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Reactors

in
power system

M.G.Morshad / ACM
( Elect.)
Transformer Mtce. Division /
TS II

References
1. REPORT

- SYSTEM PLANNING & PROJECT APPRAISAL DIVISION CEA

2. LOAD GENERATION BALANCE REPORT 2010-11 CEA


3. INSTALLED CAPACITY - CEA
4. JOURNAL - TECH NEWS AREVA
5. HV SHUNT REACTOR SECRETS FOR PROTECTION ENGINEERS Zoran Gaji , Birger Hillstrm, Fahrudin Meki ABB Sweden, Vsters, Sweden
6. IEEE Guide for the Protection of Shunt Reactors
7. APPLICATION OF NUMERICAL RELAYS FOR HV SHUNT REACTOR
PROTECTION
Z. Gaji, B. Hillstrm, M. Kockott , ABB Automation Technologies ,Sweden
8. TRANSIENTS DUE TO SWITCHING OF 400 KV SHUNT REACTOR
Ivo Uglei, Sandra Hutter University of Zagreb Miroslav Krepela Siemens Boidar
Filipovi- Gri Croatian National Electricity Franc Jakl University of Maribor
9. IS 5553 ( Part 2) 1990
10. IS 2026 ( Part 1 & 3)
11. Installation & commissioning of shunt reactor - BHEL

Reactors in power system


REACTORS

Series

Shunt

REACTOR

REACTOR

PURPOSE
To reduce short
circuit current

PURPOSE
To reduce over
voltage

AREA OF
APPLICATION
Tie Lines

AREA OF
APPLICATION
Bus , Lines,
Tertiary winging of
ICT

Z
Z
Acts as inductance and
opposes the flow of short
circuit current.

Acts as inductive load


and reduce high voltage
by absorbing MVAR.

Classification of shunt reactors

Shunt Reactors

Dry Type
(system voltage
Below 72.5 KV)

Oil immersed Type


(system voltage 72.5
KV & above)

Delta connected
Range below 30 MVAR
Connected at the tertiary
winding of transformer

Star connected with neutral


grounding
Range 30 to 300 MVAR
Connected at the terminals of
transmission line

Air Core
Core less

Switch on / off type

Gapped Core

Permanently connected
type with thyristor
controlled

Back ground for


installing shunt reactor

Reason for high grid voltage in Southern


grid during off peak period As per CEA
report

Installed
Capacity
44220 MW

Availability
28450
MW

Peak Load
demand 34224
MW
Grid voltage lower
than rated (Max
0.95PU or 399 KV)

Grid voltage higher


than rated (Max
1.05PU or 441KV)

Off Peak Load


demand 13000
MW

11Hrs

15Hrs

22
Hrs

03
Hrs

Effect of high grid voltage

High over voltage cause


Difficulty in regulating load flow
through HVDC line
Difficulty in synchronization inter grid
transmission line
instability in generator due to operation
of generator in under excitation zone
near the pole slip region.
Increase in line loss

Present practice to overcome


overvoltage situation
Keeping all 64 Nos Reactors (56 Nos
Line &8 Nos Bus) are in service during
off peak period
Switching off all lightly loaded lines

Extract of PGCIL report (2006)


With existing reactors and opening of the lines as
per existing practice , the study reports indicate
high voltage profile throughout the grid (the
voltage ranges between 416 kV and 445 kV).
Addition of 15 numbers of reactors of 63 MVAR
each is not adequate to control the voltages under
acceptable limits even with some of the
transmission lines switched off.
Even large generating stations like Ramagundam,
Neyveli, Vijayawada, Raichur TPS are not able to
hold their voltages as these are crossing reactive
power absorption limit. As such these stations may
also be considered for installation of bus reactors.
With 10 more reactors (making it 25 ), the results
indicate that when lightly loaded transmission lines
are out of service, the voltages at various buses
are generally controlled and are less than 420 kV
and with the above lines in, the voltages are
higher going up to 431 kV.
Therefore, it is concluded that provision of large
number of reactors are required to control the high
voltages situation in the grid.

Calculation of grid reactive power

Formula

Data

System Voltage

Skv

420 KV

Fault Current level

FkA

40 KA

Short Ckt MVA

Scc= 1.732 X Skv X FkA 29097 MVA

Max Bus voltage

V1 = 441 KV or
(441/420) PU

1.05 PU

Acceptable Bus
voltage

V2 = 416 KV or
(416/420)PU

0.99 PU

Total reactive power Sr = Scc{ ( V2 V1)/V1} 1763 MVAR


Standard capacity

Sst

63 MVAR

About 27 numbers of 63 MVAR shunt


Nos
of reactor
Sr / Sst in southern grid
27 Nos
reactor
are required
to
required
absorb reactive power for bringing down
grid voltage from 441 KV to 416 KV during
off peak period

Recommended location for additional 25


Nos reactors

Advantages of installing reactor


Technical
1. Limited voltage rise on transmission lines at the time of
light loads or after load shedding
2. Prevention of self excitation on generator on leading PF
load.
3. Reduction of over voltage on sound phases during a line
to ground fault.
4. Reduction of switching over voltage due to initial
charging of lines.

Commercial
1. Being a capital item, investment on this equipment will
be adjusted in the fixed cost portion of tariff so that
entire amount ( capital + interest ) will return within the
operating period of the reactors.

Basic operating
principle

Basic operating principle


1.

Initial charging current (i) produces pulsating flux in the coil

2.

Induced voltage (e) = L (di / dt) is produced in opposite direction of


the coil due to pulsating flux

3.

As a result of two opposite voltages current equal to (V-e) / R


passes through the coil
Initial charging current.

System
Voltage, (V)

Induced
Voltage, (e)

Operating current (V-e) / R.

