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DC
AN INTEODUCTION
TO
PHYSICAL MEASUEEMENTS
AN INTRODUCTION
TO
PHYSICAL MEASUEEMENTS
WITH APPENDICES ON
ABSOLUTE ELECTEICAL MEASUEEMENT,
ETC.
By Dr. F^^^OHLRAUSCH,
PBOFESSOEINORDINAET AT THE UNIVERSITY OF WUEZBURG.
SECOND EDITION
QTranslatElJ
By
from Hjz
JFourt]^
ennan
CHt(it{0it
THOMAS HUTCHINSON WALLER,
B.A., B.Sc.
AND
HENRY RICHARDSON PROCTER,
F.C.S.
Lk
LONDON
CHURCHILL
NEW BURLINGTON STEEET
J.
&
A.
1883
lo
PEEFACE.
The Author,
German
in the preface to the second
edition,
gives a sketch of the purposes which he hopes that the pre
He
sent book will serve.
confirms, that the
seldom of
much
the student
gives
which
all
in himself
and
he
in the laws
is
investi
Another use of such a manual in the education
is
to
by means
lead him,
ments which can be independently
ledge of his powers which
do any original work.
is
verified,
to that
we have thought
its
know
when he has
to
of the treatise
is
so important
The greater part
From
this
object better expressed
we have placed at the head
translation of the German one.
title
of
of
of measure
devoted to measurements of physical quantities.
circumstance
is
merely to confuse
while the simple performance of an experiment
the scientific student
the
experience
of physical laws
use, tending frequently
him confidence
gating.
says, a truth
mere verbal teaching
than by a
it
by
literal
Descriptions of apparatus are but rarely given, as students
mostly have instruments provided for them, and seldom have
to
make
their
own
apparatus, or to put
it
together.
The mathematical knowledge required
is
but very
ele
mentary, as the proofs of the formulae are only given when
they present no complex arguments.
In issuing a fourth edition, the Author has retained the
same arrangement and numbering
of the articles as in earlier
ones, in order to facilitate its use as a
book of reference
and
PKEFACE.
vi
in this he has been followed
articles
new
additional
being denoted by letters affixed to the numbers, and
section
at the
by the Translators
end
on the determination of time and place inserted
This section
the book.
of.
Author only
for
intended by the
is
such determinations as are required for
physical purposes, and the exactness of the measurements,
corrections,
demand.
to
what these
of the
wellknown
and numerical data are limited
In
it
much
use has been
made
works of Briinnow and Bremiker.
The Author mentions that the
will need
became acquainted too
edition.
Thermometry
section on
some additions from recent work, with which he
The magnetic
determinations of the
late to incorporate it in the present
tables are from recent charts
German Admiralty.
and
In the absolute
measures, for convenience in conversion from one standard
to another, the British Association units in terms of
and centimetres are
inserted, as
and Weber, which are based
grammes
those of Gauss
well as
on millimetres and
milli
grammes.
The bibliography has received some
additions, but a
closer study of the literature of the subject
than the Author's
time allowed would be needed to complete
sires expressly to state that his
any judgment
it
and he de
references in no case imply
as to priority.
Some appendices and
Translators, for
tables
have been added by the
which they alone are responsible, and which
are signed " Te."
They would express the hope that a
careful revision of the formula}
and tables will be found
have removed the too numerous errors of the
first edition.
to
CONTENTS.
Introductory.
1
2.
Quantities
3.
PAGE
Mean and Probable Error
Errors of Observation
Influence of Errors of Observation on the Result
Approximation Formulse for tlie Calculation of Small
.
4.
5.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
by Equal
Intervals
10
Corrections and the Calculation of Corrections
Interpolation
Eules for Numerical Calculations
I.
6.
Determination of Empirical Constants by the Method of
Least Squares
Calculation
4rt.
18
21
22
Weighing and Determination of Density.
Adjusting and Testing a Balance .
Weighing by observing the Swinging of a Balance
Determination of the Sensitiveness of a Balance
Determination of the Ratio of the Arms of the Balance
Absolute Weighing by Double Weighing (Gauss), and
Taring (Borda)
yarao
Reduction to the Weight
Table of Corrections for a Set of Weights
Density or Specific GraAdty
Methods for Liquids
.
Methods
....
...
......
......
for Solids
Temperature of Pyknometer, etc.
Reduction of the Weight to that of Water at 4
and in vacuo
Reduction to a Normal Temperature
16.
Determination with the Volumenometer
17.
,,
18. Calculation of the Density of the Air, or of a Gas, froni its
Pressure and Temperature
14. Density, Correction for
1 5.
11
16
23
26
29
30
32
33
35
38
39
40
42
45
47
48
49
CONTENTS.
Vlll
50
50
55
56
Determination of the Density of a Vapour or Gas
By Weighing a known Volume (Dumas)
By Measuring a known Weiglit (Gay Lussac)
By Measuring the Air displaced (V. Meyer)
1 9a. Determination of Density of a Gas
19.
Atmospheric Pressure.
II.
20. Determination
of
.......
Atmospheric Pressure (Height of the
Barometer)
21.
Hypsometry, Measurement of Heights by the Barometer
22. Freezing
and Boiling Points of a Thermometer
Calibration of Thermometers
Comparison
of
Thermometers
24. AirThermometer
25. Determination of Temperature with a Thermoelement
26. Determination of the Coefficient of Expansion
By Measuring
By Weighing
the Length
.
by Heat
Expansion of Liquids
27. Boilingpoint of a Fluid
28. Determination of the Humidity of the Air (Hygrometry)
29.
of Specific Heat (Method by Mixture)
30.
31.
32.
59
60
Heat.
III.
23.
58
Method by Cooling
Methods by Melting Ice
Comparison of the Conducting Power
Kods (Despretz)
Specific Heat,
for
63
65
72
73
76
77
77
78
.79
.
79
80
84
88
89
Heat of Two
92
IV. Elasticity.
33. Determination of the
Rod by
Modulus
Stretching
Modulus of
.
Elasticity of a
.
Wire or
.
of Elasticity
37a. Determination of
Note
tlic
93
95
98
....100
from Longitudinal Vibrations
35.
by bending a Rod
36.
Torsion of a Wire by swinging
37. Determination of tlie Velocity of Sound by Dust Figures
(Kundt)
34.
number
102
of Vibrations of a Musical
104
IX
CONTENTS.
V. Light.
by Wollaston's
38. Measurement of an Angle of a Crystal
Reflecting Galvanometer
105
....
....
39. Determination of a Refractive Index with the Spectrometer
(Goniometer)
General Rules
Measurement of the Angle
Measurement of the Angle
of the
107
107
110
111
113
118
118
119
120
121
122
122
124
125
126
128
Prism
of Deviation
40. Determination of the Refractive Index
by Total
Reflection
41. Spectrum Analysis
Adjustment of the Apparatus
Valuation of the Scale
The Analysis
42.
Measurement
43.
of
WaveLength
of a Radius of Curvature
With Spherometer
By
Reflection
44. Focal length of a Lens
Convex Lenses
Concave Lenses
45. Magnifying Power of an Optical Instrument
Lens
.
Telescope
12^9
129
129
132
133
134
137
139
Microscope
46. Saccharimetry
With Rotating Nicol
With Quartz Wedges
(Soleil)
In presence of other Optically Active Substances
Recognition
46a. Investigation of Doubly Refracting Bodies.
of the Optical Characters of Uniaxial Crystals
47. Angle of the Optic Axes in Biaxial Crystals
140
143
VI. General Determinations for Magnetism and Electricity.
48.
Angular Measurement with Mirror and Scale
144
.146"
.146
Receipt for Silvering Glass
49. Reduction of Scaleobservations to Arc
50. Determination of the Position of Etpiilibrium of a Swinging Magnetic Needle
51. Damping and Logarithmic Decrement of a Magnetic Needle
.
52.
Time
of Oscillation of a
53. Reduction of
small Arc
Time
.
Magnet
.148
149
.151
of Oscillation to that in an infinitely
.
.154
CONTENTS.
PAGE
54.
Moment of Inertia of
By Calculation
Body
156
156
158
159
Experimental Determination
55. Coefficient of Torsion
.
VII. Magnetism.
......
......
....
.....
56. Magnetic Inclination
57. Magnetic Declination
tlie Compass
Measurement of Horizontal Intensity of
Magnetism by Gauss's Method
58. Surveying witli
59.
Determination of
Determination of
the
160
164
166
Eartli'
166
167
MT
31
Arrangement
First
168
Second Arrangement
60. Horizontal Intensity by the Compensated Magnetometer
61. Bifilar Magnetometer
62. Determination of the Magnetism of a Bar
170
175
177
179
'.
......
VIII. Galvanism.
Remarks on Galvanic Work
Ohm's Laws
63. General
Galvanic Batteries
Connections for Galvanic
Galvanic Resistances
.
.186
and Galvanometers
64. Measurement of Currents with the TangentGalvanometer
65. SineGalvanometer
By
By
By
By
71.
Substitution
Differential
Galvanometer
Wheatstone's Bridge
the Differential Inductor
Comparison of Unequal Resistances
With the Galvanometer
.
185
187
188
.191
.192
Mirror Galvanometers
66a. Current Measurement with Weber's ElectroDjTiamometer
67. Absolute Measurement of Currents by the TangentCompass
68. Current Measurement in Chemical Units with the Voltameter
69. ReductionFactor of a Galvanometer
70. Galvanic Resistances with the Rheostat
66.
182
.182
.184
Work
Efficiency of Batteries
192
193
.196
.200
.
202
202
204
.....205
.209
.....209
.
209
With Wheatstone's Bridge
From the Damping of a SAvinging Needle
210
212
CONTENTS.
XI
PAGE
72.
Eesistance of an Electrolyte
Witli a Constant Current
With Alternating Currents
73.
Internal Eesistance of a Battery
With the Galvanometer
With Galvanoscope and Rheostat
By Method of Compensation (Beetz)
.
In Wheatstone's Bridge (Mance)
Comparison of two Electromotive Forces
With Galvanosco.pe and Rheostat
By Galvanometer
By Method of Compensation (Poggendorf)
.
Do.
Do.
219
220
.221
74.
.214
.214
215
.218
.218
(Bosscha)
.223
223
.224
222
222
Do.
Do.
(DuboisRaymond)
.
75. Siemens's Universal Galvanometer
76. Determination of an Electromotive Force in Absolute Measure
.
Ohm's Method
Poggendorf 's Method
Measurement of Horizontal Force by Galvanic Methods
.
77.
By
the
Bifilar
Bifilar
Method of Multiplication and Recoil
Measurement of Magnetic Inclination
.231
Galvanometer and a Magnet
78. Measurement of Currents of Short Dui'ation
80.
230
230
Galvanometer and the Tangent
Galvanometer
With the
225
226
228
228
.230
the Voltameter
With
79.
by the
Earth
Inductor
Comparison of two Resistances with the MagnetoInductor
82. Absolute Measurement of Resistance
83. Determination of the Area of the Coils of a Bobbin of Wire
81.
233
235
237
....
240
243
244
246
IX. Electrostatics.
84.
Comparison of Electrostatic Potentials
With the SineElectrometer (R. Kohlrausch)
With the Quadrant  Electrometer (Thomson and
.
Kirchhoflf)
Comparison of Electromotive Forces and Resistances
85. Quantity of Electricity in a Leyden Jar
With the SineElectrometer
With Lane's Unit Jar
With the Galvanometer
With the Air Thermometer
86. Electrical Capacity
(Riess)
250
251
251
251
252
.252
.....
......
With the Sine or Tangent Electrometer
With the Galvanometer
In Absolute Measure
248
248
253
253
253
254
254
CONTENTS.
Xll
X. Determination of Position and Time.
87.
Some Astronomical Terms
....
PAGE
255
257
259
260
260
261
262
263
264
265
88. Theodolite
Measurement of an Absolute Altitude
89. Determination of the Meridian of a Place
From Observations of Greatest Elongation
From Equal Altitudes
From Observation of the Sun
at
Noon
....
Determination of the Altitude of the Pole
91. Rate of a Watch or Clock
92. Determination of Time from Altitudes of the Sun
90.
XI. Appendices.
A. The Absolute System of Electrical Measurement
Space and Time
Mechanical Measures
Electrostatic Measures
Magnetic Measures
Galvanic Measures
Connection of Absolute Galvanic Measure witl
Current Work
B. Determination of WaveLength of Spectral Lines by Com
parison on the Refraction Spectrum
C. Measurement of Potential by Thomson's Electrometers
Portable Electrometer
QuadrantElectrometer
D. Condensers or Accumulators
E. Additional Methods of Determining Resistance
.
.....
By
....
....
.....
....
......
Difference of Potential
Bright and Clark's Method
By a Condenser
By Time of Losing Potential
F. Electromotive Force by Clark's Potentiometer
G. Electrical Measurement of Temperature
'
H. Measurement of Small Intervals of Time
By Deflection of a Galvanometer (Pouillet)
By the Pitch of Musical Note
Method of Lucas and Cazin (Vernier)
.
By
I.
Resistance of Mercury in Tubes
Tables
Index
....
Rotating Mirror (Wheatstone)
.........
269
273
273
276
277
282
288
289
292
292
293
294
296
296
296
296
297
298
299
301
301
302
303
303
304
305
341
ERRATA.
Page
17, last line
[i
for
{2,,
denominator
13, in
,,
(VI
1)
,,
36, second line
,,
49, line 9
,,
51, line 24
61, last line
for
,,
,,
92, last
,,
93, line 13
for
Ch = ax
,,
93, line 19
for
eol
,,
"
for t\ read
read
J/
^zdz
99, line 16;. for
131, line 20
for
168, the lines
,,
169, line 4 from
,,
172, last line
^,
178, line 28
,,
181, line 21
,,
193, line 24
,,
lie)
('.i
1)
1'".
(1
^^.
and
iV^.
read
eal
eal.
zdz
read ^.
in a line with
c.
for
 read ^
for 7414 read 7414.
T=
read T'
etc.
read 3f
s]
Oh f
read/
bottom
for
?i.
Jj
^ read
Ik
<^_^_W should be
,,
iVo read n^
read
+ e=al
'2
20;
'
and
for
1)
t.
for n^
(^ + ^Y
for (1
62, last
93, line
1"
15,
81, line 11
formula
for la read
/j
[^ {n
1)].
read
formula
1).
for
read
1" 1'" read
from bottom
(2?i
formula;
i (271
for
read
1)
of
etc.
'^J.
,,
for only read alone.
200, line 3 for 25 read 27.
200, line 21 ; for tan (j) read tan a.
after currents insert rapidly alternating.
215, line 8 from bottom
,,
218, line 22
,,
222, line 8
for 24c read 26b.
,,
227, the note relates
,,
233, line 9
for lo read JF.
for a
not 75.
to 74,
mm.
read a
.,
233, last line but one
,,
235, line 22
,,
248, lines
,,
251, see also App. C. p. 292.
7,
for a,
and 16
.,
1
n
e
^
a
254, for formula read ?
*i
read
,,
254, line 3
for
x,
,,
277, line 5
for
x read
etc.
read
a,
<p,
etc.
for c read
10, 15,
mm.
<p,
k^.
*.
for
\/
=^
a^, a.,,
sin
read
\/
4> ^
sin
<p'.
ao, a,.
sin
<j>'
^'^ad
PHYSICAL MEASUREMENTS.
Mean and Probable
Erroks of Observation.
1.
Error.
The numerical value
of a physical quantity
affected with
is
If the same
error from the inaccuracy of the observation.
measured,
we
require
some
repeatedly
been
quantity have
means
of calculating the
most probable value in order
to
obtain an opinion as to the probable limits of error from
the
amount
of agreement of the observations.
When
all
the
determinations
separate
are,
in
the
opinion of the observer, entitled to an equal degree of
confidence, the arithmetical mean of the separate determinations gives, as is well
the required quantity,
known, the most probable value of
that
is,
all
the separate values are
added together, and the sum divided by the number of de
terminations.
We may
here insist upon the fact that
it
is
generally quite
inadmissible arbitrarily to exchide from a series of observations
some of the number, simply because they do not agree with the
The probability of an increased error being
introduced by the irregular numbers will be compensated by the
very process of taking the arithmetical mean, for as single ones
among a greater number they have a small influence upon the
greater number.
mean
value.
now the
mean value,
If
separate determinations be compared with
there will be found greater or less differfrom the amount of which the prohablc error of an
observation as well as that of the result can be found by the
the
ences,
following rules.
errors,
i.e.
First, the
sum
is
taken of the
sqiiares
of the
the difference between each separate observation
and the mean
is
squared, and the resulting numljers added
'
ERRORS OF OBSERVATION.
The sum divided by the number of observations
together.
diminished by
square root of
If
now
mecm
the
is
mean
this
number
mean
gives the square of the
1
it
we
error; the
single observation.
by the square root of the
what is called the mean
error be divided
of observations,
error of
obtain
error of the result.
mean error by 06745 (or f^, or with
accuracy for most purposes by
f), we get the^roSalle error.
This last expression means that it is as likely
Multiplying the
sufficient
that the actual
error " as
unknown
that
it is
it is
error is less than the " probable
greater,
and
this is usually indicated
by prefixing the sign
Let us then
call
n the number of observations
^1'
^2'
the
^3
sum
mean
^" ^'le
then the mean error of a
mean
deviations from the arithmetical
of the squares of the errors ;
observation 
siuirle
error of the result obtained
?"
'^
fi,a
by taking the arithmetical mean
{n
1)
the probable error of a single observation
06745
'
.
n
1'
the probable error of the result
=
On
06745
(w
1)
the calculation of errors with several
unknown
quantities
see (3).
It will be obvious that only that part of the
expressed by quantities
thus
calculated,
duced by true uncertainty of observation
which
that
is,
error
is
is
intro
by such
errors as give too great a value as often as too small a value.
But there may exist constant errors, the cause of which may
be in the indications of the instrument, or which may be
MEAN AND PROBABLE ERRORS.
them that the observer makes
SO related to
problem either
to
make such combinations
result, or to
errors whicli
an important
find out such errors and then correct the
preponderate in one definite direction.
It
is
of the results or such
changes of method that the constant errors are thereby
eliminated.
The density of a body was determined ten times,
Example.
with the results given in the first column.
Difference 5
Found.
52
from the Mean.
9662
9673
9664
9659
9677
9662
9663
9680
9645
9654
049
019
009
131
0000004
083
000
024
172
004
001
259
357
0000098
00019
091
001
161
189
00099
>S= 0001002
Mean 96639
the
the
10 we have
Then
since
mean
error of one observation
mean
error of the result
0001002
0011,
00033,
9
P
/OOOl 002
V/
*
probableerrorof oneobservation=06745
probable
error of the result
^
=06745
10
=00071,
10
9
V/ ^^^^=00023.
.
According to this we may wager one to one that the
error which affects the separate determinations of the density
of this body, with the instruments, care, and experience supIt happens accidentally
posed above, is less than 00071.
that just half the above differences are smaller, the other
half greater, than this amount.
INFLUENCE OF EREOES
The probable
error
of only 10
an approximation.
deduced from a
series
observations can only be considered as
It
was
really superfluous to calculate
it
out to three places
 might
have been used instead of 0'6745.
The determinations given above were made by different
ol^servers, using different sets of weights and different therErrors of the balance, which influence the
mometers.
determination of density in one direction only, are not taken
as
we have
done.
into account.
in this
Similarly the approximate value
Constant errors would therefore be avoided
example.
But
amounts of
in order that the
error
calculated above should really represent the probable errors,
we must be
able to assume that all the observers took proper
which might have
care in the removal of the bubbles of air
clung to the body
when weighed
in water.
observations would be affected with an error,
yet onesided, for under the
not constant
supposed circumstances the
density must always come out too small.
sort cannot therefore
tlie
mean
Otherwise the
show themselves
if
Errors of this
in the differences from
value.
Influence of Eeeoes of Obseevation on the
2.
Result.
We
tion,
frequently do not find a result directly
but must deduce
it
by observa
from observed magnitudes, or even
from several such, by calculation.
Thus the density of a
body is found from several weighings, the modulus of elasticity from measurings of length, the strength of a galvanic
current from the deflection of a needle, according to certain
Hence
formulpe.
arises
the problem to determine to
great an extent the result will be in error
magnitudes are affected by a certain
The
when
how
the observed
error.
object of this calculation of errors
may sometimes
be to form a judgment as to the accuracy of the result itself
Further,
we
we may
allow ourselves without unduly increasing the in
accuracy.
learn from
it
what abbreviation of the calculation
In cases wlicre the measurement
is
the result of
ON THE RESULT.
it also shows us over what part we
must expend the greatest care. FiuaUy, it is frequently in
our power to vary the proportions of the experiment in
different ways
this calculation of errors alone gives us the
information as to what choice of ratio is most advantageous,
i.e. which gives the least influence to errors of observation
upon the result.
several obsen'atious,
the considerations from Avhich the rule
that in determining the horizontal
derived
intensity of the earth's magnetism, it is best to take the distances
In the same way also
of the deflecting magnet in the ratio 4:3.
are got the rules, that the measurement of the strength of a
galvanic current with a tangent galvanometer furnishes the most
accurate results with an angle of deflection of about 45 ; that
the two current strengths, from which the resistance (p. 202) or
Such
given on
are, for instance,
p.
170
is
the electromotive force
(p.
222) of a galvanic battery are deterin the ratio 1:2, etc.
mined are most advantageously
If we call the observed magnitude x, the required result
i.e. will be given by some
will be some function of x
X,
If now we call
mathematical expression in which x occurs.
which we
it
into
introduced
by
error
of
x,
the
error
the
/
found by putting x +f instead of x in the expresWe shall now have a
is calculated.
sion from which
result somewhat different from X, the correct value ; the
call F, is
magnitude
of this difference is manifestly the error F.
Since the errors of observation are small quantities, this
calculation
may
following rules
1.
be
much
simplified.
"We
first
note the
In determining the errors in the result, it is sufficient to use an approximate value for the observed
Indeed we
magnitude, which we have called x.
are always compelled to do so, since the true, accurate value is not
known.
2.
the formula for
Correction terms (4) which occur
the result X, may, if we are not inquiring into their
3.
If
influence, be neglected in calculating the error.
a measurement depend on several independent
observations, the
final
result will be
an expression
INFLUENCE OF ERRORS
compounded
of the
Several of these
separately observed quantities.
may
be affected by
errors.
But
if
the influence of the errors introduced by one of the
magnitudes is to be determined, the others need not
be taken any account of.
4.
The
error in the result
which
arises
from an error of
observation varies proportionally with this latter.
In other words, the difference which we have above
F may be represented as a product of which
the error / of the observed magnitude is one factor.
called
5.
From
this it follows also that the errors of the result
which arise from errors of observation, equal in
magnitude but opposite in sign, are also equal in
magnitude but have contrary signs.
It occasionally happens that the error of the result is not
proportional to the error of observation, but, for instance, to its
square, or to the product of several errors.
In such cases rules
4 and 5
aie
of course inapplicable.
The calculation may almost always be made very much
by the use of approximation formulae for calculating
shorter
with small magnitudes.
These
may
easily be constructed
by the aid of the differential calculus.
If / be the error
which occurs in the observed value, the error F of the result
is obtained by multi23lying the partial differential coefficient of
with regard to a; by /.
Therefore
dX
p
'
dx
In order to bring the expression for
tlie
error to a simple
form, without the use of the differential calculus,
it will, if
not always yet very often, be possible to adopt the plan for
the calculation of correction quantities given at the end of
this article
by suitable transformations we must bring
pass that the error of observation
it
to
occurs only as a small
quantity added to or subtracted from
1,
upon which
for
further reduction the formulae given below, or special ones,
may
be at once used.
ON THE KESULT.
When
combined,
the result has been got from several observations
we may,
according to No. 3 (see
p. 5), investi
gate the influence of the single errors separately.
Each
of
them may of course make
great, and the total error will be larger or smaller according
The maxias the signs happen to be the same or different.
the result either too small or too
mum
when
of error will be obtained
The
the same sign.
found by addand taking the square
error 'pro'ba'bly arising
ing the squares of the partial errors,
root of the sum.
the partial errors have
The employment
is
of these rules in a special
case will serve to explain this sufficiently.
We
choose as our example the determination of the density
body which sinks in water, by the ordinary method, in
of a solid
body is weighed in air and in water. We will determine the effect of an error in weighing upon the density deduced
If we call the weight of the body in the air
from this weighing.
m, and the weight in water Wi', the density is
wliich the
To
this
formula must of course be added the corrections dependair, and upon the expansion
2, p. 5, we need not trouble
ing upon the loss of weight in the
of the Avater; but according to No.
with these in the simple calculation of the error.
According to No. 3 we may consider the errors in m and m
Let us
separately, since they are independent of one another.
therefore find first the influence upon the result of an error in
If we had committed the error / in this
the weight in air.
weighing, we should, instead of the true weight m, have foiuid
+ " and should therefore obtain the density
r^
/",
III
Using formula
m
VI
8, p.
1+i
VI
The
result
first
in
we
11,
+j 
,
will write for this
VI
VI
VI,
Hi
f

\
III
VI
m
fHL^
{mvi
m~}ii
term of the
last
expression
so that
F=
'"'
f(7;;
ni
is,
liuwever, the true
'
. .
INFLUENCE OF EEKORS
by the error +/ in weighing the body in
In other words if, in determining the density of a body
which weighs m in air and m in water, the weight be observed
too great by /, the result will, supposing everything else correct,
is
the error produced
air.
be too small by
^
The
jr~.
f,
''
{m m)
differential calculus gives at
dm
once the same result.
(wi
 mj'
According to No. 5, p. 6, it is needless to investigate the
a weight found too small.
If the error in weighing in
m'
the air be
r,/, the result would be too great by f
effect of
Secondly, let us consider an error committed in the weighing
+/' instead
which we will call /'. Setting therefore
of wi', the result affected with the error will be, as above,
in water,
m  {m
m  ni!  f
+ f)
+ ^
m mA\ 1
That
/',
is
we
make
we
If, finally,
its
mm
+/
the result too great by F'
m )'
7r.>
(in
**
= f,
jr^
inquire as to the total error, which
pounded of the two
viously
m)
_ m') (l ,^,)
by observing the weight in water as too great by
to say,
shall
111
{,n
maximum
errors of observation
value
/ and
~^ when
m)
/', this
either vi
is
com
has ob
was found
((III
too great
error
and
too small or vice versa.
The
jyrohahle total
is
^/F' +
F"=
'.'{fmy +
db
(in
ifmf
7ny
We will take in addition, as a numerical example, the determination of the density of the same body of which we have
already spoken, p. 3.
We have there determined the amount of
the error by the difference of the results which Ave obtained from
We
mean value.
want now to see what amount of error
to be expected from inaccurate observation in the weighing.
their
The weight
of the piece was, in
round numbers,
is
ON
TIIK RESULT.
\)
In air = 243,000 mgrs.
In water = 218,400 mgrs.
greatest error in Aveighing, with the balance made use of,
with moderate care, for loads such as the above, may be reckoned
at 5 mgrs. when weighing in the air, at 8 mgrs. when weighing
in water ; which latter operation, on account of tlie friction of
The
the water,
whence
accurate,
is less
/'
5 mgrs.
= 8mgrs.
(The errors must be reckoned in the same units as the observed
weights themselves.)
The stated quantities substituted in the formulsc given above
give,
as the error depending
on
711,
"
3
0"0017 =
^^r,.^
^^_
8243600
5218400
r.
i'
"^'='25200^=='''^^^^=^
".
In the most unfavourable case the total error amounts to 00048,
but in the most probable case = \/F^ + F'"" = 00035.
If, therefore, single ones of the above given determinations
give considerably greater differences, there must have been present other sources of error besides the uncertainty of the weigh
ing
(bubbles of air, inaccuracy in determining the temperature,
mistakes in reckoning up the weights).
As a second example, the measurement of the strength of a
If <p be
galvanic current i with the tangent compass may serve.
the angle of deflection of the needle, we have
i= C
C is a factor
/ occur in the
where
error
tan
<p,
If an
constant for the same instrument.
reading off of the angle f the error F in i
,
follows from
i
or
by formula 10
F=C tim
{^
+f),
(p. 11),
ii.
F^C
(tan
'^
f
cos
'2); therefore
cosy/
.2/
f
<p
sill.
<p
COS
ip
s/n I
<p
RULES FOE APPEOXIMATION.
10
^
2f
sin 2
is
therefore the error, expressed as a fraction of
i,
which
<p
corresponds to an error / in the reading off the deflection. Hence
we have the very important rule for the use of the tangent
that angles of about 45 are most advisable for the
compass
For the same error in reading
accuracy of the measurement.
off produces an error in the result dependent upon the deflection, being very large both for very small angles and for those
and having a minimum value
of nearly 90,
for ^
45.
Rules for Approximation in calculating with Small
Quantities.
When,
mathematical expression, some numbers occur
verj^ small in comparison with others, and which
therefore are reckoned as corrections, the expression may frequently
be brought into a form more convenient for calculation by the use
of formulae of approximation. It will very frequently recommend
itself as the simplest to first give the expression such a form that
the corrections are contained in terms added to or subtracted from
1, and very small compared with 1 ; this is not unfrequently the
form in which it is ah'eady given. It will then be frequently
possible to make use of one of the following formulae to simplify
in a
which are always
the expression.
In these formulae let the magnitudes denoted by 8, e, (
be
very small compared Avith 1, so small that their second and higher
powers 8^, e
as well as their products Se, 8^
which, again,
are very small compared with 8, e
themselves, may practically
be completely neglected compared with 1.
If, for example, 8 = O'OOl, 8' = 0000001 ; if further, e = 0005,
8 = 000005
it often happens that things which affect a quantity to the extent of some thousandths are important, whilst some
millionths more or less are a matter of complete indifference.
It is usually easy to measure a length of about 1 metre accurately
to the tenth of a millimetre.
It would not do, therefore, to neglect
a correction of a thousandth of the length, or 1 mm. But one, or
several, millionths of the total length
i.e. thousandths of a millimetre will most rarely have any })ractical influence, since the
.
errors of observation are
much
greater.
On this supposition it may be easily shown that the following
formulae hold good, in which the expressions to the right of the
sign of equality will usually be more convenient for calculation.
11
MtnilOD OF LEAST SQUARES.
Where
the sign
or
=f is
placed before a quantity, either the
all through the formula
upper or lower sign must be taken
(1
8)
+ mS.
mS.
(I)
(l8f=l28.
(2)
v/lS =18.
(3)
J =1+8.
(4)
(18)'"
therefore in different cases
(1+S'
^1 +
=1+28.
=l +
18.
1+8
^
(1
i5.
18
^, =
 28.
(1sr
sr
^=L
1S.
v/i+S
=1 +
28.
(5)
IS, etc.
(6)
v/lS
(1
8)(1 )
{1
.) (1
,;)
(1
C)...
SC...
(7)
Thus also we may, instead of the geometrical mean of two
quantities only slightly different from each other, p^ and p^, use
the arithmetical
^i\ V. =
^y)
Further, the trigonometrical formulae of approximation are convenient
sin (x
S)
= sin x +
tan (x
^cos
x,
+ 8) = cos x 8 sin x,
8
+ 5(10)
cos {x
+ S) = tan
cos x,
in
which
8 signifies a small angle
(573), for
3.
which the arc
is
measured in terms
of the angle
equal to the radius.
Determination of Empirical Constants by the
Method
of Least Squares.
same magnitude have been measured several
times, the arithmetical mean gives the most probable value.
But frequently the required magnitude is not the immediate
object of the measurement, but must be deduced, by calcuIf
the
METHOD OF
12
from the observations, according
lation,
laws, and then the arithmetical
mean
is
to
known
pliysical
not always sufficient
most probable result from repeated measurements.
Mathematically considered, the quantities sought occur
here as constants in an equation which also contains the ob
to find the
served magnitudes.
Not unfrequently other unknown conand are to be at the same time
stants occur in this equation,
determined, or at least eliminated.
as
many
For
purpose at least
observations are required as there are
quantities
and
if
there be only just as
substituting the observed values in
pression,
this
make
as
many
unknown
many, we must, by
the mathematical ex
equations as there are
unknown
and deduce the latter from them
Sut when, for the sake of increasing the accuracy of
the determination, a large number of observations has been
in the ordinary
quantities,
way.
made, we must, in order to
another way
utilise all the materials,
work may be facilitated
by adapting the observations
of which the
devices, especially
employ
by various
to a
plan
determined beforehand.
Nevertheless, these devices require very careful and circumspect consideration in order to exclude any uncertainty,
and not unfrequently fail us entirely.
Hence, it is import
ant that the calculation of probabilities by the method of
least squares should present a systematic course of proceeding
by which the calculations may be made without any uncertainty.
Of course it may frequently be found that by
this method also we are led into tiresome calculations, and
hence another proof of the advantage of a method which
affords a plan completely thought out before the observations
are made.
As an example we take the simple problem to determine the
length of a rod at 0, and its expansion for 1 of temperature, from
a number of measurements at different temperatures.
If we call
the length at 0 = </, and the expansion for 1 = b, we have for the
length y, at any temperature x
y
a and
/<
are
=a+
bjc.
two unknown constants,
for determining
which two
13
LEAST SQUARES.
Suppose, for example, we had
observations would be sufficient.
observed the lengths y^, y.,, at the temperatures a;,, x^ respectively,
we should have
y,
therefore
a^
hx^
=a
y,
Ix^,
="*^*,S = ?'l^.
But more than two observations may have been made ; suppose
besides the pairs given above, x^, y^^p y^,'^^^ If the observations
were free from error, the quantities sought, a and h, would have
the same numerical value
when
calculated from
any two pairs
and, on the other hand, every value of //, calculated by this formula
from the corresponding value of x, would be identical Avith the
But, in reality, we find that on account of errors
observed value.
no values for a and b completely satisfy all the observations.
