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237

modelling of the crowd-synchronization effects

J. Bodgi, S. Erlicher & P. Argoul

Institut Navier (LAMI-ENPC), Marne-la-Valle, France

ABSTRACT: In this paper, a 1D crowd model is proposed, aiming to properly describe the

crowd-flow phenomena occurring when pedestrians walk on a flexible footbridge. The crowd is

assumed to behave like a compressible fluid and the pedestrian flow is modeled in a 1-D

framework using the mass (of pedestrians) conservation equation. This crowd model is coupled

with a simplified model for the dynamics of the footbridge and an optimized modeling of synchronization effects through Kuramoto equation. Numerical simulations are presented to show

some preliminary results.

1 INTRODUCTION

Recently designed footbridges have shown to be sensitive to the human induced vibration (Millenium Bridge, London; Solfrino Bridge, Paris). Several experimental measurements allowed

this phenomenon to be better understood (Dallard et al. 2001; SETRA 2006). The crowd walking on a footbridge imposes to the structure a dynamic lateral excitation at a frequency close to

1 Hz. When the first mode of lateral vibration of a footbridge falls in the same frequency interval, a resonance phenomenon is activated, the oscillation amplitude increases and, if it becomes

large enough, pedestrians are forced to change their way of walking, up to the so-called structure-pedestrian synchronization. This phenomenon has been often experimentally detected and

also analyzed in several studies (Dallard et al. 2001; Venuti et al. 2005; ivanovic et al. 2005).

A series of simplified design rules for footbridges accounting for these effects was recently proposed (SETRA 2006).

Moreover, the behaviour of each single pedestrian is affected by the presence of the crowd

around him. In detail, when the pedestrian density is very low, the walk is free and characterized by the speed, the walk frequency, the step length, etc. slightly varying from a walker to

the other. Nonetheless, when the crowd density becomes higher, a single walker is forced to

synchronize his speed with that of the others. This kind of pedestrian-pedestrian synchronization

(or traffic effect) occurs when the walk is on a rigid floor and some crowd models were already developed (Hoogendorn 2004) for this case. However, very few existing studies concern

the simultaneous modeling of the pedestrian-pedestrian and the structurepedestrian synchronizations (Venuti et al. 2005; Bodgi et al. 2007). This coupled analysis is discussed in the present

contribution.

2 SOME EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS

2.1 Single pedestrians walking

Every step of the human walking is characterized by a time interval where both feet are in contact with the floor and an interval where only one foot touches the floor. One may define the beginning of a step as the beginning of a simultaneous contact period. The end of a step coincides

238

EVACES07

with the beginning of the following simultaneous contact period. For a given pedestrian, walking at constant speed, the time-length Ts of a step is approximately constant. The walking frequency is defined by: f s = 1 Ts . For a standard walking, one gets f s 2 Hz ( ivanovic et al.

2005). The force induced by a single pedestrian on the floor has a lateral component related to

the small lateral oscillations of the centre of gravity of the pedestrian during walk. It acts in the

direction perpendicular to the walk speed, and with opposite signs for each foot. Hence, the frequency of the lateral force is f lat = f s 2 1Hz . The processing of data provided by Decathlon

(Bodgi et al. 2006) concerning lateral walking forces show a quasi-periodic behavior, with a

typical right-left cycle like the one indicated in Figure 1. The periodicity of the lateral force

f l ( t ) suggests a Fourier harmonic decomposition and for the analysis of the crowd effect on

the lateral motion of footbridges, only the first harmonic (frequency flat) is retained in most studies; this will be also the case in this paper:

+

(1)

i =1

where i is the i-th Fourier coefficient, i is the i-th phase difference. f l ( t ) is always

bounded and less than 50 N . For an increasing walking speed, the frequency flat also increases.

Figure 1.Lateral walking force on a rigid floor, for several walking speeds.

The analysis of these experimental data shows that the first harmonic amplitude 1 varies between 30 and 35 N, confirming the results of SETRA (2006) and it can be related to the walking

velocity v by a linear relationship: 1 = 0.6191 v + 35.5171 [N]. This flat frequency is often

very close to the lateral modal frequency of footbridges. Hence, footbridges may be subject to

large oscillations because their behavior is often slightly damped even if the pedestrian lateral

force is relatively small. In the case of non-rigid floor, the lateral force amplitude of the human

walk is assumed to be similar to that of the rigid-floor case. This strong assumption is supported

by the experimental results of SETRA (2006). Conversely, the walking velocity and frequency

are affected by the structure vibrations, as seen in the next Subsection.