Shunt Reactor acts as inductive load


when it is connected to Bus/Line and
draws current for active & reactive load.

KVAR = Current X system voltage X Sin

The active portion of current causes


I2R loss and the power loss due to
heating is known as active power (KW).
KW = Current X system voltage X Cos

Op
e

ra
tin

cu
rre

nt
(I)

System
Voltage
Reactive current (I x Sin )
to reactive load (KVAR)

The reactive portion of current creates


pulsating flux in the core and the power
required for this purpose is known as
reactive power (KVAR).

Active current (I x Cos )


to active load (KW)

Operating function of shunt reactors

Ir

1. Current drawn by each phase =

Iy

Ib

(System voltage Induced voltage)


(Resistance per phase winding)

2. Induced voltage (e) depends upon the construction and magnetization characteristic of
the core
3. Shunt reactor is a device with the fixed impedance value. Therefore the individual phase
current is directly proportional to the applied phase voltage (i.e. I=U/Z).
4. For balance three phase current (Ir + Iy + Ib = 0), no current flows through the neutral.
5.Only during fault when phase current becomes un balance (Ir + Iy + Ib 0), current less
than 1 PU passes through the neutral. It is due to the fact that positive sequence
reactance(X1) is more or less equal to zero sequence reactance (x0) in five limbs core
configuration (Normally X1/Xo = 0.9).
6. During operation heat is produced as a result of copper loss ( due top I2R) and core
Loss ( due to Hysteresis and eddy current)
7. Typical total core & copper loss (KW)= rating of reactor (MVAR) x 0.2%
8. Typical core loss & copper loss = 75% & 25% of total loss respectively

Induced voltage and


Magnetizing characteristic
of the core

Characteristics of the induced voltage


The magnitude of the inductive voltage (e) developed in the
reactor coil due to pulsating flux depends upon 1. Flux density in the core ( Concentration of flux in the core )
2. Magnetization characteristic of the core ( Ability of the core
to produce flux)

1. Flux density in the core


The coil provided with iron core always have higher flux
concentration than the coil without core (Air core).
As higher concentration of pulsating flux creates higher
induced voltage (e) in the coil, iron core is used for higher
voltage (> 72.5KV ) Reactor and air core is used for lower
voltage (< 72.5KV ) Reactor

Reactor - 72.5 KV and above


Star connected with solid / reactor
grounding
Oil cooled , gapped core
Rating 30 to 300 MVAR
Directly connected to bus /
transmission line

Reactor - Below 72.5 KV


Delta connected
Air cooled , Air core
Rating below 30 MVAR
Directly connected to tertiary
winding of transformer

2. Magnetization characteristic

VI
linearity
range

The flux produced by the core remains proportional to the current passes through the coil
till the core gets saturated.
After saturation of core it can not produce flux further with the increase of current.
Because of this magnetic saturation of the core, reactor coil can not develop inductive
voltage (e) further.
In such condition impedance of the coil becomes lower with respect to the applied
voltage and higher current drawn by the winding causing high I2R loss ( heat generation)
or earth fault.

Components of Reactor

WTI
OTI

1.

400KV,1250 Amps OIP HV bushings (3 Nos)

2.

145 KV ,1250 amps neutral bushing (1No)

3.

Air cell type conservator tank with silica gel breather

4.

Radiator banks (8 Nos) with ONAN type cooling

5.

Buchholtz relay, Pressure relief valve and sudden pressure valve for protection

6.

Floor mounted marshalling box for providing WTI,OTI and required control circuit for
protection

7.

Provision of line side and neutral side CT terminals in each phase

8.

Two numbers treated earth pit for earthing neutral through steel flat

9.

Two number earth grid terminals for earthing reactor tank and other metal structure.

Components of reactor

Five limbed core construction is adopted to achieve high zero


sequence impedance. In addition to the three gapped core limbs with
windings, there are two continuous outer return limbs. The two unwound
side limbs help in achieving zero sequence impedance approximately
equal to the positive sequence impedance

Gapped core construction is preferred for high system voltages over


coreless construction due to the high energy density that can be achieved in
gapped core construction

The core sections between consecutive air gaps are moulded in epoxy
resin to prevent movement between individual laminations. The spacers
forming the air gaps are blocks of ceramics with a high modules of elasticity
and the whole stacking of core modules is cemented together during the
assembly to form a solid column without possibility of rocking , or rubbing
between individual parts.

The core segments are of radial laminated configuration. The radial


laminations prevent fringing flux from entering flat surfaces of core steel which
would result in eddy current overheating and hot spots.

Grading of core according to loss


Loss in Watt / Kg
1.11
0.97
0.89
0.74
0.66
0.57
ZDKH

23
M0H

Hi-B grade

27
M0H

M4

M5

M6

CRGO Steel Strip

Thickness 0.3- 0.5 mm , Flux Density 1.6 Tesla Frequency 50 Hz,


Gray colour ,E Carlite insulating laminated core

Interleaved disc winding has been used for rated voltages 220 KV
and above. This type of winding configuration provides better impulse
voltage
distribution. For lower voltage classes a continuous disc winding or a multi
layer helical winding are used.

Vibration in reactor
1.

As a result of magnetization of core, a


magnetic attraction force (F=107xB2)/8
N / m2) approximately equal to
(107x1.62)/8 N/m2 or 104 Ton / m2 is
produced in the air gap between the core
sections.

2.

This force pulsates at double frequency


(2 X 50 Hz = 100 Hz) due to sinusoidal
flux of frequency 50 Hz.

3.

Because of this double frequency


pulsating force in the core sections, high
vibration and noise is observed in reactor
during operation.