The fundamental law of the method of least squares is
The constants must be so chosen that the sum of the errors
That is to say, with every different value
is a minimum.
of the constants the values calculated from the law by means
of them will differ from the observed values by different
The most probable values of the
amounts (the errors).
when
constants are found
all
the differences
If
sum
the
of the second powers of
the smallest possible number.
is
the mathematical expression of
we denote
known
form, wiiich gives the dependence of the observed magnitude
expresy, on .another, x (or on several others), by the general
{x),
the magnitudes
we
wliich
we
call a, b
Our equation then
sion
seek occur in
=/
Let several values y^y^y^
known values x^ x^x^
.
> &
as
constants
is
(a^)
ing to the
the numerical values of
it
.\)Q observed correspond
By
the above law
are to be so determined that
are substituted in / {x), the sum of the squares of
the differences between the calculated and observed values
Therefore we must have
has the smallest value possible.
when they
/ (^,)} +
'
{y.
/(^^.^}
"'
+ k./ (^3)} +
a
or,
'
minimum.
introducing the syndjul of summation,
{^'^
/(^");
"'
METHOD OF
14
y /(a;)} = a
We
must keep
By
mind
in
known observed
tliat
minimum.
the values of x and y are
all
quantities.
a law of the differential calculus, this condition pro
duces as
many
equations as there are quantities a h ... to
We differentiate the expression
be determined.
with respect to
...
a, h
and equate each partial differential
The equations from which a, b
become therefore
''''
"
^^
da
We
have thus found a way,
coefficient to zero.
.
are to be determined
= 0,
''
and
so on.
free
from any uncertainty,
of as
many
observations as
please.
Of course
it
may
happen, with complicated forms of/ (a),
that the equations derived
a, b
must
by
differentiation with respect to
In such cases we
and approximation.
In the
however, where / (x) has the form, / (x) =
are not capable of direct solution.
by
find a solution
important case,
a
}^
do
by which we can make equal use
we
s y /()
considering these as the variables,
+ bx + ci + c^x' +
trial
the direct solution
is
always possible.
Let us illustrate the problem by the example given above.
Let the lengths of the rod observed at x^, x^, ^3
^n, be y^ y^
According to the law of expansion with temperature
yn2/3 ..
y = a + bx, and so what we have above called / (x) is here / (x) =
a + bx.
We have therefore to determine a and b, so that
(y^a bxy + {y^a bx)'' +
+ {yn a bxY =
% {y a bzf a minimum.
.
a minimum,
or briefly
Differentiation gives
{y a
with respect to a
with respect to
'^x {y
or observing that with n observations
Xa =
an,
%y an b ^^ =
^xy
a^xb
bx)
a bx) =
^x' =
0.
'
LEAST SQUARES.
By
15
solving these equations with respect to a and
h,
we have
(%^y n %x
h
%x Xy n %xy
(^xf
n %x\
As an example, suppose
the length of a measuring rod, which
by comparison with a normal scale (the readings
of which have been already reduced by its known coefficient of
expansion to its normal temperature), has been found
is
to be corrected
temperature
the length
at
a;
40
20
= 100022
50
100065
60
100090
lOOTOS mm.
In order to shorten the calculations we take as y only the observed excesses of the length above 1000 mm.
We shall then
have for a the excess of the length at 0 above 1 metre.
The
calculation
is
performed as follows
20
40
50
GO
therefore a
^a;'
= 8100
'
xy
44
260
450
630
txy = 1384
.1384282.8100
,,,^^ mm.
= 170
= 0196
170'4.8100
5
2824.
= 170.
1384
170' 4. 8100
of the rod at 0
the temperature
now
400
1600
2500
3600
^^ = 282
The length
If
y
022
065
090
105
Sa;=170
/,
999804
is
= +0212 mm.
therefore 999804
+ 0212
mm., and
the lengths are calculated for 20, 40, 50, 60,
shall find
20
40
50
60
Error
Calculated
Observed
mm.
mm.
1000228
1000652
1000864
1001076
100022
065
090
105
at
/.
A"
mm.
+0008
+0002
0036
0026
0000064
0004
1296
0676
^a' 0002040
we
CALCULATIOX BY EQUAL INTERVALS.
16
The student may verify that any alteration of a or of h increases
sum of the squares of the errors.
Exactly the same method of proceeding would be employed
to find the modulus of elasticity from a number of observations
on the length of a rod when stretched by different weights, or
to determine the relative rate of two clocks from several comin fact, wherever two quantities increase
parisons between them
the
proportionally with one another.
The expansion of most fluids by heat
is
irregular
the natural
In this case, and in many similar
ones, we usually make use of an algebraical expression of a higher
e.g.^ y = a + bx + af. ' The determinadegree as an approximation
c from any number of observations is precisely the
tion of a,
laAv
however, not known.
is,
ft,
same
as that given above.
must be noted that the numerical calculation should
It
number
them are
usually be carried out accurately to a considerable
of places of decimals, because the greater part of
frequently cancelled by the differences which finally form
the numerator and denominator.
The
socalled
mean
error of
an
observation is obtained in
problem from the sum of the differences between observed and calculated magnitudes, if ?i = number of observato be determined, as
tions, m that of the constants a, &, c
this
a; + a;
f
A,,^
Therefore in the above example, where n
4, ra
2,
we have
'000204
42
= ^HAQo
d= 0.032 mm.
Calculation by Equal Intervals.
If the observed quantities are separated
tervals, the calculation is simplified.
occurs
served,
for instance,
when
by equal
in
This not unfrequently
a periodic
phenomenon
is
ob
and the time between two consecutive occurrences
is
determined [time of oscillation or rotation (52)] or when
the distance between pairs of points is to be determined, of
;
CALCULATION BY EQUAL INTERVALS.
l7
which many occur consecutively, and of which the places
can be measured on a measuring rod [distance of the nodal
points of waves (37)].
Taken more generally, if one quantity vary proportionally
to another, a number of points separated by equal intervals
must be taken in the variation of the latter, and the values
of the first quantity observed which correspond to them.
So in the previous example the lengths of the bar might be
measured at equal intervals of temperature. The elongations (33)
and flexures (35) of a body by successive equal increments of
load offer a further example.
The uniform logarithmic decrement of an arc of oscillation (51) also comes under this case.
The values
may
the observed quantity y
of
found as a series
V^,
y^
'
Vniy
be thus
If these values were
l/n
accurately observed, the intervals y2 ~ 2^1' 2^3 ~ 2^2
^n "~ l/nv
should be equally great.
In actual fact, they are unequally
and it is their most probable value which we seek.
To take their arithmetical mean would obviously amount to
the same as if we noted only the first and last values, and
neglected all the intermediate ones.
To utilise all the
great,
observations,
necessary
is
it
we should
tliat
calculate the
interval as
(
n1)
(y,,y^)
+ (;t3)(j/,,_iyj+
71
{n'
I)
For, adhering to our above formula y = a + hx, h is the required
and if x signifies the number of the observation
interval,
a;,
Since
1, X,
=2
a:,i_i
= ?i
Xn
1,
= n.
now
^a;=
(ft
1) 4
hn {n
1),
and
tx'=V+2'+
+ (niy +
;r
= ^n
(n
1) (2/i
1),
so (p. 15).
(Xxf  nXx'
^ n{n\l) (y,+y,+
in'
.yni+y)n (y,+2 y^+.
{n+lY^7i' {n+l){2,+
+{nl) yni+ny,
l)
CORRECTIONS
18
(n
^ y^
?/,
(n
^i(7i
 3) +
+ y ^i (3w) +
+ l) [i(+l)i] (2u + 1)
from whicli the above expression immediately
?i)
y (1
follows.
CORRECTIOXS AND THE CALCULATION OF CORRECTIONS.
4.
In almost the whole range of practical physics corrections
come in as a general, very inconvenient element. From
corrections require special mention.
their importaiice these
The
result sought is almost never given directly
observations
much more
which
circumstances
determinations.
number
must not be
With
from the
frequently these are effected
neglected in
by
accurate
greater pretensions to accuracy, the
of influencing circumstances
which must be considered
increases as well as the difficulty of eliminating them, so
that frequently the most important part of the
Hence
troduced by these corrections.
work
is in
also it is necessary to
be able easily to make allowance for such corrections, and to
take them into the calculation, so far as
simple a manner as possible.
How
far
is
necessary, in as
we may
go in taking
account of corrections depends of course upon the limit whicli
is
here also imposed upon us
by the deficiencies of the
by our incomplete knowledge of the
and of the numerical values which they
observations, as well as
laws
of nature
involve.
But, on the other hand,
it is
frequently unnecessary
to carry the accuracy of the correction to
much
very
tliis
limit.
It is
oftener sufficient to attain to such a degree of
accuracy that the neglected part of the corrections
is
materi
ally less than the possible influence of the errors of observa
upon the
tion
result.
Hence come certain rules for the
by which the processes may be
calculation of corrections,
much
any
shortened and simplified without the result suffering
injury.
Practice in these frequentlyoccurring calcula
an essential condition for accurate and yet ready
physical work.
tions
is
is
One of the simplest physical measurements, for example,
weighing or determining the mass of a body.
If we take
AND THEIR
this directly
19
OI\.LCULATION.
from the observations, we have
the errors
first
which are made up of those due to the inaccuracy of our readings, and of our judgment about them,
and to some faults not to be calculated on, of the balance
of observation,
as friction,
is
change of the
ratio of the balancearms, etc.
also impossible to get or to
make
It
a set of weights free
from error.
And as we do not suppose specially good instruments or accurate observations, other errors unavoidable,
but determinable in their amount, and therefore to be eliminated from the result, become noticeable in the data given
directly
by the
balance.
It
is
take account of them, where
To
accuracy.
therefore always requisite to
we make any
pretensions to
this part belongs the inequality of the
arms
of the balance, which, at least with large weights, has usually
marked influence. It is eliminated by the rules given in
and (10) already abbreviated for use.
But, secondly, the weights and the body weighed suffer
a loss of weight on account of the air which they displace,
which
even in the use of ordinary shopscales which show
1 grm. with loads of 1 kgr.
may become greater than the
a
(9)
errors of weighing.
(to
In order, now, to apply this correction
reduce to the weight in vacuo),
of the air, a
magnitude which
may
we must know
the density
vary within certain
limits.
But although the complete neglect of the correction is only
admissible in a very rough weighing, it is, on the other
hand, easily seen that for
common
use,
even in
scientific in
vestigations, the alteration of the density of the air is not of
sufficient
importance to be considered, and we
mean value
to the correction.
If,
therefore,
we
may
give a
confine our
selves to a correspondingly approximate calculation of the
correction, a very considerable
result
may
mean value
will
improvement of the
be effected in about a minute.
Of
course, the labour is greater, if the
not be sufficient.
In this
of the barometer, at least,
density of the air
case, the
temperature and height
must be observed, from which the
may be found
in Table 6.
With
a further
increase of pretension to accuracy, the observed height of the
barometer must not be taken as the real height, since mercury
CORRECTIONS AND THEIR CALCULATION.
20
expands by heat
this
expansion must be taken into consi
deration [to reduce the barometer reading to 0 (20)].
The
same is true of the scale on which the height is measured.
The variation of gravity on the earth's surface wouhl also
have
to
be brought into the calculation.
Finally the density
of the air varies with the constantly present but variable
amount
and therefore in very accurate
of vapour of water,
weighings this also must be taken into the reckoning.
Now,
observations and
calculations were
would become very
laborious.
But here, what we have said above comes into
use.
After we have informed ourselves as to what degree of
accuracy we desire or can attain in the result, and as to the
if
all
these
carried out with complete accuracy, they
influence of the corrections,
is
we
always admissible with this
succeeds in
find that
latter,
an approximation
and, with
some
practice,
object with small trouble.
its
In the same way, corrections come into most physical
It is especially the changing temperature which,
in many ways, influences the measurements, and therefore
problems.
frequently furnishes a reason for corrections.
It is
usually possible to
scribed on
make use
of the processes
de
10, and the formultTe for approximation there
p.
given, for shortening the calculation of corrections.
Almost
every physical problem furnishes examples for practice.
Examples.
(1.)
It is well
known
we call 3a the coefficient of the
when a is used for the linear coeffiwhen the linear dimensions are varied
that
cubical expansion of a body,
cient.
Strictl}^
speaking,
the volume changes in the ratio (11 atf =
But for all solid bodies a < 000003,
so that even for a change of temperature of 100, the neglected
in the ratio
1
3at
I
3a'f
at,
+ af.
part 3a f < 0000027, or ^y^oo" of the total.
Therefore it is
only when such small quantities are under consideration that the
abbreviated calculation must not be employed.
Then, however,
it must also be taken into the calcidation that the coefficient of
expansion itself varies a little with the temperature.
The term
a"Y
is
entirely without noticeable influence.
IXTERrOLATION FKOM OBSEKVATIOXS.
(2.)
In (20) we treat the expansion of the mercury as a correc
^^^^g
by putting
tion
21
=  O'OOOIS/^
/
in tlie reduction of the height of the
(formula
barometer
8, p. 11),
Here we
to 0.
neglect the higher powers of 0*00018 t.
But it will be seen that
the next power amounts for /" = 30 to only "00003 ; therefore
multiplied by / = 760 mm., about ^V mm., a quantity which may
almost always be neglected.
On the other hand, it would not be allowable to treat the
expansion of a gas, which is about twenty times greater, as a
correction.
(3.) When the weight of a body has been determined by
double weighing in order to eliminate the inequality of the arms,
and the weights have been found on the one side^j^, on the other
the actual weight is, strictly speaking, sjp^ p^.
Instead of this
geometrical mean, the arithmetical  (i?^ +jjJ may without hesitation be used (formula 9, p. 11).
For, calling 2\ =p + S, and ])
p,
p8,
for
which
j)
^''Kp^= v//^^'
Now
much
as
^P^X
l (p^
=p
have
"^^'e
/
= ^\^ ~ ^7/
(Fo^^"^^ 3.)
the balance must be very badly adjusted for 5 to be as
xoVo
P
^^^
^^^^ ^^^
~2
would be half a millionth
a quantity which, in comparison with l,need never be considered
if
such a balance be used.
Other examples will be found below in the different problems.
4c(.
Interpolation from Obseryatioxs.
It frequently
happens that the problem to be solved by
under what circum
observation requires, us to determine
stances a certain welldefined position of the object of observation
produced.
is
some, and
It
is
sometimes indeed
nevertheless
often
impossible, to
trou1:)le
regulate the
circumstances to the quite accurate fulfilment of this condition.
Thus it is usually difficult accurately to maintain
the temperature of a body at a prescribed degree at which,
perhaps,
its
volume,
tivity, are to
its
elasticity,
be determined
and
its
electrical
in a weighing to
conduc
employ such
weights that the index stands accurately at zero
is
tedious,
RULES FOR THE NUMERICAL CALCULATIONS,
22
This is also the
and in some circumstances unattainable.
case when galvanic resistances have to be so balanced that
a galvanometer needle points to a definite division, for
instance to
0.
In such very frequent cases
it
often possible from
is
neighbouring observations to interpolate the exact relation
and thus
required,
to attain essential advantages in the sim
plicity of the required instruments,
time, and, above
in the
expenditure of
in exactness.
all,
Let c be the point at which the instrument should stand,
and X the required quantity which would yield this adjustment.
Instead of a: we have actually employed
a?!
giving the result
e^
If these
two positions
lie
so near to each other
within these limits the variation of
e is
and
to e that
proportional to
x,
one has obviously
{x
 x^
 e) =
(x^
 x^)  {e^  ej
= x^\{e
gj)
{e
whence
x
It is
sides of
most advantageous to take
e^
and
e^
at
opposite
e.
For examples, among others see 7 and 70.
5.
Rules for the Numerical Calculations.
The numerical calculation
of the result can
performed with a limited number of
figures, a
only be
circumstance
which renders absolute accuracy in the calculations impossible.
Here also it is important to obtain the required
accuracy without unnecessary trouble.
It is generally well to
is
to be brought out to so
keep to the rule that the result
many
figures, that the last of
them,
on account of the errors of observations, makes no pretension
to accuracy, but that the last but one may be taken as pretty
ADJUSTING AND TESTING A BALANCE.
23
In doubtful cases one place too many should be
taken rather than one too few.
All the figures, however, should be correct as to the
working.
Hence it follows that the calculation must be
accurate.
gone through with at least one place more than
is to be
given in the result, for by the neglecting of further figures
the last place may by degrees become wrong to the amount
of several units.
The extra place
at the end, increasing the last
discarded in the result
is
but one by 1
if
the figure
rejected be 5 or more.
Of course ciphers added, or those
number of
will not be counted in the
prefixed to a decimal,
figures.
Example.
The determination of the density of the body
already mentioned so many times (p. 3) gives the second place
pretty accurately, but the third not so much so.
This, therefore,
we must go. In the mean value from ten observahowever, one more place may be given. We use here 5figure logarithms for calculating the result, since 4 figures are to
be correct.
is
as far as
tions,
6.
The
Adjusting and Testing a Balance.
descriptions
construction
is
commonly used
which follow
kef)t in
refer, so far as
view, to the
any special
form of the balance
in chemical analysis.
Adjust7ncnt of the Balance.
There is usually a level or
plumbline attached to the balancestand by the maker, by
means
which the adjustment is made with the footscrews.
arrangement is wanting, a level is placed in the
balance case, and the adjustment attained by it.
The beam is now released, and correctiug any slight
excess of weight on either side by changing the position of
the sliding weight provided for the purpose, or, by adding
small weights, the observer makes sure that the balance has
a stable position of equilibrium.
Should the equilibrium be
unstable (the balance "set"), the movable weight in the middle
must be screwed down until the defect is remedied.
The sensitiveness (amount of defiection for 1 mgr.) can
Where
of
this
ADJUSTING AND TESTING
24
be regulated by screwing up the movable weight as far as is
The time of an oscillation increases with the
necessary.
increase of sensitiveness
it
should be made, in balances of
the ordinary form, about 10 to 15 seconds (in Bunge's and
other shortbeamed balances 6 to 1
seconds).
lations occasion loss of time in weighing,
Slower
oscil
and usually cause
adjustment which make the larger deflec
irregularities in the
tion useless.
When
the pointer
a suitable time of oscillation has been attained,
is
made
to point to the middle division of the
divided scale, or swing equally on both sides of
balance
is
provided for
it,
when
the
by the arrangement
the purpose (screws or movable weights at
This
unloaded.
effected
is
tlie end of the beam, slot in the central screwhead, or
movable arm).
We need not be afraid, when the desired
object is nearly attained by means of the movable weight, of
facilitating the last fine adjustment to the zero by performing it wdth the footscrews, shortening one by as nearly as
possible the same amount that we lengthen the other.
Testing the Balance.
ing conditions before
The
it is
balance must
taken into use
fulfil
the follow
It must, when repeatedly stopped and again released,
always take up the same position (it must be seen that the
three knifeedges are carefully cleaned).
When
the balance
is
swinging
freely,
the distance
it
swings should diminish but slowly.
When
the
stopjung apparatus
is
raised,
the pointer
immediately over the middle division
when it is lowered, the two pins on which bhe beam
when stopped should release it at the same time.
sliould stand
and
rests
The above conditions must
still be fulfilled when the
loaded with the greatest weight for which it is
safe to use it.
must in this case test with especial
balance
is
We
care the stability of the equilibrium, the constancy of the
zero,
and the slow diminution of the swing.
of the arms should tlien be made sure
The equality
wliich
is
known
to
l)e
tlie
case
of,
when weights (which should
A BALANCE.
25
not Le too small), which are in equilibrium, produce the
same position
the balance
in
when they are interchanged
weight must be unaltered,
with each other.
The
in whatev^er part
of the scalepan
effect of a
it
is
On
placed.
the
accurate determination of the equality of the arms and of
the sensibility, see (8) and (9).
The following minor points are to be considered in pro
curing a balance
The
apparatus for moving the rider should
be provided with stops to prevent
should
also, as
it
striking the beam.
It
well as the apparatus for stopping the beam,
and the doors of the
case,
have an easy quiet motion.
To
avoid parallax in reading, the extremity of the pointer should
move very closely in front of the divisions, or, still better, above
them.
As to the size of the divisions, about a millimetre is
to
be recommended.
It is less
important that the two scales
should be of the same weight, than that the shorter pan pro
vided for specific gravities should be accurately equal in
weight
to
one of the longer ones.
Use of the Balance.
It should stand on a table protected
from the tremors of the floor.
If it is impossible to help
weighing in a heated room, or one into which the sun shines,
we must at least protect the balance from unequal heating.
To preserve from
tlie
influence
A^essel filled
of
rust,
and
to
exclude as
much
as possible
hygroscopic moisture during weighing, a
with caustic potash or calcium chloride
is
placed
in the balancecase.
Weights must only be put on when the balance
When the larger weights
is to
if
are to be put on, or
is
when
stopped.
the load
be taken off the balance, the pans also should be stopped
any apparatus
is
provided for the purpose.
the scales during weighing
may
Swinging of
give rise to errors.
After
we must make sure that
zeropoint is unaltered, or make a new determination of
Any small corrections which may be necessary are made
every weighing with large weights
the
it.
with the footscrews.
It
is
selfevident that the final weigh
ings are performed witli the case shut.
WEIGHING BY OBSERVING
26
Weighing by observing the Swinging of a Balance.
7.
which weights are
of weighing in
The ordinary operation
added, and at last the rider
is
moved
until the pointer of
the balance swings equally on both sides of the middle diviFirst, it requires that the pointer
sion, has several defects.
shall
point
balance
is
accurately
loaded.
It
to
the
middle
division
when
the
demands, therefore, on account of the
unavoidable alteration of the zero point, frequent readjust
ment
of the balance,
next place,
it
is
which takes up much
time.
In the
only applicable to balances provided with
Thirdly, the process takes a long time, and requires
riders.
several careful observations,
which nevertheless are of no use
in determining the result.
Finally,
make
it is
as a rule better to
a measure depend, not on a trial whether two quanti
ties are equal, for equality is
but on a
trial as to
only approximately attainable,
how much they
differ.
The following method of weighing, by observing the
oscillation of the pointer and by interpolation, escapes these
objections.
A similar method may be used in many physical
measurements, with the same advantage as in the case of the
balance
namely, simplification of the means required, greater
sensitiveness, and frequently saving of time.
The first thing to be done is the determination of the
zero point, by which we mean the point of the scale at which
to rest when the balance is unloaded.
we cannot and should not wait until the motion ceases
to determine this point directly, we must deduce it from
observing the division to which the index attains when
the index comes
Since
swinging.
Where we
require only moderate accuracy, it is enough
two successive points at which the index turns,
and to take their arithmetical mean.
If we desire greater
exactness, and wish to take into account the fact that the
amount of oscillation gradually becomes less, we observe
to observe
several points of turning on both sides, taking care, for the
sake of simplifying the reductions, that the
first
and
last
27
THE SWING OF A BALANCE.
on the same side, i.e. we make an uneven number of
observations.
Five or seven are always enough.
We then
take the arithmetical mean of the observations on the one
shall be
and of those on the other, viz.
and
again take the mean of these two numthe 2d and 4th
bers.
This is the required zero point.
In order not to have
to distinguish the deviations to the right and left by signs,
but 10.
we call the middle point of the scale not
side, that
is,
the 1st, 3d, 5th
Example
Turning points.
No. 1.
104
2.
Now,
103
103
91
Means.
Zero.
1033
915
^.^
'*
^
5.
4.
3.
92
place the body on the one scale, and bring the
balance nearly to the zero point (within one or two scale
divisions)
by weights
and
in the other,
the rider from one division of the
beam
at last
by moving
to another.
Make
another set of observations of the swinging as above, then
take off or add one or more milligrammes, according as the
weights were too heavy or too light, until the position of
on the other side of the zero point, and
by again observing the excursions of the index.
The required weight ;p^^ of the body i.e. the number of
weights that must be added in order that the balance when
is given, by a simple
loaded may settle to the zero point
equilibrium
determine
falls
it
interpolation from these observations.
Let there have been found
the zero
e^,
with the .weight
with the weight
we
P
p
the position
the position
e,
have, since for small deflections the difference of the
is proportional to the difference of
positions of equilibrium
the weights
Ee Pp'
therefore p^
=p +
{P p)
~^^'
28
WEIGIIIXG BY OBSERVING THE SWING OF A BALANCE.
The above differences must all be taken with the proper
on which account it is simpler to have the scale divisions
sign,
numbered, so that increased reading corresponds to increased
weight.
The operation may also be expressed somewhat more
The two observations with different weights
simply, thus
give the difference a of position (the deviation), which corresponds to 1 mgr. increase of the weight.
If, further, we de
termine by subtraction the number of divisions A at which
is from the zero point with one of the
weights (it is immaterial which, but to simplify the calculathe point of equilibrium
tion the nearest to the zero
is
usually chosen), the
milligrammes which must be added
the balance
may
number
of
(or subtracted), so that
settle to the zero, is
given by division
Compare
also the beginning of the next article.
Example.
The value
for the zero has
been determined above
to be 974.
Weight.
mgr.
Turning point.
rest.
"^'^
^'8
3036
3037
Mean. Point of
103
^'^
79
783
1025
904
93
940
1050
995
102
^"4
105
105
Deviation for
mgr.
091 scale division.
3037 mgr. were accordingly too heavy by
995974
091
weight
021
^
= ,023
moT
091
5^
3G 77

mgr.
Or by the previous formula,
p^
With
= 303G +
1^1^
= 303677.
little practice time is saved by this method
of observathe performance of the reductions soon becomes quite
mechanical, whilst the accuracy is greater than in the
ordinary
tion, since
method.
29
SENSITIVENESS OF A BALANCE.
The
oscillation slioukl
amount
between
to
and 4
scale
divisions.
immaterial whether the weights are reckoned in grammes
method should be kept to. The
recording of the observations should also be kept in a regular form
It is
or milligrammes, but one settled
as above.
8.
Determination of the Sensitiveness of a Balance.
By
we mean
the sensitiveness of a balance
the difference
The
of indication for 1 nigr. difference in the weight.
mination of this qnantity
means
excellence of the balance, and further, as a
fying the process of weighing
for if
we
is
given,
determining the zeropoint, to
to
it is
of simpli
possess a table in
which' the change of position for 1 mgr.,
weights are on the balance,
deter
important as a criterion of the
is
when
different
enough, in addition
make one single
observation
of the position with nearly the right weight.
The method of proceeding is selfevident. The load for
which the sensitiveness is to be determined is put into each
pan, and into one a small excess, so that the position of equiThis
lil)rium is from 2 to 4 divisions from the centre.
position is accurately determined according to the method of
we call it c.
Now, by adding a weight
the last article
of
pan, the position of equilibrium
far
a milligrammes to the other
be brought to about as
is to
on the other side of the centre, and observed as before.
If this position be called
e',
the required sensitiveness
is
When this quantity has been determined for different loads
(with the ordinary balances used in analysis, at intervals of
10 grnis.), the results are entered grai^hically on paper ruled
in squares, the load as abscissa, the sensitiveness as ordinate.
Through the resulting points draw a curve, which can
be
either
used directly or for the construction of a table for suitable
intervals of load.
RATIO OF THE AHMS
30
Ou
the regulation of the sensitiveness see (6).
The dependence of the sensitiveness on the load arises
from the relative positions of the middle and end knifeedges.
On
the grounds of convenience a sensitiveness independent
which requires
But as this con
of the load is to be desired in fine balances,
the three edges to be in the same plane.
dition can, strictly speaking, be fulfilled for only one definite
weight, on account of the bending of the beam, the best
makers are accustomed
there
to
produce
creased load, and then for
By
it for
mean
load.
at first a slight increase of sensitiveness
is
" load " is
still
Hence
with
in
greater weights a decrease.
understood that in one of the pans.
Determination of the Ratio of the Arms of the
Balance.
9.
The two arms
which,
when
of the balance are inversely as the weights,
placed in the corresponding pans, bring the
balance to the zero point
Since, usually, the absolute
(7).
accuracy of the set of weights cannot be assumed, the following method is used
:
The
observed
then in each pan weights are
placed of the same nominal value, about equal to half the
maximum which the balance will carry, and made equal by
zero
is
adding milligramme weights, or moving the rider until the
is in equilibrium, in which proceeding w^e should, for
the sake of accuracy, use the method of interpolation (7).
balance
Then the weights are interchanged, and again made equal.
If we call the two weights p and P, and have found that the
balance is in equilibrium when
Right.
Left.
in the first weighing
in the second
we
have,
balance
if
left
and
weighing
j^I
P j^ +
r,
denote the lengths of the arms of the
and right
'
2p'
OF A BALANCE.
31
small excess of weight on one pan
as a negative weight
Proof.
may
be considered
on the other (see example
According
1).
law of the lever
to the
i(p + /)=i2.P.
from which, by formula3 8 and
B_
fp+l^
L
Example
1.
'
p+r
\f
+^
Balance carries
2p
100 grms.
Left.
(20
10
...)
(50)
Z= 083
or
2.
Balance
grms.)
500 grms.
carries
Eight.
33 mgr.
(200)
(100
^
mgr.
mgr.
^^=10000339.
(200)
:?=
+ 083
+ 256
= 256
Left.
(100+100
in each pan.
Eight.
(50 grms.)
(20 + 10 + ...)
Example
we have
11,
3, p.
33
^"^"^"'^
100 + 07 mgr.
07
= 10000065.
400Q00
In the above examples the figures in brackets signify the
The zero point is to be
weights marked ^N\i\\ those figures.
determined before and after each weighing on account of the
If any considerable alteration be found, the weighgreat loads.
ings which are affected are repeated ; otherwise the mean of the
readings before and after the weighing is taken as the zero.
Compare also the remarks on the next section.
From the first determination follows immediately (see 12)
(50)
From
= (20 + 10
086 mgr.
100)
20 mgr.
.
.
the second
(200)  (100
absolute weighing of a body.
32
Absolute Weighing of a Body.
10.
The influence
balance
of the
eliminated
is
if
inequality
arms
of the
of
the apparent weight, as found
the
by
weighing, be multiplied by the ratio of the lengths of the
arms, using as numerator the length of the
arm with which
the weights are connected.
Should this
proceeding
1.
to
ratio
be unknown, there are two ways of
double weighing
be weighed
is performed by placing the Ijody
on the righthand pan and then on the
first
lefthand one.
If we, again, call
and
the lengths of
the right and left arms of the balance, and p^ and p^ the
weights which must be placed upon the right and left pans
respectively to balance the body; and
if
we
call the required
weight P, then
FL = Fp^
PR = Lp_
whence
Instead of the geometrical
mean we may use
metrical, since 2h and p., only differ very little
other.
(For the proof, see p. 21, No. 3.)
From
this
we can
also
the arith
from each
immediately find the ratio of the
arms
R
L
p^
'2p,
p,
The body being upon one pan is
2. By
Taring.
balanced by loading the other pan in any convenient way
it is then taken away, and weights are put in its place until
the former reading of the balance
is
obtained.
The weights
put on give the weight of the body.
Taring is simpler, since the zeropoint is immaterial.
In double weighing the influence of errors is lessened by the
double observation.
EEDUCTION TO THE WEIGHT IN VACUO.
Eeduction to the Weight in vacuo.
11.
The
i.e.
its
33
object of weighing a
body
is to
determine
its
mass,
The equality
equality with the mass of the weights.
of the masses of
two bodies
by the equality
of their weights unless the weighing
of different densities is not given
is
per
In the air both the body and the weights
formed in vacuo.
lose weight equal to the weight of the air which they respectively displace.
If
we
call
The apparent weight
of the
balance
it
body
in
air, i.e.
the density of the air
(X=0'0012
as a
mean
the weights which
=m
= A,
in the air
See also (18) and Table 6)
value.
the density of the body
the density of the weights
=A
= h,
the weight in vacuo will be
M = ^^(l + A6)There
be added to the apparent weight
is therefore to
a correction ^(/y  f)j which
the difference between
is
and 3
much
the greater as
greater.
It is almost
so
is
always sufficient to use the mean value 0*0012 for
this case the correction for brass
Table
weights
may
body
^= M
r>
A.
In
be taken from
8.
Proof.
weights
i^
The volume
= K
of the
Every body
loses in
is
that of the
the air the weight of
the body therefore which we
the air which it displaces
Since the weights,
the weights \v.
have weighed loses
after subtracting these losses, are equal, we have
;
W,
REDUCTION TO THE WEIGHT IN VACUO.
34
M XV=m Xv, or 31 (l\= m (1
therefore, ou account of the smallness of
with
or
8,
we
have,
by formula 8
M =171
r
1A
Example.
The
(p.
^),
iu comparison
11)
o^^)
correction of the
apparent weight
brass weights (5
when weighed with
quantity of water
of
= 8 '4),
amounts to
m.
00012f
 j =m
O'OOIOG,
ie.
106
mgr.
in
every
gramme.
Where the question is not of the absolute weights, but only
of ratios of weights, as in chemical analysis, the loss of weight of
the substance in the air must still be taken account of, though
may be neglected. (The alteration of the
density of the air by alteration of pressure and temperature
causes an error, which, when brass weights are used, amounts
only in extreme cases to tooVo o ^f the total weight.)
that of the weights
If, for example, a dilute solution of silver be analysed by
weighing a quantity of the solution and the silver chloride
(density = 55) obtained from it; and if P and p be the
observed weights, these are reduced to vacuo P (1 + 0*0012)
and p
j.
The proportion
of silver chloride amounts
therefore to
00012 \
(lloOo'l2) =
The uncorrected
great.
in
K'  "'"' ('  6^)) = I
value
would therefore be about
The customary neglect of such a simple
''
O'l
% too
correction must,
view of the costliness of the balance, the care spent on the
weighings, and the very great pretension to accuracy implied in
the large number of decimals used, be considered inadmissible.
35
CORRECTION OF A SET OF WEIGHTS.
Table of Corrections for a Set of Weights.