2.2 Influence of the structural oscillation on pedestrians walking.

When the amplitude of the lateral vibrations acceleration for the footbridge is larger than a certain threshold: a min = 0.1 m / s 2 , the lateral vibrations become perceptible for pedestrians, who

tend to change their walking frequency to synchronize their walk with the structures oscillations (ivanovic et al. 2005). If a certain number of pedestrians is synchronized with the structure (and therefore, with each other), the total lateral force they produce further increases the

structures oscillations, inducing other pedestrians to synchronize their walk. If the lateral velocity of the footbridge floor reaches u& max = 0.25m / s , pedestrians stop walking, otherwise they

would loose equilibrium (Venuti et al. 2005).

239

For low crowd densities c = 0.3 p / m 2 , every single pedestrian walks freely, with an average speed v M = 1.5 m s , slightly varying from one walker to the other. When the crowd density is higher than c , the walking velocity decreases in order to avoid collisions between pedestrians. For very high crowd densities ( M = 1,6 1,8 pedestrians m 2 ), pedestrians

stop walking (Venuti et al. 2005).

3 SIMPLIFIED FOOTBRIDGE MODELING

The lateral motion of a footbridge can be approximately represented by a linear Euler-Bernoulli

beam equation with viscous damping (SETRA 2006):

ms ( x)

2u

u

4u

2u

(

,

)

(

)

(

,

)

(

)

(

,

)

(

,

)

(

,

)

( x, t )

x

t

+

c

x

x

t

+

k

x

x

t

=

F

x

t

m

x

t

l

p

t 2

t

x 4

t 2

(2)

where x is the coordinate along the beam axis; t the time; u(x,t) the lateral beam displacement;

ms(x) the mass per unit length of the beam [kg/m]; c(x) the viscous damping coefficient [N.s

/m2]; k(x) the stiffness per unit length [ Nm 2 ] ; Fl(x,t) the pedestrian lateral force per unit

length [ N / m ] and m p ( x ,t ) the linear mass of pedestrians [ kg / m ] .

Under the assumption of doubly hinged beam of length L, the first lateral mode shape can be

approximated by a sinus having the half-period equal to L: this assumption is not approximated

when ms, mp, c and k are constant along the beam axis. Since this mode plays a major role in the

lateral

footbridge

dynamics,

the

solution

is

assumed

of

the

form

u ( x, t ) = U (t ) 1 ( x) = U (t ) sin ( x / L ) , i.e. the contribution of the other modes is neglected,

and Eq. (2) becomes

*

m* ( t )U&&( t ) + c*U& ( t ) + k *U ( t ) = Fl ( t )

(3)

L

d 2 1

*

where k = k (x)

(x)dx , c = c(x) 12 (x)dx , Fl* ( t ) = Fl ( x ,t ) 1 ( x )dx and

2

dx

0

0

L

m* (t ) = ms* (t ) + m p* (t ) = [ms ( x) + m p ( x, t ) ] 12 dx

0

One can observe that the mass m* ( t ) is the sum of the structural mass contribution plus the total mass of pedestrians walking on the footbridge deck and having the instantaneous distribution

given by m p ( x ,t ) . Hence, the instantaneous modal frequency and damping ratio of the system

constituted by the footbridge and pedestrians read:

1

f ps (t ) =

2

2 L m p ( x, t ) 2 x

k

sin

= f s 1 +

dx

m (t )

L

L 0 ms

, (t ) =

c*

2 m* k *

(4)

The mass m p ( x ,t ) and the force Fl ( x ,t ) must be defined to solve Eq. (3). Their definition is

related to the approach used for modeling the crowd. Two different approaches are under study:

(i) an Eulerian approach consisting in a macroscopic modeling of the crowd which is considered as a whole and (ii) a Lagrangian approach consisting in modeling each single pedestrian

of the crowd as a moving particle interacting with the others. Under after, only the first approach is presented.

