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L14 Fanno Flow

Recap of previous lecture


Choking in isentropic ideal gas flow (Sonic flow)
Isentropic flow through nozzles

Setup of a blow-down supersonic wind tunnel

Todays Lecture:
Frictional Fanno flow
Objective: analyse different Fanno
flow conditions

Entropy generation in ideal gas flow


1st and 2nd law of thermal dynamics (closed system, not control volume)

= +

= = +

= /
2 1 = ln

Divide by and then 1


0

ln

Non-Isentropic Ideal Gas Flows


= =

L14 - Fanno flow: adiabatic flow (02 = 01 ) with friction (02 < 01 ) > 0

L15 - Rayleigh flow: Frictionless flow (02 = 01 ) with heat transfer (02 01 )
L16 Shock waves: 02 01 & 02 01

Types of Fanno flow problem


Adiabatic compressible pipe flow problem types:
Type 1: Given fluid properties, inlet conditions (e.g. 0 &0 ) and pipe geometry
(, , ), given mass flow rate (1 1 ), determine downstream condition (2 , 2 )
case A: pipe exit choked; case B: pipe exit not choked
Type 2: Given fluid properties, inlet conditions and pipe geometry, given
upstream condition, determine mass flow rate
case A: pipe exit choked; case B: pipe exit not choked
Type 3: Given fluid properties, inlet conditions and pipe length, given
downstream condition, given mass flow rate, determine pipe diameter
case A: pipe exit choked; case B: pipe exit not choked

Fanno flow : correlation

Key assumptions: (1) adiabatic no heat transfer


(2) constant cross-sectional area
(3) friction non-isentropic flow
Adiabatic 0 = +

2
2

2
2 2

= constant

2
2

Conservation of mass: = constant

Constant

= constant

= Given and () calculate for any

Fanno flow: diagram


Integrated entropy relationship: =

Given inlet conditions (1 , 1 , 1 ) & , , 2


P2 momentum T2 Energy and mass s2

2 2 2
2 2

= 0

Conservation of
linear momentum
+ =

2
2

Pa

T-s diagram - Fanno line


Ta

= for
given mass flow
rate and T0

Maximum entropy condition


Thermodynamic relationship: = /
Ideal gas:

= ;

= / = / + /

Continuity & constant area: / + / = 0


=
1 2

Maximum entropy: / = 0 = = Ma = 1

Adiabatic flow: > 0; = is in critical flow condition (Ma = 1)

Possible Fanno flows

Ma > 1
dT > 0
ds > 0

Ma < 1
dT < 0
ds > 0

s-sref
(a) Subsonic Fanno flow.

s-sref
(b) Supersonic Fanno flow.

s-sref

(c) Normal shock in Fanno flow.

Conservation laws for Fanno flow


Mass: / + / = 0

Linear momentum: / + = / 2 /2
Energy: / + 2 / 2 = 0

Ideal gas: = / = / + /
Speed of sound & Mach number:
2

= & Ma = /

2
2

2
2

Effect of friction in Fanno flows

Velocity change:

Mach no. change:

static change:

static change:

Entropy change:

2
2 12
1

1+ 2 2 2
12
2

1+(1)2 2

12
2

(1)4

2(12 )

influence coefficients

1 0

(1)2

signs depend
on 1-Ma2

always > 0
0 always < 0

Fanno flow trends

Parameter
Mach number

Velocity

Static pressure

Subsonic

Supersonic

Static temperature

Specific entropy

Density

Total pressure 0

Critical length for choking Fanno flow


Integrate from inlet Mach number Ma to critical (sonic) state
Assume = constant

1+ 2 2 2
12
2
1
2

=1 1+

12

12
2

2
2

+1
+1 2
ln
2
2+ 1 2

Mach number vs. distance - 2

FANNO 1b

FANNO 1c

FANNO 1a

Distance from inlet at given to location with critical (sonic) conditions


for given and

Fanno flow functions


Integrate from inlet to critical (sonic) state assuming = constant:


