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Oil Recovery by Internal Gas Drive

Oil is produced from volumetric, undersaturated reservoirs by the expansion of


reservoir fluids. Down to the bubble-point pressure, the production is caused by liquid
(oil and connate water) expansion and rock compressibility. Below the bubble-point
pressure, the expansion of the connate water and the rock compressibility are negligible,
and as the oil phase contracts owing to release of gas from solution, production is a result
of expansion of the gas phase. As production proceeds, pressure drops and the gas and
oil viscosities and volume factors continually change.
Tracy method for predicting the performance of internal gas drive reservoir uses
the material balance equation for a volumetric undersaturated oil reservoir which is
written as:

N (Bt - Bti ) + G (B g - B gi ) + We = N p Bt + N p (R p - R soi ) B g +W p Bw


Since:

G = Nm Bti
B gi
Gp = N p Rp
Bti = Boi
Bt = Bo + (R soi - R so ) B g
Plugging into the equation, rearranging, and solving for N yields:

N=

N p [ B o - R so B g ]+ G p B g (We W p Bw )

B oi ( - )
(
)
+
+
m
B
B
R
R
B
B g B gi
o
oi
soi
so
g

B
gi

Let:
1

N =

G =

W =

Bo - R so B g

Boi ( - )
(
)
(
)
+
+
m
B
B
R
R
B
B g B gi
soi
so
g
o oi
B
gi

Bg

Boi ( - )
(
)
(
)
+
+
m
B
B
R
R
B
B g B gi
soi
so
g
o oi
B
gi

Boi ( - )
(
)
(
)
+
+
m
B
B
R
R
B
B g B gi
o
oi
soi
so
g

B gi

Thus we have:

N = N p N + G p G + (W p Bw We )W
If there is no water influx or water production, the equation is written as:

N = N p N + G p G
Phi factors can be calculated at all desired pressures using data from a reservoir fluid
analysis. Then a table or plot of these factors can be used to calculate oil in place or
predict future performance.
At time level j, the above equation is written as:

N = ( N pj -1 + N p ) Nj + ( G pj -1 + G p ) Gj
Since:
R pj -1 + R pj
G p = ( N p R p )= N p Rave
=
p

Thus:

Np

j
N = N pj -1 Nj + N p Nj + G pj -1 Gj + Rave
p N p G
j
= (N pj -1 Nj + G pj -1 Gj )+ ( Nj + Rave
p G ) N p

Rearranging and solving for Np we get:


N p=

N - N pj -1 Nj - G pj -1 Gj
j
ave
j
N + R p G

(4)

Where Npj-1, Gpj-1 are the cumulative oil and gas production at the old time level j-1
respectively.
The tarner method for predicting reservoir performance by internal gas drive will
be presented in a form proposed by Tracy as follows:
1) Calculate N and G at p = pi - p using:
N =

G =

Bo - R so B g

Boi ( - )
B g B gi
Bo - Boi + ( R soi - R so ) B g + m
B gi

Bg

Boi ( - )
B g B gi
Bo - Boi + ( R soi - R so ) B g + m
B gi

2) Assume Rpj = Rsoj


3) Calculate Rpave using:
R pj -1 + R pj
ave
Rp =

4) Calculate Np using equation (4):


N - N pj -1 N - G pj -1 G
N p=
ave
N + R p G

5) Calculate Np = Npj-1 + Np
6) Calculate So and SL as follows:

N p Bo
S o = (1 - S w ) 1 N Boi

S L = S w + So

7) Evaluate ko at Sw and kg at SL
8) Calculate Rpj using the following equation:
j

R p = R so +

k g o Bo
k o g Bg

9) Calculate the difference between the assumed and the calculated Rpj value. If these
two values agree within some tolerance, then the calculated Np is correct. On the other
hand, if they don't agree then the calculated value should be used as the new guess and
steps 3 through 9 are repeated.