240

EVACES07

An Eulerian crowd model (ECM) postulates that the crowd behaves like a compressible fluid

(Venuti et al. 2005). This kind of analysis is intended to represent the pedestrian behavior for

high crowd densities. The crowd motion is characterized by it local density ( x ,t ) and its local

speed v( x ,t ) . In general three equations govern the motion of a fluid, i.e. the mass conservation

+ ( .v ) = 0

t x

(5)

the dynamic equilibrium and a constitutive law. However, for traffic flow modelling, it is usual

to substitute these last two equations with a simpler closure equation, relying on and v . For

the pedestrian flow, the following closure equation is adopted (Venuti et al. 2005):

v( ,u& ) = g( ) h( u& )

(6)

where

c

u&

vM

1 &

exp(

(

)

(

)

)

1

umax

&

g( ) =

, h( u ) =

c

M

c

vM ( 1

) > c

0

1 exp( )

u& u&max

The crowd velocity v( , u& ) depends on the v() function, representing the interaction between

pedestrians described above. ( x, t ) is a parameter describing the traffic conditions. The mechanical analogy suggests for the role of a viscosity parameter of the equivalent crowd fluid.

A larger value indicates more difficult traffic conditions (highly viscous crowd fluid). Figure

2 presents the crowd speed on a rigid floor ( h ( u& ) = 1 ) for different values. Experimental data

lead to the values of being between 0 and 10 (Venuti et al. 2005).

The second function h( u& ) 1 allows accounting for the influence of the lateral footbridge vibration on the crowd speed, in the sense that it imposes a speed reduction when pedestrians

walk on a footbridge undergoing large oscillations. In addition, it is assumed that after a stop

occurring when u& u&max , the pedestrian speed remains zero during five seconds. After this delay, they begin to walk if u& < u& max , otherwise, the stop lasts five more seconds. Observe that

Eq. (6) governs the crowd speed but nothing is said about the pedestrians-structure synchronization phenomenon which also involves the phases of pedestrians and of the structure.

Once the density (x,t) is known, the linear mass density follows

m p ( x, t ) = m1 p ( x, t ) l( x) , where l( x) is the deck width and m1p is the mass of a single pe-

destrian. The total force is defined as the product of the force of a single pedestrian and an

equivalent synchronized pedestrian number:

241

Fl ( x, t ) = f%l (t ) n p ,eq ( x, t )

(7)

n p ,eq ( x, t ) = ( x, t )l ( x ) S (u& , ) is the equivalent number of pedestrians defined to give a

fictitious total force Fl ( x, t ) acting at the modal frequency and phase of the structure whose ef-

where

fects (structural motion) are the same as those of the true total force, deriving from the true nonsynchronized pedestrians (see SETRA (2006)).

The coefficient S ( u& , ) [ 0,1] , introduced to represent the synchronization effects, is the

ratio between the number of synchronized pedestrians per unit length and the number of pedestrians per unit length. According to the assumptions of Venuti et al. (2005), the special case S=1

occurs when all the pedestrians walk with the frequency and phase of the structural velocity U& .

This case is the most severe for the structure, in the sense that the same number of pedestrians

always produces a less important structural motion when they are not in this situation of full

synchronization. According to Venuti et al. (2005), one has

(8)

The first term accounts for the fact that for high densities pedestrians are synchronized each

other: for c , the walk is free, every pedestrian has a different frequency and/or phase and

the contribution to the total force is therefore null. The second term derives from the observation

that for large oscillations, pedestrians have a stronger tendency to be synchronized with the

structure. The function S ps ( u& ) has two branches (Figure 3-b): the first one is a quadratic approximation of the ARUP data (Dallard et al. 2001). It defines an increase of the synchronization when the structural oscillations are larger. However, after reaching a maximum for particular amplitude of structural oscillations, the synchronization (and the equivalent pedestrian

number) is assumed then to decrease, as represented by the decreasing branch.

a)

/M

u& b)

The previous definition of the synchronization coefficient (Equation 8) have some drawbacks: (i) the sum of two contributions is rather artificial. It is difficult to distinguish the effects of the two synchronizations in the case of a vibrating floor: the one between pedestrians

and the other with the vibrations of the structure ; the synchronization between pedestrians being induced by the synchronization with the decks vibrations (ii) the Spp coefficient is arbitrary

and not based on experimental data. Hence, a new definition of the synchronization coefficient

based on experimental data is proposed and accounts for the proposal of SETRA (2006), stating

that the lateral force induced by a crowd of N pedestrians on a rigid floor can be approximated

by the force induced by Neq pedestrians walking in place and having the same phase and frequency. The new synchronization coefficient reads:

S ( x ,t ) =

otherwise

Sps( u&( x ,t ))

(9)

242

EVACES07

where, recalling that is the instantaneous modal damping ratio, the synchronization coefficient

in the case of low-amplitude of the floor vibration is defined as follows

8.6 ( ( x ,t )l( x ) L ) if ( x ,t ) c

Sp( ( x ,t )) = N eq ( x ,t ) / N =

otherwise

1.75 ( ( x ,t )l( x ) L )

(10)

In this Section, the model with the improved definition of the Synchronization coefficient (Eq.