0
0

1/2
1
+1
2+ 1 2

+1
2+ 1 2

0
0

=
=

1/2
+1
2+ 1 2

1 2+ 1

+1

0 /0 = 1

+1
2 2 1

Choked and unchoked exit


Fanno flow with
choked exit
/1 = (1 )
, 1 ,

2 , ,

/1 = (1 )

2
1

2 / = (2 )
2 / = (2 )

Fanno flow with


unchoked exit

Subsonic and supersonic flow


Subsonic flow
Still choking

Supersonic flow
Normal shock
moving upstream

16

Distributions of P and Ma - 1

P/P1

NB: if P2 < P*
flow choked &
underexpanded
expansion waves at
duct exit
SUBSONIC ENTRY:
increasing
mass flow rate

Ma

Worked example - 1
Type 1 problem: an adiabatic flow of air with a given mass flow rate of 2.7 kg/s
takes place in a pipe with given diameter of 100 mm and average friction factor f =
0.024. The inlet conditions are: static pressure 180 kPa and static temperature 50oC.
What is the maximum pipe length for which choking will not occur. Determine the
pressure and temperature at the end of the pipe and halfway along the pipe.
Solutions:
Step 1: Calculate inlet Mach number and the critical
length for chocked flow
1
1

= Ma1

Ma1 =

1 1
1

1 42.7
1.4 0.12

Either using plot or correlation

287 50+273
180103

= 1.15

= 0.491

1 = 1.15 / = 1.15 0.1/0.024 = 4.79 m

fL*/D = 1.15
Ma1 = 0.49

Worked example - 2
Step 2 Calculate the chocked flow properties (end of the pipe) using either
plot or correlations

FANNO 2

T1/T* = 1.145
p1/p* = 2.18

Ma1 = 0.49

=
=

1/2
1
+1
2+ 1 2

+1
2+ 1 2

1
1 = 2.18 = 2.18
=

1
= 1.145 = 1.145
=

180
2.18

323
1.145

= 82.6 kPa
= 282 K

Worked example - 3
Step 3 Calculate the critical length at other positions and decide the local Mach
Number using chart (using correlation will need to do iterations)
2

= 0.024

4.79/2
0.1

= 0.575 m 2 = 0.58

Step 4 Calculate the local properties using either


the chart or the correlations
2

1
+1
2 2+ 1 22

+1
2+ 1 2

1/2

= 1.83

2 = 1.83 = 1.83 82.6 = 151 kPa

fL*/D = 0.575
FANNO 1c

Ma2 = 0.58

= 1.124 2 = 1.124 = 1.124 282 = 317 K

Self study
Adiabatic compressible pipe flow problem types (compare CC2 Chapter 8.5):
Type 1: Given fluid properties, inlet conditions and pipe geometry, given mass
flow rate, determine pressure ratio
EXAM
case A: pipe exit choked; case B: pipe exit not choked
Type 2: Given fluid properties, inlet conditions and pipe geometry, given
pressure ratio, determine mass flow rate
case A: pipe exit choked; case B: pipe exit not choked
Type 3: Given fluid properties, inlet conditions and pipe length, given pressure
drop, given mass flow rate, determine pipe diameter
case A: pipe exit choked; case B: pipe exit not choked
The following slides give the calculation steps for each of these problems
based on slight variations of the previous example.
NB: in exams and tutorial work we will only ask you to carry out these
calculations of Type 1 cases A and/or B.

Self study - 1
Type 1 problem (not choked): an adiabatic flow of air with a given mass flow rate of
2.1 kg/s takes place in a pipe with given diameter D = 100 mm, length L = 4.79 m
and average friction factor f = 0.024. The inlet conditions are: static pressure 180
kPa and static temperature 50oC. Determine the pressure and temperature at the
end of the pipe.
NB: the mass flow rate is lower than before and everything else kept the same, so
this flow is not choked at the pipe exit. We need to use a fictitious choking
location beyond the pipe exit in the calculation process
L*
L
1