12.
The operation of determining the
a set of
errors of
weights usually depends on the performance of as
many
weighings as there are weights to be corrected, and on the
formation of the same number of equations from them, from
which the
arms of the balance, and that of the
may be
ratio of the
weights to
each other or to a convenient unit,
deduced.
In the sets of weights commonly used
manner of proceeding is as follows
The larger weights are distinguished as
in analysis, the
50'
20'
10"
10'
5'
2'
1'"
1"
performed with 50' on one
side, and
5eit
Suppose
it 1has been
omter is
found that the balance is in equilibrium, i.e.
in the same position as when the balance is uniimQeed, when
double weighing
is
the rest of the weights on the other.
Eight.
Left.
50'
20'
+ 10'+
20'
10'
mgr.
10'
then the ratio of the arms of the balance
L~ ^
50'
and
= 20'+
r mcrr.
50',
is
(9)
100,000
10'
.+
In the same way 20' is compared with 10' + 10", and 10'
The relation of the balance
with 10" and also with 5' + 2' +
.
arms
is
somewhat dependent on the
determined, a single weighing
2^, on the right pan,
A weight
arms,
is
is,
load,
but when
y has
been
sufficient for the smaller weights.
on account of the length of the
p
reduced to ^ ^ when weighed on
the
left
hand.
COREECTION OF
36
OSS
Example. Let r=
50'
20'
10'
1= 253
+ 5' +
10"
2'
1'
1" 1'"
085 mgr.
and ^10000336.
Further,
be found, when comparing 20' with 10'
if it
10", that
Eight.
+ 10"
Left.
20'
10'
091 mgr.
keeps the balance in equilibrium, the equal weights would be, in
a balance with equal arms
20'+ 091 and
or
It follows
(10'
10'+
10") 10000336,
+ 067
10"
mgr.
then that
20'
=10'+
10"
024 mgr.
Suppose that from 5 weighings we have found
50'
20'
=20' + 10' +
= 10' +10"
10"=
5'
where
+^
+B
+C
+ 2' + l'+l" + l'"=10'+Z>
of course A, B, C,
From
10'
may
be either positive or negative.
must be
expressed in terms of some unit the sum of the single grammes
being provisionally considered as one weight.
If a comparison
with a normal weight be not made at the same time, this unit is
so chosen that the correction of the separate weights shall be as
small as possible, which is the case when the whole sum is assum^ed
i.e. when we consider
to be correct
these equations the values of the 5 weights
50'
Now
it is
20'
easily found,
10'
by
first
= 100000
mgr.
of all expressing all the weights
in terms of 10', that
50' + 20'
+ 10'+
.= 10 X 10'+^ + 2i? + 4C+2D= 100000 mgr.
Calling therefore
To
 ^
A SET OF WEIGHTS.
37
we have
5'
10'
= 10000 mgr.
;S^
10"
10000
= 10000
 s+c
 S+D
 2S+B+C
 5S + A + B +
+ 2' +
= 20000
= 50000
= 50000
20'
50'
2C+D
IA.
The proof of the correctness of the numerical work is easily
found from the above to be that the sum of the corrections, when
expressed as numbers, must equal 0, and the 4 equations given
above must be fulfilled.
Again, the following equations having been obtained by comparing the weights 5', 2', 1', 1", 1'" with each other,
2'
= 2'+l' +
= I' + l"
1"
1'
1'"=
1'
5'
As
1"
+r" +
+b
+c
+d
in the previous case calling
a+2b+'4:C+2d + SD
10
"
we have
r = 1000
1" =1000
mgr.
1"'
= 1000
2'
=2000
=5000
5'
s
s + c
s + d
2s+b + c
5s + a + b +
2c
d.
In the same manner we proceed with the smaller weights, only
remarking that usually the inequality of the arms of the balance
no longer needs consideration.
We
have hitherto assumed the sum of the larger weights
have corrections as small as possible.
For most purposes (chemical analysis, specific gravity) which
only require relative weighings, this assumption may be made.
to be correct, in order to
In order
weight,
to refer the table of errors to
it
is
them, with a normal weight (10, 11).
easily got
an accurate gramme
necessary to compare the weights, or one of
The
calculation is
from the above.
similar method of testing a series of weights of any
other arrangement will be easily found.
38
DENSITY.
To distinguish the weights of the same nominal value,
the figures should be differently engraved, or they should be
provided with distinguishing marks, otherwise accidental marks
must be looked
for.
In the case of weights which consist of pieces of foil, the
No regard
turning up of different corners may be made use of.
need be paid to the loss of weight from weighing in the air, for
the larger weights are all of the same material, and with the
For
smaller ones the difference is without noticeable influence.
testing the smaller pieces a lighter balance is, when possible,
made use of, i.e. one which is more sensitive, with the same time
The weighings are made by observations of the
of oscillation.
swing after (7), and the observation of the zero point should be
frequently repeated.
It is customary to use the weights in a
fixed order, so that each total weight will always be made up of
the same individual Aveights
it is
table of errors for the total weights
easy therefore to calculate the
by taking it for every 10000,
1000, 100, 10, and eventually for every milligramme.
Density oe Specific Geavity.
13.
By
the density or specific gravity of a solid or liquid (we
and 2) is meant the ratio of
an equal volume of water at 4.
This
latter has therefore the density 1.
The choice of any other
temperature than 4 must be pronounced unscientific, since
the density of water at this temperature forms the basis of
shall call this
its
mass
see Tables 1
to that of
the metrical system.
Instead of the ratio of the masses
weights in vacuo.
If the metre
and measures be used, we may
weight to the volume,
or,
cm.,
kgr.
call
In this
homogeneous bodies,
and mm., gr.
case, mgr.
and dm., naturally belong
Though the two terms density and
ordinary use synonymous,
it
use that of the
the density the ratio of the
in the case of
the weight of unitvolume.
and
we may
and gramme system of weights
to
each
other.
specific gravity are in
should not be forgotten that in
principle they are not identical.
By
the density of a gas, according to this definition,
usually meant that which
of
760 mm.
of mercury.
is
and under a pressure
But most frequently a gas is com
it
has at
0,
39
DENSITY.
pared not with water but with dry atmospheric
air of the
same temperature and under the same pressure.
The methods of determining densities, considering them
at present without corrections (for whicli see sections
14
and 15), are the following:
For Liquids.
Weighing a volume measured
(1.)
in a graduated vessel,
On account of capillary attracsuch as a tube or pipette.
tion the volume in a graduated tube should be measured by
an observation of difference
of the horizontal
always reading
(upper or lower) surface.
allax, the necessary observations are
off the position
To avoid par
made with a
telescope
or, more simply, by always
on a vertical stand
taking one and the same distant point as that to which to
A vessel may be calibrated, or one already
direct the eye.
divided may be tested by weighing with water (11, p. 33) or
In the latter case, according to Bunsen, the
quicksilver.
A
repeated weighing may be replaced by a simpler method.
sliding
small tube
tain,
is
closed below and ground above, so as to con
when covered with a
glass plate, a
known volume
(Specific gravity of quicksilver
quicksilver.
is,
of
according to
13596 (100001815 t) at temperature t)
The contents of the tube so filled are repeatedly poured into
the vessel to be calibrated, and the position of the surface is
The influence of the meniscus is easily
each time read off.
eliminated by pouring on the mercury a dilute solution of
mercuric chloride, which flattens the surface (Bunsen, GasoEegnault,
metrische Methoden, 2d. ed. p. 36).
The quantity m of the fluid is weighed, and also the
lu of water which is contained in one and the same
Then we have
(specific gravity bottle, pyknometer).
(2.)
quantity
vessel
w
(3.)
body {e.g. a piece of glass) is weighed in the air,
and in water. If we find the loss of weight in
in the liquid,
the liquid to be
in,
that in water
lo,
we have agam
l\
= .
40
DENSITY.
Mohr's balance
is
which the unit
displaced by the
of
necessary to
are
must be
very simple and convenient, where the
is
highest accuracy
It is provided with riders
not required.
is
the weight of the volume of water at 4
The following conditions
glass weight.
accuracy
its
related as
be of equal intervals
10
100
the weights or riders
(1)
(2)
the
must
divisions
balance must in water of
(3) the
show the density Q which corresponds to this
4.
If, instead of Q, it show Q', all
Q
must be multiplied by Ty*
temperature
temperature in Table
results
(4.)
to
Scale areometers (hydrometers) give
which they sink
by the
division
either the density, or the volume,
the
i.e.
reciprocal of the density, the percentage of a solution, or,
in the older scales, the socalled " degrees of density."
For
Areometers should
the eye being level with the sur
the relation of these scales see Table
be read through the
face, so
when
that
it
fluid,
appears as a
They should stand
line.
floated in water of 4, or at
2.
at 1
in water of temperature
which corresponds to Q in Table 4.
Other points of the
must be proved with fluids of known specific gravity.
(5.) The heights of columns of different fluids in tubes
communicating with each other are, when equilibrium is
t,
scale
established, in the inverse ratio of the densities.
Fo7' Solids.
(1.)
Weighing and measuring the volume.
The mea
when the body is of a regular shape, may be done
by a scale when the body is irregular the volume may be
measured by observing how much the surface of a quantity
of liquid contained in a graduated tube rises when the body
suring,
is
put into
substances
water,
This
it.
in
small
some other
method
pieces.
fluid, e.g. alcohol,
solution of the substance,
(2.)
If
is
Tor
may
specially
applicable to
substances
soluble
in
petroleum, or asaturated
be used.
be the weight of the body, and
weighed in water, the weight w,
on
A= ~
w
it
lose,
when
41
DENSITY.
The body
is
usually
hung
to one of the pans of the
The weight
balance by a thread or wire as thin as possible.
of the wire is previously determined, and allowed for in the
calculation, in a
manner
The
easily seen.
loss of
weight of
This can easily be
from w.
obtained by calculating the weight of the immersed part of
the wire from the ratio of the immersed part to the whole
length, and dividing by the density of the wire (Table 1).
When weighing in water the oscillations quickly decrease
the position is observed when the balance has come to rest.
The thread should only cut the surface of the water in one
the wire
is
to be subtracted
place, in order not to increase the capillary attraction,
which
otherwise would impair the accuracy of the weighing.
Instead of hanging the body to the pan of the balance, a
may be placed upon it, and the increase of
vessel of water
weight determined
when
the body
thread from a fixed stand.
is
suspended in it by a
is equal to the
This increase
apparent loss of weight of the body in water.
With Nicholson's hydrometer the weight in
air
and in
determined by the difference in the weights which
must be put on in order to sink the instrument to a mark on
Changes of temperature impair the accuracy the
the stem.
water
is
more the smaller the body is compared to the hydrometer.
Eubbing the stem with spirits of wine makes the certainty
of the adjustment greater.
spiral wire (piano wire) with two pans hung one above
the other, one always immersed in a vessel of water, is very
convenient for determining densities, especially of small
bodies
{Jolly).
We
observe, exactly as with the hydro
must be put upon the upper pan to
mark upon the lower end of the wire to the same
position when (1) the pans are empty, (2) the body is upon
As fixed index, a
the upper one, (3) it is upon the lower.
mark upon a piece of lookingglass may be used to avoid
meter, the weights which
bring a
parallax.
If the
body must not be put
into water
some other fluid of known density.
above, must then be multiplied by
The
it is
weighed in
result, calculated as
this density.
TEMPERATURE OF OBSERVATIONS WITH
42
When
the body
is specifically
lighter than water
it
must
be made to sink by fixing to it another sufficient weight, e.g.
a metal clamp or a net of wire gauze, under which the body
is
allowed to ascend.
(3.)
The weight
of the
volume of water equal
to that of
the body can be determined by the specific gravity bottle.
If it
weigh
when
quite full of water, P'
when
the body
has been put in and the displaced water removed, and
be the weight of the body,
w = P\mP'.
if
iiv
This method
is
specially applicable in the case of small bodies, but then
flasks as small as possible should
be used.
As
to the correc
tions see next article.
In every case the airbubbles, which easily adhere to the bodies,
must be removed either by repeatedly dipping in and taking them
out again, or by the application of a brush.
14.
Correction for Temperature of Observations with
THE PyKNOMETER AND IMMERSED WEIGHT.
One
is
of the
most elegant means of determining densities
the specific gravity bottle (pyknometer).
Whenever only
a small quantity of the substance can be obtained
it is the
then requires great care on
account of the expansion of water with the temperature.
only method available, but
it
The weight of water which the
flask
would contain
at
any
given temperature can be calculated in the following manner
from the weight, taken once for all, of the bottle when full
any one temperature.
the temperature and density of the water at
the time the weighing was performed t and Q (Table 4), the
weight of water j), and the corresponding quantities for
of water at
Let us
call
another temperature
t' ,
Q',p'.
These
last
quantities are to
be calculated.
(1.) If only the most considerable correction
viz. that
depending upon the expansion of the water
is to be considered, we have
THE PYKNOMETER AND IMMERSED WEIGHT.
P =P
approximately^ =/; +2>
we have
If
(2.)
know
7j OT
This
Q).
greater in the proportion 1
is
where 3^ denotes the
of the glass.
regard to the expansion of the flask,
that the volume
(t't)
(Q'
43
may
coefficient of cubical
we
+ 3/3
expansion
usually be taken as ^q^^q.
We
have therefore
/ =2)
{1
3/3 {f
i)}
~=p'+p
t)^Q'
[3/3 (f
Q].
This is also applicable to determination of specific gravity
with the glass body (13, 3), p and p' being the loss of weight
of the body in water of temj)erature t and f respectively.
These directions have special importance in deter
(3.)
minations of the density of small
ing the corrections
results.
we should be
solids, since
by not apply
led to altogether erroneous
The apparent weight i^ of a volume of water equal
body can in most cases be deduced with sufaccuracy by the following formula
to that of the
ficient
tv
The
= m + P~P' + {P
^)
specific gravity of the
[Q'Q+
body
A = {QX) +
w
is
3/3 {f
/)].
then (15)
X.
In this formula
m
P
= the weight of the body in air
= the weight of the bottle when full of water
P' the weight of the bottle with the substance, and
;
with water ;
T = the weight of the empty
flask (need only
filled
up
be approximate).
Further, the temperature and density of the water are
weighing with water alone
with water and the substance ;
3/3 = the coefficient of cubical expansion of the glass
X = 0'0012, approximately the density of the air (see
t,
/',
at the
Q'
Proof.
It
was shown above
of the water at
and
t',
p ^p
{\
that, if j?
3(3 (t
15).
and p be the weights
/')}
This expression
THE PYKNOMETEK AND IMMEKSED WEIGHT.
44
can be simplified by bearing in mind that 3/3, tlie coefficient of
cubical expansion of the glass, is always a very small number ; and
For by
further, that Q' and Q only differ very little from 1.
writing \ + {Q' \) for Q', and 1 + (Q  1) for , we obtain by
formula 8
(p.
11)
Q'_ i+(g'i) _
Q
By formula
p'=p
[1
7, therefore,
3/3 {f
l+(g l)l+(^
t)
the above expression becomes
+ Q'Q\=p^p
[3/3 {f
t)
Q' Q\
In order therefore to calculate from the weight P of the bottle
with water at the temperature t, that at t', we must add to
P the weight of the water P  multiplied by 3/3 (/'  1) + Q'  Q.
The glass and water would therefore, at the temperature t', weigh
filled
"tt,
P + (P7r)[33(r0 +
e'(>].
But when the body, of the weight m, has been introduced into
the vessel, the weight w of water has overflowed, and the whole
now weighs P'. Obviously therefore
P'
+ t^ = p +
(P 
^) [3/3 (f t)
Q'
 Q]
+ m,
from which the expression previously given follows.
It will be seen at once that the weight t of the empty vessel
need only be determined approximately, for it only occurs multi
by a factor of the dimensions of a correction.
In some cases the correction for change of atmospheric density
between the different weighings must also be taken into account
(11, 18, Table 8), especially in the determination in the specific
gravity of small solids in large pyknometers.
Filling of Bottles.
The water must always fill the flask and
the perforated stopper to the top, or to the mark made on the
First, the bottle Avithout the stopper must be filled with
latter.
water of a known temperature, which should not be lower than
Then the dry and slightly greased stopper is
that of the room.
quickly inserted, when a little water will be spurted out.
If
necessary the water above the mark may be removed with a roll
of filter paper.
Warming with the hand after determination of
the temperature must be carefully avoided.
plied
WEIGHT IN VACUO.
Eeduction of the Weight to that of
Density.
15.
Water
The methods
under 2 and
for
at 4 and in vacuo.
determining densities given in (13),
require a correction, which
3,
ing to the following general rule
We
must
45
first
is
applied accord
take account of the fact that the water
usually at some other temperature than
is
and therefore
The true density Q is found from
has not the density 1.
the temperature by the help of Table 4 in the Appendix. In
4,
the second place, the weighings are to be reduced to weigh
Table 6 gives the density
ings in vacuo.
of dry air for all
temperatures and pressures which are likely to occur.
For
mostly enough to take the
0"0012, for the error thus introduced will
the calculation see (18).
mean value
\=
It is
rarely influence the third place of decimals to the extent of
The neglect
1.
of the expansion of the water
may
affect the
result to the extent of ^ per cent, the loss of weight in air
about 2 in the second place of decimals. No notice need be
taken of the inequality of the arms of the balance, provided
that
we always
place the body
upon the same pan, nor
of
the air displaced by the weights.
We
will call
the density of the water employed
X the density of the air at the time of weighing compared
with water (mean value a == 0"0012) ;
m the apparent, i.e. uncorrected, weight of the body in air,
or, in the case of a fluid, the apparent loss of weight of
a body immersed in it
w the apparent weight of the volume of water of density Q
equal to the volume of the body.
As
w we may
(1.)
body
is
With
therefore have
solids,
the apparent loss of weight
weighed in water
after the
with a balance or areometer
placed by the body
(2.)
With
when
fluids,
method
when
the
of Archimedes,
or the weight of the water dis
a specific gravity bottle
is
used.
the apparent weight of the water in the
REDUCTION TO WEIGHT IN VACUO.
46
water displaced by tlie piece
in
the
fluid and in water.
weighed
of glass which
gravity
reduced
specific
to water at 4, and
the
Then
specific gravity bottle, or of the
is
freed from the influence of the displaced
air, is
is
the rough uncorrected specific gravity.
It will be seen that the influence of the loss of weight in
when the density is 1, and becomes larger
with the increase or diminution of density of the body, reachthe air vanishes
= 21)
besides,
the value 0'024.
expansion of the water
the
neglected, the result
may
If,
by temperature be
be too great by about 8 in the
second decimal place.
See R. Kohlrausch Praktische Eegeln zur genaueren Bestimmung des specifischen Gewichtes. Marburg, 1856.
Proof.
air,
w+
If the
body, solid or
fluid,
and displace the quantity of
air
/,
have the weight m in the
it would, in vacuo, weigh
In considering the determination of w we may distinguish
If we have determined the weight of an equal volume
of water by weighing, the weight in vacuo i^ w + 1.
If we have
measured the apparent loss of weight i(; of a solid by immersion in
water, this must be increased by I, since the weight in vac2w would
be so much greater than in the air. In the same way, thirdly, if
we have determined the density of a fluid by finding the apparent
loss of weight of the same body when weighed successively in
water and the fluid, each of these must be increased by I.
If, however, the water have not the temperature of + 4, but
some other, at which its density is Q (Table 2), the same volume
/.
three cases.
of water at 4
true density
But
since
would weigh
of the
is
body
is
density (compared with water)
I
=w+1
the displaced
=X
A,'
all cases, therefore,
the
obtained by the formula
the volume of
In
or
= wX
Qx'
air,
calling its
KEDUCTION TO A NOIIMAL TEMPEKATUEE.
and substituting
this value in the
above expression we obtain
A = (Q ?.) +
w
Example.
Suppose
47
>..
a piece of silver weighs
mgr.
m = 24312
in air
in
water at 192
= 21916
the apparent loss of weight in water,
The uncorrected
specific gravity will therefore
m
We obtain the corrected
2396
be
24312
= 10147.
2396
w
Table
w=
value, taking
Q = 099843
A =10147 (09984300012) +
for 19 '2,
from
00012 10120.
It is convenient for the working out of the correction, in case
logarithms are not used, to subtract Q from 1, and insert the
difference ^, always a very small number, in the formula,
writing it
A=
(a
+ x) +
X.
Thus, in the example given above
A= 10147000277 x
By
this
16.
means the
Density.
calculations
101
+ 00012 = 10120.
may be performed
mentally.
Eeduction to a Nokmal Tempekatuke.
A is the density of the body at the temperature t, which
had at the time of weighing, compared with water at 4.
For a solid body of which the loss of weight in water has
been determined, it is, of course, the temperature of the water
employed which must be used.
From this the density A^j at
any other temperature t^ is found, with the aid of the coefficient of cubical expansion 3/3 (Table 9), by multiplying by
1 + 3/3 (^ t^.
It is usual to give the density for 0, and
it
therefore
A=A
(1+3/30.
DETERMINATION WITH THE VOLUMENOMETER.
48
fluids have an irregular expansion, wliicli must be taken
In these the volumes v^ and v of the
from special tables.
same weight of fluid at t^ and t are found, and then
Most
A =A
V
V.
Density.
17.
Determination with the Volumenometer.
The object of this instrument is the measurement of the
volume of a body which must not be immersed in water, by
means of determining the volume of an enclosed quantity of
according to Mariotte's law.
air
Let the volume of the quantity of air which is to be
determined be V, shut off at the atmospheric pressure of If
milhmetres of mercury (height of the barometer).
If this
measured volume V be increased by v c.c. without any
addition of air, and the diminution of pressure h mm. be
observed, we have
FE={F+v){Hh),
and therefore
V=v Hli
h
on the other hand, V be diminished, and an increase of
pressure h be observed
If,
F=vh
When
the body
The
the volume of the empty vessel has been found,
is
and the same process is gone through.
is the volume of the body
therefore the weight (in grammes) divided by
placed in
it
difference of the values found
the density
is
this difference.
The smaller v and h
greater
result.
air
is
are
compared with
V and
H, the
the influence of the errors of observation on the
Any
alteration of the temperature of the enclosed
by neighbouring
experiment.
bodies, etc.,
must be avoided during the
calculation of the density of a gas,
18.
49
etc,
Calculation of the Density of the Air or of a
Gas from its Pressure and Temperature.
Let d^ be the density
compared with water) under
and at 0 (Table 1)
then for the pressure h (20) and temperature t, the density
d is, according to Mariotte's and Gay Lussac's laws
760 mm.
the pressure of
(as
of mercury
^"
d=
1
0003665^
The values of the expressions 1
be found by Table
in
760
0003665^ and
,=
may
760
7.
The density of dry atmospheric air for 760 mm., and 0
latitude 45 (20) is, according to Eegnault and E.
Kolilrausch
X^
The temperature
= 00012928.
and pressure
h correspond therefore to the
density
h
^_ 00012928
"1 + 0003665^ "760'
Table 6
calculated from this formula for convenience
is
of reduction.
The density
and t as compared with
most readily obtained by multiplying X, by
the density of the gas as compared with air, which is given
in the second column of Table la.
Tor the accurate determination of X, a knowledge of the
humidity of the air is necessary.
The density of water
vapour is  that of air at the same temperature and pressure.
If then the tension e (the pressure) of the water vapour in
that of water
the air be
of other gases at h
is
known
must be subtracted
2>e
(28),
from the ob
served height of the barometer, and the value so corrected
used in Table 6 or in the formula given above.
Failing the knowledge of
e,
the air
may
be considered to
DENSITY OF A VAPOUR OR GAS.
50
This
be on the average half saturated with aqueous vapour.
assumption is very nearly made, at least for ordinary temperatures, by taking for h the undiminished height of the barometer, but as the factor of
t,
0004 instead of 0"003665.
The humidity may influence X to the extent of about
0'003665 is nearly equal to 3^0' *^^ ^3^cent.
Determination of the Density of a Vapour or
19.
The density
1 per
GtAS.
compared
same temperature
of a vapour (or gas) is usually
with that of dry atmospheric air at the.
and pressure.
The vapourdensity of a chemical compound of known
composition is calculated by dividing its atomic weight by
Thus water { = 11^0) has the atomic weight 18 its
2 8 '8 8.
;
vapourdensity therefore
is
^^ =0623.
2888
A.
Determination of Vapourdensity hy the vjeight of a
known volume (Dumas).
A
glass
glass balloon of
from
tube melted into
it,
g
to
^^
litre
capacity, with a
or a boiling flask the
neck of
which has been drawn out into a j)oint of about 1 mm.
diameter, is weighed
then a few grammes of the fluid, the
vapourdensity of which is to be determined, are sucked up
into the slightly warmed balloon, which is next put, with a
thermometer close to it, into a bath of some liquid, so that
the point projects, and heat is applied until the fluid in the
balloon boils.
Wlien this is turned into vapour, the heat
must be raised at least 10 above the boilingpoint, and
;
then the point of the balloon
is
closed with the blowpipe
The temperature of the bath and the height of the
barometer must be read off at this instant.
Then the cooled
and wellcleansed balloon is again weighed, observing the
height of the barometer and the temperature of the air in
flame.
VAPO UKDENSITY (dUMAS).
the balancecase.
51
Lastly, tlie point of the balloon
under water, from which the
is held
has been removed by boil
air
by the use of the airpump, or in mercury a filemark
made on it, and it is broken off below the liquid which rises
into the balloon.
The filled balloon, and the point which has
ing, or
is
been broken
off,
are again weighed.
(See III. as to residual
air.)
We
(1.)
(2)
call
711,
the weight of the balloon
'>n'
(4.)
31
t and
(5.)
t'
(3.)
(6.)
I.
full
of air
vapour;
,,
water or mercury
jj
b the temperature of the vapour, and the height of
the barometer at the moment of sealing.
and b', the temperature in the balancecase and the
height of the barometer at the weighing with the vapour.
If the tension e of the aqueous vapour in the balance
room be observed (28), f of its value must be subtracted
from b' (but not from b) (18).
X' the density of the air, which may be determined
from t'
and b' by the foregoing article, or taken from Table 6.
Ajyj^roxwiate Formula.
d=
If
when
^'^
Mm
X'
The
l\
J
^
b
vapourdensity
10003665^''
is
0'003665^
mercury be used instead of water
1'
^,
must be written
instead of y.
The weight of the water which fills the balloon or its
Proof.
volume is found from (1) and (3).
F=Mm. The weight of
the vapour D is found from (1) and (2), for their difference is the
weight of the vapour, minus the weight L of an equal volume of
air, D  L = m  m.
Since now, if o be the density of the vapour, and X' that of
the air (both as compared with water), B = d (31  m) and L =
>^'
{31 ??i),the previous formula becomes (^  ?^') (31 m) m  m,
and therefore
s
m'
Al
m tA.
m
Finally, the vapourdensity d
is
to be
compared with that of
DETEEMINATION OF
52
air at the
temperature
of sealing the balloon.
and pressure h, which obtained at the time
For this purpose the value of b given above
must be divided by the density X of the
\M m
air for
We
th.
find then
J X
from which we get the formula given above, remembering that
^V
X~b
X'
Accurate Formula.
II.
pansion of the
+
+
0003665^
0003665^"
Eegard
is had (1) to the exexpansion of the water with
glass, (2) to the
the temperature, (3) to the loss of weight of the water when
weighed in air.
(We neglect (1) the change of the loss of
weight of the balloon and weights with the change of temperature and pressure
(2) that the drop of the fluid which
remains in the balloon has a density differing from that of
;
water.)
In addition to the notation above
We
(7.)
Q = the
(8.)
3/3
(1) to (6)
density of the water used for weighing (Table
= the
coefficient of cubical
4).
expansion of the glass;
have
m
QX'
,,
,.
.,
S'
+
+
0003665^
0003665^
 m
From the apparent weight of the water
Proof.
(volume V), the weight reduced to vacuo is obtained by adding
X', the weight of the displaced air.
The water has the density
Q, therefore the weight of water at 4, which fills the balloon, that
is,
the volume of this
m
7V=M
a X
latter, is
^j
from which
Therefore, as above,
vapour
T^
JJ
=m
m+
Tr,
y X
we
find
the weight of the
M m
m m + ^ X;
.,
(J
This vapour has at the temperature t, at the moment of sealing, the
volume F, which the balloon has at that temperature
VAPOUEDENSITY (dUMAS),
53
^=1^(1 + 3/3(^0}.
From which we find the density
water (formula 4, p. 11)
The vapourdensity
is
d,
of the vapour, compared with
compared with
air of the
density
>.
for
h,
t,
therefore
for which, as before, the formula given at first
III.
It frequently
may
be put.
happens that the atmospheric
air is
not
completely expelled by the boiling of the substance in the
balloon,
which
known by
is
when
the balloon not becoming com
is broken under water.
If we
do not intend to take account of this, the globe must be
filled up with the wash bottle before the weighing, and the
pletely full
the point
The
calculation proceeded with after the preceding formulae.
error will be greater
differs
from
the more the density of the vapour
Otherwise the balloon must, after breaking
1.
be immersed so far that the inner and outer
surfaces stand at the same height (the bubble was sealed in
under the atmospheric pressure), and weighed filled to that
extent.
Then the rest is filled with water, and the weight
off the point,
M determined.
(9.)
"We will put
The weight
of the balloon partially filled with water
Then the vapourdensity
= if'.
is
(m'm)$+M'm'
"
(^_
^^)
^
^
&
0003665^'
b'
1+
0003665^
r
_
!^
_
/'
j^^,^
V
practical rules for the
Compare E. Kohlrausch's
more
exact determination of specific gravity.
Proof.
weights
The
volume of the included airbubble, from the
, ,.
,
at the time of filnng,
.
and M',
is,
M3I'
q _ y
.,
',
it
was
54
VAPOUEDENSITY (dUMAS).
therefore at the time of sealing
MM'
^^_
Qk
The expression
for
mixture
volume
we
call
of the
'
+
+
0003665
d calculated above
v of air,
is
therefore the density of a
oi the vapour; and if
V v
and
the density of the pure vapour
Vd^v +
0003665T7''
d^^
{Vv)d^,
from which
,
_Vdv d~
V
V
Here
if
v_
for
(7
we
MM
V Mm
in
substitute the value found
1
0003665.
by 11, and
_oo(,
^^
10003665.^'^^
for
.n.
^'^'
which the two last factors may usually be neglected.
After some transformations, with the aid of the approximation
formulse
(p.
Example.
11) the formula given
AVe will calculate an example by the formulse given
show the magnitudes of the errors to which they
one in which the errors hold about an
above, in order to
lead,
and we
average
first easily follows.
will take
ratio.
Let the data given by observation be (the weights being expressed in grammes)
m = 684522
m'
= 6 8 7 8 6 3
(air)
M= 29391
(full of
(vapour)
M'= 291*73
(partly full of water).
water)
Let the height of the barometer and temperature be
h
b'
= 7456 mm.
= 7422 mm.
t
t'
=
=
1055 (at the time of sealing);
187 (at the time of weighing of the vapour).
Let the tension of the atmospheric vapour at the latter operation
be g = 94 mm. (28).
The temperature of the water weighed = 174, to which corresponds (Table 4) 6 = 099877.
We
find (18)
?v'
= 00011818
X'=:
The
(neglecting
00011762 (regarding
e)
f).
correct vapourdensity calculated by HI, taking account
2918.
IL gives 2894; L 2904.
Neglecting e we
obtain 2925, 2901, and 2911.
of
e, is
r;
55
VAPOUEDENSITY (GAY LUSSAC).
From
we
example the third decimal is in
on account of neglect of the humidity
by  24 on account of the air remaining in the globe (here 2 "2 c.c.
in a total of 225 c.c.) ; by + 10 from neglecting the expansion of
the water and of the balloon, and the loss of weight of the former
when weighed in air.
The expression 1 + 003065^, which occurs frequently, is
this
see that in our
error to the extent of
found in Table 7. If this be not used, we
^1 + 0003665^'
,
may
2728
use
++
li'Ati
i!'
msteadof^_^^.^^3gg^^.
%
By
B.
measu7'ement of the volume of vapour from a weighed
quantity of fluid {Gay Lussac, Sofmann).
A small quantity of
is to
be determined
is
the fluid of which the vapourdensity
introduced into a thin small bulb of
a very small (perhaps 1 c.c.) flask with a
The bulb and its contents are
ground stopper, and weighed.
then placed in a glass tube full of mercury, dry and free from
glass, or, still better,
and inverted in a vessel of mercury. The tube is divided
from the closed end, or into mm. simply,
which can be calculated into volume after (p. 39). If the
upper end of the tube be now warmed, the bulb bursts,
or the stopper is forced out by the pressure of the vapour
If
of the liquid, which becomes vapour above the mercury.
air,
into cubic centimetres
the fluid be very volatile, the bulb (or stopper) bursts as
it rises, in which case the tube must be held sloping, so as
to be completely full of mercury, to avoid breakage.
or vapour bath
{e.g.
The
now
heated in a suitable fluid
anilin vapour = 182 C.) to a temperature
upper part of the tube
is
at least 10 above that at which the whole of the liquid
is
evaporated.
If
now we
call
m, the weight of the evaporated substance (in grms.)
V, the volume of the vapour (in c.c.)
t, the temperature of the vapour ;
h, the height of the barometer in the room
h, the height of the mercury over which the vapour is above that
;
in the bath
AIR EXPELLED BY EVAPORATION OF
56
the tension of the vapour of mercury for the temperature
(Table 15)
the desired vapourdensity (see beginning of article) is
e,
d=
0003665
in
760
bh
0001293
or a
which X can be taken from Table 6 for temperature
t,
and
b~he.
height of barometer
From
the volume of air expelled hy evaporation of a
weighed quantity of substance (Victor Meyer, Ber. d,
C.
Chem.
Ges., xi.