EPS-441: Petroleum Development Geology


Material Balance Calculations for a Saturated Oil Reservoir
Neglecting Water and Rock Compressibilities
Semester:

Homework #:

Name:

SS#:

Given the following data:


Volume of bulk oil zone = 112,000 acre-ft
Volume of bulk gas zone = 19,600 acre-ft
Initial reservoir pressure = 2710 psia
Initial oil FVF = 1.340 bbl/STB
Initial gas FVF = 0.006266 ft3/SCF
Initial dissolved GOR = 562 SCF/STB
Oil produced during the interval = 20 MM STB
Reservoir pressure at the end of the interval = 2000 psia
Average produced GOR = 700 SCF/STB
Two-phase FVF at 2000 psia = 1.4954 bbl/STB
Volume of water encroached = 11.58 MM bbl
Volume of water produced = 1.05 MM STB
Water FVF = 1.028 bbl/STB
Gas FVF at 2000 psia = 0.008479 ft3/SCF
a) Calculate the stock tank oil initially in place.
b) Calculate the driving indexes.
c) Discuss your results.

Solution:
a) The material balance equation is written as:

N (Bt - Bti ) + G (B g - B gi ) = N p [ Bt + (R p - R soi ) B g ] - (W e - W p B w )


Define the ratio of the initial gas cap volume to the initial oil volume as:

m=

GB gi
NBti

we get:

N (Bt - Bti ) + Nm Bti (B g - B gi ) = N p [ Bt + (R p - R soi ) B g ] - (W e - W p B w )


B gi
and solve for N, we get:
N=

N p [ Bt + (R p - R soi ) B g ] - (W e - W p B w )
(Bt - Bti ) + m Bti (B g - B gi )
B gi

Since:
Np
Bt
Rp
Rsoi
Bg
We
Wp
Bw
Bti
m
Bgi

= 20 x 106 STB
= 1.4954 bbl/STB
= 700 SCF/STB
= 562 SCF/STB
= 0.008479 ft3/SCF = 0.008479/5.6146 = 0.001510 bbl/SCF
= 11.58 x 10 6 bbl
= 1.05 x 106 STB
= 1.028 bbl/STB
= 1.34 bbl/STB
= GBgi/NBti = 19,600/112,000 = 0.175
= 0.006266 ft3/SCF = 0.006266/5.6146 = 0.001116 bbl/SCF

Thus:

N=

20 [ 1.4954 + ( 700 - 562 ) 0.001510 ] - ( 11.58 - 1.05x1.028 ) 6


10
(1.4954 - 1.34 ) + 0.175 1.34 (0.001510 - 0.001116 )
0.001116
= 98.97 MM STB

b) In terms of drive indexes, the material balance equation is written as:

( W e - W p Bw ) = 1
G ( B g - B gi )
N (Bt - Bti )
+
+
N p [ Bt + (R p - R soi ) B g ] N p [ Bt + (R p - R soi ) B g ] N p [ Bt + (R p - R soi ) B g ]
Thus the depletion drive index (DDI) is given by:
N (Bt - Bti )
98.97x 106 ( 1.4954 - 1.34 )
=
= 0.45
6
N p [ Bt + (R p - R soi ) B g ] 20x 10 [1.4954 + (700 - 562 ) 0.001510 ]

The segregation drive index (SDI) is given by:

Nm Bti (B g - B gi )
B gi
=
N p [ Bt + (R p - R soi ) B g ]
1.34
( 0.001510 - 0.001116 )
0.001116
= 0.24
20x 106 [1.4954 + (700 - 562 ) 0.001510 ]

98.97 x 106 x 0.175x

The water drive index (WDI) is given by:

( W e - W p Bw ) = ( 11.58 x 106 - 1.05 x 1.028 x 106 ) = 0.31


6
N p [ Bt + (R p - R soi ) B g ] 20x 10 [1.4954 + (700 - 562 ) 0.001510 ]

c) The drive mechanisms as calculated in part (b) indicate that when the reservoir
pressure has declined from 2710 psia to 2000 psia, 45% of the total production was by oil
expansion, 31% was by water drive, and 24% was by gas cap expansion.