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Design methodology:

The objective of the braking system is to provide a reliable and prompt deceleration for the vehicle.
Moreover, the driver must have complete control of the vehicle while the brakes are activated. More
importantly, the brakes must be capable of locking up all four wheels while on the pavement, which is
one of the requirements stated by the BAJA SAE rules. According to our calculation of the clamp
force requirement and the brake available in the market we have we decided to use the disc brake in
all four wheel i.e front and rear. The selectivity includes cost and availability of the brake.

Braking system design:

Brake considerations:
This year we are incorporating all wheel with disc brakes. Previous year we opted for disc brake in
front wheel & drum brakes in rear wheel.

Combination of brakes:
We are using disc brakes in both front and rear because it provides more efficient braking and
according to our requirement.
According to dynamic force distribution 60% weight is on front side and 40% on rear side
during braking. So disc brake in all four wheel will serve our purpose.
Maintaining brake balance under different situations such as normal, and very heavy brake
use. Disc brakes also lend themselves to being more effective .Reduces upspring mass
Since more dynamic frictional force is required on front wheels so disc brake will be very
The drum brake has only one surface to dissipate the energy - the disc has two surfaces. Less weight
of disc brake increases steering ability as there is less inertia.

Disc brake
(front and rear wheel)

Maruti 800 (rear)

Hydraulic system
The brakes hydraulic system is controlled by single brake pedal, locking all the
wheels at a time. We are using OEM master cylinder for actuation of brake
fluid. We have the pedal ratio of 5:1. This is done to meet our braking
The brake fluid which we are using this time is DOT 3 .It is widely
recommended, it is effective as well as economical.

Brakes calculation:

Diameter of master cylinder=3/4 inch=0.75 inch= 0.01905 m

Coefficient of Friction between pad and rotor () = 0.35.
Coefficient of friction between new tire and good road (1) = 0.8.
Diameter of calliper piston (Dc) = 1.10 inch= 0.028 m.
Total weight of car (m) = 270 kg.
Acceleration due to gravity (g) = 9.81 m/s2.
Radius of tire (R) = 12 inch= 0.304 m.


P = Tubing pressure.
F = Force on biasing bar.
A = Area of master cylinder.
A1 =Area of calliper piston
F1 = Clamping force on rotor.
= Coefficient of friction between pad and rotor.
N = Normal force on rotor.
1 = Coefficient of friction between new tire and good road.
Fr = Frictional force on tire.
N1 = Normal force on tire.
Re = Effective radius of calliper.
Tr = Braking torque.
Re = Effective radius of calliper.
Rr = Radius of rotor.
Ad = Deceleration of car.
Aa = Average deceleration of car.
V = Velocity of the car.
St = Total distance travel by vehicle.
T = Total time taken by the vehicle to stop.

Let the pedal ratio be 5:1

Consider the force applied on pedal be 75lb =333.6381 newton

Therefore force on biasing bar =75*5=1668.1905newton = 375 lb

Diameter of master cylinder = 0.75 inch = 0.01905m
Therefore area of master cylinder = (*(0.01905) 2)/4=0.00028496 sq. meter= 0.4417 square
Tubing pressure (P) = F/A= (1668.1905/0.00028496) = 5854121.63N/m2 = 849.068558 PSI.

Frictional force on rotor (F1) =2N

N=Normal force on rotor (Clamping force) = (P*A1)
Therefore F1= (2**P*A1)
F1 = 2522.00 newton=566.773 lb

The value of coefficient between new tire and good road surface is 0.8.
So friction force on tire (Fr) = (1*N1).

Dynamic weight on the front axle is 60% of the total force.

Consider total weight of vehicle=270kg.
Weight on front axle= 0.6*270= 162 kg.
Weight on one tire = 81kg.
Therefore the normal force on the tire (N1) = 81*g=794.61N.

Braking torque = Fr*R

Tr = 0.8*81*9.81*12in =0.8*81*9.81*0.3048N = 193.75Nm.

Braking torque due to friction on tire = Braking Torque produce by clamping force on rotor.
Therefore F1*Re = Tr.

Re = (193.75/2522) =0.0768 m = 2.97725 inch.

Radius of rotor (Rr) = Re+ radius of calliper =Re+0.5Dc
=0.0768+ (0.5*0.028)
Rr =0.09082 m =90.82 mm=9.082 cm=3.575 inch.

Rr=90.82 mm
Diameter of rotor = 181.64 mm.

Acceleration due to braking force

ad= 2*(BF in front tyre +BF in rear tyre)/weight of car
ad= 2*(1271.37+847.584)/270
ad=1.59g m/s2

V2-U2=2(Aa) S.
S= 3.95 m [Breaking distance]
Reaction time+build up time+perception= 0.8 s.
Therefore total distance travel by vehicle in this time is
Se= 11.11*0.8= 8.88m.
Therefore total distance (St) = S+Se

V=U+ (Aa)*t

t= 11.11/ (1.59*9.81) = 0.71 s.

Total time taken to stop the vehicle after seeing the danger
T=t+0.8 s
T=1.51 s.

Thermal calculation
T amb =ambient temperature=300 k
Q =flux produced in disc rotor (W/m2)
T max =maximum temp. attained by rotor=
Arotor= area of rotor
Disc rotor is of gray cast iron hence value of following:D rotor =density of disc rotor = 6600 kg/m3
C =brake disc specific heat capacity = 460 J/kg/k
K=brake disc thermal conductivity = 50 W/(m k)
Kinetic energy=mv2/2
KE=37515.0 J
Power (P) = Change in KE/t (t=1sec)
P = 37515.0 W
Flux (Q) =P/ Arotor
Arotor = *(0.12 0.072) =0.016022 m2
Q =37515/0.016022 = 2.34146 * 106 W/m2

Using Fourier law we get the formula to calculate the max.

Temperature of rotor is
T max= (0.527 * Q * t0.5) / (D rotor * C * K) 0.5 + T amp

=400.727 K
Heat analysis of disc brake

Static Rolling radius of tyre

= (Tyre width *profile %)*2) + (rim size*25.4)
= (203.2*0.75)*2) + (12*25.4)

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