real pipe 1-2

choked
flow
L*-L
2 fictitious extra pipe 2-* *

Self study - 2
Type 1 problem (not choked): an adiabatic flow of air with a given mass flow rate of
2.1 kg/s takes place in a pipe with given diameter D = 100 mm, length L = 4.79 m
and average friction factor f = 0.024. The inlet conditions are: static pressure 180
kPa and static temperature 50oC. Determine the pressure and temperature at the
end of the pipe.
Solution steps:
Ma1 = m RT1 / k AP1
1. Use the first mass flow function to find Ma1 (= 0.382)
2. Read off chart FANNO-2 at Ma1 (P1/P* = 2.83) and find P* (= 63.6 kPa)
3. On chart FANNO-1, find fL*/D for Ma1 (fL*/D = 2.66) and calculate L* (= 11.08 m)
4. Calculate L2 = L* - L (= 6.29 m) find fL2/D (= 1.51) and use in chart FANNO-1 to
find (real) pipe exit Mach no. Ma2 (= 0.455)
5. Read off chart FANNO-2 at Ma2 to find P2/P* (= 2.36), use choking pressure P* to
calculate P2 (= 150.1 kPa)
6. Repeat steps 2. and 5. using chart FANNO2 for T/T* (Ma1 = 0.382, T1/T* =
1.166), then find T* (= 277 K = 4oC), (Ma2 = 0.456, T2/T* = 1.152) and T2 (= 319 K
= 42oC).

Self study - 3
Type 2 problem (choked): an adiabatic flow of air with a given static pressure ratio
between inlet and exit of 2.18 takes place in a pipe with given diameter of 100 mm
and average friction factor f = 0.024. The inlet conditions are: static pressure 180
kPa and static temperature 50oC. What is the maximum pipe length for which choking
will not occur. Determine the mass flow rate through the pipe.

Solution steps are reverse of previous example:


1.Find Ma1 for choked flow at P1/P* = 2.18 on chart FANNO-2 (Ma1 = 0.49)
2.On chart FANNO-1, find fL*/D for choked flow at Ma1 = 0.49 (fL*/D = 1.15)
3.Calculate L*
4.Re-arrange first mass flow function, evaluate at Ma1 = 0.49 to calculate mass
flow rate
AP k Ma

m =

RT1

Self study - 4
Type 3 problem (choked): an adiabatic flow of air is just choked at a given static
pressure ratio between inlet and exit of 2.18 and a given mass flow rate of 2.7
kg/s in a pipe with average friction factor f = 0.024. The inlet conditions are: static
pressure 180 kPa and static temperature 50oC. Determine the pipe diameter
required and find the maximum pipe length for which choking will not occur.
Solution steps use steps from previous examples in different order:
1.Find Ma1 for choked flow at P1/P* = 2.18 on chart FANNO-2 (Ma1 = 0.49)
2.Substitute mass flow rate, inlet pressure and temperature and Mach number
into first mass flow function
m RT

A=

P1 k Ma1

3.Find pipe cross-sectional area A and hence pipe diameter


4.On chart FANNO-1, find fL*/D for choked flow at Ma1 = 0.49 (fL*/D = 1.15)
5.Calculate L*

Self study - 5
Type 2 problem (not choked): an adiabatic flow of air with a given pressure ratio
P1/P2 = 1.2 takes place in a pipe with given diameter D = 100 mm, length L = 4.79 m
and average friction factor f = 0.024. The inlet conditions are: static pressure 180
kPa and static temperature 50oC. Determine the mass flow rate through the pipe.
Solution is iterative, because flow is not choked and Ma1 and p* are both unknown:
1.Calculate fL/D (= 1.15) and find Ma1 (= 0.49) on chart FANNO1 for choked end of
pipe; also find P1/P* (= 2.18) from chart FANNO-2 reading off at Ma1 = 0.49
2.Guess Ma1 < 0.49, read off chart FANNO-2 at Ma1 to find P1/(P)* and (P)*
3.On chart FANNO-1, find fL*/D for Ma1 and calculate new L*
4.Calculate L2 = L*-L (= 6.29 m) find fL2/D, use in chart FANNO1 find pipe exit Mach
no. Ma2
5.Read off chart FANNO-2 at Ma2 to find P2/P*, use (P)* to calculate P2
6.Calculate P1/P2 and compare with target P1/P2 = 1.2 and 2.18. If P1/P2 > 1.2
reduce Ma1, if P1/P2 < 1.2 increase Ma1, and repeat steps 2.-6.
7.When Ma1 has been found that makes P1/P2 sufficiently close to 1.2, use this value
of Ma1 to calculate mass flow rate with
m = AP k /( RT ) Ma
1