(equation 9) is implemented. Equation (3) is solved by a Runge-Kutta scheme of order 4-5, and

Eq. (5) is discretized by a finite difference scheme (Lax-Friedrichs), fulfilling the Lax Friedrichs

conditions for the ratio between the spatial step dx and the time step dt . The model is then

validated using the Millennium Footbridge main decks parameters. The pedestrian mass is assumed to be 75 kg, hence m p ( x ,t ) = 75 ( x ,t ) l . Moreover the following parameters are

adopted: ( x ,t ) = 0 , U ( 0 ) = U& ( 0 ) = 0 and ( x ,0 ) = 1.2 . Figures 4-a and 4-b represent

U& ( t ) and Fl ( t ) respectively. The initial high density of pedestrians induces a synchronisation

between pedestrians which leads to a lateral force of high amplitudes. As a consequence, the

structures lateral vibrations are more important. When the vibrations velocity is high

( u&( x ,t ) > u& max ), the pedestrians stop, hence the lateral force amplitude decreases and so do the

structural vibrations.

a)

b)

Figure 4 -a) Footbridge velocity U& ( t ) ; b) total lateral force Fl ( t ) induced by the crowd

SYNCHRONIZATION MODEL (ECMK)

In this Section, the synchronization effect is analyzed in a more general way: instead of the synchronization coefficient, the phase difference between the structure and pedestrians is introduced as variable governing synchronization and its evolution is modelled by the so-called

Kuramoto differential equation (Pikowski et al. 2001). This procedure is illustrated by the simple example of a self-sustained oscillator entrained by an external force having a known and

constant frequency f e . The oscillator tends to synchronize its total phase (t ) with that of the

first one e (t ) = 2f e t + . The Kuramoto equation reads:

& (t ) = 0 + sin(e (t ) (t ))

(11)

& ( t ) ( 2 ) is its instanwhere 0 is the initial pulsation of the self-sustained oscillator, while

taneous frequency. The solution of this differential equation (11) verifies the fact that

& ( t ) ( 2 ) tends to the instantaneous frequency f . The parameter affects the synchroniza

e

tion, i.e. the convergence of

243

ure 5a. In the case of a greater coefficient = 8 , the synchronization occurs (Fig. 5b). The

switch from the non-synchronized to the synchronized regime depends on the value and on the

difference between the frequencies 0/2 and fs (Pikowski et al. 2001).

Figure 5 -

In the case of the pedestrian-structure synchronization, one can assume that each pedestrian

behaves like an oscillator moving on the footbridge (Lagrangian approach), while the external

force acting on it is produced by the footbridges lateral vibrations. As seen before, the synchronization phenomenon affects the pedestrians velocity v(t ) and the lateral force fl (t ) induced

by one pedestrian. These two quantities depend on the total phase of the pedestrian (t ) according to the following relationships:

fl (t ) = 1 sin( (t ) ),

v(t ) =

lstep (t )

& (t )

(12)

& ( t ) is the walking frewhere

quency; l step ( t ) is the length of the pedestrians step: the average value of lstep ( t ) for a normal

walk on a rigid floor is l0 = 0.8 m .

In the Eulerian version of the model, the variables must be considered locally, i.e.

(t ) ( x, t ) , etc. and the equations introduced previously must be modified in order to fit

the model. The new Eulerian model proposed is composed of previous equations (3), (5) plus

two new equations replacing equations (6) and (7). The first one links the local speed v( x ,t ) of

the crowd to the total phase (t ) through the local step length la ( x, t )

v ( x ,t ) =

l a ( x , t ) d

( x ,t )

dt

(13)

where l a ( x ,t ) = l0 C s ( x ,t )C ( x ,t ) depends on C s ( x ,t ) and C ( x ,t ) , which reflect the influence of the footbridges vibrations and of the local pedestrians density, respectively:

C s ( x, t ) =

0

u ( x, t ) 1

1

t

vmax

2u

( x, t ) < amin

t 2

u

if

( x, t ) > vmax

x

if

otherwise

if ( x, t ) < c

1

C ( x, t ) =

if ( x, t ) > max

0

1

otherwise

( x, t )

max

244

EVACES07

The second equation defines the force per unit length applied on the footbridge :

