station on Double line

c) Class B station on single line

d) None

CAMTECH/S/2001/Basic Concepts/SCR-4

89

18. Block section limit board is provided at certain station on

a) Double Line section

b) Both single and double line station

c) MAUA territory

d) None of these

19. P marker is provided on

a) All distant signals

b) All distant signals in CLS area

c) All permissive signals

d) None

20. Warner signal located below a stop signal is capable of displaying


a) 3 aspects

b) 2 aspects c) 4 aspects d) None

21. Calling ON signal can only be located


a) below a stop signal b) below a starter signal

c) below a LSS

d) None
22. Shunting in the face of an approaching train up to shunting limit board is
permitted in
a) Class A

[
b) Class B

c) Class C

d) None

23. The adequate distance for an automatic signal to clear in a single line
when the next signal in advance in an automatic signal is
a) 400 Mts.

b) 180 Mts. c) 120 Mts.

d) AG marker disc.

b) A marker light

d) zero Mts.

24. An automatic stop signal is distinguished by


a) A marker disc

c) P marker disc

CAMTECH/S/2001/Basic Concepts/SCR-4

90

Say TRUE or FALSE

1. Whenever main home and outer are taken OFF Warner can be taken OFF
[

2. All distant signals will be fitted with P marker

3. Warner shall always be fixed below the FSS

4. S marker is provided at siding taken OFF from running line in block


section.

5. For speeds above 50 kmph and below 75 kmph std-II interlocking shall be
provided.

6. The block overlap in C class station is 180 Mts.

7. Post type shunt signal will display both ON and OFF aspects

8. Plunger lock detection is not necessary for STD-III interlocking [

9. Calling on signal has no independent location

10. A catch siding shall be provided at stations where the station is


approaching a steep falling gradient

11. At a class A station line clear shall not be granted for a train of the line is
clear up to the home signal.

12. LSS can be used as shunting signal

13. A shunting limit board need not be lit during night

14. Block overlap in BG is more than that in MG

15. In multiple aspect territory warning board is not necessary when the
distant signal is placed at 1 km from the home.
16. Shunting limit boards are provided only on single line

CAMTECH/S/2001/Basic Concepts/SCR-4

91

17. In colour light signaling, junction indicator is used so as to avoid speed


restriction.
18. A co-acting signal can be located on a separate post by itself

19. A point indicator displays a red light during night when the points are set
for the turn out.

20. All block systems required an authority to proceed

21. B class LCs must normally be kept closed for road traffic

22. Lock detection is not mandatory in STD-III interlocking when points and
lock are worked by separate levers

23. Generally class A stations are provided with STD-III interlocking only
[

24. In CLS, junction indicator is used so as to avoid speed restriction.


[

Match the following :

] 1. Block Overlap

a) 2 aspect

] 2. Signal Overlap

b) Isolation

] 3. Warner Signal

c) 15 kmph

] 4. Repeating Signal

d) Station section

] 5. Clamp and Pad Lock

e) On Single Line only

] 6. Class B Station

f) Double Line

] 7. Trap Siding

g) 120 Mts.

] 8. BSLB

h) Calling ON

] 9. SLB

i) 400 Mts.

CAMTECH/S/2001/Basic Concepts/SCR-4

92

] 10. C Marker

j) Station section

] 1. Railway Safety

a) Automatic Stop Signal

] 2. G Marker

b) Double Line

] 3. A. Marker

c) Single Line

] 4. H P Lock

d) Sand Hump

] 5. P L C

e) Calling on Single

] 6. P I C

f) only in two aspect

] 7. Isolation

g) CLS distant

] 8. No ON aspect

h) Gate signal

] 9. A Class station

i) Hand operated point

] 10. P Marker

j) CRS

] 1. A Class Station

a) Goods line reception

] 2. A Marker light

b) Repeater signal

] 3. R Marker

c) 400 Mts. form home

] 4. Fixed green light over the post

d) Isolation

] 5. Outer Signal on double line

e) Semi automatic signal

] 6. Visibility of MA Stop Signal

f) Only in T.A

] 7. O Marker

g) Warner

] 8. Trap Point

h) 400 Mts.

] 9. Distant signal proceed aspect

i) 180 Mts. from outermost


point

] 10. 1st stop signal on double


line in MAUQ

j) Received on main line

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