2253).
glass bulb with fusedon tube, as
shown
in the cut, is
heated in a vapourbath of water, anilin (182), or other
^m
similar
lead,
liquid,
etc.,
to
or
in
fused paraffin (to 350),
the required temperature, which
must be over the boilingpoint of the substance
of which the vapourdensity is to be determined.
When
the temperature of the apparatus
stant
that
is,
when
is
con
airbubbles no longer escape
from the small lateral gas tube (1 mm. dia.),
which is immersed in water,
the cork C is
raised, and the weighed quantity of substance
(in a wire basket or tiny flask) is thrown quickly
into the bulb, which has a little asbestos at the
bottom, and the opening is immediately closed.
The gas tube is then pushed under a graduated
cylinder filled with water, which receives the
air expelled
When
by the evaporation
of the substance.
the temperature of the bath
is
consider
ably over the boiling point of the substance, the
process
\j
^'S* ^
is
very quickly completed.
(Long con
tinued expulsion of air indicates decomposition
of the substance.)
from the measuring cylinder.
The volume
Calling
of air
is
now
read
A WEIGHED QUANTITY OF SUBSTANCE.
substance employed in grms.
measured volume of air in cb. cm. ;
temperature of the room ;
pressure on the air to be measured in
at 0j
m, the
V, the
t, the
5", the
the required vapourdensity
,
=5
^^
The vapour
mm. mercury
is
1+0004^ ^a^^r.^ m
760
= ^^'^O" S,('
0^001293
expels a volume of
ditions, possesses the
57
same volume
air,
+ 00)
which, under similar con
as the vapour.
Consequently
divided by the weight of this
volume of air gives the required vapourdensity. The measured
0001293. ZT
,. ,
,
air, however, weighs v
"^
^^ "^^ ^^'^^^ *^
0.Q04A
the weight of the substance
x 760
above expression.
The factor 0'004 is taken instead of the coefficient of expansion 0*003665 to allow for the moisture of the
'
_^
This at ordinary temperatures corresponds approximately to
air.
the assumption that the air in the bulb
while that in the tube over the water
The pressure
is
is
is twothirds saturated,
completely so.
naturally that of the barometer
h,
diminished by the pressure h of the water column below
the measured
air,
calculated in millimetres of mercury.
Therefore
136
If,
before reading off the volume, the measuring tube be
plunged into the water, so that the inner and outer water
surfaces are at the same level,
equals simply the baro
metric pressure
l.
For more accurate measurement and calculation, the
volume v' of the substance thrown into the bulb must be
considered.
If we further suppose that the bulb be filled
with dry air, then
1+0003665^
where
e is
587800
v'
+ 1^0003665^,
He
the tension of aqueous vapour for the temperature
DETERMINATION OF THE DENSITY OF A GAS.
58
(Table 13), and
t'
the temperature of the bath, which need
only be approximately known.
Determination of the Density of a Gas.
19 a.
A.
By
Weighing.
In order to determine the density of a permanent gas,
a glass globe
melted on,
is
with a tube, best with a stopcock in it,
jfilled with the gas by first filling the globe
it a mercurytrough, and disby the ascending gas. The globe is
Then the gas is displaced by a
and weighed (w').
with mercury, inverting in
placing the mercury
closed
sufficient current of air (air of the balanceroom,
and the globe weighed open
filled
not dried),
Lastly, weighing the globe
[m).
with water gives the weight M.
As
above, let h and
represent the height of the barometer and the temperature
at the instant of shutting in the gas,
where the height of the
remaining column of mercury has already been subtracted.
t'
and
formula
A
gas
are the data for the weighing of the globe full of
h'
The density
gas.
is
of the gas
is
then calculated according to
pp. 51, 52.
small quantity of mercury left in
I.
or
II.,
without influence
if
it
is
left
when
filling v/itli
unaltered in
all
the
weighings.
By
B.
The
Ohservation of the time of escape of a gas {Bunsen).
densities of gases are very approximately, as the
inverse squares of the times in which equal volumes under
equal pressures escape through a narrow opening in a thin
plate.
If,
of gas be
therefore, the time of escape of a
compared with that
of
measured volume
an equal volume of
air,
the relation of the squares of the times gives the required
density.
Bunsen employs a glass cylinder with a tap, on the top
which is fused a x^iece of thin metal (platinum) foil,
pierced with a very fine smooth hole.
This is filled over
pure mercury with dry air or with the gas, deeply plunged
of
ATMOSPHERIC PEESSUEE.
59
and the tap opened.
Since the opacity of
the mercury prevents the direct reading of the gas volumes,
this is observed by a float which is placed in the mercury in
in the mercury,
the cylinder, and which has several distinct marks.
times are observed
when
(Compare Bunsen, Gasometr. Methoden,
the outer mercury.
S.
The
these appear above the surface of
188.)
Deteemination of the Atmospheeig Peessuee
(Height of the Baeometer).
20.
The readings of the barometer require corrections of some
The correction, especially depending on the
expansion of mercury with the temperature, usually amounts
importance.
to several millimetres.
The height of the barometer is given by the height
column of mercury at 0, which is held in equilihrio
by gravity and the pressure of the air.
Mercury expands
O'OOOISI of its volume for each degree of temperature.
(1.)
of a
Therefore,
if I
be the height of the barometer as read
the temperature
t,
value
its
&
h,
reduced to
= /0000181.Z./.
It is frequently sufficient to use for
member
mean
tracting 0"135 .t
(2.)
On
off at
No. 2)
0, is (4,
value,
in tlie correction
and perform the correction by sub
mm.
account of the expansion of the
scale,
the length
of this also must, in accurate measurements, be reduced to its
normal temperature
/3
t^,
by the addition
of /3 (t
f^)
I,
where
denotes the coefficient of expansion (lineal) of the material
of the scale
(0000019
as is usually the
case,
for brass,
O'OOOOOS
for glass).
the normal temperature be
0,
If,
the
height of the barometer completely corrected for temperature
becomes
5 / (0000181
The
correction
amounts
/3)
It.
therefore,
for a brass scale to
for a glass scale to
 00001 G2 J.t;
 0000173 I t
.
MEASUREMENT OF HEIGHTS
60
values of which for various temperatures
may
be found in
Table 11.
(3.)
In order to correct a cistern barometer for capillary
we must add to the observed height the value 8,
depression,
taken from Table 1 6 for the interior radius r of the tube.
The comparison with a normal barometer, of course,
requires these corrections in its result.
(4.)
vapour
At high temperatures
occasions
a slight
the tension of the mercury
which
depression,
is
accurately enough (Table 15) by adding 0002^
corrected
mm.
to the
observed height.
(5.)
By
the foregoing corrections the true height of the
obtained.
For many purposes, however, the
knowledge of the pressure of the air is desired, and in this
case it must be remembered that the pressure of the air is
proportional to the height of the barometer, only under the
barometer
is
As
condition that the force of gravity remains constant.
the normal force that,
g^, is
usually taken, which
is
found at
the level of the sea in the geographical latitude 45.
call the force of gravity in latitude
above the sea level
^=
We
must
barometer
becomes of
g,
cos
21.
we
If
at the height
2p  00000002
multiply the observed
by this expression,
any importance only
at
IT.
height of the
which the
of
in order to obtain the pressure
same
and
we have
 00026
therefore
tp,
last
member
very considerable heights,
which corresponds to the
45 at the sealevel.
elasticity of the air in latitude
Hypsometry
Measurement of Heights by the
Barometer.
If the height of the barometer be observed at the
time at two different stations, or
if
the
mean height
same
of the
barometer at each be known, the difference in height of
the stations
denote by
may
be obtained by the following
rules.
We
; ;
BY THE BAROMETER.
h^
and
61
the two barometer readings reduced to 0, and,
necessary, corrected for capillary depression
if
and
the tension of the mercury vapour (previous article);
as well as for any difference of scale in the two
instruments
the temperature of the air at the two
^0 and
h the required difference of height in metres
stations
t^
and
^
for convenience calling, further,
= the mean
places,
of the temperatures of the air at the
therefore
It is usually
I.
= 18420
=^
('^o
two
^i)
reckoned that
met.
{log.
b^iog. bj (1
00039
t),
from which, for differences of height not exceeding 1000
metres, we may obtain the convenient approximation
h
= 16000
met.
t
^i
(1
If the variation of gravity
II.
+ 00039
t).
on the earth's surface be
taken into consideration, we assume further,
(p
the latitude,
H the
mean
height of the two places above the sea
For this it is enough to use a
rough approximation, within 500 metres.
level in
metres.
Then
h
= 18420
met.
(log.
b^log.
COS. 2<p
b^) (1
+ 00039 t).(l + 00026
00000002Zr).
In the above formula a mean amount of moisture
if, at the same time as the barometer is read, an observation be made with the hygrometer
or psychrometer (28) at each station, we may take
III.
in the air is assumed, but
Cq
and
and
e^,
the tension of aqueous vapour at the two stations
for shortness
MEASUKEMENT OF HEIGHTS BY THE BAKOMETEE.
62
and
from the formula
calculate the difference of heiglit
A= 18405
met.
2p
COS.
The logarithms
(1 + 00039 t)
00000002if + f h).
h^log. h^
{log.
in this formula are the
(\
+00026
common
Briggs's
logarithms.
Eor convenience of carrying, the height of the barometer
measurement of heights is frequently deduced from the
Tables 10 and 11 give the correboilingpoint of water.
sponding boilingpoints and pressures.
Since 1 mm. of presin
sure
corresponds to ^g
of a
sensitive, accurately verified
greatest care,
degree,
must be employed
mination (22)
we wish
if
it
follows that very
thermometers, as well as the
in the temperature deterat a tolerably accurate
to arrive
result.
Proof of
air (18
the hypsometric
formula.
The density of atmospheric
height H, with the height of
<p, the
and 20) in latitude
barometer h, the temperature t, and the tension e of the aqueous
vapour; calling, for shortness, 00026 cos 2<p = 8, 00000002 = ,
and 0003665 = a, is
.
00012928
bp
l+af
760
,,
^
rrx
^
Now
the density of mercury at 0 is 13596 ; it follows, if the indH diminish the height of the barometer b by dh
dH and db are the heights of the columns of air and mercury
crease of height
(i.e.
respectively
which are in
equilibrio)
= 00012928
cib
13596.760
Here, besides
to an
b,
unknown
,,
(b
^
^^SeH.rr
^e)
dH.
^
l+at
'
we have
law.
e and t varying with H, but according
Hence we take for t the constant mean
and put c in a constant ratio to the height of the baroIf, then, we calculate out the numerical factor,
meter, e = kb.
and consider the small quantities ^, S, and e//, according to p.
10, as corrections, Ave may write
value,
7993000
(1
+ at) (1+8 +
'^ = (l^H) dH.
p dh
Integrating between the limits b^ and
and Hq and H^ on the right, we have
5^
on the lefthand
side,
FEEEZING AND BOILING POINTS OF A THERMOMETEK.
7993000
(1
at)
{1+8 + k)
h^
{log.
the logarithms being natural logarithms.
Finally, putting natural log. 6 = 23026
iS
U.+H
2
as a correction,
E^H^^h=
184:05000
= fH"
log.
!>;)
{l.^Il),
iH,H)
G3
we
mm.
log... h,
and consider
obtain
{log.
h^log. k) (1
at)
{l+S + eE+k).
The approximation formulae for unknown humidity are got
by assuming the air half saturated, and neglecting the influence
of the aqueous vapour on the density and the coeflficient of
expansion.
From
the above the approximation formula for small
deduced as follows
altitudes is
18420 Briggs log.^ = l^nat.
We may
log.
^"
= 8000
7iaf. log.
further write
nat tog.
nat.
loa'
= nat.
nat
loa
tog.
^^
^ ( ^o
^^^
+ ^) + H^q^) ,
_
^ ^^^ _ ^^^^^
.a.%(l + 2^^^)
after formula 8, p. 11.
nat.
log,
We
know, however, that when x
{l+x) = Xf from whence
the
is
small,
formula immediately
follows.
22.
Freezing and Boiling Points of a Thermometer.
In thermometers, as commonly bought, the two fixed
To determine
plunged into melting
snow or clean broken ice. The point to which the column
of mercury reaches corresponds to the temperature 0.
The column of mercury should be almost entirely
points are often very erroneously marked.
the freezingpoint, the thermometer
covered by the
ice.
is
way must be provided
for the water,
64
FREEZING AND BOILING POINTS OF A THEEMOMETER.
produced by the melting ice, to escape into a vessel placed
Vessels with walls of some badconducting substance, e.g. wood, are to be preferred.
The wooden sheaths
below.
sold for holding scythewhetstones are very suitable for this
The warmer the surrounding air, the more caremust these precautions be observed.
For the determination of the boilingpoint i.e. the
division which corresponds to 100
the thermometer is
placed in the steam of water which is boiling vigorously in
a vessel either of metal, or of glass with some pieces of
metal in it.
The temperature of the steam is found from
the pressure under which the water boils
i.e.
from the
purpose.
fully
height of the barometer reduced to 0 (20)
Table 10.
Without
by
tables, the boilingpoint
mined to within yl^ of a degree
715 and 770 mm. by the formula
for
may
the aid of
be deter
any pressure between
;=100 + 00375 (6760).
The bulb
thermometer must not dip into the
must be about 1 cm. above the
surface.
Here also the whole column of mercury
should be exposed to the steam.
The opening for
of the
boiling water, but
the escape of the steam must be so wide that there
no additional pressure in the vessel.
The flame
should be kept at some distance from the parts of
is
the vessel which are not in contact with water.
vessel of double form
is
convenient, in which the
steam, after surrounding the thermometer, enters at
the top another chamber, and from this escapes at
the bottom into the air.
In such a vessel the bulb
may be farther from the surface of the water than
the distance given above.
Distilled water is unnecessary.
In determining both the freezing and boiling
must not be taken till the
observer is convinced that the column of mercury has taken
up a permanent position.
In exact determinations the
Fie. 2.
points, the reading
reading off
is
performed with a telescope.
The thermometer
CALIBEATION OF A THEEMOMETEE.
is
65
adjusted in a vertical position by means of a window
frame or something similar, and the telescope is placed at
the height of the division to be read.
A simpler means to
avoid parallax is to attach a small slip of lookingglass to
the thermometer by two indiarubber rings and hold the
eye so that its image corresponds with the top of the
column.
The reduced height of the barometer was 742
The mercury in the thermometer stood in the steam at
988.
The boilingpoint is found from Table 10 to be 9933
(from the formula given above, 100 00375.18 = 9933).
It
follows that 100 is denoted by the division 988 + 067 =
Example.
mm.
9947.
Calibeatiox of a Theemometee.
23.
From
the irregular section of the tube there arise in
ordinary thermometers errors which, at high temperatures,
We
sometimes amount to more than 10 degrees.
prepare, for a thermometer in
division
and a
are to
which only a correct
scale nearly corresponding to the true
peratures are assumed, a table of corrections,
linear
tem
by which the
readings can be reduced to those of a normal thermometer
i.e.
of one of which the
and 100 correspond
ing and boiling points (see previous
all
article),
to
the freez
and of which
the scaledivisions have equal volumes.
In addition to the determinations of the foregoing article,
therefore undertake the calibration of the thermometer tube
that is to say, compare the volumes which
we must
correspond to the divisions of the scale at diflerent places.
For
this
rest, is
purpose a thread of mercury, separated from the
made use
of.
Separation of a Thread of Mercury of any desired length.
The thermometer is turned upside down, and a slight tap
given against the end.
Then
either a thread will separate,
whole of the mercury will flow down, separating from
the walls of the bulb at some point.
The separation is
or the
usually determined by a microscopical airbubble adhering
F
66
CALIBKATION OF
to tlie glass, whicli
expands to a larger size.
If the mercury
we try, by suddenly turning the ther
separates in the bulb,
mometer
upright, to
make
the opening of the stem
the bubble formed there rise to
this
can always be done, with
The mercury, then, divides
patience.
at the
opening of the
tube.
Suppose the thread to be too long, say 'p degrees longer
The bulb is warmed while the thread is
separated the air is pushed forward by the rising mercury.
than was desired.
;
is made to run back to the rest of the merand the position of its upper end is observed at the instant of meeting.
The little bubble of air remains adhering
to the glass at the point of the stem where the junction took
place.
The thermometer is now cooled ^ degrees, and again
reversed and shaken, when a thread of the desired length is
Then the thread
cury,
separated.
on the other hand, the thread be p degrees too short,
rest, the thermometer warmed p degrees,
when the desired length will break off.
Even if this manipulation should not succeed at first, it
always will, on repetition, be possible to get a thread accuIf,
it is
united to the
rately of
any length
to the fraction of a degree.
short threads, however, the process often fails
For very
so that, in
such a case we must make use, as shown below, of combined observations with threads of different lengths.
Placing and Beading the Thread.
By gentle inclining
and shaking, one end of the thread can be adjusted to any
desired division with great accuracy.
In accurate observations, especially
it
nearly on
with the telescope,
the
division,
it is
sufficient to place
and estimate the tenths
of a
degree at both ends of the thread.
Since the thread of mercury and the graduation are not
in the same plane, we must avoid parallax when reading off.
It is simplest to lay the
thermometer upon a piece of lookand place the eye so that its image coincides with
the division to be read
or a lens is fixed steadily, and the
thermometer is pushed along parallel to itself under it.
ingglass,
A THERMOMETER.
The
accuracy
greatest
secured
is
67
by reading with the
telescope.
and
Ohservation
many
executed in
The calibration may be
In every case it is advisable to
Calculation.
ways.
completely arrange beforehand the plan of the reduction,
because otherwise one might afterwards be led into compli
The
cated calculations.
by making the
freezing
calculation will always be simplified
and boiling points the extremities of
compared volumes. Observations, according to the following
plan, are mostly sufficient, instead of methods more exact,
but tedious, and requiring long calculations (see Bessel,
Pofjg. Ann., vol. vi. p. 287); and the more so because completely corrected mercurial thermometers may differ not
inconsiderably on account of the sort of glass of which they
are
made
(see 24, end).
Let a be the interval by which we wish to calibrate,
and
a divide 100 without remainder, then a =
let
n
where n
a whole number.
"We separate a thread of about
this length a
this we place successively at the marks of
In
the graduation from near
to a, a to 2a, and so on.
each position let the thread occupy the following number of
is
divisions
+ 8^
+ 8^
Let
from the mark
8,^
have
it
to
a,
,,
a to 2a,
(w l)atolOO.
been
further
determined
(see
previous
article)
that the temperature 0 corresponds to p^
100
100
The
quantities B^ B^
fore small
tions,
as well as
j^^
and
then,
we
either positive or negative.
use the abbreviation
+^^
^_ PoP. + ^ + ^+''
^
pi, are
numbers, expressed in scaledivisions and
and may be
If,
hi;,.
therefrac
CALIBRATION OF
68
the correctiontable of the thermometer
is
Correction.
Division.
Po
ap\
2ap88^
2a
map^ 8^ 8^
ma
Or
(m
again, the correction for
1)
ma
being A,^,
if
that for
a be ^^i
A =
Aj_i
+ a
S,ft
The values under the heading " Correction " are therefore those numbers which must be added to, or, when negasubtracted from the corresponding reading, in order to
tive,
obtain the corresponding reading of an accurate mercurial
thermometer.
For the intermediate degrees, a table
interpolated in
is
the usual manner.
The thread of mercury used for the observations, laid
Proof.
end to end n times, takes up the volume of the tube from division
4 S,^.
But since 0 is at
to 100, increased by S^ + S^ +
division 7; and 100 at 100 + p^, the increase of the volume of
to division 100 answers to an increase
mercury from division
of temperature of 100 +pPp so that the increase of the volume
equal to the length of the thread means an increase of tem.
perature
'
3
'
'
'
=za
a (see above).
Therefore a rise of the mercury
from
and
to a corresponds to an increase of temperature
a to 2a
2
finally,
a+ad^^
a+ad^,
A THEEMOMETER.
from division
69
Temperature
increase.
to a
to 2a
2a
ma
to
+ 2aVS
ma +
7na
8^
S,,
The expressions to the right of the stroke would be the thermometer corrections, if the division
also meant the temperature
0.
Since the temperature
p^
corresponds to
this,
must be subtracted from each of them.
Example.
mercury
is
A thermometer graduated
of about 50 long
from
to the boilingpoint of
to be calibrated at intervals of 50,
for ordinary purposes.
Here, therefore, n
p^
which
=
50
is
2.
enough
thread
was separated, and occupied the spaces
00 to
500
1001
1498
2004
509
1004
1503
1998
2500
8^= +09
K=
+04
8;= 402
8^= 00
85= 04,
etc.
In addition, the temperature 0 was found to be at the division
+ 06, and 100 at 997 ; therefore
p,= + 0Q,2\=03.
Therefore
^^ PuPi + 8^ +
The
table of corrections
8.2
is
^ +06 +
03
The correspondence
09
04
therefore
Division.
50
100
150
200
250
Correction.
06
110609
= 06
= 04
22060904
= +03
3306090402 +12
= + 23
+ 12 + 1100
+ 23 + 11 +
04
= +38,
etc
of the calculated correction for 100 with the
determination of the boilingpoint furnishes a partial proof of
the accuracy of the calculation.
From the last column the correction of any intermediate
CALIBRATION OF
70
For
is interpolated according to the ordinary rules.
example, to the reading 1673, the temperature 167'3 + 16 =
16 8 "9 would correspond.
division
Calibration hy several Tlireads.
We
do not always succeed
in separating a thread as short as the interval a
we wish
to
We
calibrate.
must then use
by which
several threads,
By one
the lengths of which are different multiples of a.
thread about ka in length we can compare the capacity of the
and a with that between
tube between the scaledivisions
ha and {k
1) a, and so on, by bringing the thread first be
and ka, and then between a and (Z;  1) a; for the
tween
volume which is left empty by moving the thread is equal to
the space
that which is freshly occupied at the other end
For example,
included in both cases being of no influence.
to 20
a thread of say 40 long can be used to compare
;
with 40 to 60.
But in order
ment,
it
is
to reduce all parts to a
common measuremade with
obvious that observations must be
several threads.
Two
threads of the lengths of 2a and
respectively are always sufficient, for with the
first
3a
we can
to a, 2a to 3, 4a to 5a, etc., to a common measure
and then the parts not yet compared may be reduced to the
same measure by the use of the thread 3 a, by, for example,
comparing a to 2a with 4a to 5a, etc.
It is scarcely possible to give here any general plan of
proceeding, only some rules which should be observed for the
Superfluous comparisons
sake of convenience and accuracy.
mostly lead to minute calculations of equations, which often
can only be fully carried out with the aid of the method of
least squares. They should therefore be avoided, and the same
scheme, only making as many comparisons as are necessary,
reduce
should be repeated in several sets of observations.
it is
Further,
not conducive to accuracy and convenience that single
comparisons with the same measure should include
intermediate parts.
number
of these
It is better, therefore, to
by another auxiliary
thread.
many
diminish the
The plan
of
the reduction, therefore, must be accurately determined in
each single case before the observations are made.
A THERMOMETEE.
In
order,
may
now, that we
plan set forth in
p.
67
7l
be able to
make
use of the
for the calculation of the table of
corrections, it is simplest to deduce from the readings the size
which a thread of the length a would assume at the different
This is provided for in the observations by reducing
places.
all the volumes to be compared in as short a way as possible
to some one interval, e.g. the middle one of all.
An example
will
make
this sufficiently clear.
Example.
A thermometer
is to be calibrated for every 20
100 by means of two threads of 40 and 60
long.
We take the middle part, that from 40 to GO, as the unit
volume with which we are to compare the other four. The observations, therefore, are reduced to those numbers which a thread of
mercury F, which exactly fills the space from division 40 to 60,
would have afforded.
According to the above given notation,
degrees from
therefore
(p.
to
67),
^3=0.
the column of about 40 in two positions occupy the
+ 03 to 400 and 207 to 600. The column
would therefore have extended from + 0'3 to 20"7 ; therefore,
Now,
let
spaces from
a,
= +
04.
In just the same way we reduce the space from 80 to 100 to
by observations between 40 and 80, and 60 and 100. Suppose
has been found
Now, we take a column 60 long, place
20 and 80. By this we get 60 to 80
between
in terms of
been compared
since the latter space has already
to F.
it
i^
it
and 60 and
to 20, and,
Avith
40
to 60,
Let the included spaces be
to 602,
therefore
to
and 20 to 796;
20 = 60*2 to 796.
But the column i^ is longer than
have extended from 60 '2 to 80
to
20 by 04 ;
it
would therefore
therefore 8^=
0'2.
Finally, in the same manner let observations between 20 and 80
and between 40 and 100 have given
=+03.
CALIBRATION OF A THERMOMETER.
72
It has also
been determined that 0
is
at
0"1,
and 100"
at lOO'S
therefore
^,^
= +01
^^
= +08.
and 100
The number of spaces compared between
From this we calculate (p. 67)
a
01
08 +
04
03
00
02 07
And
the table of corrections
is
is
n=
5.
^,
U'lo.
obtained by using the formula,
Correction.
Division.
01
01001804=068
06801803= 116
20
40
60
80
100
The
last
number
is
M6018+00=
134
r34018 + 02= 132
l32018 + 07=080.
a proof of the correctness of the calculation.
Comparison of hvo Thermometers.
A table of corrections
thermometer may also be deduced by comparison at
for a
different temperatures with a standard thermometer.
The
two instruments are placed in a vessel, not too small, filled
with fluid, and protected as much as possible from conduction
and from radiating heat to the thermometers.
It is advantageous to surround the vessel with felt.
The bulbs of the
two thermometers should be close to each other in the liquid,
which should be set in motion by stirring before each reading.
At high temperatures
so
the comparison
may
easily be
upon this 27, A.)
Many normal thermometers are calibrated before dividing,
that each part of the scale corresponds to the same volume.
inexact.
(See
Otherwise the graduation
0 be at ^Q
and 100
at
is
j9j^,
arbitrary.
the reading
If the temperature
denotes the tem
perature
100
Thermometers are employed
for high
temperatures in
73
AIK THEEMOMETER.
which the space above the mercury is filled with nitrogen.
In this case no thread can be separated, and the tube can
only be calibrated before
24.
The
filling.
AiE Thermometer.
scientific definition
of temperature rests
assumption that a perfect gas
{e.g.
dry
stant pressure, proportionally to the
The expansion amounts
volume at 0 or, what
;
for
is
upon the
air)
expands, at con
rise
of
temperature.
each degree to 0*003665 of the
identically the same, the pressure
of a quantity of air kept at a constant volume increases for
each degree of
rise of
temperature 0"003665 of
its
pressure
at 0.
The simplest air thermometer (the very convenient form
it by Jolly) depends upon the latter
law.
A glass globe of about 50 c.c. capacity
filled with dry air, is in communication, by
means of a capillary tube, with a vertical glass
H
tube I, in which the air is confined by mergiven to
cury.
By
the
surface of the
raising
or
mercury in
lowering of
II,
which
is
the
joined
to I by an indiarubber tube, the surface of the
mercury in I can be brought to a mark near
the opening of the capillary tube.
To graduate the instrument, the bulb is
surrounded with melting ice (see 22), the mer^^s ^
cury is adjusted, and the height of the barometer h^, and the height A^, of the mercury in II above that
^^
in I observed.
negative,
when
We
will
call
the surface in
h^
II
\
is
h^
= ir^, where
the lower.
h^ is
All the
must be reduced to 0 by (20).
now, any other temperature t which is to be measured
be communicated to the air in the bulb, the mercury adjusted
heights b and h
If,
mark, and the heights
h = H, we have
to the
b
\
=
0003C65
and h be observed,
HS^ir
calling
AIR THERMOMETEE.
74
3y3 denotes the coefficient of cubical expansion of the glass.
this is not known for the sort of glass used, we may
Up to temperatures of about 60
reckon 3yS = 0000025.
we may calculate it with sufficient accuracy by the more con
Where
venient formula
^
to the
^^0
.
assumed that the volume of the capillary tube
is adjusted may be com
It is here
up
= 275
mark to which the mercury
pletely neglected in comparison with that of the bulb.
If not,
we must add
the value of
to
t,
given above, the
correction
where
2;
H\+ 0003665
t'
= the volume of the bulb, v' that of the connections
and t' = the temperature of the room.
to the mark,
v'
The
ratio
is
.
found by weighing with mercury.
If
be the weight of the mercury in the bulb alone, and
weight when the apparatus is fiUed up to the mark
v'
P the
_P p
p
The quantity of air remains constant. If v be the
Proof.
capacity of the bulb at 0, d^ the density of the air for 0 and 760
mm., the quantity of air is given at the first observation, if we call
0003665 =
a,
by
V
d^Hj
at the second
by
d^r v{\^ m)
760
\+
By equating the expressions,
sides of the equation
by
\
dividing
_^n
at
at
we
at'\'
by ^, and multiplying botli
get
at!
AIR THEEMOMETEE.
or separating
L
From
75
o^_\
at'^
o'
this Ave get the first of the expressions given
1+ at J
above by put
v'
ting
hand
=
In order to obtain the correction, we write the
0.
left
side of the equation
v'
In the factor of the small magnitude
 we may
which occurs in the denominator, in comparison with aH^
finally
as
was
we
S^H,
neglect the
;
and
get
to be proved.
Comparison of Mercury and Air Thermometers.
Mercury
not expand proportionally to the temperature as
measured by an air thermometer.
Its volume at the temdoes
perature
may
vj
or
up
to
= v^
be expressed thus
(1
000017905^
an expression which
this,
00000000252f),
by
log. Vt
ing to
is
log.
?;
0000078^,
frequently very convenient.
the readings of the
common
Accord
mercurial thermo
meter, when they have been corrected after 22 and 23, are
between 0 and 100 lower; above 100, on the contrary,
higher than those of an air thermometer, although, on
account of the simultaneous expansion of the glass, they are
Up
less than would follow from the formula given above.
150 the deviation usually remains smaller than
up to 260 it may amount to 4 up to 350 to 10.
to
0"5
;
On
TEMPEEATUEE "WITH A THEEMOELEMENT.
76
the average the correction of a mercurial thermometer to an
air
thermometer
may
be taken as about
for reading
40
20
80
60
150
100
200
250
300
correction
00
02
If the
03
03
02
of the
difference
observed to be
perature
4
A we may
,
(Bosscha, Fogg.
00
two
 05 M 24 33
instruments at
50
is
reckon the difference B for tem
Ann.
2500
25.
Jut., 550), as
^(1000
Determination of Tempeeature with a
Theemoelement.
In experiments where the great mass or the circumferthermometer prevents its use, the
electromotive force, developed at the point of contact of
two metals (bismuth
antimony
iron
german silver
platinum
iron) by difference of temperature, may often be
made use of. Two wires of equal length (e.g. iron and
germansilver) are soldered together at one end, and at the
other to copper wires.
If the former soldering be placed at
the point of which the temperature is to be measured, and
the other two kept at a known temperature (say by ice at
0), an electromotive force results.
This is measured by
ence of a mercurial
connecting the ends of the copper wires with a galvanometer and observing the deflection.
For small differences of temperature (up to about 20)
the current strength may be taken as proportional to the
difference of temperature.
It is therefore only necessary to
measure the current strength for a known difference 07ice, in
order to deduce the temperature from any observation.
A
galvanometer, with but few coils of thick wire, reading by a
mirror, should be used.
COEFFICIENT OF EXPANSION.
For greater
multiplier
is
differences, or
structed empirically
known
certain
use
for
is
the ordinary thermo
used, in which the current strength cannot be
from the
calculated
when
77
deflections,
table
by observing the
From
temperatures.
interpolated
by
either
con
is
deflections for
this
table
calculation
li
or
graphically.
convenient form of the thermoelement is the
a and 5 are the iron and germansilver
following
wires (for use in mercury, iron and platinum), which
are passed through a
cork into a small glass tube
full of alcohol or petroleum, within which they are
soldered to the copper
through the other cork.
which are brought
In the alcohol a small thermometer
wires,
can be placed.
Deteemination of the Coefficient of Expansion
BY Heat.
26.
The
linear coefficient of expansion
(yS) is
the increase of
a rod of unitlength of the body for a rise of temperature of
1; the cubic (3/3) the increase of volume of unit volume
by a
is
rise of
temperature of
For liquids the expansion
1.
always reckoned by volume.
I.
By Measuring
If the length of a rod
/,
the Length.
and
if it
increase
expansion
A,
in length
for a rise of f, the
coefficient
the example in
The small expansions require
3).
of
yS
r,
(see also
delicate
and
a through which it is turned be measured,
\ = r sin a, where r = the distance of the point of contact
from the axis on which the arm turns, and where also it is
assumed that at one of the temperatures the lever arm is
means
the
of measuring them.
If a contact lever be used,
angle
perpendicular to the direction of the rod.
The angle is very conveniently measured by observing
COEFFICIENT OF EXPANSION.
78
We
a scale reflected in a mirror fixed to the lever.
assume
that at one of the observations the point at which a perpen
upon the
dicular from the mirror falls
scale
is
seen in the
telescope, and that the distance between the scale and the
mirror, expressed in scaledivisions as units,
image
motion of the
to
scaledivisions,
we may put
case
2 sin
X=
.
for the
a process of weighing.
fill
the bulb,
By
it.
is
small
should have in this
knowledge of
be obtained by
bulb with a drawnout point is
;
this can
with mercury at different temperatures.
it is first
This
If the
Wci(jliing.
warmed and
mercury, of which, as the bulb
into
we
when a
often a need arises of an accurate
filled
B.
(See also 3 and 49.)
the coefficient of expansion of glass
weighed,
Since
for tan 2 a,
II.
Very
a = 4 tan
change of temperature amount
is
To
the point plunged into
cools, a
quantity
repeated until the bulb
is
drawn up
is
completely
full
warmed
down to the
at last, boiling the mercury, plunging the point into
mercury and leaving it there till it has cooled
low temperature t^.