To reduce the vibration within the limit ( 200 micron) following measures are
taken during construction 1. Air gap are filled with ceramic materials 2.

Earthing of Reactor

To earthing grid

LA

LA

LA

To earthing grid

Treated earth pit

1. Neutral earthing To provide return path for the fault / unbalance


current, the neutral of the reactor is grounded to two separately
treated earth pit

2. Tank earthing To avoid heating of tank due to circulation of


eddy current as result of voltage build up on tank due to continuous
passing of fractional portion of main flux through it, the potential of the
tank is made zero by connecting with earth grid.

3. Steel structure earthing To avoid damaging of steel structure


from lighting strike, entire steel structure is grounded through earth
grid.

Cooling of reactor
Approximate heat generation
during operation of reactor
due to core and copper loss =
0.2% x MVAR rating
=
120 KW
Copper loss due to I2R loss is
about 25% of total loss i.e.
0.25X120 = 30 KW

Core loss due to hysteresis & eddy


current is about 75% of total loss i.e.
0.75X120 = 90 KW

The loss of 120 KW is converted to heat

50000 Litre of oil absorb the heat and rise the


top oil temperature to maximum 45 Deg C

8 nos radiator banks reduces oil temperature


to 15 Deg C by ONAN cooling process.

Significance of parameters
1. Capacity (S) As reactor is used as inductive load which only absorb
reactive power, it capacity is given in MVAR .

Rated Voltage

1 PU ( 420
KV)

1.05 PU
(441KV)

Rated Capacity

63 MVAR

69.45 MVAR

Current ( MVARx100)/
(1.732xKV)

86.6 Amps

90.92 Amps

2. Impedance / Positive sequence Impedance (X1) It is the per phase


AC resistance of the winding which decides the magnitude of per phase
current. X1 = U / I = {420000/(1.732X86.6)} =2800 Ohms
3. Zero sequence Impedance (X0) It is the AC resistance of the neutral
path which decides the magnitude of earth fault current through neutral.
The value of X0 depends on the construction of core. For five limbs core,
the value of X0 lays between 90% and 100% of positive sequence
impedance (X1). Therefore X0 = 0.9 . X1 = 0.9 X 2800 =2520 Ohms.
Because of high zero sequence impedance earth fault current is restricted
within 1 PU
4. Winding resistance (R) It is the per phase DC resistance of the
winding which decides copper loss (I2R). Measured winding resistance
per phase = ---------------Ohms
5. Total loss It is the total active power consumed by the reactor and
converted in to heat. Total loss (core and copper loss) = 110KW
6. Power Factor Cos = 110 / 63000 =
0.17%

VA
0K
0
0
630

110KW

630000KVAR

Operation

Position of Bus reactors in ts ii


Tie Line to
TS II Expn
400KV
Bus
Reactor II

TS II Expansion
Gen (2 X 250MW)

400KV
Extension
Bus

Reactor I
Power Grid
Feeder
Tie Line

Stage II Gen
(4 X 210MW)

Power Grid
Feeder

400KV
Bus

Power Grid
Feeder

ICT

Stage I Gen
(3 X 210MW)

230KV
Bus

Mines Feeder

State Grid Feeder


Tie Line to TS I

voltage compensation methods in power system


Over excitation

Under excitation

to deliver reactive power


for increasing terminal
voltage

to absorb reactive power for


decreasing terminal voltage

Increasing tap

Decreasing tap

to deliver reactive power for


increasing bus voltage

to absorb reactive power for


decreasing terminal voltage

Switchyard Bus
395 415KV
Delivers reactive
power to boost up
voltage

C
A
P

R
E
C

Absorb reactive
power to reduce
bus voltage

Capacitive loading
105% Grid Voltage (445KV)

nt
e
r
r
Cu

Leading
MVAR

1. Reduce excitation 2. Reduce GT


tap 3. Switch on reactor 4. Disconnect
lines 5. Reduce Gen load
100% Grid Voltage (420KV)

Cur
ren
t

Lagging
MVAR

1. Increasing excitation 2. Increase GT


tap 3. Switch on Capacitor 4. Reduce
gen load
95% Grid Voltage (380KV)

Inductive loading
WHENEVER THE BUS VOLTAGE RAISES TO 4%TO 5% MORE THAN THE RATED
VOLTAGE, SHUNT REACTOR IS TO BE KEPT IN SERVICE AND 2% TO 3% LESS THAN
THE RATED VOLTAGE THIS MAY BE KEPT OUT OF SERVICE.

Behavior of shunt reactor during


operation

Switching on of shunt reactor


Typical inrush current 3 to 5.5 times of rated current.

Closing point of BRK for Lowest


inrush current .
Closing point of BRK for Highest
inrush current .

Due to closing of breaker poles in three phases at different point of


cycle, unsymmetrical current is developed in three phases which
persist for approximately 1 sec
As a result of unsymmetrical current, 3rd harmonic current passes
through the neutral that may cause spurious tripping on earth fault.

Due to unsymmetrical current, DC off set current is produced


which decrease slowly because of low loss in reactor and may
cause saturation of CT

waveform of inrush current with dc off set current


during switching in

DC Off set
current

Wave form of 3rd harmonic current through neutral


during Switching in

Typical problem during switching in


One of the principal difficulties with shunt reactor protection scheme is
false tripping during reactor energizing.
This false tripping typically occurs within some hundreds of millisecond
or even 1 to 2 seconds after closing of circuit breaker. It also happens
randomly and not with every reactor switching attempt
Most of the time, it trips on Restricted Ground Fault protection /
Differential Protection / Ground fault protection during switching in

Cause for tripping during switching in

It should be noted that HV shunt reactors are typically switched in and


out at least once per day or even more often depending on the power
system loading patterns.