Self study - 6
Type 3 problem (not choked): an adiabatic flow of air has a given static pressure
ratio between inlet and exit of P1/P2 = 1.2 and a given mass flow rate of 2.1 kg/s;
the flow takes in a pipe with a length of L = 4.79 m and average friction factor f =
0.024. The inlet conditions are: static pressure 180 kPa and static temperature 50oC.
Determine the pipe diameter required.
Solution steps:
1.Assume choked exit P1/P* = P1/P2 = 1.2; find Ma1 on chart FANNO-2 (Ma1 = 0.85)
2.Guess Ma1 < 0.85, e.g. Ma1 = 0.5; find D from first mass flow function (= 0.087 m)

A = m RT1 / k P1Ma1

3.On chart FANNO-1, find fL*/D for Ma1 (fL*/D = 1.07) and calculate
L* = 1.07D/f = 3.88 m, next calculate L* - L (= -0.91 m).
4.If L*-L < 0 reduce guessed Ma1 further (e.g. Ma1 = 0.4) and repeat 2.-3. until L*-L > 0
(for Ma1 = 0.4, D = 0.098 m, fL*/D = 2.31, L* = 9.40 m, L*-L = 4.61 m > 0)
5.On chart FANNO-2 find P1/P* for Ma1 = 0.4 (P1/P* = 2.70, to be used later)
/continued

Self study - 7
Type 3 problem (not choked): an adiabatic flow static pressure ratio between
inlet and exit of P1/P2 = 1.2 and a given mass flow rate of 2.1 kg/s; pipe
length L = 4.79 mfriction factor f = 0.024. The inlet conditions: static pressure
180 kPa and static temperature 50oC. Determine the pipe diameter required.
Solution steps
/continued:
5.Calculate f(L*-L)/D (= 1.13); use in chart FANNO-1 find pipe exit Mach no. Ma2 =
0.495
6.On chart FANNO-2 find P1/P* for Ma2 = 0.495 (P2/P* = 2.15)
7.Calculate P1/P2 = (P1/P*)/(P2/P*) = 2.70/2.15 = 1.26
8.If P1/P2 > 1.2 reduce guessed Ma1; if P1/P2 < 1.2 increase guessed Ma1 and repeat
steps 4.-7.
9.Next cycle: guess Ma1 = 0.3, D = 0.113 m (from mass flow function), P1/P* = 3.62
(chart FANNO-2), fL*/D = 5.30 (chart FANNO-1), L* = 24.95 m, L*-L = 20.16 m, f(L*L)/D = 4.28; Ma2 = 0.325 (chart FANNO-1), P2/P* = 3.33 (chart FANNO-2); P1/P2 =
3.62/3.33 = 1.09 increase Ma1 (closer to 0.4, e.g.Ma1 = 0.37)
10.If P1/P2 is sufficiently close to target P1/P2 = 1.2, accept the latest diameter D as the
correct solution.

Self study closing remarks


The examples were all based on inlet conditions specified as static pressure and
static temperature. Consequently, the calculations use the first mass flow function:

m RT1 AP1 = k Ma1


Inlet conditions can also be specified as static pressure and stagnation
temperature. In these cases we need to use the mass flow function q:

m RT01
k 1
2
q=
= k Ma1 1 +
Ma1
2
AP1

Inlet conditions can also be specified as stagnation pressure and stagnation


temperature. In these cases we use the mass flow function Q:

m RT01

k 1
Q=
Ma12
= k Ma1 1 +
AP01
2

( k +1)

Relationship between mass flow rate and Mach number is more complex &
calculations steps may need isentropic relations for T0/T, P0/P to obtain static
pressure and temperature from stagnation pressure and temperature

2 ( k 1)

L13 Fanno Flow


This lecture
Non-Isentropic flow
Fanno flow adiabatic duct flow with friction (Ch. 12.6)
Next lecture
Rayleigh flow after Easter holiday (Ch. 12.5)

ANY QUESTIONS ?
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