By weighing, the net weight ^^ of the
mercury is obtained.
Then it is warmed to the temperature ^1, which causes a certain quantity of mercury to
overflow, and the weight p^ of the remainder is determined.
Then the
coefficient
of expansion
(cubical)
is
calculated
thus
3/3
= 00001815
^ ^^p^
Po
PoihK)
Weighing with water also, or the determination of
gravity at two different temperatures, gives the
coefficient of expansion.
(Compare 13, Nos. 2 and 3 for
solid bodies, and 14).
Since the expansion of water at
specific
high temperatures far exceeds that of solid bodies, very
accurate measurements of temperature are required.
BOILINGPOINT OF A FLUID.
Expansion of Liquids.
III.
(1.)
stopper,
perature
ature
if
glass
when
t
vessel with
entirely
drawnout point or ground
contains at the ordinary tem
filled,
the weight of liquid
the weight
79
p\
2^
If 3/3
and
is
expansion of the glass (see above) the
of the liquid between
and
mean
cubic coefficient
is
t'
at the higher temper
the cubic coefficient of
P' {i't}'
If a glass weight be weighed in the liquid at
two
and p and p^ are the respective losses
of weight, the formula is the same as under 1.
(3.) A glass bulb and narrow divided tube (Hke a thermometer) is filled up to the tube and the position of the
liquid observed at the temperatures t and t\ If the observed
volumes are v and / the mean coefficient of expansion is
(2.)
different temperatures,
,v'
The bulb
is
v'
ft
calibrated with
a mercury thread,
which
is
313
mercury and the tube with
weighed.
It is still simpler to
examine a fluid of known coefficient in the apparatus, and
from this to calculate the constants.
27.
BOILINGPOINT OF A FLUID.
The
boilingpoint is the temperature of the steam which
from a fluid boiling under the pressure of 760 mm. of
mercury at 0. The direct readings of the thermometer
require two corrections.
(A.) A part of the column of mercury is usually out of
If the length of this be a degrees, t' the mean
the steam.
temperature of the exterior part of the mercury, and t the
thermometer reading, we must add to this last
rises
000016
a {tt').
HYGKOMETKY.
80
O'OOOIG
is tlie
between the
difference
expansion of mercury and
glass, or
coefficients of cubical
the apparent coefficient
of expansion of mercury in glass.
As the mean temperature t' of the exterior part of the mercury column is hard to determine, it is taken, in default of anything better, from the reading of a second thermometer, the bulb
of which is placed in contact with the stem of the thermometer
used in the determination, at about the middle of the exterior
part.
In long and massive thermometers, the air temperature
may be taken for t\ and say 0'00012 written for O'OOOIG.
(B.) The boilingpoint must be reduced to 760 mm.
from the actual height of the barometer h at the time of
observation.
It is indeed only very rarely that the rise of
the boilingpoint in proportion to the increase of pressure
is
known, which would be necessary to the accurate correction.
But since the boilingpoints of most fluids which have been
investigated vary according to nearly the same law in the
neighbourhood of 760 mm.
on an average, that is, this
temj)erature increases by 0'0375, or ^^ of a degree, for 1
mm.
increase of pressure
a];)proximately
by adding
00375
into
the correction
to the observed
.
may
be applied
temperature
(760&).
The thermometer must not dip into the liquid, but only
the steam.
To make the boiling regular, pieces of
platinum
28.
foil
are put into the liquid.
(See also 22.)
Determination of the Humidity of the
(Hygrometky).
Am
The magnitudes to be here determined are
(1.) The density of the vapour of water in the air
i.e.
the weight in grammes of the water contained in 1 c.c. of
air.
Since this number is very small, it is usual to multiply
it by 1000000, by which we obtain the weight of the water
in
cubic metre of
air,
expressed in grammes.
called in meteorology the absolute humidity of the
shall in the rest of this article call it
This
air.
is
We
HYGROMETllY.
(2.)
The
81
relative humidity, or the ratio of the
water actually existing in the
saturate it.
This quantity
air, to
amount of
the amount which would
is obtained from the absolute
humidity and the temperature of the air, for which latter the
maximum amount of vapour
is taken from Table 13, by
calculating
it
as
f
;^_
(3.) The tension c of the water vapour in the air, which
depends on the absolute humidity /, and the temperature t,
according to the formula
= 0943
+ 00036650
(1
"^^=^^^^
so that the determination of
the calculation
of
all
the
/,
1+0003665^ /
t,
and either
quantities,
{e
or/, suffices for
is
measured in
millimetres of mercury.)
For the vapourdensity of water is 0'623 ; therefore one cubic
centimetre of water vapour of the tension e, at the temperature t,
weighs, since it follows, at ordinary temperatures, Mariotte's and
Gay
Lussac's law (18),
0693
1
I.
1293
+ 0003665^
_^ ^^'
760
10606
^
1
0003665/'
Danielfs and RegnauUs Hygrometers.
struments the dewpoint
i.e.
the temperature
"With these in
t,
at
which the
In
with vapour
is determined directly.
Table 13 we then find for any value of r between 10 and
corresponding quantity of vapour / in a cubic
f 30, the
air is saturated
metre of
air,
by 1000000, and
vapour saturated at r; and this is,
or the density multiplied
also the tension e of the
without any further calculation, the actual tension in the
atmosphere.
The density needs a correction, because the air
in the
fore
neidrbourhood of the instrument is cooled, and thereThe contained water as taken from the
denser.
made
table for t
is
therefore too great,
and must, since the vapour
HYGROMETRY.
82
expands practiccally like a permanent
1+ 0003665. T 273 +T
^
r+0^003(r65T7
of the
In
273T7'
gas,
n
be multiplied by
^i
''S'''^'' ^^^
"^^'''^ '
temperature
air.
Daniell's, as in Eegnault's hygrometer, the temperature
of the polished surface
is
made
ether until a dimness from
tlie
by the evaporation of
to sink
deposited water
observed.
is
Then the evaporation of the ether is interrupted, the temperature rises, and the reading is taken at which the deposit
After some preliminary trials it is easy
begins to disappear.
to bring the temperatures of the appearance and disappearance of the dew within a small fraction of a degree of each
other.
The mean of the two is then the dewpoint r of the
To attain the greatest possible accuracy, Eegnault preair.
scribes such a regulation of the flow of
water from the as
pirator (and therefore of the stream of air through the ether)
dew sometimes appears and sometimes
The temperature as read off is then the dewpoint without any further trouble.
In using Daniell's hygrothat the deposit of
disappears.
meter care should be taken that the moisture arising from
the body, breath, etc., should be kept as far as possible from
the surface on which the dew is to be formed.
II.
By Augustes Fsycliroimtcr
Leslie's]
the humidity of the
rapidity
with which water
England usually
called
determined from the
evaporates in the air, which
measured by the cooling of a thermometer
rapidity, again, is
tlie
[in
air is
bulb of which
is
kept wet.
If then
= the temperature of the air (dry bulb reading)
= the wet bulb reading
e' = the maximum tension of water vapour at the temperature
t
from Table 13 ;
the height of the barometer in
t',
as taken
the actual tension of the vapour
mm.
is
obtained by the for
nnila
e
Or when
t'
is
= e' 000080
below freezingpoint
h
c
{tf).
= c'  0000G9
Z'
(;!
f).
HYGROMETKY.
When
83
has been found, the absolute humidity
tained in 1 cubic metre of air)
may
(water con
be found by the
for
mula on p. 81.
The above constants
are for observations in the open
moderate motion.
In still air a larger number must
be used that for a small closed room may be as much as
air in
O'O
Since general rules for the variation are not known,
1 2.
room to fulfil the conditions
0*00080 by moving the thermometer about.
On account of the many sources of error to which this
method of determining e is subject, it is quite sufficient to
it is
best in observations in a
of the constant
mean height of the barometer. If we take
&=750, c = e' 0*6 {t  1'), or, under freezingpoint, 0*52 {t 1'),
use for h a
the value of / may
/=/064 {tq,
be approximately found by the formula
taking from Table 13 the value of/'
If psychrometer determinations be
made, say in the course of determining a vapourdensity, in
a moderately large, closed balanceroom, the tension c will
be found with sufficient accuracy as c = c' 0"8 {tt').
corresponding
to
t'.
ExavijjJe.
It has been found that t= 19'50, f = 13*42, the
height of the barometer i = 739 mm.
find in Table 13 for t',
e'= 1144 mm.
From this we must take 000080 x 739 x 608
= 359 mm. ; therefore the tension of the water vapour e = 785
We
mm.
From
this the
temperature 195
''
r.
Kec;nault
'^^
found, according to
1060.785
^
+0003665 195
water contained in
is
cubic metre at the
g
cb.m.
accurate formula
=e
04805 {tt')
^
6
be
p. 81, to
r.
(or
below treez
ingpoint 689 instead of 610) gives practically the same results,
except at very high temperatures, as our expression Avhich is
deduced from it for mean temperatures {Pogg. Ann:\x\., Z5^).
III. The water contained in 1 cubic metre of air may
be obtained directly by drawing a measured quantity of air
through a tube filled with calcium chloride, concentrated
sulphuric acid, or anhydrous phosxdioric acid, by means of an
SPECIFIC HEAT.
84
and determining
aspirator,
tlie
increase of weight due to the
absorption of the water.
of a hygroscopic
IV. The form (flexure, length, torsion)
body depends on the moisture of the air.
The
scale
must
be graduated empirically.
Deteemination of Specific Heat.
MiXTUEE.
29.
The unit
Method by
of heat (calorie) is that quantity of heat
will heat the imit quantity of water (1 g. or 1 kg.) 1.
which
The
quantity of heat which will raise the like quantity of another
substance 1
called
is
its
heat capacity or specific heat
(Table 14).
Strictly
speaking, the specific heat
is
not a constant
quantity, since the amount of heat required for a rise of
temperature of 1 increases a little with the temperature.
of which the specific heat
deduced by Bosscha from Eegnault's
observations is c=l + 0"00022^.
Thus, to heat the unit
quantity of water from 16 to 20 requires not 4 units of
This
is
with water,
also the case
temperature
for
as
4 (1 + 000022 x 18) = 4016 a correction which
can seldom be neglected.^
Where nothing further is said
about it, the mean specific heat between 0 and 100 will
be taken as that of the substance.
heat, but
I.
The body
Solid Bodies.
weighed,
is
warmed
to a given temperature,
put into a weighed quantity of water, and the
perature which
it
loss of
of the water determined from the final temperature
to
tem
experiences and the rise of temperature
common
them both.
Then if
^
Later measurements vary
larger
corrections than
considerably.
that of Regnault.
Bossclia's formula gives far
Wiillner and Pfaundler find
000030 instead of 000022; and Janiin even 00011.
MiillerPfaundler, Physik,
Practical Calorimetry
is
ii.
given.
318,
For particulars see
where also very detailed information on
METHOD BY MIXTURE.
85
Tthe
temperature of the heated body ;
temperature of the water
r = the common final temperature ;
the weight of the body ;
m the weight of the water, increased by the equivalent of the
rest of the calorimeter (see below) ;
t
 the
initial
the specific heat
body
of the
p_ni
~"m'
For
{^
CM (Tr),
f) is
is
found by the formula
t
Tt'
the quantity of heat which the water receives
is given up by the body, and these quan
that which
tities are identical.
If, as is customary, we employ temperatures of 15 to 20,
account must be taken of the change of specific heat of water, by
multiplying the above expression by 1'004. (For other temperatures, see the following page.)
It must be noticed that the walls of the vessel and the
thermometer in the calorimeter participate in the warming.
The
vessel is
thin silver).
(Table 14),
made
y be
If
fi
of thin sheet metal
coppergilt or
(e.g.
the specific heat of the metal employed
the weight of the vessel, the quantity of heat
The
from ^ to t will be fiy (rt).
which raises the temperature 1, is called
the equivalent in water of the vessel.
The equivalent weight
For
of the thermometer must be determined by experiment.
this purpose it is heated, sa,y by plunging it into heated mercury, about 30, and then quickly transferred to a weighed
quantity of water, and the rise of temperature produced is obnecessary to heat
quantity of heat
it
fxy,
served with another delicate thermometer.
by the mass of the water, divided by the
This multiplied
loss of
temperature
of the heated thermometer, gives its equivalent weight.
The change of specific heat of the water
allowed for by multiplying the water used by
{t
(see above) is
1
O'OOOll
h t).
For m, therefore, in the formula given above, we must
put the sum of the equivalent weights, thus once for all
determined, of the solid parts of the calorimeter, added to
the net weight multiplied
water used for
filling
it.
by
000011
{t
\
t)
of the
SPECIFIC HEAT.
86
The unavoidable loss of heat from the calorimeter to
surrounding objects during the experiment is most easily got
rid of by making the initial temperature, as nearly as possible,
as
much below
the temperature of the
peratme t will be above
which may be exj)ected
periment
may
or, if
it.
is
The
room
it
tem
determined by a preliminary ex
the specific heat be approximately known,
may be
sufficient to fulfil
this
it
In order, besides,
be calculated with sufficient accuracy.
that
as the final
of the temperature
rise
condition approxi
mately, the change of temperature in the calorimeter must
not exceed a moderate quantity (10).
is
The time
also
which
required for the uniform distribution of heat betw^een the
.body and the water must be small, on which account the
body, especially if a bad conductor, must be in small pieces,
which may be threaded on a wire, or be held together by a
light basket of wire gauze, the equivalent of
in the calculations in a
manner
which
is
included
easily determined.
Further,
made
of polished
to reduce the radiation the vessel should be
metal, and should be placed
upon a badlyconducting support
For further
MlillerPfaundler, Physik, ii. p. 297, and Wiill.,
(three points of Avood or crossed silk threads).
details see
Eoiyp.
Physik,
iii.
396.
p.
The warming of the body is performed in a space heated
from the outside by boiling water or steam from boiling
water (in addition to the wellknown ap23aratus of Regnault,
see also that of Neumann, Pogg. Ann., vol. cxx. p. 3 5 0), and
must be continued until a thermometer placed in the enclosure is stationary.
During the observation at the calorimeter
the water must be kept well in motion with a little stirrer,
the equivalent of which can be determined in the same way
as that of the vessel.
is
known
taken of
If water cannot be used, another fluid
specific heat,
and the result, calculated
plied by this number.
pentine),
Example.
parts were
Table 14
as above,
{e.g.
oil
of tur
must be multi
Both
stirrer.
and Aveighed together, /a = 1 9 grms.
heat of brass is 7 = 0094 ; the equivalent therefore
(1.)
made
Equivalent of the vessel and
of brass
The specific
is /i7=19 X 0094=
18 g.
87
METHOD BY MIXTUEE.
The thermometer was
Equivalent of the thermometer.
to 45, and plunged into a small vessel containing 20 g.
The temperature then
of water of the temperature of 1625.
(2.)
warmed
The equivalent
rose to 17'10.
amounts
of the thermometer therefore
to
17101625
20
The equivalent
6 ^
g.
45171
of the solid parts of the calorimeter
is
therefore
24 g.
(3.)
The body weighed
The water weighed 74*0
g.
il/=483
g.
w= 740 +24 = 764
therefore
The temperature of the hot body
The initial temperature of the water
The final temperature
(The temperature of the room was 14.)
Hence we find the specific heat
C=(l+0O00n
X276).
II.
The
as
16741105
764
t^ 11'05
r=16"74
^^
, ,
^^^^j = 01129.
Liquids.
may be determined exactly
be enclosed in a vessel, heated in it,
specific heat of a liquid
above described,
it plunged into a watercalorimeter.
if it
and with
quantity of the fluid
it,
T= 9G7
is
and a weighed body
available the calorimeter
of
known
is filled
with
and
The body must be a good
specific heat is heated
as above described.
plunged into
it
conductor,
for instance, a wire basket
If a sufficient
with fragments of
glass or copper.
If
M,
T,
C be
the weight, temperature, and specific heat of the
heated body
= the
= the
m = the
tv = the
temperature of the fluid
temperature ;
weight of the fluid ;
initial
final
equivalent of the solid parts of the calorimeter
the specific heat of the fluid
is
88
SPECIFIC HEAT.
It
convenient to use as the heated body a glass globe
is
100 g. of mercury, and provided with a
narrow tube marked in two places corresponding with temperatures of about 80 and 25. This is heated in a mercurycontaining about
mercury in the
bath, or cautiously over a flame, until the
apparatus
and
is
above the higher mark.
at the
moment when
It is then allowed to
mark
is plunged
and when the
mercury reaches the lower mark the globe is removed a,nd
the temperature again observed (Andrews
Pfaundler).
Let m, w, t, T have the same signification as before and
if a parallel experiment performed with a quantity m' of
water gave the initial and final temperatures t' and r', we
have at once
cool,
The
into the liquid.
liquid
the
is
kept
is
reached
stirred,
^ m'
30.
[1
1
000011
{f
Specific Heat.
f
t')]
+w
r't'
Method by
_w
Cooling.
Here the times are compared in which heated bodies,
which cool under the same conditions, experience the same
fall of temperature.
The process only furnishes useful results
in the case of liquids or powdered solids of good conducting
power.
A
tive
small vessel of thin polished metal, in which a sensi
thermometer
Solid bodies
may
placed,
is
be tightly
pletely full the vessel
is
is
filled
with the substance.
jammed down.
closed with a
lid.
It is
When
com
then warmed
with the substance in
it, and introduced into a metal receiver,
which can be exhausted by an airpump, and the temperature
and the time are observed.
The receiver is kept at a constant temperature by surrounding it with a large quantity of
water or with melting
ice.
For quantities of liquids not too small the rate of cooling
may be observed.
Let there be, then, two sets of observations with the
vessel fiUed with two different substances.
We will call
in the air in a single closed metallic vessel
METHODS BY MELTING
M the quantities
89
ICE.
and
the equivalent in water of the vessel and thermometer
(p.
a and
c
used to
fill
the vessel
85);
6
the times during which the bodies cool from the
same initial to the same final temperature
and C the two specific heats
then
:=i[(jfa + .)^,].
For the times necessary to the same amount of cooling are
proportional to the quantities of heat given off i.e.
^
If,
therefore,
we know C
_ mc + w
e.g.
by using water
C= 1, we
can
from this find c.
If the temperature of the surrounding walls of the receiver be not the same at the two experiments, the temperature of the substances
must be taken
as the excess over
that of the receiver.
Some time must be allowed
body before commencing
to
make
to elapse after
to observe.
It will
warming the
always be best
a large set of observations by noticing the tempera
ture say every 3
seconds.
Then a curve
is
constructed from
these observations by putting the times as abscissae, the tem
perature as ordinates, and from the curves are taken the
times which correspond to equal initial and final temperatures (or excess of temperature over that of the surrounding
bodies).
a large
Thus we can, from one pair of observations, obtain
number of determinations, of which the mean is
afterwards taken.
Errors of observation have the least influence
excess of the
is
first
when
the
temperature over that of the surroundings
about three times that of the second.
31.
Specific Heat.
The body,
Methods by Melting
Ice.
of weight m, heated to the temperature f, is
0, and allowed to cool to 0 in it, by
placed in dry ice at
bunsen's icecalokimetek.
90
giving up
If,
by
cific
this
heat to the ice which surrounds it on all sides.
of ice be melted, the spemeans, the quantity
its
heat of the body
is
_ 71/794
The unitweight of ice at 0 requires 79 '4
become converted into water at 0.
The
units of heat to
access of heat to the icecalorimeter from the outside
avoided by surrounding
it on all sides with melting ice.
In order to determine the quantity of ice melted by
weighing, or taking the volume of the water (Lavoisier's and
Laplace's icecalorimeter), with anything approaching to
accuracy, we must, on account of the cohesion of the water
is
to the ice, use a large quantity of the body.
For approximate determination, we may employ a piece
smooth surface, with a hollow in which the heated
body is placed. During cooling, this is enclosed with a smooth
cover of ice. Afterwards the melted water is absorbed with
a cold bit of sponge and weighed in it (Black).
of ice with a
Bunscn's IccCalorimcter {Pogg. Ann., vol.
Mag., 1871.]).
In
of ice melted
is
which
is
experienced
the liquid state.
c.c,
cxli. p. 1
\^Phil.
form of instrument the quantity
determined by the diminution of volume
this
when water
If a
passes from the solid to
mixture of
whilst a body of the mass of
the specific heat of the body
and water contract
g. cools from f to 0,
ice
is
_v_
S754:
m'
'
of ice has, according to Bunsen, the volume 109082 c.c,
whilst 1 g. of water at 0 has the vohime 100012 c.c.
By
1 g.
melting
1 g. of ice, which requires 794 units of heat, there
occurs therefore the diminution of volume of 00907 c.c.
The
unit of heat therefore diminishes the volume
794
Bunsen's calorimeter consists of the parts a h
glass, sealed
together by the blowpipe
cemented on
and d are
filled
up
to
c.c.
875
c,
made
of
an iron piece
the dotted line with
;
is
91
bunsen's icecalorimeter.
this tliere is in l water freed from
which the ice is formed as a coating to a
by passing through a a stream of alcohol which has previously
been cooled in a freezing mixture, or by the repeated insertion of a narrow testtube 
Above
boiled mercury.
by
air
boiling, in
with freezing mixture.
When
ment
is
in use the instru
fixed
by d
in a holder,
surrounded with m elting snow,
and
calibrated
the
tube
pressed
scale
through
long cork fixed in d until the
mercury
stands
along
far
When
sufficiently
the
divisions.
the vessel a has been
up to a with w^ater
some other fluid which does
not dissolve the body to be
filled
or
experimented on, this latter
is
Fig. 5.
heated, and let fall into a,
which contains a
little
of
some
soft substance to
prevent
The mercury in
If the movement
s sinks, and finally becomes stationary.
of the mercury amount to p scale divisions, and if the
breakage, and a cork
is
value of 1 division be
<p,
We
then inserted.
v=p(p.
grammes, of a
by determining the weight,
(p
thread of a mercury which occupies 7i divisions. If t be the
temperature at the time when this measurement is made
get
/u,
_ /x
~
(1
+ 000018
t)
^'^'
1359671
The heatvalues of the scale may also be determined empirically by employing a body of known specific heat in
the calorimeter.
Slight impurities of the
calorimeter
is
surrounded
snow
or
the position of the thread of mercury.
must be observed, and taken
the experiment.
ice
with Avhich the
are sufficient gradually to
The
alter
rate of change
into account for the time of
92
HEATCONDUCTING POWEE.
32.
Comparison of the Conducting Power for Heat
OF
TWO EoDS
(Despretz).
We assume that the two rods have the same section,
and we give them a similar condition of surface by covering
them with some opaque varnish, or by polishing and electroplating with silver.
The two ends of the rod are brought
to different temperatures, say by surrounding one end with
boiling water and the other with melting ice.
An inferior
method is to leave one end exposed to the air, and heat the
other by a lamp which burns very regularly.
The middle
part of the rod, at which the following determinations of
temperature are made, is protected by screens from the
radiation of the source of heat.
The distribution of temperature, after a time, becomes constant.
When this state has been arrived at, the temperatures
of three points of the rod equally distant from each other,
I. II. III. are measured.
The excess of temperature over
that of the surrounding air may be called
t^, t^.
t^^,
Let us
call
The same course of proceeding is now gone through with the
other rod.
The excess of temperature at the three points
at the same distance from each other as before we call T^,
T^, Tg, and also
21\
Then the two
conductivities h and
The temperature
Proof.
When
is
K are in the ratio
determined by a thermoelement (25).
the thermal condition of the
has become
by conduction
Ijar
stationary, each unit of length of the rod receives
MODULUS OF ELASTICITY BY STEETCHING.
93
the same amount of heat as is given off by it to the surrounding
air.
Let t be the excess of temperature above the surroundings.
The quantity of heat given off in each unit of time is therefore
at,
Avhere a
carried
the same for both rods.
is
The quantity
of heat
dH
by conduction
is
kci. 
2' if
^ denote the distance from
the end surface, h the conducting power, and q the section, the
same
for
both rods.
If
we put
j
= a^,
a? is a quantity inversely
proportional to the conducting power under consideration, and
the differential equation for the stationary condition as to tem
perature will be
The complete
integral of this equation
is
C and C^ are two constants depending upon the heating
end surfaces. If we call t^,
t^ the temperatures of three
sections lying at the distance / from each other, we easily find,
by putting x^, x^ + 1, x^ + 21, in the above equations, after eliminating C and C\ the expression
where
of the
t.^,
ca^
I
a^
= J3 ^ 2n
(see above), or
h
n
We
have therefore for equal values of
expression
log.
(n
reciprocal
of
the
Wiedemann and
33.
\/n^ ~~
square
)>
/,
a proportional to the
or the conducting power k to the
of this
magnitude.
Compare
also
Franz, Pogg. Ann., Ixxxix. 497.
Deteemination of the Modulus of Elasticity of a
Wire or Eod by Stretching.
The upper end is fastened to the wall or to some solid
and the lower end loaded if necessary with a weight
support,
sufficient to
An
keep
it
stretched
additional weight
the increase of length
is
its
length
now put on
which
it
causes
is
then measured.
to the lower end,
is
measured.
and
Calling
MODULUS OF ELASTICITY BY STEETCHING.
94
L, the length ;
P, the additional load ;
I, the increase of length caused
Q, the sectional area of the wire
the modulus of elasticity
E of
the stretching
The
by
it
is
and the stretching are both to be
measured in the same unit.
The amount of the number E
is of course dependent upon the units in which section and
weight are measured. The square millimetre and kilogramme
are usually employed, and the number so obtained may be
original length
kg.
distinguished
by the
"^
affix
sq.
mm.
end of the rod be immovable, as is usually
may be measured by the motion of a
If the upper
the case, the stretching
mark on the lower, end. Commonly, however, it
make a mark at the upper and lower ends, and
the distance between them with each load.
For measurements
is
better to
to
measure
with a microscope movable on a
divided rod, or a cathetometer, the marks are
made
as
two
with a diamond or fine file.
The amount of elongation employed in the measurement
must always be within the limits of elasticity that is to
fine crossstrokes
say, the wire must,
its original
length
on the removal of the weight, return to
a condition the fulfilment of which should
The limit of elasticity may be
widened by loading the wire heavily before the experiment.
Even with hard metals the weight employed in the measurements should not exceed half the breakingstrain.
(See
Table 17 for the tensile strength of some substances.)
be verified by experiment.
The accuracy
creased
if
method
of the
will be
the length be observed under
considerably in
many
the example, or for the calculation by the
loads.
method
(See
of least
squares, No. 3.)
The area
of the section
may
l)e
obtained
l>y
of the diameter, for which,
when
lever) or microscope (45)
must be enq)loyed.
measurement
small, a micrometer (contact
95
ELASTICITY BY LONGITUDINAL VIBRATIONS.
But the area may also be found by weighing a measured
The specific gravity A (Table 1) of the substance
being known, if we find the weight, m mgr. of h mm. of the
length.
wire, the section
Q=
mm.
sq.
Example of a determination of the modulus of elasticity of an iron
Two m. of the wire weighed 1210 mg. The sp. gr. was
found by the pyknometer (14) = 7*575, whence it follows that the
wire.
section
Q=
\^
= 008647
2000.7575
sq.
^
mm.
Table 17 the tensile strength of this iron wire = 008G47
The heaviest load used in the experiment ought
kg.
therefore to be 27 kg.
A weight of about  kg. was necessary to straighten the wire,
and is not included in the following numbers. Before the observations, the wire was for some time loaded with a weight of 4 kg.
By
X 61
= 54
The following observations
were made in order with
of the distance between
different loads
two points
Elongation.
Load.
Length.
kg.
mm.
00
01
02
03
91380
91386
91390
91398
fo.
Load.
Length.
for 2 kg.
mm.
mm.
kg.
20
Ml
21
22
23
91491
91485
91500
91509
No.
Mean
The elongation hence
is
34.
111
1102
/= 1*102 mm.
For an increase of load P = 2 kg.
Hence the modulus of elasticity is
109
110
'^^'^^
1*102 X 008647
{vide supra)
19180
'"
sq.
mm.
Modulus of Elasticity from Longitudinal
Vibrations.
A
is
rod or wire, the latter stretched and fixed at both ends,
rubbed longitudinally, and so caused to sound.
By com
ELASTICITY BY LONGITUDINAL VIBRATIONS.
96
vibration
L
A
pitch,
the time of
Calling
determined.
is
known
tuningfork of
parison with a
the length of wire in metres
its specific gravity ;
9810 the acceleration by gravity in millimetres
the number per second of the longitudinal vibrations (Table
;
11
18);
the velocity of sound in the substance, in metres,
and the modulus
= in'UA
9810
gravity,
We have u=
A the
and
we have chosen
1:
sq.
mm.
^^ where g = the
mm.
as the unit of length,
of weight (which
is
not systematic, since
we must put
the weight of a cubic
viously comes to the same thing to take
and express
L in
acceleration
weight of unitvolume of the substance.
the
for
u== 2nL,
Kg.
Proof.
is
of elasticity
metres but
rj
and the kg.
by
Since
as unit
mm. corresponds to mg.),
mm. in kg. But it ob
as the specific gravity,
mm.
in
The longitudinal vibrations are produced by friction with
wood or metals, is sprinkled with
a woollen cloth, which, for
damped.
A wire stretched, and fastened
rubbed in the middle, a rod is clamped by
the middle part, and rubbed on one half.
With a stretched wire, which can be lengthened or
resin, for glass is
at both ends, is
made more
shortened, the observations are
ing
its
exactly
by bring
note into unison with the fork than by estimating
the interval between the notes.
are very high,
and their
it is
Such an
octaves.
detected in the results, as
it
will
much or too little, and the
known within narrow limits.
too
The modulus
vibrations
is
When
the notes produced
often difficult to distinguish between
of
elasticity
them
error will, however, be easily
make them
at least four times
true value
is
usually already
deduced from
longitudinal
usually some 1 or 2 per cent higher than that
determined from stretching, since between loading the wire
and measuring the length time elapses, during which a
elongation is inevitable by virtue of the elastic action.
slight
ELASTICITY BY LONGITUDINAL VIBRATIONS.
97
Example.
The abovementioned iron wire of the length of
1*361 metre, gave the note A^^, which is found by Table 18 to
be produced by 1865 vibrations per second.
7'575 ; therefore
The
specific gravity
is
^^ 4
X 1865 X 1361 . 7575
^^^^^^^.g^.
9810
sq.
mm.
Another Definition of the Modulus of Elasticity.
The use of the
above formula assumes the modulus of elasticity of a body to be
that weight (kg.) which must be hung on a wire of 1 sq. mm.
section to double its length, supposing that the elongation is proportional to the load.
Another definition, which in practice is preferred, takes, instead
of the section, the weight of the unit of length, and considers the
modulus of elasticity as the load which would double the length of
a wire of which unitlength has the unit weight {e.g. of which 1
mm. weighs 1 mg.) We may also define it by supposing the
weight necessary to double the length of the Avire to consist of a
similar Avire,
The modulus of elasticity would be the length of
this wire, which, to correspond to the above definitions, must be
measured in kilometres.
The modulus of elasticity E' of the last two definitions may be
obtained from E by dividing by the density of the substance.
I. In the measurement by stretching, retaining the notation of
p. 94 for X, P, and I, but taking in addition m as the mass of unitlength (mg. and mm.)
E'
II.

kilometres.
In the measurement by the musical note
{vide supra)
9810*
In I., instead of a measurement of the section, a simple
weighing of a measured length is all that is required, and II. is
independent of any weighing at all.
From the example, p. 95, the numerical value of the modulus
of elasticity, according to the last definition, will be for an iron
wire, of which 1 mm. weighed 0"655 mg.
and from the example above
^^, =
4 X 1865' X 1361'
PT^T?;
9810
^^^^
=2627
.,
kilometres.
98
ELASTICITY BY BENDING.
35.
I.
Modulus of Elasticity by bending a Eod.
horizontal rod
clamped tightly at one end, and
is
the position of the free end observed on a vertical scale {e.g.
It is then loaded with a weight of
a cathetometer).
kilogrammes on the free end, and the amount of deflection
s thus produced is observed.
Let the free length of the rod
Then the modulus of elasticity E, if the section of
be /.
the rod be a rectangle with the vertical side a and the
horizontal
h, is
P
if
the section be a circle of radius r
3'
'
rV
II. The difficulty of getting a perfectly tight clamping
avoided by laying the rod with both ends loose upon two
solid supports.
Let the distance of the two supports from
is
each other be
/.
weight
is
then hung from the middle
of the rod and produces the deflection
s',
and we have,
for
rectangular section (vide supra)
1
s'
/'
ab
'
for circular section
P = l IIrV
12
s'
P is expressed in kg. all lengths in mm. in order to get
our result in the ordinary unit of the modulus of elasticity
(p.
94).
The formulae given above assume that the deflections are
We must also make sure
small compared with the length.
that the change of form
is
within the limit of recovery
that on taking
i.e.
away the weight the original form is resumed.
Small sections are determined by weighing (p. 95), and the
above formula may then be simplified by reflecting that ab
and
rV
are the respective sections of the rods.
ELASTICITY BY BENDING.
99
I. for rectangular rods is got thus
When
bent the fibres at the top are stretched, those at the
bottom compressed, the middle layer remains of unaltered length.
We denote by x the horizontal coordinate of a point of this
neutral plane measured from the fixed point, and by y the vertical
coordinate ; and then the curvature of the rod at any point will
The equation under
the rod
is
be j^, for we assume that the bending
small.
is
If
now z
be the
distance of a fibre from the neutral plane (above being reckoned
below negative), a small portion of the fibre is stretched
positive,
or compressed in the ratio
of the breadth
h,
and thickness
together with the force
distant
+z
and
z,
to its original length.
y^
5;
dz,
seeks therefore to
Ez ^ Mz, and
A lamina
draw
itself
these forces in the laminae,
produce a couple equal to lEz
hdz.
couple, therefore, developed in one entire section of height a
breadth
I,
and
is
dz\f
moment P
(I
x),
12 dz
z\lz
This couple, produced by the
statical
The
must be equal to the
by the weight at the place,
elasticity,
exercised
therefore
By
double integration
dx'
"
we
get the deflection at the point x
12
_\2
E
P
P_
dh
>'
fix'
fl
therefore the deflection of the end,
A
^\
where x =
^~E'a%'
Further, that for the same rod, if both ends be left loose, the
weight in the middle produces yV of the deflection follows from
the fact that we may in this case consider the middle fixed, and
each end drawn up with a weight of
P

ELASTICITY BY OSCILLATION UNDEK TORSION.