During switching in of shunt reactor relatively high and long lasting dc


current component appears in one or more phases. This current
waveform moves the operating point of CT magnetic core on the
hysteresis curve in one direction and when the dc component diminish
it leaves the main CT with certain level of residual (i.e. remnant) flux.

During normal operation reactor current is always around 1pu and


therefore of a relatively low magnitude, which is never big enough to
move the operating point towards the origin.

Therefore when next switching attempt comes, depending on the


moment of switching, residual flux in the CT core can increase or
decrease. Thus this mechanism will sooner or later cause CT
saturation during reactor switch in operation.

This CT saturation then causes problems for protective relays, which


lose the correct information about the primary current and therefore
cause false operation of protective relays.

Switching off
During switching off operation of reactor high transient over
voltage is developed due to breaking of inductive current.
This switching transients are inversely proportional to the shunt
reactor rated power

Typical over voltage in 400 KV reactors


* ( Sav Steepness of voltage)

Switching transients overvoltage can be reduced considerably by


installing surge reactor and control switching operation i.e switching
off during zero crossing.
Frequent transients overvoltage due to switching off operation
always have the impact on the dielectric life of reactor and breakers.

Electrical faults in shunt


reactors

Faults in shunt reactor

Internal fault
Phase to ground
fault at line side

Phase to ground
fault at neutral side

Phase to phase
short circuit fault

Inter turn short


circuit fault
Over load due to
over voltage and
harmonics

External fault

Phase to ground
fault

Phase to earth fault - out side the reactor

Un balance in
phase current

Zero seq
current
(<1 PU)

Shunt reactor is a device with the fixed impedance value. Therefore the
individual phase current is directly proportional to the applied phase voltage
(i.e. I=U/Z). During external fault voltage of the faulty phase becomes lower
than other phases and a result of that unbalance is created in the phase
current. Because of unbalance phase current , zero seq. current less than 1
PU passes through the neutral.

Unbalance in phase
current due to external
earth fault

Low zero sequence


current through neutral
due to unbalance in the
phase current

Phase to earth fault - at the line side

Un balance in
phase current
N

Zero seq
current

1. Short circuit current flow through the line side


faulty phase and causes unbalance in the phase
current
2. Zero sequence current typically 1 PU flow through
the neutral due to unbalance phase current

Phase to earth fault at the neutral side

Rated current in the


line side

Rated current
passes through the
line side phase

High current passes


through neutral side due
to transformer action

Turn to turn short

Shunt reactor winding impedance is approximately proportional


to the square of the number of active turns.
Short circuit between some number of turns will cause the
decrease of the winding impedance only in the faulty phase and
corresponding small raise of the shunt reactor neutral point
current.
Currents during turn-to-turn fault are of the small magnitude and
they will not produce any sufficient unbalance voltage.
Sufficient unbalance voltage is produced only when number of
turn-to-turn short is high. In such condition it is possible to detect
turn to turn fault with the help of sensitive directional zero seq
relay connected on the HV side of the reactor.

Summary protection
CAUSES

Switching
ON

EFFECTS

RESULTS IN

PROTECTION
ACTUATES

Zero sequence 3rd


Restricted Earth fault
with time delay
Unsymmetrical harmonic current
through
the
neutral
inrush current
Diff protection
Saturation of CT due
to slow decaying of DC
offset current

Switching
OFF

Transient over High voltage stress on No protection is


voltage
the dielectric of the
recommended for this
reactor & circuit
purpose.
breaker.

External
phase to
ground
fault

Lower than
rated current
through the
faulty phase

Unbalance in three
Line side residual
phase line current
current protection
Low zero sequence
Differential protection
current
( 1PU)
passes through the
neutral

Internal
High current at Unbalance in three
phase to
line side in the phase line current
ground
faulty phase
Low zero sequence
fault at line
current
( 1PU)
side
passes through the
neutral

Line side residual


current protection
line side over current
protection
Differential protection

Internal
High current at Rated current at line Neutral side over
phase to
line neutral
side phases
current protection
ground
side
High current at
Differential protection
fault at
neutral side
neutral side
Internal
As the chance of this fault is very remote due constructional
Phase to
feature of the reactor , protection for this fault is not
phase short recommended.
circuit
Inter turn
fault

Low magnitude
voltage
unbalance

Small rise in neutral No protection is


side current
recommended since
the magnitude of fault

Electrical Protection&
relay scheme

Reactor protection
PURPOSE OF SHUNT REACTOR PROTECTION
The purpose of the protection relaying is to disconnect the reactor and limit damage in
case of internal short circuits, earth faults, inter turn faults and over voltage or over load.
The reactor forms certain impedance for rated frequency, and as it is shunt connected, as
over load may be caused by over voltage or harmonics in voltage and current.
PROTECTION DEVICES INBUILT OR MOUNTED ON REACTOR
a) Oil immersed reactor usually have a gas detector and oil surge detector (Buchholz
alarm & trip devices), which are excellent for detecting internal faults.
b) Temperature monitors for oil & winding provide good over load protection.
c) Pressure relief device is provided to safe guard the reactor from high pressures.

REACTOR DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION


It is widely used as instantaneous protection for short circuit faults with in the differential
zone. this is treated as main-1 protection for reactor. It can be of high impedance type or
of a sensitive current stabilized type. High impedance differential protection relays require
an equal CT turns ratio on the phase and neutral side. Sensitivity is 5% of nominal reactor
CT current.
BACK-UP PROTECTION
A variety of relays are available
a) Over current & earth fault protection. ( 50, 50N, 51, 51N, 67, 67N any combination of
these)
b. Under impedance / distance ( z<)(21r).
c. Neutral displacement protection (un>)
RESTRICTED EARTH FAULT PROTECTION
If, for some reason, a sensitive differential protection not chosen, a restricted earth fault
protection can be utilized.

