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38 ROBOTICS: CONTROL, SENSING, VISION, AND INTELLIGENCE

y5

(Lift) xa

Z3

en

Stanford robot arm link coordinate parameters

Joint i

0i

ai

a;

n.-

0,_-90

-90

d,

90

d2

02 = -90
-90

d3

04 = 0

-90

05 = 0

90

06=0

d6

d;

Figure 2.12 Establishing link coordinate systems for a Stanford robot.

..S

i1.

For a rotary joint, di, ai, and ai are the joint parameters and remain constant
for a robot, while Bi is the joint variable that changes when link i moves (or
rotates) with respect to link i - 1. For a prismatic joint, Bi, ai, and ai are the
joint parameters and remain constant for a robot, while di is the joint variable.
For the remainder of this book, joint variable refers to Bi (or di), that is, the varying quantity, and joint parameters refer to the remaining three geometric constant
values (di, ai, ai) for a rotary joint, or (0i, ai, ai) for a prismatic joint.
With the above three basic rules for establishing an orthonormal coordinate
system for each link and the geometric interpretation of the joint and link parameters, a procedure for establishing consistent orthonormal coordinate systems for a
robot is outlined in Algorithm 2.1. Examples of applying this algorithm to a six-