100
weight
vibration,
i.e.
oscillation.
is hung on the wire and is set in rotatory
round a vertical axis passing through its point
Calling
of suspension.
the length of the wire in
r its radius in
mm.
mm.
K the moment of inertia of
t
Wire by
of a
Modulus of Torsion
36.
the swinging weight taken round
the axis of revolution (54)
the time in seconds of an oscillation (52)
we have
the modulus of torsion for the substance of which
the wire
is
made
2.ZZ
g
(Y
where g is the acceleration of gravitation.
In correspondence with the unit chosen
of elasticity obtained
be measured in
by
for the
modulus
stretching (33), the lengths should
mm. and
the weights in kg.
^=9810
be expressed in seconds,
If the time
and the above formula
becomes
i^= 00006405
^:.
t'r
If a cylinder, with its axis vertical, be used as the weight,
ME"
we must put K=^ ^, where
,
is
the radius in mm.,
M the
mass in kg.
The modulus of torsion or second modulus of elasticity
F may be conceived as follows Suppose a plate of the
In the plate a line is marked
substance having surface =1.
perpendicular to the surface of the base, which is immovably
fastened, and on the opposite surface a force h, uniformly
distributed over the whole surface, acts in the plane of this
surface.
By this the horizontal layers will be pushed over
each otlier, and the previously normal line will now form
with the normal a small angle S, then F is the relation of
the force k to this angle, and h = FB.
:
ELASTICITY BY OSCILLATION
UNDER TORSION.
101
To the modulus of elasticity E, obtained by stretching, the
second modulus F is related as follows
The stretching of a
rod by a hanging weight is accompanied by a lessening of its
:
diameter, as
is
known by
the diameter, and
extension
X,
and
be the length, d
produced by the
the ratio of the contraction of
experience.
this diminution,
h
if
we
take
diameter to the increase of length
the theory of elasticity
fore in
any case
Fh"
By
,
 :
SiS,
If
which
is
u.,
also
then according to
experience
Clebsch,
/i
,,
there
<2
\ [I,
E.
der ElasticUilt,
For the mean value
\.
Compare
(Poisson.
and
Theorie
/'
= 5, F =^
92).
The moment
concentric tubes.
torsion of a wire may
the wire to consist of thin
of these tubes has the inner semidiameter
On the surface of this tube let a straight
of rotation exerted
be calculated from F,
if
One
by the
we imagine
and the outer f + d.
line be drawn parallel to the axis of the tube.
I,
If
we now
twist
the wire, so that the lowest section is turned through the angle
into a screw line, which has the in(p, this line will be turned
clination
j
to the vertical.
the angle of displacement d of the layers of which
Therefore the torsional elasticity
previously spoken.
of the lowest section of the tube 2'7rpdo will seek to turn back to
This
is also
we have
its original
position with a total force
2'7rd^.
radius of the tube, this force produces the
2'7rF
the
of rotation
experienced by each tube in
of rotation of a wire of
with an angle of torsion <p, equals
endsection, so that the total
length
moment
^ is
P^dp.
Such a moment of rotation
its
Since
I,
and radius
r,
is
moment
2^i^?yj\/g=i^l^%.
With the help of (54) this gives directly the period of oscillation
bearing in mind that if the forces are expressed b}'' weights as
in elasticity, the moment of rotation must be multiplied by
t,
the factor
g.
102
determination of
Deteemination of the Velocity of Sound by Dust
37.
Figures {Kundt).
The velocity of sound in dry atmospheric air at 0 is
330 H^^, but in dry air at temperature 330 Vl+0'003665/.
i^,
In the ordinary state of the air as to humidity we can
temperatures consider approximately u =
at moderate
330 J\ +0004^ (see 18).
This number may be used
to determine the pitch
(number
The
of vibrations) of a rod or tube rubbed longitudinally.
rod
is
laid horizontal
and fixed in the middle.
Fig.
is
is
inserted into a glass
20 mm.
The tube must be well
movable plug.
by a
and covered
wide, closed at the other end
tube, at least
on the inside with lycopodium,
cleaned,
silica,
or sifted corkdust.
the rod the impulses of the free end produce
stationary air waves in the glass tube,
is
end, E,
6.
rubbed longitudinally, the other
On rubbing
One
arranged in regular figures.
By
by which the powder
altering the position of
found at which the agitation of the
powder is most energetic, and at this the plug is left.
The tube may also be permanently closed at S, and the
whole slid back and forwards over E, instead of using a
A light cork or cardboard disc may be
movable plug.
the place
is
easily
fixed to the end of a rod of small section in order to facili
communication of the impulses to the column of air.
Afterwards the length / of the waves of dust is measured
by laying a divided scale underneath, and if L be the length
of the rod which is rubbed, the velocity of sound in this
tate the
latter is
U= 330
Vl 40004^ y metre
and therefore the modulus
of elasticity
103
VELOCITY OF SOUND.
where A denotes the density of the
rod.
To obtain the length of the waves as accurately as
possible, the distance of two nodes, distant several (n) wavelengths from each other, is measured and divided by n.
On the calculation by the measurement of a greater number
of nodes, compare 3, p. 11.
900 mm. long gave, at the temperaThe
between two nodes of 6 2 '9 mm.
velocity of sound in the glass was therefore
Example.
ture
glass rod
17, a distance
330 v/1 + 0004
and the modulus of
17
900

= 4890 metres;
d2"9
elasticity of the glass
^^4890
27
^^^3^
9810
te.
sq.
mm.
The wavelengths given by the same rod, rubbed as
above described, in two different gases are obviously proportional to the velocities of sound in these gases.
We
have
h
5
Sq
t
also the following proportions.
If
is the pressure of the gas in metres of mercury at 0";
the specific gravity of the gas during the experiment
that at 0 at 0'76 m. pressure
the temperature;
and
the specific heats at constant pressure and con
stant volume
^r
9*810 m., the acceleration of gravity
then the velocity u
y2^(jji
^
13596 c'
2^:^^
_
s
is
given by the following formula
^
9810 X 13596 x 076
+0003665^
c
^
Q0Q3665^
c'
^^=
s^
10137
c'^
104
NUMBER OF yiBEATIONS OF A MUSICAL NOTE.
Determination of the Number of Vibrations of
37a.
A Musical Note.
The number
(1.)
of vibrations of a tuningfork
determined by allowing
smoked
surface
{e.g.
of
known
At
may
be
a curve on a moving
a rotating drum)
flexible attached point.
ment
to trace
it
by means
of
a light
the same time, some arrange
makes marks side by side
The number of waves between
then counted.
For the calcu
periodic time
with the tuningfork curve.
two or more timemarks are
compare 3,
The marks may be made, for instance, by an electromagnetic marker, of which the circuit is closed at every
swing of a second's pendulum (by a mercury cup).
Or this
circuit is made through the primary of an induction coil, of
which the ends of the secondary are connected, one with
the smoked drum and the other with a writing point near
it.
The sparks then give the marks.
(2.) A syren with clockwork counter is kept at tlie same
pitch as the tone to be determined, and the rotations for a
lation
number
of seconds are counted.
By
repeated observations
tolerably trustworthy results are obtained.
(3.)
Tuningforks, or other sources of musical notes of
may
nearly equal period,
beats which
they
be compared by the numlier of
each beat denoting an
advance of one tone by a whole vibration.
If it is doubtful
which tone is the higher, one of them may be made a little
give
together,
become slower the tone so altered was
The pitch of a tuningfork may be lowered by
gentle warming or by attaching a little wax.
flatter.
If the beats
the higher.
(4.)
stretched
stretched string (monochord) of the length
by a weight P, and of which
a primary tone of the
number
m.,
m. weighs ^, gives
of vibrations
measueement of the angle of a crystal.
38.
105
Measurement of an Angle of a Crystal by
Wollaston's Eeflecting Goniometer.
The instrument
is
so placed that its axis is parallel to a
distant horizontal mark, 0, such as a
ridge,
perpendicular to
windowframe or
the line of sight.
We
roof
will first
assume that the crystal has been already fixed to the axis,
according to the instructions given on the next page, so
that the edge of the crystal over which the angle is to be
measured lies in the axis, and is parallel to it.
Holding,
now, the eye close to the crystal, the observer turns the
axis until the image of the upper mark, as seen in one of
the crystal faces, coincides with a lower horizontal mark, U,
seen directly.
The edge of the floor or the reflected image
of the upper mark, as seen in a properly inclined mirror
fastened behind the goniometer, may be used for this
The position of the index (vernier) is then read
on the graduation of the circle.
Then the circle with
the crystal is turned until the image of 0, as reflected in
the other face of the crystal, coincides with U, and the
index again observed.
The angle through which the circle
has been turned is the supplement of the required angle.
For accuracy in the measurement of the angle there is
purpose.
off
which the divided circle turns, a
first, which is used to repeat
the measurement in the following manner
When the two
processes mentioned above have been gone through, the first
surface of the crystal is brought into position again by
means of the inner axis, wWiout altering the position of the
circle ; then by turning the outer axis with the circle, the
If, now,
second face
and the same process is repeated.
n turnings of the circle have been made, the total angle
through which the circle has been turned, divided by n, is
the supplement of the crystal angle.
To obtain the total angle we take the difference between
the first and last reading, and add, according as the circle is
graduated to 180 or 360, twice or four times as many
usually, inside the axis on
second axis concentric with the
MEASUKEMENT OF THE ANGLE OF A CRYSTAL.
106
right angles as the
number
the index.
therefore
and
first
It
is
of times that the zero has passed
only necessary to read off the
last positions of the circle.
If the intermediate positions
been read
off,
we may, in
vations, use the
method
order to
circle
use of
all
have also
the obser
of least squares, 3, p. 11.
Exactly the same method
with a repeating theodolite.
Adjustment of
of the
make
is
also used in
measuring an angle
the Crystal Parallel to the
Axis of
notation.
Two axes of rotation, perpendicular to each other, would
be sufficient to give the edge to be measured any position
(WoUaston's original arrangement).
But in this case the
desired adjustment can only be attained by trial.
If,
however, a third axis of rotation be added, the edge to be
measured may be made parallel in a regular manner.
{Naumann.)
Fig. 7.
A
ments
is
;
(1.)
is
in
the axis of the circle
ah
the axes for the adjust
k the crystal held upon a piece of wax,
By turning round c a position is found in wdiich
produced,
i.e.
in
the milled head h from
which turning
its
place
does not disturb
then by turning a the face
(1) of the crystal is placed parallel to
A.
(See next page.)
107
MEASUREMENT OF KEFRACTIVE INDEX.
The
(2.)
axis c
is
turned through an angle of some 60
or 90; the face (1) will usually be found to
its
position with regard to the axis A.
again placed parallel to A.
made
parallel to
no turning of
By
(3.)
and
b,
The
By
face (1)
is
have altered
turning h
by
this
it is
means
and therefore perpendicular
to c
will there affect the position of (1).
turning
the face (2)
is
made
parallel to A.
In each successive adjusting of an axis, those already
brought into position must not be altered.
In order to tell whether a face is parallel to the axis A,
the two points in the upper and lower marks are noted, one
of which is perpendicularly under the other in the plane of
If one of the horizontal windowbars
the divided circle.
mark, it will be most convenient to
used
as
a
been
has
make use of one of the vertical bars, and for the lower
point that at which a plumbline hanging from it cuts the
lower mark.
With
the roofridge a chimney
is
chosen, or a
image in the fixed
mirror.
Of course the goniometer is always placed in the
plane passing through the vertical marks, which is perpenlightningconductor, and underneath
dicular to the horizontal
parallel to the axis, as
ones.
The
its
face
of the crystal is
soon as by a suitable rotation round
the image of the upper point in the face
is
made
to coin
cide with the lower one.
Before accurately adjusting the crystal, it should be seen by
a rough trial that in the position of the circle necessary for an
observation one of the arms (see Fig. 6) would not come between
the eye and the lower mark.
On
the measurement of angles
by
reflection,
compare
also
39, II.
39.
Determination of a Eefractive Index with the
Spectrometer (Goniometer).
General Rules.
object at an infinite distance.
must always represent an
To obtain this the telescope
must be focussed on
rays.
(1.)
The
slit
of the instrument
parallel
For
this
purpose the
MEASUEEMENT OF
108
focussed clearly by
The telescope is then
and drawn out so that the
crossthreads of the telescope are
the
lens
first
of
the
first
eyepiece.
pointed to a very distant object
image of this object has no parallax with the crossthreads,
that
is,
move over each
that they do not
the eye from side to side.
illuminated, their
If the
own image
drawn out
with the cross threads.
can be
be used
Compare
also
No. 7 of this
slit, and
image shows no parallax
then represents an object at an
Finally the telescope
the slittube so
moving
may
in a planemirror
instead of a distant object.
section.
other on
crossthreads
directed to the
is
tliat its
It
infinite distance.
(2.)
circle
The provision of two opposite verniers on a divided
has not only the object of lessening the errors of
reading, but also of eliminating
of the graduation to
any accidental eccentricity
Therefore both verniers must
its axis.
be read at each observation, which need not at all necessarily differ by exactly 180; but to avoid future uncer
must be noted to which vernier each reading
The required angle of rotation may be found by
taking the mean of the angles given by each vernier, or
somewhat more conveniently by reckoning the degrees
always by vernier 1, and only taking the mean in the fractainty, it
belongs.
tions (minutes) before subtracting the readings.
(3.)
In order to prove whether the line of sight of the
telescope
is
perpendicular
to
its
axis
of
rotation,
illu
A small
minated crosswires in the ocular are employed.
plane parallelsided glass plate reflecting from both sides
(silvered,
48)
is
fixed (with
wax
or
guttapercha) in the
centre of the table of the instrument, and so adjusted that
the image of the crosswires, as seen through the telescope,
It is obvious that on
coincides with the wires themselves.
turning the telescope 180 the cross must again coincide
with
its
image
of rotation.
if
the telescope
is
perpendicular to
axis
its
If this is not the case, half the deviation
must
be corrected" by inclining the mirror, and half by inclining
the telescope, and the proof again attempted, and so on
it
succeeds.
till
109
KEFEACTIVE INDEX.
That the axis of rotation of the table
(4.)
cular to the line of sight of the telescope
turning the table
180
perpendi
proved by
adjusting the image of the
after
crossthreads with the mirror,
is
is
when
the images should again
correspond.
If the mirror itself
(5.)
levelling screws,
it
may,
the plane of the table
is
is
little foot
with
be used to prove wdiether
parallel with
The image
the telescope.
provided with a
lastly,
the line of sight of
of the crossthreads
adjusted
is
with the levelling screws, and then the mirror is turned
If
round 180, when the image should again correspond.
this test is
repeated
plane of the table
(of
course
it is
90, the
turning the telescope
after
is
perpendicular to the axis of rotation
assumed that the
line
of sight of the tele
scope has already been adjusted perpendicular to the axis of
rotation).
Also to make a reflecting surface (prismface, etc.)
with the axis of rotation of the instrument, the
(6.)
parallel
illuminated crossthreads of the adjusted telescope
used exactly as above described, or the
slit
may
may
be
be made
First, the adjusted telescope is
same purpose.
slit, and by a horizontal thread that part of
the slit is marked which coincides with the crossthreads of
Then, when the image of the slit is observed
the telescope.
in the reflecting surface, the crossthreads must appear at
the same height if the surface is parallel to the axis of the
to serve the
directed to the
instrument.
If
two surfaces of the same body (prism) are
adjusted, one of the
faces
is
This face
joining two of its three levellingscrews.
first
to
be
set at right angles to the line
is
then
adjusted by these screws, and then the other by the
remaining screw, the two
first
being
left
unaltered during
the second operation.
(7.)
Plate.
tJie Surfaces of a Glass
be shown by the telescope with
Testing the Parallelism of
This property
illuminated
may
cross wires
as
by suitable
must appear
Secondly, when by focussing
follows.
First,
focussing the reflected image of the cross wires
clear, single,
and undistorted.
MEASUEEMENT OF
110
the eyepiece all parallax between the crosswires and their
reflected
image has been removed,
in the reflection from the
In
it
should be equally absent
opposite side of the glass plate.
same time focussed
this case the telescope is at the
for
an. infinite distance.
If quite parallel glass is unattainable, it must be so cut
and placed that the two images of the crosswires lie near
each other, and may then be used to test the spectrometer.
Determination of the Refractive Index.
The body of which the index of refraction is to be
measured must have the form of a prism, which is got
in
the case of a solid by grinding, in the case of a liquid by
pouring
a hollow prism
into
it
with sides of
the
glass,
which should be parallel to each other. The
problem divides itself into two parts the measurement of
the angle of the prism, and the deflection of the ray of
surfaces of
light.
Measurement of
I.
(a)
When
the circle
is
the
Angle of the Prism.
the telescope of the spectrometer
The prism
movable.
is
is fixed,
and
so placed that the re
fracting surfaces are equidistant from the axis of the circle,
i.e.
so that
by moving
this
latter
one of the surfaces takes
By means of
upon which it is
approximately the former place of the other.
the
footsore ws
placed,
the
of
prism
the
is
levelling stand
adjusted
with
its
refracting
edge
parallel to the axis of rotation of the circle, as described in
No.
6.
Then, by turning the
tant vertical object, or of the
circle,
slit
the image of some dis
or illuminated crosswires
from one face of the prism, is
with the crosswires, and the position of
read with the vernier.
The same is repeated
of the spectrometer, reflected
made
to coincide
the circle
is
with the other face the difference of the two readings
(regard being had to any passing of the zeropoint of the
graduation) subtracted from 180 gives the required angle
;
of the prism
<p.
Ill
REFRACTIVE INDEX.
When
(h)
the prism
with the vernier or the
and the telescope movable
The prism is placed with its
fixed
is
circle.
refracting edge towards the
slit,
so that the line bisecting
it
would approximately pass through the slit or some distant
The cross wires of the telescope are made to coinobject.
cide with the image of the object or sht reflected from the
two prismfaces successively, and the difference of the readings is double the refracting angle.
The
object
the prism
be used
slit
from
so
is
it
that
must be
such a distance that the
at
of no account in comparison with
its
may
accomphsh
this,
fully followed.
size of
If the
tube must be so drawn out that the rays
passing through the lens
it
it.
fall parallel
on the prism,
To
appear as an infinitely distant object.
the preceding directions (1) must be careIt is obvious that the angle of a crystal can
be measured by either of these methods if the instrument
possess an arrangement for fixing and adjusting the crystal
between the
II.
The
slit
and
telescope.
Measurement of
direct adjustment
the
Angle of Deviation.
of the telescope
upon the
slit
There are two
methods by which the deviation of a ray which has passed
through the prism, and from this the refractive index may
gives the direction of the unrefracted ray.
be found.
(a) Usually the prism
mum
The
deviation.
is
slit is
placed in the position of nmii
observed through the telescope
and prism, and the latter tvuned until the image of the slit
moves to the same side, whether the prism be turned to the
Here the prism has the position of minimum
right or left.
deviation, and it is fixed and the circle read off when the
crosswires and the image of the slit have been made to
The difference between this position and the
coincide.
direct adjustment
The
angle
refractive
p,
on the
index
calculated
fx
slit
is
gives the angle of deviation
then,
by the formula
if
we caU
the
S.
refracting
MEASUREMENT OF EEFRACTIVE INDEX.
112
sin
i (8+
sin
(p
(p
The minimum deviation of a ray passing
tlirough a prism is
produced when the ray makes, within
the prism, equal angles with the two
refracting faces, and therefore also with
the two normals. These latter angles are
Let the angle of inciI f (see Fig. 8).
dence, and therefore of emergence, from
Fig. 8.
The angle
sin I (S
the prism be
of deviation
p)
= sin a = fx
of the
ray
a,
is
therefore sm a
S
= 2a
^,
= /^ sin.
therefore
sin' from which the formula given above
follows.
(h)
The prism
placed with the face which
is
towards the telescope perpendicular to
reflected
it,
i.e.
so
is
turned
that the
image of the crosswires coincides with the same as
The method assumes that the crosswires can
seen directly.
be illuminated.
If
we
have, again, the angle of deviation
the refracting angle of the prism
sin (8
B,
p,
(p)
//,=
sin f
Proof similar to that given above.
The index
of refraction
must
of course refer to light of
In sunlight, which
is thrown horiby a heliostat, Fraunhofer's lines may
be employed, the most characteristic of which are shown in
one particular colour.
zontally
upon the
slit
isa
Red.
Yellow.
Green.
Blue.
Violet.
Fig. 9.
the accompanying figure in their relative positions, as seen
through a
flintglass
prism.
In order to see
and a the
113
DETEEMINATION OF THE KEFKACTIVE INDEX.
slit
must not be
before
is
too narrow,
With
it.
a narrow
and a red glass should be held
and greater magnifying power,
slit
seen to be a very close double
Where
line.
sunlight cannot be used, the line
A may
be ob
tamed by means of the potassium flame, B by the sodium
flame, C, F, and G' by the light of the electric spark in a
narrow Geissler's tube filled with rarefied hydrogen.
The dijfference of the refractive indices for A and
(Fraunhofer) is called the dispersive power or dispersion.
As mean
refractive index that for about
To reduce
is
usually taken.
indices of refraction, measured in the air to
equivalents in vacuo, they must be multiplied by
1"00029, which, is the index of refraction for light passing
from a vacuum into air.
their
40.
Detekmination of the Eefkactive Index fkom the
Angle of Total Eeflection (Wollaston).
When
a ray of light moves in a
medium
of refractive
index N, and reaches the limiting surface between this and a
second of smaller refractive index n, total reflection occurs as
soon as the angle of incidence to the surface becomes greater
than arc sin
^
Hence the observation
of the limiting angle
f of total reflection gives the equation
n = sm
<p
from which, if the refractive index of one of the media is
known, that of the other can be calculated. Necessarily for
exact observation the light must be of some determinate
colour (see previous page).
I.
The body
is
With
the TotalreJIectometer.
so attached to the instrument that the axis
of rotation lies in the plane of
small glass vessel sufficiently
filled
I
the reflecting surface.
with some highly refractive
DETERMINATION OF THE REFEACTIVE INDEX.
114
bromnapthalin
as carbon disiilpliide, or
fluid sucli
(Grotli),
is then inverted over the body, and surrounded with a very
translucent shade (silver paper painted, if necessary, with
petroleum), which
flame.
By
lighted on one side with the sodium
is
and
accommodated to a great
view in the body divided into
suitable inclination of the reflecting surface,
right placing of the lamp, the eye
distance will see the field of
By adjustment of the stand,
a brighter and a dimmer half.
into
brought
the line of sight (telescope
is
line
dividing
the
and the position of the verand the temperature is read off.
The same process is then repeated on the other side of the
The angle between the two positrons is 2p,
glass vessel.
double the limiting angle of total reflection between the fluid
and the body.
The telescope is first
Adjustment of the Instrument.
For this purpose the
focussed for parallel rays (39, 1).
telescope is movable to 90 from its principal position.
To prove whether the telesco]3e is parallel to the plane
or eyepiece with divided lens),
niers on the divided
circle
of the
divided
circle,
the telescope
is
directed to a well
marked distant point. The free line of sight to the same
point must then lie in the plane of the circle, which may be
seen either by sighting directly across it, or along a straight
edge laid in contact with it, with the naked eye.
That the surface of the body is parallel to the axis of
the instrument is proved most conveniently by a mirror fixed
The image of the eye must then appear
parallel to the axis.
at the same height in this mirror as in the refiecting surface
or two distant objects are chosen not too near
of the body
to each other and in the plane of the circle of the instru;
ment.
On
reflecting
sighting one of these objects past the edge of the
surface,
other must
Or with the adjusted telescope,
a distant object to one side and in the
the reflected image of the
appear at the same
level.
the reflected image of
plane of the circle of instrument
able position of the telescope,
is
observed, which, in a suit
must appear in
The smaller and more imperfect the
its line
of sght.
reflecting surface
(as is generally the case in natural crystals), the greater care
DETEEMINATION OF THE REFRACTIVE INDEX.
must be taken that the surface and the
115
line of sight of the
telescope actually pass through the axis of the instrument.
The refractive index of pure carbon disulphide is 1'6274
20 C, and diminishes for each degree of increased temperature about 000080.
The powerful influence of temperature demands careful observation of the thermometer
and avoidance of warming the glass by the flame. With
this object suitable screens are placed between the flame and
the glass, with thick glass plates closing the opening through
which the light passes. At the same time the screen serves
to make a dark background to the glass vessel.
Its most
for
favourable position, as well as that of the lamp for distinct
must be found by experiment. The
surroundings of the object must be blacked (for instance,
with Indian ink, which is not attacked by carbon disulness of the limiting line,
phide).
Examination of Crystals.
Double refracting objects in
general give two limits corresponding to the two indices of
Uniaxial crystals are most conveniently examined
on a surface perpendicular to the principal axis (on its recognition, see 46).
In this the two principal indices may
always be measured.
The horizontally polarised ray (that is,
refraction.
the ray disappearing at the vertical position of the greater
diagonal of Nicol's prism)
surface
when
is
is
the ordinary one.
If the crystal
parallel to the optic axis, both indices are obtained
the optic axis
is parallel
to the axis of rotation.
In
this case the extraordinary ray is horizontally polarised.
A crystal
surface,
however placed, yields in
all directions
the ordinary ray; but each surface contains also a direction
perpendicular to the optic axis (for instance, in the cleavage
surface of a
rhombohedron that of the bisecting
lateral angle
line of the
in the surfaces of the quartz pyramid, that of
the bases of the triangles).
If this
be placed horizontally,
the observation gives both indices of refraction.
If
its
we have an
principal plane,
optical elasticity
is
optically biaxial crystal cut parallel to
we
obtain two indices
placed horizontally.
when an
axis of
direction of the
surface perpendicular to this yields the third refractive index.
DETERMINATION OF THE REFRACTIVE INDEX.
116
(As to the recognition
and one or other of the former ones.
of surfaces perpendicular to the optic axis, see 46a.)
We may
employ a small shallow trough provided with
a planeparallel covering glass,
(1.) To determine the refractive index of the fluid in the
when
little flask,
the trough contains air
sm
(2.)
fluid in the
trough
in this case
<p
may
be examined like a solid
body.
Compare Wiedemann, Ann.,
iv. 1.
With Abbes Refradometer.
II.
is, however, more convenient for the
and has the further advantage of giving
Abbe's refractometer
examination of
fluids,
same time the dispersion. A drop of the fluid to be
examined is brought between the two prisms of the instrument, the stand with the prisms, as well as the illuminating prism, adjusted so that the field of view of the telescope
is bright, and the ocular focussed clearly on the crossthreads.
The stand is then turned over the interval between light
On account of the different positions of the
and dark.
limits of the different colours the field of view generally
The divided drum on the tube with
appears coloured.
which two direct vision prisms set opposed to each other,
at the
are turned
is
so turned
that the colouring gives place to
a sharp limit with some interference bands.
This limit
is
drum and stand divisecond position of the drum is
brought on the crossthreads, and the
sions are both red.
sought, giving a
still
Then a
sharper limit, the threads again adjusted
and the reading repeated.
The mean of the standreading gives the refractive
index for sodium light the dispersion is reckoned by a
;
table supplied with each instrument.
As proof
of the accuracy, or, if necessary, for the correc
tion of the graduation,
cially water,
may
known
be employed.
fluids (Table 20),
and espe
DETERMINATION OF THE REFRACTIVE INDEX.
117
Either daylight or lamplight may be employed to illuminate the mirror, which must be adjusted to give as sharp
a limit as possible.
Compare Abbe, Apparate zur hestimung
der Brechungsvermdgens,
Jena, 1874.
III.
With
the Spectrometer.
I, may also be carried out
with the spectrometer (39) if a trough for fluid with a front
of plane glass can be fixed upon it, enclosing the objectplate movable with the divided circle.
The method described under
If the object consists of a transparent
body
in the
form
of a very thin, large planeparallel plate, the light from the
slittube
may
be employed.
The trough must have two
opposite plane walls.
Parallel light from the slit (compare previous article)
allowed to
fall
perpendicularly upon one wall, and the
observed through the body with the telescope.
oblique positions of the body at which the
with homogeneous
light)
slit
The two
(illuminated
suddenly disappears, are
If a prism most conveniently of direct
2<p apart.
vision be brought
between the trough and the telescope, and the
slit
be illumi
nated with sunlight, a Fraunhofer's spectrum appears.
turning the objectplate, the limit of total reflection
made
to coincide
with any
is
slit
may
By
be
line.
box consisting of two plane  parallel plates fixed
each other, with a film of air between them, if
brought into the fluidtrough and treated exactly similarly
to the body just described, gives at once, from the half angle
parallel to
of rotation
tion to
(p,
air,
the index of refraction
as
yy_ _1
sin
of the fluid in rela
<p
Let a planeparallel plate of refractive index n be
Proof.
If in
placed between air and a medium of refractive index N.
the latter medium a ray fall upon the plate with the angle of
incidence <p, it will have at the second surface, after passing
throudi the
plate,
an ande of incidence
<!>,
given by
r^
:r.
118
If
SPECTRUM ANALYSIS.
now
to air,
is
<l)
the limit of total reflection in the plate with respect
is, n sin ^=1, the above formula follows.
that
Compare E. Wiedemann, Fogg. Ann., vol.
and Terquem and Trannin, ibid. vol. clvii. p. 302.
The apparatus
p.
375,
Spectrum Analysis.
41.
the telescope and
clviii.
spectrum analysis requires, besides
for
slit
previously mentioned as forming the
spectrometer (39), a third tube with a micrometer scale.
This is reflected in the face of the prism which is next the
telescope.
I.
Adjustment of
The adjustment
the
Apparatus.
the spectrum apparatus
of
plished in the following manner, the
being specially observed
oixlei^
is
accom
of the operations
must appear as a very distant object. If
the right adjustment be not indicated by a mark on the tube,
the telescope must be focussed on some distant object, pointed
to the slit, and the latter drawn out till it appears clear and
(1.)
The
slit
sharp.
The prism must be adjusted to the position of miniTo attain this end, where the prism has
not been fixed in the proper position by the maker, the slit
(2.)
mum
is
deviation.
illuminated with the sodium flame, and the prism placed
approximately in
its right position before the coUimating
and when the direction of the refracted ray has been
found with the naked eye, the image of the slit is sought
with the telescope.
The prism is then turned (following
the image, if necessary, with the telescope) until the image
stops and begins to move backwards, and is then fixed in
lens
this position.
(3.)
visible.
from
it.
the tube
The
image of the scale should be clearly
by a lamp placed about 20 cm.
When, by turning the tube, the image is found,
reflected
It is illuminated
is
drawn out
images of the
slit
till
the scale appears distinct.
and scale should not
The
alter their relative
119
SPECTKUM ANALYSIS.
moving the eye before the eyeshould not be more brightly illuminated
positions in the telescope on
The
piece.
than
scale
necessary for distinctness
is
a narrow flame generally
gives a better image than a broad one.
upon some
and
Bunsen
that adopted by
particular division of the scale
made
by
is
This adjustment
Kirchhoff being the 50th.
then
be
should
turning the tube carrying the slit, which
(4.)
The sodium
line should be
made
to fall
clamped.
Valuation of the
II.
Scale.
In order to know the points of the scale which correspond to the lines of the different chemical elements, their
flames should be observed separately, and the position on the
scale (with their brightness, width, colour, and sharpness) of
It is more convenient to employ
the lines should be noted.
purpose the copies which are published of Bunsen
and Kirchhoff's maps, or Table 19, which was drawn up by
means of Bunsen's apparatus. For this purpose the scale of
for this
the apparatus
The
may
manner
following
be reduced to that of the charts in the
positions of a few
known
or
Ka, Li
Na
a,
the instrument.
square ruled
lines near the ends
and in
D, F, G, H, in sunlight,
a, Sr 8, K/3) are observed on the scale of
The observed positions are laid down on
the middle of the spectrum (say
paper
as
a,
abscissae,
and
the
corresponding
and a curve drawn
This will seldom differ much
through the points obtained.
On this the position on Bunsen's scale,
from a straight line.
corresponding to any observed position on that of the
In many spectroinstrument, will be found as the ordinate.
scopes the scale is made nearly to agree with Bunsen's.
When this is the case, JVa a is made to coincide with the
positions on Bunsen's scale as ordinates,
50th
division;
observations.
the
scales
The curve
is
only for the corrections of
compared by a series of
more conveniently constructed,
the scale, by taking the differare
ences from Bunsen's scale as ordinates in the graphical construction.
(See Table 19.)
120
SPECTEUM ANALYSIS.
III.
The
lines
The Analysis.
due to the bodies when placed in a Bimsen's
and the bodies identified by the
gasflame are observed
agreement of the lines with
due to known sub
those
stances.
In doing
to
be
First,
noted,
tliis
the following remarks must be attended
not only must the positions of the observed lines
approximately at
but,
least,
their
brightness,
/3 and Zi a fall
very near together but while >SV ^ is hazy, Zi a is quite
Bands may be represented graphically by making
sharp.
the intensity of the light at any point the ordinate at the
point, and so draw a curve to represent the spectrum.
For
For instance, Sr
width, and sharpness.
;
distinguishing the alkaline earths,
it is
best to
make
use of
the faint characteristic lines in the blue part of the spectrum
{Sr h and Ca).