LINE PROTECTION I, LINE PROTECTION II

CBIP Guidelines on shunt reactor Protection


Reactor Differential protection
I) Shall be Triple Pole Type.
ii) Have an operating current sensitivity at least 10% of nominal current.
iii) Shall be tuned with system frequency.
iv) Have an operating time not grater than 30 m sec at 5 times of setting.
v) Have a suitable non-linear resistor to limit the peak voltage during in-zone faults in
case of high impedance type.
vi) Shall be high or low impedance Principle type.

Reactor REF Protection.


I) shall be single Pole.
ii) Have an operating current sensitivity at least 10% of nominal current.
iii) Shall be tuned with system frequency.
iv) Have a suitable non-linear resistor to limit the peak voltage during in-zone faults in
case of high impedance type.
v) Shall be high or low impedance Principle type.
vi) Connection of restricted earth fault protection on the neutral side shall be from
residually connected Bushing CTs or from the ground side CT.

Reactor Backup Protection (Impedance type)


I) Shall be Triple pole type.
ii) Shall be single step Polarized MHO or Impedance Distance relay suitable for
Measuring Phase to Ground and Phase to Phase to faults.
iii) Shall grounds a Characteristic angle between 60-80 deg.
iv) Shall have adjustable definite time delay with setting range of 0.2 to 2.0 sec.
v) Shall have a suitable range for covering 60% of Reactor impedance.
vi) Typical setting : Reach - 60% of Reactor Impedance, Time setting - 1 sec
OR
Reactor Backup Protection (Definite Time O/L & E/F).
i) Shall be single stage Definite Time 3 Pole, Over Current relay with adjustable
current and Time.
ii) Shall be connected for 2 O/C and 1 E/F connection and shall be non-directional
with reset ratio and low Transient Overreach.
iii) Typical settings of o/c relays are: Current Setting- 1.3 x Rated current , Time
setting - 1 sec

Protection of bus reactor for double bus &


transfer bus scheme
Bus I

Bus II

Transfer bus

R
E
A
C
T
O
R
I

51N
21

87U

87BB2
87BB1

R
E
A
C
T
O
R
II

51N
21

87U

87BB2
87BB1

1. Differential protection
Purpose :Internal / external phase to ground fault.
U1

Line side CT 1

V1

W1

1s1

1s1

1s1

1s2

1s2

1s2

DP
87

Neutral side CT 1

U2

1s1

1s1

1s1

1s2

1s2

1s2

V2

W2

CT Specification
1. Ratio: 200/1A
2. Class: PS
3. Knee point voltage: 200V
4. Magnetizing current: 40 mA
5. Secondary resistance: 1 Ohms

Typical Relay connection for Differential


protection

Type of relay : High impedance differential relay


Setting
: operating current sensitivity at least 10% of nominal current.
operating time not grater than 30 m sec at 5 times of setting.

2.

Residual earth fault


protection
Assigned Protection

1. External phase to ground fault.( Unbalance phase current)


2. Internal phase to ground fault at line side .( Unbalance phase current)
3. Circuit breaker pole discrepancy.( Unbalance phase current)
N

U1

V1

W1

1s1

1s1

1s1

1s2

1s2

1s2

Instantaneous
Residual over
Current Relay (50N)
Or
AC Time residual
Over Current relay
(51N)

CT Specification
1. Ratio: 200/1A
2. Class: PS
3. Knee point voltage: 200V
4. Magnetizing current: 40 mA
5. Secondary resistance: 1
Ohms
U2

V2

W2

Typical relay setting


Set low set to 20% with time delay in between0.6s and 1s or even longer.
Use 2nd harmonic blocking.
Set high set to 175% with time delay of 0.1s.

4. Back up impedance protection


Assigned Protection

Internal phase to ground fault at line side

U1

V1

W1

1s1

1s1

1s1

1s2

1s2

1s2

21R 3Ph, REACTOR


BACKUP IMPEDANCE
RELAY OF SUITABLY
SHAPED CHARECRESTICS
EITHER SINGLE / DOUBLE
ZONE TYPE

CT Specification
1. Ratio: 200/1A
2. Class: PS
3. Knee point voltage: 200V
4. Magnetizing current: 40 mA
5. Secondary resistance: 1
Ohms
U2

V2

W2

Typical relay setting

Set low set to 130% with time delay in between 0.6s and 1s.
Set high set to 250% with time delay of 0.1s.

Typical Relay connection for back up


impedance protection

5. Line protection main & backup


Assigned Protection

Internal phase to ground fault at Neutral side

U1

V1

1s1

1s1

1s1

500/1A

500/1A

500/1A

1s2

1s2

1s2

1000/1A

U2

Line Side

W1

1000/1A

1000/1A

1s3

1s3

2000/1A

2000/1A

2000/1A

1s4

1s4

1s4

V2

1s3

W2

Instantaneous
Over Current
Relay (50)
Or
AC time over
current relay
(51)
Over current
protection

Neutral Side

Typical relay setting


Set low set to 130% with time delay in between 0.6s and 1s.
Set high set to 200% with time delay of 0.1s.

Electrical Test on reactor

Electrical test as per IS 5553


Routine Test ( To confirm the operating criteria)
1.

Measurement of WR

2.

Measurement of IR & PI

3.

Measurement of impedance by bridge methods

4.

Measurement of loss and current at rated voltage and ambient temperature

5.

Isolation test

Type Test ( To confirm the design criteria)


1.

Temperature rise test along with DGA before and after test

2.

Full wave lighting impulse voltage withstanding test at 550 KVp on neutral terminal

3.