Fl ( x, t ) = [1 sin( ( x, t )) ] ( x, t ) l ( x )

(14)

and the footbridge instantaneous structural vibration pulsation is

s

ps

Eulerian Kuramoto equation writes

( x, t ) = ( x, t ) + v ( x, t ) ( x, t ) = ( x, t ) + u ( x, t ) sin s (t ) ( x, t ) + 2 (15)

dt

t

x

where ( x ,t ) = ( x ,0 ) =0 in view of preliminary numerical analyses; ( x, t ) is the local

free walking frequency.

6 SIMPLIFIED VERSION AND NUMERICAL EXAMPLES

A simplified version of the model previously proposed has been implemented, where f si is replaced by

f ps in Equation (15).

( f lat ( x ,0 ) = 1 Hz ) and the same initial phase ( ( x ,0 ) = 0 ). The boundary conditions are

given by ( 0 ,t ) = ( x ,0 ) = 0 where 0 is a constant. In the case: 0 = 0.5 pedestrian / m 2 ,

several simulations for different values of have been made in order to study its influence on

the results.

Figure 6: =0.01 (a) Bridge displacement at mid-span; (b) Pedestrian density at different positions along

the bridge length; (c) Relevant frequencies vs. time

Figure 7: =5 (a) Bridge displacement at mid-span; (b) Pedestrian density at different positions along the

bridge length; (c) Relevant frequencies vs. time

245

The first case studied is for = 0.1 (Fig. 6). In this case, the synchronization is almost inexistent, and the solution is identical to the one obtained in the case of a beam under a sinusoidal external force of constant amplitude. The second case illustrated in Figure 7, for = 5 : the

synchronization does not occur, either. The third case for = 10 is shown in Figure 8, where

the synchronization of frequencies is evident.

Figure 8: =10 (a) Bridge displacement at mid-span; (b) Pedestrian density at different positions along the

bridge length; (c) Relevant frequencies vs. time

7 CONCLUSION

In this paper, the crowd flow has been described by a flow equation, where pedestrians are supposed to walk along straight trajectories parallel to the longitudinal dimension of the footbridge.

The non-stationary behaviour has been analyzed, as well as the synchronization phenomenon by

an Eulerian version of the Kuramoto equation. Preliminary results in the application of the

proposed modeling to real cases are presented. Work is in progress to optimize the evaluation of

the footbridge instantaneous frequency and to identify the synchronization parameter from the

experimental data of response of footbridges under pedestrian crowd (Solferino and BercyTolbiac footbridges in Paris).

REFERENCES

Bodgi, J., Erlicher, S. & Argoul, P. 2007. Lateral vibration of footbridges under crowd-loading : continuous crowd modeling approach. Key Engineering Materials 347: 685-690.

Bodgi, J., Erlicher, S. & Argoul, P. 2006. Vibrations et amortissements des passerelles pitonnes. JSI

2006, CDRom (in French).

Dallard, P., Fitzpatrick, A.J., Flint, A., Le Bourva, S., Low, A., Ridsdill Smith, R.M. & Willford, M.

2001. The London Millenium footbridge. The Structural Engineer 79(22): 17-32.

Hoogendoorn, S. 2004. Pedestrian flow modelling by adaptive control. Proc. TRB 2004 Annual Meeting,

CDRom, 12 pages.

Pikowski, A., Rosenblum, M., Kurths, J. 2001. Synchronization A universal concept in nonlinear sciences. Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, UK.

SETRA 2006. Passerelles pitonnes - Evaluation du comportement vibratoire sous l'action des pitons.

Document technique Bagneux, 92 pages (in French).

Strogatz, S.H., Abrams, D.M., McRobie, A., Eckhardt, B., Ott, E. 2005. Theoretical mechanics: crowd

synchrony on the Millennium Bridge. Nature 438(7064):43-4.

Venuti, F., Bruno, L., Bellomo, N. 2005. Crowd-structure interaction: dynamic modelling and computational simulations. Proc. Footbridge 2005: 2nd Int. Conf., CDRom.

ivanovic, S., Pavic, A., Flint, A., Reynolds, P. 2005. Vibration serviceability of footbridges under human induced excitation: a literature review. Journal of Sound and Vibration 279: 1-74.

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