The bodies
are always placed in the front border of the
flame on platinum wire, the glowing solid part so far
that
it
down
does not give any disturbmg continuous spectrum.
It is advisable to use, first of all, a
narrow
slit,
in order to
separate lines lying close together, and then to repeat the
observation with a wider one, to detect lines of feeble brightness.
Similarly,
it
is
well to employ
flame for easily vaporisable bodies
larger one for those
which are
less
first,
a small gas
{K, Zi), and
then a
so {Sr, Ba, Ca).
The
spectra of the latter often require a longer time before they
make
their appearance.
The bodies
are usually employed as chlorides; sodium
and
potassium, however, on account of the decrepitation of the
chlorides, are
more conveniently used
as carbonates.
The
enfeeblement of the spectrum, in the course of a long experi
by ignition
The intensity of
the light is in this case momentarily restored by moistening
the bead with hydrochloric acid.
The most effectual w^ay
ment,
is
often due to the fact that the chlorides
are converted into the less volatile oxides.
of cleaning a platinum wire from a substance volatile with
MEASUEEMENT OF WA\T:LENGTH.
difficulty, is
moistening
121
with hydrocliloric acid and long
it
ignition in the point of the blowpipeflame.
Extraneous light must be carefully cut
screen behind the lamp,
by a cover
off,
by
a black
the prism, which
for
only leaves a passage for the light through the three tubes,
by a black paper shade hung from the telescope.
and, lastly,
The
the wearisome closing of the eye not in
last renders
The
use unnecessary.
illuminated than
is
scale should never be
more strongly
necessary for recognising the divisions
and numbers.
In order to see very faint lines, the light
may be entirely cut off.
The Bunsen's gasflame itself gives a number of feeble
lines, principally in the green and blue.
In order that
these may not mislead the observer, they should be previously
observed and the strongest noted.
The sodium line also is
passing through the scale
seen in most preparations
contains so
any
much sodium
indeed, the air itself frequently
that the reaction occurs without
means being taken
special
to procure
it.
Measueement of the WaveLength of a
42.
Eay
of Light.
This measurement is made most simply and accurately
with the spectrometer (39), upon the taljle of which is
placed, instead of the prism, a plate of glass with a very
fine grating of lines (Nobert's
to the
slit,
slit,
testHnes)
the lines parallel
the plate perpendicular to the tube carrying the
the engraved face turned towards the telescope.
telescope
is first
adjusted to this focus (39,
light,
we
The
focussed on a very distant object, and the sHt
1).
Using, then, homogeneous
shall observe, in suitable positions of the telescope,
besides the middle bright image of the
slit, two or more
on each side of the middle.
Let / be the
distance between the lines in the grating on the glass plate,
the angles of deviation of the images from
8^,
83
the middle one, the wavelength of the light used is
fainter images
S.,,
X=
sin 8^

sin 8^
=^
sin
8^, etc.
RADIUS OF CURVATURE WITH THE SPHEEOMETER.
122
in each of these directions the distances from the separate
spaces of the grating to the telescope differ from each other bywhole multiples of a wavelength. The lightvibrations which
For
reach the telescope (adjusted for parallel rays) in one of these
directions are therefore in the same phase, and so reinforce each
Any other direction contains disother and form an image.
turbed rays from irregular distances of the separate spaces, which
are therefore in very different phases,
the telescope, destroy one another.
and
so,
when
The grating is known to be placed accurately
when corresponding images on each side have the
from each
collected
by
perpendicular
least distance
other.
Light not homogeneous
is
dispersed
spectra, in which, according to
by the grating
into
the formulse given above,
the light consisting of the longer waves (red) appears most
In using sunlight in which the Fraunhofer's
deflected.
lines (p.
11 2)
.are
used for the definition and adjustment of
spectrum and the greater part of the
beyond this the spectra are superimposed.
In order to recognise the lines in interferencespectra from
a map of the dispersion spectrum (p. 112), it must be remembered that the former appears more and more contracted
the colour, the
first
second are pure
the more the violet end
is
approached.
Measurement of a Radius of Curvature.
43.
I.
The radius
With
the Spheromctcr.
of curvature of a spherical surface
surface of a lens
can,
when
is
it
e.g.
the
large enough, be deter
mined with the spherometer in the following manner
The instrument must first of all be placed upon a
:
face
known
to
be plane (39,
7).
By
screw, the middle foot of the spherometer
height that
all
four points rest on
sur
turning the micrometer
is
made
the surface.
of
such a
This adjust
great exactness from the fact that,
with a slightly lower placing of the middle point, the instrument rocks, and can be easily turned round the point.
ment
is
known with
RADIUS OF CUEVATURE WITH THE SPHEROMETER.
The instrument
is
then placed upon the surface, the
radius of curvature of which
screw
is
123
again turned until
all
is
to be determined,
and the
the jpoints rest on the surface
same time.
The positions of the middle point in the two experiments differ by a certain number of revolutions of the
screw.
The whole numbers will be reckoned by the
number of turns of the screw, or by the scale at the side,
of which each division corresponds to one turn of the screw
at the
the fractional parts on the divided circle on
number
of revolutions, multiplied
its head.
The
by the distance between
two threads (in millimetres), gives the height of the middle
point above the plane of the three outer fixed ones, when all
four rest on the curved surface.
Let
a
I
= this distance
= the side of the
;
formed by the three
equilateral triangle
fixed feet as angles.
then the required radius of curvature
r
if
is
6a
For
?'
h be the altitude of the triangle on one of the
sides
we have
Since further
7t^
= 
P, the
above expression follows.
Example.
From the position in which all four points rest on
a plane, the centre point had to be raised 6 '2 7 2 turns of the
screw in order that all four might rest on the surface of a convex
lens.
The distance between the threads of the screw = 0*5 mm.,
hence a = 3"136 mm.
The side of the equilateral triangle formed
by the three fixed points
is
^=82 "5 mm.
curvature of the surface of the lens
825
^
^7M36 +
3136
Hence the radius of
is
,
^ = ^^3^^"
The way in which the spherometer may be employed
to
ascertain the thickness of a plate, or the parallelism of the
surfaces of a plate, or the spherical form of a surface
be tested by
it, is
clear without further explanation.
may
124
EADIUS OF CUEVATUKE BY REFLECTION.
II.
Tlie determination
spherometer
By
Reflection.
of the
termine that of a small surface,
ceed as follows
The
front of
is
it
if
In order
reflecting,
arranged
is
so
that
the
perpendicular, and two lights
at
de
to
we may
pro
object
measured
by the
radius of curvature
limited to large surfaces.
is
the same height
as
surface
to
are j^laced
be
in
the object, and at the
same distance from it. Halfway between the lights is
placed a telescope directed towards the surface.
Lastly,
immediately in front of the surface, and parallel
joining the lights,
is
to the line
placed a small scale divided on glass.
The lights produce two images reflected from the
which the distance apart is observed on the small
the telescope.
surface, of
scale with
If then
I = the distance of the images from each other
L = the actual distance of the lights from each other
A = the distance of the point midway between the lights
;
from
the surface
the radius of curvature r of the surface, in the same unit as
has been used for the above distances, is
^
L+
The
_cj
lor a convex, or
for a concave surface.
21
less the curvature, the greater
must be the distance
A, in order that the formulae may hold good.
For lights, the flat flames of petroleum or gas lamps are
very convenient if the edge be turned to the reflecting surface.
With but little error we may employ the bars of a
window, in front of which the observer is placed with the
telescope.
When the curvature of lenses is determined after this
manner, there are usually images reflected from the second
side.
In the case of biconvex or biconcave lenses, it is easily
^
FOCAL LENGTH OF A LENS.
125
seen wliich are the images to be employed from their erect
or inverted position.
III.
The radius of curvature of a concave surface may
by taking double its measured focal length
also be determined
(44).
Proof of the above formula for a convex surface.
joining the two lights gives an image at the distance
spherical surface,
The length A
by the
112
=^
of this image
is
j4t
formulae
jected
we
find a
upon the
+ ~
rule ~
= ^
given by
A=
(^
is
y=
The
the focal length).
From
line
behind the
a,
these
two
TT
The image appears pro
scale touching the surface, of the length,
A
A+
=X
a'
from which, by substituting the above values of A and a,
rL
lAl
I = h
or r= S" ^
In iust the same way. is found the
^
'
A\r
L21
formula for concave surfaces.
The Focal Length of a Lens.
44.
The focus
^
"^
of a lens
is
the point at which rays
the focus from the lens
is
The two
is its
of
In concave lenses
the focal length.
The number
the focal length has the negative sign.
spectacle lens
jDarallel to
The distance
the axis on incidence cross after emergence.
of a
focal length expressed in inches.
radii of curvature, r
and / of a lens, and the
and the refractive index
focal length, are related to each other
/x
of a sort of glass as follows
1
,,/l
 = (/x 1) ^\r
/ ^^
When
a surface
is
+1\
concave
or /A=
rV
its
rr'
fr + r
1.
radius of curvature
must be
taken as negative.
The focal length is different for different colours, and
must therefore, strictly speaking, be defined for a special
colour (sodium flame or red glass).
In
all
experiments the axis of
tlie
lens (the line joining
'
FOCAL LENGTH OF A LENS,
126
the two centres of curvature)
brought into the line joining
is
the image and object, since otherwise the distance will be
To recognise the correctness of this adjustfound too small.
ment, the images reflected in the two surfaces are noticed,
and must be so arranged that on looldng at them from the
side of the object, they must be in the same plane with the
eye and the object.
(1.) The focal length of a convex lens may be measured
by forming with it an image of the sun on a plate of ground
glass, and holding it at such a distance that the image is
sharp and clear.
The distance of the plate from the lens is
the focal length.
(2.)
telescope
dista.nt
Or the lens is placed before the objectglass of a
which has previously been focussed on some very
object.
telescope at
writing on
Looking, now, through the lens with the
some plane object
it), it
clearly visible.
This distance
is
The image formed by
(3.)
used to determine
also be
the lens
is
{e.g.
will, a certain
placed a
tlie
a sheet of paper with
distance from the lens, be
the required focal length.
a lens of a near object
On
focal length.
may
one side of
and on the other a white screen at
is formed upon
as the distances of the light and the
and / the required focal length
light,
such a distance that a clear image of the light
Taking a and h
image from the lens,
it.
111
/
(4.)
ah
a+b
Between an object and a
screen,
considerable distance
there
a certain
/,
'
which
are
are fixed at
two positions
which a lens may have in order to form an image of the
object on the screen.
If the displacement of the lens
between the two positions amount to e, the focal length of
the lens
is
/('z)Crosswires answer the purpose of an object, and instead
of the screen another cross with a lens
may
be used, and the
FOCAL LENGTH OF A LENS.
127
coincidence of this and the image inferred from the absence
of parallax.
This method (Bessel, cf. Ondemans, Wicd. Bcibl. 1879,
183) has the advantage that the displacements can be more
accurately measured than the distance from the lens.
Proof.
If in the first position the distance of the lens
a,
= ?, and
 +
i a
J
The elimination
/ as
a +
.
for
from
the two observations give the equations
111,1
the object be
= .
f
ae
of a from these equations gives the expression
above.
(5.)
Wlien the
size of the
image
is
the same as that of
the object, both the image and the object are at a distance
from the lens of double the focal length.
(See 6.)
(6.) The methods given above assume that the thickness
of the lens
is
so small in proportion to the focal length that
When this is not the case, we understand by the focal length the distance of the point of convergence of rays falling parallel on the lens from the ^jrmct
it
may
2xil
be neglected.
plane of the lens or system of lenses.
The principal
may be
found by construction as follows
If the lines
of incidence and emergence of a ray falling on the lens
parallel to its axis are produced till they cut each other
within the lens, the point of intersection lies in the principal
plane
which is perpendicular to the axis.
knowing the principal plane, the focal length
plane,
or system of lenses
may
be found as follows
of the lens a brightlyilluminated scale
farther from
it
is
On one
On
is
best of
the other side of the lens
placed at such a distance that a clear and
greatly magnified image of the scale appears
upon
it.
taking
I,
side
placed, a little
is
than the focal length (the scale
glass with transmitted light).
a white screen
But, without
of a thick lens
the length of a division of the scale
L, the length of
its
image
A, the distance of the screen from the
the required focal length
is
lens
Then
FOCAL LENGTH OF A LENS.
128
we may
Conversely, also,
place a sharplydefined object at a
and measure
great distance from the lens,
much
diminished on the other side of the
its
image,
now
For
this
lens.
by
must be so placed that the divisions on
the glass and the image of the object are clearly visible
We must then take, in the previous forthrough the lens.
mula, I for the length of the image, and L for that of the
object, and A for the distance of the latter from the lens.
purpose
means
it
is
best to use a scale divided on glass, read
of a lens.
It
The distances A and a of the image and the object
Proof.
from the principal plane of the lens are connected by the formula,
^+=^
ting
in the
 =
Since
Their magnitudes are in the ratio
is
large
instead of the
first
equation
we

By put
get the expression as above.
compared with the thickness of the lens, we may,
distance from the principal plane, use the
unknown
distance from the lens.
(7.)
concave lens which gives no real image,
has a negative focus,
is
convex lens of known
the two determined
the local length
of the
and the common focus of
methods (1) to (4).
If, then,
common
focal length
that of the convex lens alone
/ of
the concave lens will be found by
111
which
focal length,
by one
F = the
F'
i.e.
used in combination with a stronger
F F'
ov
FF'
=
f
' ~ FF
(8.) Finally, the focal length of a concave lens may also
be obtained by measuring the circle of light formed by the
diverging rays of the sun
For
distance.
when thrown on a
screen at a given
let
the diameter of the aperture of the lens
D = the diameter of the circle of light
A = the distance of the screen from the
lens
MAGNIFYING POWER OF AN OPTICAL INSTKUMENT,
and we have
129
for the focal length
Ad
0"0094
is
twice the tangent of the apparent diameter of the
When
sun.
term
may be
to take for the focal
of light
45.
deep and not too small, this last
and we thence obtain the simple rule,
length that distance at which the circle
the lens
is
neglected,
on the screen
is
double the aperture of the
Magnifying Power of an Optical Instrument.
Lens.
I.
The magnifying power
of a lens
must be determined by
is
calculated from the
lens or a combination of
focal length, which, for a thick
lenses,
lens.
(6) of the previous
article.
Calling
/=
=
the focal length
the least distance of distinct vision with the naked eye
the magnifying power of the lens
is
For ordinary eyes the least distance of distinct vision
may
be taken as 25 cm.
If a small object of the length I be placed at a distance
Proof.
a under the lens, so that its (virtual) image appears at the distance
A, we have
~r
+ 7
the magnification will be,
1^6^
the image have the length L, arid
LA
^==
II.
The magnifying power
A
7.
I'elescojw.
is
the ratio of the angle which a
distant object subtends, seen through the telescope,
with that which
(1.)
it
compared
subtends as seen with the naked eye.
The following method
is
universally applicable for
130
MAGNIFYING POWER.
TELESCOPE.
determining the magnifying power.
at
The
a distance, great compared with
telescope
its
length,
is
placed
before
measuring rod (a paper scale, a slated roof, or the pattern of
a wall, will answer the purpose), on which two points must be
sufficiently marked to be seen with the naked eye.
Looking
now at the scale through the telescope with one eye, and
with the other unassisted, the two images are seen superposed.
If, then, the distance between the two points appear to
correspond to
telescope,
divisions of
while the
magnifying power
tiie
actual
scale, as
distance
is
seen through the
divisions,
the
is
m=
n
The observation will be much facilitated by drawing out
the eyepiece of the telescope, so that the two images are not
displaced relatively to each other by a movement of the axis
of the eye.
by
A shortsighted
eye must, of course, be assisted
spectacles.
(2.)
hofen's)
At
may
short distances, the following
be used.
The telescope
is
method (Walten
focussed for a very
and then a thin convex lens of low power
(spectacle glass of about 2 m. focal length) is fixed in front
of its objectglass.
The telescope is then pointed to a scale
distant object,
at such a distance that the divisions appear well defined.
Just as in No. 1, an observation is made with both eyes.
If n divisions as seen in the telescope coincide with
as
seen with the naked eye, and if the distance of the scale
from the objectglass be a, and from the eye A, the magnifying power of the telescope is
_a
n' A'
(3.)
In telescopes with convex eyepieces the following
method is almost always applicable:
First, the
telescope must be so far drawn out that a distant object
is
clearly seen.
The objectglass is then taken out and replaced
by a screen with a narrow opening (a rectangle cut out of
simple
cardboard), or
by a transparent
scale.
Tlie
remaining lenses
MAGNIFYING POWER.
131
TELESCOPE.
of the telescope will form a real image of the screen or scale.
The
by which the objectglass
is the required mag
ratio of the size of the object
has been replaced to that of the image
nifying power.
To carry out
this
measurement we may employ a little
This must be brought
so that both the graduation on it and
transparent scale with a lens attached.
before the eyepiece,
the image of the screen, or of the scale in the place of the
objectglass, are clearly visible.
The
may
circular opening of the cell of the objectglass itself
be used instead of the abovementioned screen,
coming from
certain that the rays
the diaphragms of the tube, as
its
is
Proof for Kepler's
when
The
L in
j
The
the case.
...
F be
the focal length of the
power
is,
as is
distinctly seen,
is
A=F\f.
The' object
the place of the objectglass gives therefore an
image of the length
(4.)
If
are
distance of the eyepiece from the objective
a distant object
of the length
Therefore
if this is
that of the eyepiece, the magnifying
well known,
is,
Telescope.
we
frequently the case.
screen of angular form shows at once
objective,
if
edges are not cut off by
F
= jfL = jj

(see previous article,
No.
6).
.
focal lengths of the separate lenses
being known, the power
may
be calculated.
and distances
For example,
that of an astronomical telescope with a simple eyepiece, or
of a Galilean telescope,
is
the focal length of the objective,
divided by that of the eyepiece.
these and similar rules are of
making a
Practically, the results of
little use,
except to the optician
telescope, since the focal length of the Galilean
eyepiece cannot be measured directly, and telescopes with
convex lenses are mostly of a compound nature. The exact
measurement of the distances, frequently very small, between
the lenses in the eyepiece offers great difficulties and besides
;
without determining the position of the principal plane,
only a rough result can be obtained from the formulse.
this,
(5.)
The
size of the field of
view
is
the angle
made by
MICROSCOPE.
MAGNIFYING POWER.
132
the rays from two points of a distant object, the images of
which are at the edges of the field of view diametrically
If I be the actual distance of these
opposite to each other.
points from each other, and a their distance from the telescope, the size of the field of view is, expressed in degrees
= 573..
a
In practice a measuringrod fixed at some distance is
If a great
again the most convenient object to employ.
distance
glass
not available, a weak lens in front of the object2, and the scale brought to the
is
may
be used as in No.
distance for distinct vision
then the distance of the scale
is
from the lens.
III.
(1.)
Microscope.
The magnifying power
of a microscope
may be
taken
under which a small object is seen
which the same object would subthat
to
microscope,
the
in
tend at the smallest distance of distinct vision, which on the
as the ratio of the angle
average
we may
take as 2 5 cm.
The method of determining the power of a microscope is
the same as that described in No. II. (1) for the telescope.
An object, the length of which is known, is brought underthe microscope, most conveniently again a small divided
At 25 cm. below the eyepiece is fastened a rule.
scale.
Whilst one eye
the
sees
object
through the microscope,
the other glances at the rule and measures upon it the proIf the image
jection of the image visible in the microscope.
appear
N divisions in length, whilst
sions, the
power
Better
still,
been rubbed
is
its
actual size
divi
a small mirror, the silvering of
off in
is
the middle,
may
also
which has
be fixed over the
up 25 cm. to
same eye the object under the
eyepiece at an angle of 45, and the scale set
one
side, so
that with the
microscope and the reflected image of the scale are both
Instead of comparing the image of the
visible at once.
SACCHARIMETRY.
lo'd
25
object witli a scale at the distance of
cm.,
jected on a surface at that distance from
it
tlie
may
be
])vo
eye and the
drawing afterwards measured.
employed
If a microscope be
(2.)
for
measuring small
lengths by means of a micrometer scale of
inserted in the
eyepiece,
known value
becomes necessary
it
know,
to
besides the abovementioned power, the ratio of the length
of the real image as formed on the micrometer to the length
of the
The measurement
object.
of this ratio
is
easily
accomplished by the aid of a second micrometer scale of
similar scalevalue which serves as an object.
The number
of divisions of the micrometer scale which are covered
by
one division of the scale below is the required number.
For the purpose of microscopic measurement of lengths,
it is
know
not necessary to
scale in the eyepiece.
be
much more
latter,
once for
the actual size of the micrometer
Its relation to that of the object
directly determined
all,
by employing
an object of known length
may
for
the
measuring
(a
scale).
In these measurements of length microscopically,
it must
by any change
in the relative position of the eyepiece and objective.
The
eyepiece used for measurement must therefore always have
the same position in the tube.
not be overlooked that the power
46.
is
altered
DETERMINATION OF THE
SACCHARIMETRY.
EoTATiNG Power.
If the field of view of a polariscope with crossed
prisms becomes light
this is either
when
a transparent body
doubly refracting or " optically
rotates the plane of vibration of the
substance
is
said
to
the plane of vibration
have
is
righthanded
"
i.e.
light.
rotation
it
when
displaced in the opposite direction
to the spiral of a corkscrew,
it
"
active,"
polarised
Mcol
inserted,
is
i.e.
when, to the eye receiving
it,
appears turned in the direction of the motion of watch
hands.
SACCHARIMETRY.
134
Solutions of sugar are those most frequently observed
shall confine ourselves to an
for rotating power.
The
designed for this purpose.
instruments
account of the
We
may
rotation of other bodies
be measured in exactly the
same way.
The angle a through which the plane of polarisation of
the light is rotated by a solution of sugar, which contains z
grms. of sugar in 1 c.c, is, in a column I mm. long (according
to
Wild)
yellow light of the sodium flame
for the
for
06C42
I,
whence
z=
15056
white light (average)
a==07102 .z.l, whence ;^= 14080
quartz plate cut perpendicular to the axis rotates the
line 21 6 7 for each millimetre of thickness.
sodium
The instruments
for
have either
meters)
measuring the rotation (saccharicircle on the polarising
divided
arrangement by the rotation of which the rotatory power of
the substance is measured (Mitscherlich) or a quartz wedge,
the pushing in of which answers the same purpose (Soleil).
Saccharimctcr with Rotating Nicol.
I.
(1.)
The
original instrument of Mitscherlich
consisted
solely of a fixed polarising prism and an ocular prism
ing over a divided
common
circle.
rotat
soda flame (Berzelius' lamp
on the wick, or Bunsen's gasflame with
soda bead on a platinum wire, the light of the glowingbead being screened off) is placed behind the instrument
The blue light of the Bunsen's
in front of a black screen.
with
flame itself
or
cell
Then a
salt
may
be suitably absorbed by a yellow glass
containing
tube,
empty
solution
of
bichromate
or filled with
between the Nicol's prisms of the
of
pure water,
instrument,
potash.
is
placed
and the
index turned over the circle nearest the eye until the middle
135
SACCHARIMETEY,
view appears dark.
Tlie tube is then filled
with the solution of sugar and put into its place again. The
field of view, with the first position of the index, appears
of the field of
The number
must be turned to the
bright.
of degrees through
of a watch), that the centre of the field
is
the required angle of rotation
If
we
which the index
right (in the direction of the hands
may
be dark again,
a.
intend the zero of the circle to be also the point
from which the angle is measured, the index is put to zero
without any sugar solution, and the farther Nicol turned
until the centre of the field
is
dark.
For many eyes the use of a weak lens or spectacles in
front of the eyepiece is an advantage.
When ordinary lamp or sun light is used, since the
colours are rotated differently in the order of their refrangibility, after
the introduction of the rotating solution there
is
no longer any position in which the field is dark, but the
colours change with the rotation of the Mcol.
The adjustment is made for the "sensitive tint," i.e. a violet, which
changes rather abruptly to red on the one side and to blue
on the other.
For this adjustment the angle of rotation is
07l02.
To determine whether the body is " left " or " right
handed," the direction in which the eye Nicol must be
rotated
red.
to
This
produce the " sensitive change
is
"
from blue to
the same as the rotation of the substance.
whether the angle of
two observations
are made, one with red light (ruby glass) and one with the
soda flame.
The two rotations are in the ratio approximately, yellow red = 4 S.
Finally, should there be a doubt as to
rotation
is
greater or smaller than 180;
If the rotation for the soda flame is considered equal to 1
the rotations for the other colours (in almost exactly the same
proportions for both quartz and sugar) are as follows
:
Mean
Eotation.
By
this
Eed.
Yellow.
1
Green.
<
Blue.
Violet.

one can, with the aid of the numbers given in the pre
136
SACCHARIMETKY.
vious part for yellow light, determine
appearances of the
tlie
colouring in any case.
A greater sharpness of the adjustment
is
attained
by the
following variation of Mitscherlich's instrument.
(2.)
DouUe Quartz
Plate.
Two
quartz plates of equal
thickness of right and left handed quartz placed side by
side,
most suitably
3" 7 5
mm.
The
the polarising prism.
thick, are placed in front of
plates
must be placed accurately
perpendicular to the line of sight.
When
the Nicols are crossed both plates appear with
soda flame equally bright, with white light equally
coloured.
When the thickness is 3 "75 mm. this colour is
the
the violet sensitive
When
tint.
a rotating substance has been introduced the two
become dissimilar. The eye ISTicol is now turned
through the rotation angle a of the substance, and equality
is again established.
If the rotation of the substance is
halves
considerable the dispersion of the colours of the white light
thereby produced prevents an exact equality of the halves
of the plate.
In
this case it is better to
conduct the obser
vations with monochromatic light.
Wild's Polaristrohomcter.
(3.)
(due to a
Savart's
plate)
are
In
this
instrument bands
seen in the field of view,
which are bright and dark with homogeneous (sodium)
light,
but coloured
is first
when white
light is used.
so far pulled out that the
The eyepiece
bands appear as sharp as
possible.
The adjustment
darkening of the
for saccharimetry
field,
is,
just as in (1) for the
so here for the disappearance of the
bands in the middle of the
field
Nicol's prism nearest to the eye
of view.
which
is
Since
it is
the
turned, the rotation,
by the
eye, must be taken in the direction contrary
hands of a watch.
The bands disappear in four positions, 90 from each
as seen
to that of the
other.
ing in
The measurement
all
is made more accurate by observthe four quadrants, both with and without the
sugar solution.
SACCHAKIMETEY.
As
to
how
137
the question which sometimes arises whether
the angle of rotation a
is
greater or less than
90,
may
be
answered, see the previous section.
The instruments frequently have a second graduation,
when using a tube 200 mm. long, gives at once the
which,
sugar contained in 1
litre of
the solution in grammes,
Laurent's Apparatus.
Half the field of view is
covered by a plate (quartz, mica), which by double refraction alters the plane of polarisation of the light so that rays
(4.)
emerge from the covered and the uncovered parts of the
of view with different directions of vibration.
The
adjustment for zero is that at which the two halves appear
field
When a rotating substance is introduced
the analyser must be turned back through an angle equal
equally bright.
to the rotation angle of the substance in order that equal
brightness
may
again be produced.
prism also gives two halves of the
which must be adjusted to equal brightness.
With (4) and (5) the soda flame is used.
(5.)
Jellet's
field
of view,
II.
The
Saccharimeter with Quartz Wedge
rotation of the plane of polarisation
(Soleil).
by a
solution of
may
be compensated by a plate of quartz of opposite
rotation, and this not only for monochromatic but also for
sugar
any
light, since
the dispersion of the colours by quartz
is
very nearly proportional to that by a solution of sugar.
Wedgeshaped quartz
plates, of
which any desired thickness
can be introduced, permit the rotation in the sugar to be
deduced from the thickness necessary to compensate the
rotation.
For the adjustment in
Soleil's
and similar instruments
the double quartz plate already mentioned
is
used, placed in
and observed through a teleAn ordinary broad flame is used and the eyepiece is
scope.
first so far drawn out that the quartz plate appears sharply
defined.
The adjustment is made to the same colours in
the two semicircles, and usually the " sensitive " transition
front of the polarising Nicol
SACCHAEIMETEY.
138
tint
from blue to red
sugar
is
coloured
the violet.
it is
In case the solution of
some other colour than
clioseu.
this, nearly the same colours
by using the rack on the eyepiece or
In order to obtain
are produced, either
by
is
better to use
rotating the hinder Nicol's prism.
By turning the tube
may then be obtained,
any desired colour
and that is chosen which gives the greatest difference of
tint between the semicircles.
In the instruments with quartz compensation, which are
most used, the motion through 1 division corresponds to a
in the Paris instrurevolution of the yellow sodium light
ments (Soleil Duboscq)
ofO217;
in the eyepiece
in the Berlin instruments (Soleil Ventzke)
of 0346.
The sugar contained
will therefore
be, using
in 1
c.c.
a tube
displacement from the position
of the solution in grammes,
200 mm. long, when the
when the tube is empty is
divisions
Soleil
Soleil
Duboscq
Ventzke
s:
= 01635
?,
 02605
ja
For specimens of sugar, therefore, in which the percentage of pure sugar is to be determined, the rule is dissolve
16"35 (or 2605) grms. of the sugar to 100 c.c. of the solution; the displacement then gives the percentage of pure
:
sugar.
" normal solu1635
(or
grms. in
2605)
of pure sugar containing
must
amount
to 100
The
displacement
100 c.c. is used.
by
are
determined
value
unknown
Divisions of
divisions.
To
test the accuracy of the
divisions, a
tion "
experiments on solutions of
known
strength.
If we wish the zero of the divisions to coincide with no
sugar in the solution, the index is placed at the zero, when
the empty tube is in its place, and the polarising prism
rotated until the semicircles have the
same
colour.
139
SACCHARIMETEY.
Determination of Sugar in the presence of other optieaUy
active Siibstances.
The
elimination of the influence of other
optically active substances, besides canesugar
{e.g.
inverted
sugar or dextrin), depends upon the fact that the canesugar,
rotating the plane of polarisation to the right,
is,
by warm
ing for 10 minutes to about 70 with hydrochloric acid,
changed into inverted sugar,, which has lefthanded rotatory
Whilst the rotatory power of solutions of canesugar is independent of the temperature, that of solutions of
inverted sugar varies rather considerably with changes of
power.
temperature.
An
tains in 1
z grms. of
c.c.
plane of polarisation of
ture
t',
I mm. long, which conwhat was canesugar, rotates the
the sodium flame, at the tempera
inverted solution
through the angle
a'
Hence the
= (02933000336/')5;.
practical rule
angle a or the displacement
After the rotation
of the quartz
determined with the usual solution, 100
{i.e.
the
wedge) has been
c.c.
of the solution
mixed with 10 c.c. of strong hydrochloric acid,
and kept for 10 minutes at a temperature of 70. When
are taken,
the fluid has cooled, a tube onetenth longer than the former
is taken (or if the same tube be used, the angle obtained
must be multiplied by I'l), and the rotation to the left,
Let the
a (or p'), which now is produced, is observed.
one
temperature of the solution at this latter observation be
The angle
is
t'.
then calculated
a
a'
(or
2')
+ p)
1442 _ 000506^^"
For
if
the rotation due to substances not sugar wliich
is called = /3, we have (p. 134 and above)
wish to eliminate
a'
= (02933  00033GO zl^.
066420^ ^/3
Consequently
a
But
a'
= (09575  000336/')
= (1442 000506/')
6642.2'/ is the rotation
due
zl
.
06642e^.
to the suj^ar alone.
we
liO
INVESTIGATION OF DOUBLY REFKACTING BODIES.
46a.
Investigation
of
Doubly
Eegognition of
the
Eefeacting
Optical
Bodies.
Chaeacters of
Uniaxial Crystals.
body
former
when
refracts
it is
light
regular system, the latter
singly
either
amorphous or
or
when it belongs
when it has
the
to one of the not
regular systems of crystals or
properties
doubly;
crystallised in the cubic or
in different directions
received different
by other
causes, such as
pressure, strain, rapid cooling.
Bodies are separated into these two classes by the aid
of
the
polarisation
apparatus,
i.e.
coml^ination
of
two
arrangements which polarise the light.
For this purpose
may be used Nicol's prisms, Tourmaline plates, unsilvered,
mostly black, glass plates from which the light is reflected
at
an angle of incidence of 53, or
sets of glass
plates laid
over one another, through which the light passes at the same
angle of incidence.
For many purposes a pencil of light
with different directions in the crystal (large
Then between the
crystal
and the
field) is required.
convex lenses
For
observations on small bodies in polarised light with the
ordinary microscope, a Nicol's prism is introduced between
the mirror and the body, and another is placed over the
are inserted
polariser
(ISTorremberg's polarisation
microscope).
eyepiece of the microscope.
The polarising arrangement nearest the eye
the analyser, the other the polariser simply.
The
polarising
apparatus
is
polarising arrangements "crossed"
mostly
when
used
is
termed
with
the
the field of view
appears dark.
The two planes of polarisation of the
arrangements, in this case at right angles to each other, are
called the " principal planes " of the apparatus.
Whether a body is singly or doubly
mined with the polarising prisms crossed.
substance leaves the
refracting is deter
A singly refracting
view dark, with the exception
of those few bodies which exert a rotatory power on the
field of
light (40) witlioiit double
refraction,
xi
doubly refracting
141
OPTICAL CnARACTERS OF UNIAXIAL CRYSTALS.
body makes the
special positions,
Only in
of view bright or coloured.
and then only with a smaU field of view,
field
does this become dark.
Let
now
a plane plate of a doubly refracting crystal be
has two positions at right angles to each
which the field of view,
This
given.
other in the polarising apparatus at
or at
any rate the middle
of
remains dark.
it,
In these
positions the planes of vibration of the polarised rays into
which the light passing through the plate is decomposed,
coincide with the " principal planes " of the apparatus.