Measurement of zero sequence reactance

4.

Measurement of acoustic noise level

5.

Magnetizing curve test / knee voltage measurement

6.

Measurement of capacitance and tan delta between winding and tank

Dielectric Test ( To confirm the dielectric strength of the insulation)


1.

Separate source voltage withstand test at 230 KV for one minute

2.

Induced over voltage withstand test with PD indication at 364 KV AC (1.5/3 PU ) for
30 minutes during which the PD level shall not exceed 500pc

3.

Full wave lighting impulse voltage withstand test at 1300 KVp on line terminal

4.

Switching impulse voltage withstand test at 1050 KVp on line terminal

Special Test ( To confirm design and operating criteria )


1.

FRA test

2.

DGA test before and after electrical test

3.

Jacking test on reactor tank

4.

Vacuum test on reactor tank

5.

Oil leak test

6.

Snap back test on HV bushing

Measurement of WR
Purpose - To measure DC resistance per phase of coil for calculating I2R
loss in the coil, which in turns decides the temperature rise. The
measurement also shows whether the winding joints are in order and the
windings are correctly connected.

Voltage lead

Current lead

Resistance
measuring Kit

Measuring methods 1.

Only at the stable value of current (I), corresponding voltage (V) value
is taken for measuring the value of resistance ( R = V/I).

2.

Applied current must not be higher than 15% of the rated current

3.

% error in measurement increases with increases of applied current


due to increases in I2R loss at higher current.

4.

Value to be measured between (R N) , (Y-N), and (B-N), and all the


measured value must be equal.

Measurement of IR
Purpose - To ascertain minimum insulation strength (IR Value) and dryness
level (PI Value) of the winding required to charge the reactor.

5 KV IR measuring
Kit (Megger)
Procedure Measure IR and PI value between (R-E),(Y-E),(B-E) and
(R+Y+B) (Tank + E) with 5 KV Megger and confirm the minimum IR and
PI value as per the table given below.
Minimum Below 6.6 KV 6.6 - 11KV
IR value

22 33 KV

Above 66 KV

K = 1.00 30 Deg
C

200 M

400 M

500 M

600 M

K = 1.65 40 Deg C

121 M

242 M

303 M

363 M

K = 2.60 50 Deg C

77 M

153 M

192 M

230M

K = 4.20 60 Deg C

47 M

95M

119 M

142 M

K = 6.6 70 Deg C

30 M

60 M

75 M

90 M

K = 10.5 80 Deg C

19 M

38 M

47 M

57M

Isolation test
Purpose - To ascertain that the reactor core is insulated from the tank and
core frame.

CL connected to core lamination


CC Connected to core clamp
G Connected to tank ( Earth )

CC
CL

Core clamp

Core Bolt

Core

Tank

Procedure :
1.Disconnect the closing link that connects the two terminals CL-G.
2.Connect the tank with earth
3. Use a Megger and measure IR value between CL and CC + G by applying
3.5 KV for 1 minute
4. The measured IR value shall be minimum 1000 kohms ( 1 M Ohms)
5. There is no general requirement on the insulation level CC-G .

Measurement of impedance by bridge methods


Purpose : To measure the per phase impedance ( AC resistance) of the
winding which controls the flow of current through the windings.
Impedance (Z) = [(Resistance) 2 + ( Reactance)2] = 420KV / 86Amps

Reactor
windings

U1 CT Ratio
M3 Mutual Inductance

100/5A
1.0032mH

CN standard
Capacitor
C4 Bridge
capacitance
R4 Bridge Resistance
Lx Inductance (H) of (M3/U1)X(C4/CN
)
the winding
Z Impedance
( Ohms) of the
winding

2 fLx

8.92 H

2800 Ohms

Measurement of loss and current at rated voltage and ambient


temperature
Purpose: To measure the loss ( core & copper loss) in reactor at rated
operating condition.

Reactors
windings

U1

CT Ratio

100/5A

M3

Mutual Inductance

1.0032mH

CN

standard Capacitor

C4

Bridge capacitance

R4

Bridge Resistance

Inductance (Lx)

(M3/U1)X(C4/CN)

8.92 H

Impedance (Z)

2 fLX

2800 Ohms

Tan delta ( D)

1 / ( C4 R4)

Loss at rated voltage (P)

(U2/Z) x D x 10-3

kW

Loss at rated Current

(Rated Amp / Test Amp)2 x P

kW

Purpose of dielectric test


Normally reactors are operated at the rated operating voltage. During its
operation it is exposed to various transient over voltages like power
frequency over voltage (1.5 x BIL, due to system over voltage), Lighting
impulse (due to lighting), switching impulse (due to switching off). To
avoid abrupt failure of insulation due to these transients, insulation is
designed considering all the aspect. Dielectric test confirms the
capability of the insulation to withstand these transient overvoltage which
is subjected to the reactor during its service life.

Voltage level as per IS 2072


Operating Highest system
Power
frequency
voltage
voltage (BIL)
voltage
KV rms
KV rms
(KV rms)

Switching
Impulse
(KV Peak )

Lighting
impulse
(KV Peak )

0.415

1.1

3.3

3.6

10

20/40

6.6

7.2

20

40/60

11

12

28

60/75

15

17.5

38

75/95

24

50

95/125

36

70

145/170

52

95

250

72.6

140

325

123

185/230

450/550

145

230/275

550/650

170

230/275/325

550/650/750

245

325/370/395

750/850/950

300

395/460

750/850

950/1050

362

460/510

850/950

1050/1175

420

570/360

950/1050

1300/1425

33
66

230

400

Separate source voltage withstand test at 230


KV for one minute
PURPOSE : To verify the operating voltage withstanding capacity of the
minor insulation ( paper ) used in line terminals and windings.

KV
50 Hz, AC
Generator

Method

Test voltage from a 50 Hz, sinusoidal


source is applied at neutral terminal
through a step up transformer keeping
the phase under test open and other two
phases & tank grounded.

Maximum
test voltage

( 400 KV /1.732) or 230 KV rms

Duration of
test

60 sec

Measurement Direct reading for RMS type voltmeter or


of test
(Reading / 2) for Peak type voltmeter
voltage
(KV)
Confirmation The test is declared to be successful if the
test voltage does not collapse during the
test.

Induced over voltage withstand test with PD indication at 364 KV


AC (1.5/3 PU ) for 30 minutes during which the
PD level shall not exceed 500pc ( Method 2)
PURPOSE : To verify the power frequency voltage withstanding capacity of the minor
insulation (Paper ) used in line terminals & windings and the maximum level of PD observed
during the test.

KV
50 Hz, AC
Generator

Method

Test voltage from a 100Hz ( to avoid saturation of core),


sinusoidal source is applied at line terminals through a step
up transformer keeping neutral terminal open and tank
grounded..

Maximum test
voltage

( 1.5 x 420KV /1.732) or 364 KV rms

Duration of test

30 minutes in steps at various voltages level as shown


below

Measurement of
test voltage

Direct reading for RMS type voltmeter or (Reading / 2) for


Peak type voltmeter (V)

Confirmation

The test is declared to be successful if the test voltage does


5 Sec
not collapse
during the test. and the PD level is observed
within 500pC
30 Minutes
5 Minutes

364KV

420KV

364KV

Full wave lighting impulse voltage withstand test at


1300 KVp on line terminal
PURPOSE : To verify the impulse voltage withstanding capacity of the major
insulation ( pressboard) used between the windings, line terminals caused by lighting
strike.

Impulse
Generator

+
5
0
0

Recorder
Method

Test voltage from an impulse generator is applied at line


terminals keeping neutral grounded through 500 resister and
other terminals directly grounded. The sequence for applying
impulse is - one impulse of a voltage between 50% and 75 % of
the full test voltage, and three subsequent impulses at full
voltage

Test voltage

1300 KV peak with Front time

Duration of
test

T1 = 1,2s 30% and Time to half-value T2 = 50 s 20%

Confirmation

The test is successful if the test voltage does not collapse


during the test.

Switching impulse voltage withstand test at 1050


KVp on line terminal
PURPOSE : To verify the impulse voltage withstanding capacity of the major
insulation (Pressboard) between the winding ,line terminals caused by switching
operation.

Impulse
Generator

+
5
0
0

Recorder
Method

Test voltage from an impulse generator is applied at line


terminals keeping neutral grounded through 500 resister and
other terminals directly grounded. The sequence for applying
impulse is - one impulse of a voltage between 50% and 75 % of
the full test voltage, and three subsequent impulses at full
voltage

Test voltage 1050 KV peak


Duration of
test

Front time Tp> 100s , Time above 90% Td> 200s and Time
to the first zero passage T0> 500s ( preferably 1000 s )

Confirmation The test is successful if the test voltage does not collapse
during the test.

Type Test
1. Temperature rise test along with DGA before and
after test
2. Full wave lighting impulse voltage withstanding test at
550 KVp on neutral terminal
3. Measurement of zero sequence reactance
4. Measurement of acoustic noise level
5. Magnetizing curve test / knee voltage measurement
6. Measurement of capacitance and tan delta between
winding and tank

Temperature rise test


The purpose of the measurement is to check that the temperature rises of
the oil and the windings do not exceed the limits agreed on or specified
by the standards.
Temp rise
Steady state temp

(T1)Hot / top oil temp


Time

Cold winding resistance at T deg C

R1

Hot winding resistance after switched


off (to be derived from graph)

R2

Ambient temperature after switched


off

Ta

Calculated winding temp

Tw = {R2(235+T)R1}
235

Average steady state hot oil temp

T1

Hot oil temp after switch off

T2

Drop in average oil temp

Td = (T1 - T2)

Corrected winding temperature

Tc = (Tw + Td)

Winding temperature rise

(Tc Ta)

Full wave lighting impulse voltage withstanding test at


550 KVp on neutral terminal
PURPOSE : To verify the impulse voltage withstanding capacity of the major and
minor insulation (Pressboard and paper) used in neutral terminals and side of the winding
caused by switching operation.

Impulse
Generator

+
5
0
0

Recorder
Method

Test voltage from an impulse generator is applied at neutral


terminals keeping other terminals grounded through 500
resister and tank directly grounded. The sequence for applying
impulse is - one impulse of a voltage between 50% and 75 % of
the full test voltage, and three subsequent impulses at full
voltage

Test voltage 550 KV peak


Duration of
test

T1 = 1,2s 30% and Time to half-value T2 = 50 s 20%

Confirmation The test is successful if the test voltage does not collapse
during the test.

Measurement of zero sequence reactance


Purpose : To measure the AC resistance (Impedance) of neutral path which
controls the earth fault current (zero sequence current) through neutral during
internal or external earth fault.

A
N

B
50 Hz, AC
Generator

Method

Two phase AC supply is applied between


line terminals and neutral through a step
up transformer which is fed by a
generator.
Applied voltage is increased till rated
current flow through the line terminals.
At this voltage current through the
neutral is measure.

Zero seq
impedance

(3 x Applied voltage) / Neutral current.

Measurement of acoustic noise level


and vibration
The purpose of the sound level measurement is to check that the sound level
of the reactor meets the specification requirements given in relevant standards
.

1 Meter

Microphone for
picking up noise

2 Meter

A sound spectrum analyses is used for measuring sound level. The sound
spectrum indicates the magnitude of sound components as a function of
frequency. The sound pressure level is the measured at various points
around at a distance (D) of 30 cm for ONAN or 2 m for ONAF cooling
system spaced at an interval (X) of 1 meter.

Limit
Sound level

Within 81db

Vibration level

Within 200 microns

Magnetizing curve test / knee voltage


measurement

Test procedure

Each phase of the reactor is charged one by one with direct current.

When the maximum test current reached, supply is switched off and the reactor
winding is short-circuited simultaneously by DC current breaker.

The decaying current in the circuit is registered by a computer assisted data


acquisition system.

The saturation curve Flux () / Flux () nom. versus I/Inom is then determined
using the formula.

Maximum value of decaying current

Imax

Minimum value of decaying current

Imin

Measured value

I(t)

Measurement of capacitance and tan delta


between winding and tank
Purpose : To ascertain the condition of the solid insulation of the windings.

I
N

Ic

+ Ir

10 KV
Tan
Delta
Kit

I = total current drawn by the capacitor formed


between winding and tank and the value of
capacitance is [(I/2 f V ) x Cos ] (pF)

Ic = Capacitor charging current

Ir

Ir = Current flow through the capacitor due to


impurities / disintegration of the insulation between
winding and tank. As this current is in phase with
applied voltage, it is dissipated in heat.

Angle

Capacitance (pF)
[(I/2 f V ) x Cos ]

Tan = Sin =Cos (PF)

Condition of the
insulation

0.0 Deg

(I / 3140) x 1.000

Pure capacitor

0.5 Deg

(I / 3140) x 0.999

0.002

Very good

0.5 Deg

(I / 3140) x 0.999

0.004

Good

0.5 Deg

(I / 3140) x 0.999

0.006

Fairly good

0.5 Deg

(I / 3140) x 0.999

0.007

Acceptable

0.5 Deg

(I / 3140) x 0.999

0.008

Not acceptable

90.0 Deg

1.0

Pure resistance

Special Test

1. FRA test
2. DGA test before and after electrical test
3. Vacuum test on reactor tank
4. Oil leak test
5. Snap back test on HV bushing

FRA test
Purpose- Frequency Response Analysis (FRA) is carried out to
detect displacement (or movement) of the windings. Usually the
first measurement in the factory is used as a fingerprint. Results of
later measurements are compared with the first one in the factory.

The software controlled sine wave generator produces output


voltage of max. 4 Vrms with frequency range of 50 Hz to 1 MHz. It
has 75 output impedance. Input impedance is 75 .
Voltage from the generator is applied to the one transformer
terminal (one winding end) and response voltage is measured on
another terminal (the other winding end).

FRA test report


Impedance value Z in k versus frequency is plotted on the diagram with
indication of terminals with applied and response voltage.

Or attenuation A (or damping) in dB (20 log (Uoutput / Uinput ) versus


frequency is plotted on the diagram with indication of terminals with
applied and response voltage.

The reactor is said to be healthy if no deviation is observed


between the results taken in factory and field

DGA test
Chemical analysis of gas : The gas analyser loaded with these solution is
connected to the top pet cock. Small quantities of gas collected in the gas
relay (Bucholtz relay) is allowed to pass through the two solutions.

5 gms of silver nitrate


(AgNO3) dissolved
in 100 ml distilled
water

A week solution of ammonia in water is


slowly added to 100 ml of solution 1,
until a white curdled precipitate which
forms first disappears in the mixture.

Vacuum test on reactor tank

Oil leak test

Snap back test on HV bushing


Purpose : Snap back test was carried out on the above bushing to
determine the natural frequency and damping factor.
Following equipment were used to conduct this test.
1: Piezoelectric accelerometer B & K 4371.
2: PL 202 Real Time FFT Analyzer

FFT

Methods : Two nos. Piezoelectric accelerometer were mounted 90 degree


apart at the bottom of the bushing, one in the direction of applied force (X)
and other 90 degree to the applied force (Y). A force of 250 Kg was applied
at the top and then it was cut-off. The resulting vibrations were recorded on
the FFT. The recorded signals were analyzed on FFT Analyzer to determine
the natural frequency and damping factor of the bushing.

Natural
From FFT reading
frequency

X direction

Y
direction

3.25

3.25

Damping [(100 / 2 n) * log (Y 1 / Yn+1)] Where: n = No. 1.421%


2.03%
factor
of cycle
Y n+1 = Amplitude of (n+1) cycle peak Y1 =
Amplitude
of if no evidence of physical damage is observed on
The test is
successful
1st cycle
peak
the bushing
after the
test

Final Observations

Though oil immersed, shunt reactor and power transformer are


viewed alike, there are distinct differences between construction
and operating characteristics of these two devices.
As NLC is going to install two numbers 63 MVAR bus reactor for
the first time in TS II and the operating and maintenance staffs
are not properly exposed to its operating data, following
information need to be collected from any southern grid thermal
power plant ( not from substation) presently operating with
similar capacity bus reactors for successful and trouble free
operation of reactor in TS II
Average number of switching operation of the reactor per day
Numbers of operating hours achieved since commissioning
Numbers of forced / planned shutdown taken after
commissioning
Protection co-ordinations and its settings
Number of false/actual tripping, if any, since commissioning and
its reasons
Maximum & minimum bus voltage for switching in and out of
reactors
Reduction in leading MVAR and bus voltage after switching in of
the reactor
Any abnormalities observed in generator excitation during
switching in/out
Average reactor current, winding and oil temperature
Any failure of parts like bushings, LA, gaskets etc since
commissioning
Remarks of the operating staff on the performance of the
reactors

Thank you