In this case, if the plate belongs to a uniaxial crystal,
the axis of the crystal Lies in one of the two principal
planes.
The middle of the field is constantly dark {i.e.
during a complete rotation of the plate) only
plate
is
cut at right angles to the optic axis.
when
the
The darkness
extends from the middle farther along the principal planes
the four quadrants are
of the apparatus (the dark cross)
;
traversed by rings, which
monochromatic
Only
show
closely the rings lie together, the greater,
when
the dark centre of the
The more
light are coloured.
{e.g.
field.
plates of equal thickness are compared,
tion,
i.e.
light are alter
quartz) do not
nately bright and dark, in white
substances with rotatory power
is
the double refrac
the difference of velocity between the ordinary and
extraordinary rays.
To discover whether such a
plate belongs to a positive
or a negative crystal, a socalled quarterundulation or cir
cularly polarising mica
fUm
is
used, that
is,
thickness that the two sets of vibrations
a plate of such a
which traverse the
plate emerge with a difference of phase equal to onefourth
of the wavelength.
This mica plate
is
placed anywhere
between the prisms of the apparatus in such a position that
the plane of the optic axes of the mica
angle of 45
is
inclined at an
to the principal planes of the apparatus.
The
shows no longer the black
but the rings are disrings,
quadrants
of
cross with equal
quadrants, and
in
alternate
other
each
relatively
to
placed
in the neighbourhood of the middle point, which is now
crystal plate being investigated
INVESTIGATION OF DOUBLY EEFEACTING BODIES.
142
bright, are
two dark
spots.
If these spots lie in the plane
of the optic axes of the
mica the ciystal
extraordinary ray
refracted), if they lie
is
less
perpendicular to this the crystal
Mica can be
is
known
axes
is
of the axes
in a
calcspar, negative
may
(the
plane
positive.
be suitable for use, and the direction of
to
{e.g.
negative
the required thickness.
determined most simply by using
is
crystal
easily split to
is
It
optic
on a known
it
quartz, positive).
also be determined
its
The plane
from the figure given in
converging light (see next page).
The phenomena
crystal
are explained as follows
Assume
that the
negative, that therefore the extraordinary ray,
i.e. the
ray vibrating radially in the apparatus, has a greater velocity
than the ordinary ray, Avith its vibrations tangential.
At a
certain inclination to the axis {i.e. in the figure, at a certain distance from the centre which must lie inside the first dark ring),
the ray with radial vibrations will have gained on the other by
onefourth of a wavelength.
Now in a plate of mica a ray with vibrations parallel to the
plane of the axes is propagated more slowly than in other
is
directions
our quarterundulation plate therefore retards vibra
tions in its axis plane a fourth of a wavelength
the vibrations of the other component.
If
now
compared
Avith
of the above
mentioned rays of which the radial component
is accelerated a
quarter wavelength in the crystal, those are received into the
eye which lie in the plane of the axes of the mica, it is seen
that the diff"erence of phase is increased by the mica.
The two
dark sj^ots therefore appear near the centre of the field in the
plane of the axes of the mica.
It follows of course that a positive crystal must behave in an
exactly opposite manner.
Similarly it is easily seen that the
diameter of the rings is increased by onefourth of the distance
between them in two quadrants, and
by an equal amount.
On
in the
two others diminished
the measurement of refractive indices
compare 40.
of
crystals
axgle of optic axes of a ceystal.
143
Detekmination of the Angle of the Optic Axes
OF A Crystal.
47.
Let a plate be cut from an optically biaxial crystal
perpendicular
to
tlie
of
bisectrix
the
When
axes.
the
prisms of a polarising apparatus are crossed, such a plate
gives, if the field of
bright and dark
view
(or
sufficiently large, a
is
system of
lemniscates traversed by a
coloured)
black cross or by hyperbolic dark
brushes
(see
The two
which the lemni
figure).
centres round
contract denote the optic
scates
axes of the crystal.
When
images of
joining the
line
the
the
axes coincides with the plane of
polarisation of either polariser or
analyser the dark cross appears.
If
the
crystal
plate
is
''
rotated
through 45 from this position, the dark hyperbolic brushes
appear symmetrically disposed relatively to the lemniscates.
is the most suitable
measurement of the angle between the axes. A
made on the plate perpendicular to the line joining
This appearance depicted in the figure
for the
mark
is
the optic axes.
For the measurement of the angle a divided circle is
which is perpendicular to the optical axis
of the apparatus.
In order that the figure as above may be
obtained the axis of the circle must make an angle of 45
The plate is now
with the principal planes of the prisms.
used, the axis of
fixed to the axis of the circle so that the
lies in this latter,
hyperbola)
field of
taken.
is
and one
marked
direction
of the optic axes (vertex of the
brought to coincide with the crosswires in the
The reading of the circle is then
the apparatus.
The angle a through wliich the
rotated in order that the other vertex
may
wires, is the apparent angle of the optic axes,
after their
emergence into the
must be
on the cross
plate
fall
i.e.
the angle
air of the rays of light
traverse the crystal in the directions of
its
optic axes.
which
144
ANGULAR MEASUREMENT WITH MIRROR AND
If the
mean index
of refraction
SCALE.
of the crystal
is
known
Table 20), the true angle a^ of the optic axes in the
crystal is found from the expression
(40,
1.
=~11
sin ia.
1
sm ^a
"
In the case of axes with a larger angle between them of
course only one axis is visible at a time.
If the angle is
still greater it may happen that on account of refraction and
total reflection, no light which has traversed the crystal in
the direction of the axes can emerge into the air.
In this
case the measurement can be performed in a fluid contained
in a vessel with two plane glass faces perpendicular to the
The proctpss is otherwise the same as before.
Let the axial angle here observed be a, we then find a, if
is the index of refraction of the fluid from the equation
line of vision.
sin
^a
Since the angle of the axes
= N sin
Ja'.
is different
for different colours,
accurate measurement requires light of definite colour, e.g.
that of the sodium flame or that produced by passing the
light through glass coloured red by copper.
The displace
ment
of an axis
when observed
in different colours is called
the dispersion of the axes for these colours.
The measurement of one and the same axial angle (e.g.
and in a fluid a, affords a
convenient means of determining the refractive index JV of
in Sulphate of Baryta), in air a,
tlie fluid,
48.
with the help of the equation given above.
Angular Measurement with Telescope,
Mirror, and Scale.
This method may be employed with great advantage in
many magnetic and galvanic observations, but its application
limited to the
measurement of small angles.
small vertical mirror is attached to the suspended
magnet, etc., of which the horizontal deflection is to be
measured, and, in order to simplify calculation, it should be
is
ANGULAR MEASUREMENT WITH MIRROR AND
near the axis of rotation of the
from
1 to 5
same
scale at the
image
level as
is
the mirror;
At a
distance of
fixed a horizontal
and
its
reflected
observed with a telescope provided with
is
The
wires.
latter.
metres from the magnet
scale
must be
so placed that
145
SCALE.
when
cross
the magnet
which the other positions
scale from which a
perpendicular would cut the mirror shall be visible on the
is
in
its
position of equilibrium, to
are mostly referred, that point of the
We
crosswires of the telescope.
may call this point briefly
the " middle scaledivision," and the corresponding position
of the
magnet
its "
mean
Arrangement of
is first
the
position."
Telescope
and
Scale.
The
telescope
focussed approximately for twice the distance between
the mirror and scale.
It is then pointed to the mirror,
and
an
so placed that its objective is visible, in the mirror, to
eye immediately over the middle scaledivision, or conversely
that this
is
seen from near the telescope.
The image
of the
scale will then be visible in the telescope, or will appear
by
movement of the latter.
Lastly, the fine adjustments must be made the crosswires mtist be clearly focussed,
and the telescope then drawn out till the scale and cross
show no parallax; that is, till their relative position is
unaltered by moving the eye before the eyepiece.
a slight
If observers requiring different foci take turns at reading,
clear definition
must be obtained
in each case
by moving only
the eyepiece between the eye and the crosswires.
The measui'ement of angles with mirror and scale may also
be carried out by the use of a welldefined source of light (slit,
thread in front of a flame), this being reflected from the mirror
on to a scale, a lens being placed so that the rays pass through it
both in passing to and from the mirror.
[The focal length of the
lens should be equal to the distance between the scale and the
mirror.]
When the lens is correctly adjusted, a clear image of
the mark is obtained on the scale, the displacement of which is
made use of in the same way as the image in the telescope.
[This plan has also the advantage of being easily seen from anywhere in front of the scale, and tlierefore by many people at the
same
time.]
REDUCTION OF SCALE TO ARC.
146
Receipt for Silvering Glass {after Boetk/er).
(1.)
Argentic nitrate
ammonia added
down is almost
and
till
the precipitate
The
entirely redissolved.
100
diluted, so that
c.c.
contain
first
solution
is
filtered
grm. of argentic nitrate.
2 grms. of argentic nitrate are dissolved in a
(2.)
and
thrown
dissolved in distilled water,
is
to the solution
little
water,
and poured into a litre of boiling water ; r66 grm. of Eochelle
salt is added, and the mixture is boiled for a short time, till the
precipitate contained in it becomes gray, and is then filtered hot.
The
glass plates, thoroughly cleaned (with nitric acid, caustic
soda, alcohol), are placed in a shallow vessel,
and covered a few
In an
millimetres deep with equal volumes of the two solutions.
hour the reduction will be complete ; the plates are Avashed and
the operation repeated until a sufficient coating of silver is obtained.
When the silvered surfaces are
dry, they may be cautiously polished
If the silver be only required as a
with the palm of the hand.
coating of the back surface, the polishing is of course superfluous.
In this case also the operation may be shortened by heating the
The silver may then be
solutions to about 70 C. before mixing.
varnished over as a protection.
The properly prepared solutions will keep for about a month
in a dark place.
The thin glasses used for covering microscopic
objects make good mirrors, but those only which give a clear
image of the scale can be employed.
49.
We
Eeduction of Observations with the Scale
TO Angular Measure.
will reckon all angles of rotation
position" (see
p.
deflection through
this position.
from the "mean
145), as zero, and denote by
As
which the magnet,
scale deflection,
we
(p
etc., is
the angle of
turned from
take the difference n
of the observed from the middle scaledivision.
(1.)
For small deflections the angle
the scalereading
reflecting surface
(millimetres, if
it
in degrees of arc
and, indeed,
if
is
proportional to
r be the distance of the
from the scale, expressed in scaledivisions,
be a millimetre scale), the value of 1 division
is
28648
1718'9
103132"
REDUCTION OF SCALE TO ARC.
In observations of
variation of terrestrial magnetism,
tlie
may always
for instance, tliis proportionality
The
error
may amount
at
in parts of the whole to 00004
(2.)
be assumed.
most
2
00016
0003G
00064
0010
in deflections of
147
For a deflection not exceeding 6 we may always
v/ith sufficient accuracy take
1718'. 9
/.
71
n\
{^4}
Frequently a trigonometrical function
is
i ^^
required instead
of the angle itself
n
tan (pr
^
2r
sill
sm =
Hence we reduce a
,
or
^^
(3.)
^
scalereading
and sine
to the corresponding
of halfangle,
by subtracting
^,
respectively from n,
For deflections of any magnitude whatever
p
The
bKm
~
ir
arc, tangent, sine,
last
formula
siderations, the others

tan
given by simple geometrical conby taking the first two terms only of
is
the series for the development of
<p,
tan
p, etc.
If the reflection takes place at the hinder surface of the
glass, the distance r of the scale
from the front of the mirror
of the glass.
In the
must be increased by the thickness
same way if any other plates of glass
path of the light only
^ of
are interposed in the
their thickness
must be reckoned
in the distance.
Paper
millimetres
scales
;
is
are
not usually accurately divided into
then expressed in scaledivisions.
/;'
POSITION OF EQUILIBRIUM OF NEEDLE.
148
50.
Determination of the Position of Equilibrium of a
Swinging Magnetic Needle.
The position of equilibrium, or point of the scale on which
a magnetic needle would settle when it came to rest, may be
determined from observations of the moving needle in the
following
manner
If the oscillations
Observation of Turning Point.
are rapid or large, a number of successive turningpoints of
the crosswires (i.e. points at which the direction of motion
(1.)
is
reversed) are observed on the scale.
these the position of equilibrium
the arithmetical
may
From any
three of
be found by taking
mean of the first and third, and again that of
number so obtained. Compare, besides,
the second and the
the article (7) on the determination of the position of equilibrium of a balance, which is completely applicable to the
present case.
If the motion of the needle
(2.) Observation of Position.
be so slow that the position of the crosswires on the scale
can be exactly observed at any moment, the arithmetical mean
between two successive readings, differing by the time of one
oscillation,
wiU give the
position of equilibrium.
As an example we may
take a set of observations of the
position of a magnet, observed and calculated after the direc
The position of a needle of which the
20 seconds, is required for 10 hours
minutes, p is the reading at each successive 10 seconds, ^^o
seconds.
the means between each pair of p differing by 2
tions given
by Gauss.
time of oscillation
Time.
irs.
is
Po
Mean
oi p^.
mins. sees.
59
30
40
50
10
10
20
30
4750
4748
4760
4771
4768
4761
4771
47550
595
640
660
695
47628
149
DAMPING AND LOGAKITHMIC DECREMENT.
Damped Magnetic Needles.
These two rules are
when the amplitude of swing diminishes very
(3.)
only applicable
slowly.
If, however, the magnet be damped and rapidly
brought to rest (by the employment of a copper frame), the
position of eqviilibrium ^^
is
vations,^! ^iid ^2j differing
the following formula
found from two successive obser
by the time
of
one
oscillation,
by
Here k
is
the " ratio of damping," that
of oscillation to the next following.
in the following article.
angular measure
is
as the needle.
is
The reduction
of scalereadings to
rarely necessary.
To bring the needle
ployed, which
the ratio of one arc
is,
Compare the example
to rest, a
magnet
is
frequently em
approached or withdrawn at the same level
A galvanic current passing near the needle,
and closed and broken
same purpose.
at the right
moments, may be employed
for the
51.
Damping and Logarithmic Decrement of a
Magnetic Needle.
The diminution of the arcs of oscillation of a magnetic
is damped by a copper case, or by the sur
needle which
rounding
coils
of
a multiplier,
is
of
great importance in
and magnetic measurements. The damping is
caused by the reaction of the currents induced in the
neighbouring conductors by the moving needle and the
law of damping, given by the theory of induction, shows
that the arcs diminish in a geometrical series.
The constant relation of an arc of oscillation to that next following
is called the ratio of damping, and the logarithm of the
decrement of the needle.
latter the losrarithmic
O
The determination of this magnitude is most simply
accomplished by observa,tion of a series of turningpoints of
The difference of two successive turningpoints.
the needle.
galvanic
DAMPING AND LOGARITHMIC DECEEMENT.
150
which,
if
the oscillations
be large, must be corrected to
If , be the
angular measure (article 49), gives the arc.
amplitude of the with, and a^^ that of the n\h oscillation, the
damping
ratio of
and the logarithmic decrement
^_ lo(j.a,nlorf.an,
n
Errors of observation have the least influence on the
a"'
result
when
is
aba'ut
Uiri
Troni a longer series of obse'rvations (best an uneven
number) the required magnitude may be deduced as in the
following example, in which 7 observations of turningpoint
The second column
are contained in the first column.
gives the distance Of the turningpoint from the middle
scaledivision (in this case 500); the third and fourth the
correction
(article
of the
to
49),
numbers proportional
reduce
scale froiii the
mirror
r= 2 6
is
In column 5 are the six corrected
first and fourth, second and fifth,
a value for k hnd \.
shown the method
the
Iti
arcs,
etc.,
/;=
1*151,
is
scaledivisions.
of
which each gives
the sixth and seventh columns
(50, 3)
to
The distance
combinations of the
is
of calculating the position of
equilibrium from the two turningpoints
damping,
scalereadings
to their angular values.
when
the ratio of
known.
Exam.pl 3
Observed
turniDg
v?
points.
2850
7100
3412
6625
3839
6257
4156
215
210
159
162
116
126
84
3 X 2600''
05
05
02
02
01
01
00
Corrected
turniugpoints.
2855
7095
3414
6623
3840
6256
4156
Arcs
2151
Position of
Equilibrium.
4240
3681
3209
2783
2416
2100
1971
1711
1492
1294
1123
976
5124
5125
5131
5134
5133
5132
Mean 51309
151
TIME OF OSCILLATION.
We
obtain therefore
A=i
and
4,
5,
6,
from
4240%.
{log.
3681
3209
00610
00609
00614
Mean A = 00611
2783)
2416
2100
^=1151
damping is always dependent on the resistance of
damping be required which is due to the multiplier alone, one series of observations must be made with open,
and another with closed circuit. The logarithmic decrement of
part of the
the
If the
air.
the former subtracted from that of the latter gives the required
decrement due to the multiplier alone. (71, III.)
By employing natural logarithms or multiplying the value of
X as found above by 23026, we obtain the "natural logarithmic
decrement."
Time of Oscillation of a Magnetic Needle.
52.
The time
of oscillation of a
position of equilibrium
is
body
oscillating about its
the time between one elongation
(turning back, greatest deviation from the point of rest) and
The
the next on the opposite side.
however,
is
moment
the
hand
other
unsuitable
it
for
dnect
motion of the body
passes a point near
instant of turning,
observation, as at
is
its
insensible.
On
that
the
position of equilibrium
with the greatest velocity, so that the instant of this crossing
may
From
be exactly observed.
ive passings of the
of the
the times of two success
same point in opposite
intermediate turningpoint
is
directions, that
simply found as the
arithmetical mean.
point near the position of equilibrium
the scale (by hanging over
it
is
marked on
a dark thread), and the times
passed are observed by the ticking of a
The mean of each successive pair of observations is taken, and the differences between these means give
The tenths of seconds are estimated
the time of oscillation.
by the relative distances of the crosswires from the mark at
at
which
it
is
seconds clock.
the ticks of the clock preceding and following the passing.
If
from a consecutive
mean be
again taken,
it
series of
n values so obtained the
same result as if
will only yield the
152
TIME OF OSCILLATION
the difference of time between
and
tlie first
last observation
The intermediate observations will
were divided by n.
To render the whole available, the obsertherefore be useless.
vations may be divided into two parts, and the differences
of the corresponding numbers in the two halves taken, and
from these the arithmetical mean reckoned and divided by ^n.
Example
Time
Time
of crossing
(observed).
of turning
m.
10
sec.
m.
sec.
10
990
2320
3.3
165
299
430
566
11
11
Time
of oscillation.
(calculated).
99
3990
from Nos.
and
= 1330
4,
3645
4980
5,
325
1660
6,
= 1335
3
4015
1338
Mean
1334
233
(For the use of the method of least squares in such
observations, see 3, p. 11.)
It is best of all to obtain two widelyseparated and
exactlydetermined times of elongation from repeated observations, in the following manner
observe twice (or
:
We
even more frequently) an even number of
successive times of passing the marked point, and from
each pair lying symmetrically about the middle elongation
we take the arithmetical mean, and from these, arain, the
for great accuracy
mean
of the whole.
Example
First Set,
No.
290
456
6.
m.
sec.
4 106
2.
5.
passing.
sec.
3.
4.
Times of
Means.
passing.
m.
1.
Second
Times of
40
207
389
Mean
m.
9
3
2
4
5
of whole
4 5480
5485
5475
4 5480
10
sec.
Set,
Means.
m.
sec.
255
439
06
189
356
539
10 975
975
970
10 973
OF A MAGNETIC NEEDLE.
153
These two means are the times of two elongations, as
from these observations.
The difference between them, 3 14*93 sec, divided by the
exactly as they can be deduced
number
lation
of intermediate oscillations, gives the time of oscil
with
the
greatest
accuracy.
It
not necessary
is
number may be
actually to count these oscillations, as the
An
deduced from the observations themselves.
approximafrom either
series.
Taking, for example, the first from the first and
last pairs of observations are obtained the times of two
19*8 sec. and 5 m. 29*8 sec,
elongations
viz. 4 m.
between which four oscillations have occurred.
Hence the
tion to the time of oscillation
easily obtained
is
time of oscillation
is
r =17"5
If this
sec.
number and
observations were perfectly exact, 17"5 would divide
314*93 without a remainder, and tlie quotient would be the
the
number
Performing the division we
whole number 18 as to
of oscillations sought.
find 17*995, a value so near to the
leave no doubt that this
314*93
sec.
j^ = 17*496.
respectively
is
the
The exact time
Were 17
or
would be obtained
number
of
of oscillations in
oscillation
is
therefore
19 taken, 18*52 or 16*57
as the period,
and neither of
these agrees with the result of the siuLile observations.
In order to eliminate errors of observation, a large even
number, 2m, of sets of observations may be made, and No. 1
combined with m \ 1, 2 with m \ 2
m with 2m, and
.
the
mean
of the single results taken.
vations are separated
squares
may
This
by equal
be employed
If the sets of obser
intervals, the
method
exactly as in page 1
method obviously requires that the
of least
5.
oscillations
should be sufficiently slow for the time of each to be observed.
It
may, however, be employed
for
more rapid
each time omitting 2 (or any even number
by
and
oscillations,
of) passings,
set, for instance, of Nos. 1,4, 7, 10, 13, and 16,
which are reckoned precisely as above, except that the result
In the estimation of the number
is of course divided by 3.
of oscillations between the sets, the care required will natur
forming the
154
REDUCTION OF TIME OF OSCILLATION.
with
increase
ally
number, and, other things being
tlie
The
equal, with the rapidity of the oscillation.
possibility
an error will be diminished if we observe at each passage
whether the motion corresponds to a greater or lesser period,
and also by our accustoming ourselves always to begin with
of
a passage in the same direction.
oscillations will
The time
of oscillation of a "
logarithmic decrement
as
\/7r2+ (2306X)^ to
It
is
The required number
of
then necessarily be even.
A,
(51)
is
damped
"
needle with the
to that without
damping
tt.
manifestly unimportant to the method whether
the observations are
made with mirror and
scale, or
with
the naked eye.
If the time of oscillation be very near a second, or
an
exact multiple or submultiple of one, the method of coinci
dences may be employed.
In this case, the times must be
noted at which the passage of the position of equilibrium
exactly coincides with the beat of a seconds clock.
The
then given by dividing the number n
two such coincidences by 7i f 1 ov n1,
according to whether the oscillations are quicker or slower
than those of the pendulum.
time of oscillation
is
of seconds between
If a watch or chronometer be employed instead of a clock, it
convenient to count 5 or 10 ticks after the passage of the
marked division before noting the time, so as to allow time to
look from the telescope to the watch.
If an absolute time be
wanted, this must, of course, be subtracted from the mean result.
spot of light reflected on the scale from a lamp (as in Thomson's galvanometers) is often conveniently substituted for the
is
telescope.
Eeduction of the Time of Oscillation to that in
53.
AN INFINITELY SmALL ArC.
The time
of oscillation increases slightly with the ampli
As we
usually require the limiting value to which the
tude.
time approaches
when
the oscillations are very small,
we
155
REDUCTION OF TIME OF OSCILLATION.
must apply a
correction to the observed values
which are
obtained from larger amplitudes.
Taking
t
= the
= the
observed period of oscillation ;
arc through which the magnet vibrates
the time of oscillation, in an infinitely small arc,
64
is
4/
the quantity within the brackets
be found in Table 21, calculated for arcs up to 40;
an amplitude which should never be exceeded.
To
facilitate the calculation,
may
This correction
its
is
applicable to a
pendulum moved by
weight, or to any oscillating body in which the force
which draws
it
towards
portional to the sine of
The method
position of equilibrium
its
is
pro
angle of displacement.
its
of observation with the telescope
and
scale
possesses the advantage that the oscillations (of from
300
50 to
small that the first term
divisions of the scale) are so
of the formula of correction is sufficient.
write, if
We may therefore
2?
= the
= the
arc of oscillation in divisions of scale
distance
of
mirror from scale;
also expressed
in
divisions of scale
^"'^
The value of a
may
256?'
(or p, as it is written in the
be taken as the
mean
observed oscillations.
above formula)
and last
of the arcs of the first
The observations must be so arranged
by more than onethird
that the amplitude does not diminish
during the experiment.
If
tion a,
we
call
and
the
mean
of the
their difference d,
/
ft
first
or
1
d'
and last arcs of
more exactly
2^ is
.
24 a
oscilla
MOMENT OF
156
The complete formula
to that in
INERTIA.
for reduction of
an infinitely small arc
time of oscillation
is
+ i
^
 +
sin
4
64
sin
The formula given above
is
obtained from this by perform
ing the division, omitting
all
powers beyond the 4th, which
The reduction formula for
is
practically always admissible.
scale observations
may
readily be found with the help of
article 49.
54.
Determination of Moment of Inertia of a Body.
The moment of inertia of a material point, referred to an
round which it revolves, is Pm, where ??i = the mass of
the point, and / its distance from the axis.
That of a numaxis
ber of points rigidly connected, or of a body,
is
the
sum
or
must of
course be expressed by some units of length and mass.
This is most briefly expressed by writing after the number
for the moment of inertia g. cm. or mg. mm, (see Appendix
integral of those of all the individual points.
It
10).
I. Calculation of Moment of Inertia.
In bodies of regular
form and homogeneous composition the moment of inertia
may be found by calculation.
In the following formulae, which embrace the more
frequent cases, m is always the mass of the body, and
its
required
moment
of inertia.
Bar of length I, and of width uniform, and very small
compared to I.
Eeferred to an axis at right angles to the
rod, and passing through its centre
K=m.
12
edges.
The moment
of inertia
a and h are two adjacent
round an axis passing through
Biglitanglecl jjarallclopipedon.
MOMENT OF
157
INERTIA.
the centre of gravity, and parallel to the third edge (that
perpendicular to a and
is,
I), is
a"
Tjr
If
12
Cylinder of radius r referred to the axis of the cylinder
K=m
.
2
Eeferred to an axis perpendicular to
of the cylinder
(/
tlie
middle of the axis
being the length of the cylinder)
A=m
4
\12
Hollow cylinder
of r^ inner,
and
Moment
r^ outer radius.
of inertia referred to the axis
K7^ = m
r: + r^
2
Eeferred to a line perpendicular to the axis
P
K=m{
J2
Sphere of radius
r,
r" +
^
+
r;
referred to a diameter
K = m 2
f.
Example.
6
is
mm.
The moment
radius,
88030
of inertia of a
magnet 100 mm.
long,
and weighing 88030 mgr.,
( +
7")
= 74150000
mgr. mm.', or 7415
g.
cm.'
If, as in the foregoing examples, the moment of inertia
Note.
K, relative to an axis passing through the centre of gravity, be
given, the
moment
parallel to the
first,
of inertia K^, relative to any
obtained by adding to
may be
other axis
the pro
duct of the mass of the body m and the square of the distance a
between the new axis and the centre of gravity ; that is
K.
= K + am.
158
MOMENT OF
INERTIA.
Experimental Determination of the Moment of Inertia.
of inertia may always be found experimentally in the following manner.
The time of oscillation must
II.
The moment
be observed, and the moment of
known amount, without altering
inertia then increased by a
the directive force, and the
time of oscillation observed again.
If
= the time of oscillation of the body
= the time with the added weight
h = the added moment of inertia
t
alone
^'
both times of oscillation being reduced to an infinitely small
then
arc (see preceding article)
r:f=(K + Jc):K
and therefore the required moment
of inertia of the
body
alone
This method is specially applicable to bodies hung by
a thread, so as to turn about a vertical axis, particularly
therefore to magnets.
The known moment of inertia may
be added by weighting the magnet with a ring of known
dimensions and weight, or by hanging two similar cylindrical
weights upon points, or by threads, at equal distances from
the axis of revolution (the suspending thread), and so that
the axes of the cylinders are vertical.
The turning force is
unaltered by the added w^eight, as only the horizontal force
is taken into consideration.
The moment of
two cylindrical weights together is
inertia of the
being the mass of both together, / the horizontal distance
of the centres of suspension (points or threads) of the weights
from that of the magnet (its axis of revolution), and r the
radius of the cylinders.
I is determined by measuring the whole
distance between the
points of suspension of the weights and halving it.
159
COEFFICIENT OF TORSION,
Example.
The two cylindrical weights are each 10 mm. in
diameter
r=5 or 0"5 cm.
50000 or 50 g.
they weigh together 50 grm.
m=
The
distance between the cocoon threads by which they are
10026 mm.
/= 5013 mm., or 5013 cm.
Their united moment of inertia, therefore
hung=
^
= 50000 (5013 + ^^^= 126280000 mgr.mm.', or
Further, the time of oscillation is found to be
1st, Of the unloaded magnet, 9754 sec. in a
189 j therefore (preceding article)
^=9754
(1
12628
mean
g.
cm.
arc of
000170) = 9737.
2d, Of the magnet loaded with the above weights, 14311 sec.
in an arc of 255 ; therefore
^'
14311
(1
0.00310)=
Hence the required moment
"
= 110110000
In order
to
14267' 9737
mgr. mm., or
llOM
cm.'
g.
Coefficient of Torsion.
55.
to
magnet
of inertia of the
ir=;tr^= 126280000
"
t"t
14267.
make
absolute measurements,
it is
necessary
separate the turningforce due to the elasticity of the
suspending
magnetism.
of the magnet from that of the earth's
The moment of torsion of the thread is propor
fibre
tional to the imparted angle of torsion, while the directive
force of the earth's
magnetism
is
proportional to the sine of the
angle v^^hich the magnet makes with the magnetic meridian,
or very approximately to the angle
small.
On
this
itself,
supposition, therefore,
so long as
for
it is very
any angle, the
turningforce of torsion bears a certain ratio to that of the
earth's magnetism, which we will call the ratio of torsion,
and which is measured in the following manner
The position of the magnet, when the thread is not
:
MAGNETIC INCLINATION.
160
twisted,
observed
is first
then by turning the upper or lower
points of attachment of the thread, a measured torsion
communicated
to
it,
and the position of the magnet
is
is
again
observed.
If
a
<p
= the
= the
angle through which the thread is twisted
angle through which the torsion deflects the magnet;
the required torsion ratio
is
In instruments for
fibre is attached, either
fine measurements the suspending
above or below, to a graduated circle,
by turning which any degree of torsion may be produced.
The angle of rotation read on this circle is a.
In the
absence of such a circle the magnet must be turned once
entirely round without moving the upper attachment of the
thread
a will then be 360.
;
For the sake of exactness it is desirable to make the
observation with mirror and scale (art. 48), which is easily
done by attaching a small mirror to the magnet, in case it
is
not already provided with
be measured
magnet must
in
degrees,
If the angle of deflection
it.
of
course
also be expressed in the
is
unit.
Magnetic Inclination.
56.
Inclination
the deflection of the
same
the angle which the direction of terres
magnetic force makes with the horizontal (Table 24).
This direction will be given by a magnetic needle if it is
movable, without friction, on an axis at right angles to
trial
and to the magnetic meridian; if (1) the axis passes
through the centre of gravity of the needle
and (2) if its
magnetic axis (the line uniting the two poles) is coincident
itself
with
its
geometrical axis.
satisfying these
two
The impossibility of permanently
conditions
necessitates
the
mode
of
observation described hereafter.
The placing of the
divided
circle
in
the
magnetic
MAGNETIC INCLINATION.
meridian
is
passneedle,
161
accomplished by the aid of an ordinary comfor
which
an
accuracy within
or
is
sufficient.
The numbering of the
divisions of the circle varies in
most convenient when in each
quadrant the divisions are numbered from the horizontal as
different instruments.
It is
we
zero; and for simplicity
that this
An
vertical
the
is
will suppose, in the following,
the case.
inclination instrument with fixed circle
is first
by a plummet hung from the uppermost
placed
division of
In an instrument with rotating circle the axis
must be made vertical, which is shown to be the
case by the bubble of a spiritlevel taking the same place in
its tube in all positions of the circle.
For this purpose the
circle.
of rotation
level,
when
the axis
approximately adjusted,
is
is
arranged
two of the footscrews, and is
made level.
The circle is then turned through 180, and
the deviation of the level so produced is half corrected by
parallel to the line joining
the use of the footscrews (and
if
the bubble of the level
also to be corrected, the other half
If now,
correction of this).
its first position,
there
is
still
when
is
with the screw for the
the circle
a deviation,
it
is
returned to
must again be
The instrument must then be turned 90,
and the adjustment made from this side in the same manner
half corrected.
with the third footscrew.
In each position of the needle both upper and lower
must be read, to eliminate any possible eccentricity
points
of its axis from the centre of the circle.
The mean of the
two readings will in what follows be called shortly "the
observed angle."
On
account of possible lateral eccentricity of the centre
of gravity, the needle
movable
circle,
the
must now be turned round (with a
and needle together must be
circle
turned 180), by which
we
also eliminate the deviation of
the geometric from the magnetic axis of the needle (and,
circles, any deviation of the line joining the
upper and lower 90 divisions from the axis of rotation of
with movable
the
instrument).
Any
longitudinal
displacement of the
162
MAGNETIC INCLINATION.
position of the centre of gravity requires for its elimination
a reversal of the magnetism of the needle.
We
must observe the angles
^, in
(1.)
vj/j
(2.)
the
when
position of the needle.
first
is turned 180 round its magnetic
and again replaced in the iustrument ; or, with
movable circle, when the latter, with the needle, is
the needle
axis,
(3.)
<Pi
v^j
(4.)
I.
turned 180.
the magnetism of the needle is reversed by
stroking with a bar magnet in position 1.
when the remagnetised needle is placed in position 2,
or the circle turned 180.
when
If these angles
the arithmetical
II.
are nearly alike, the inclination i
In any case
it
may
managed by grinding
easily be
the side of the needle before the observation that
and
also ^,
and
^^, are nearly
tani = l (tan
III.
we must
is
mean
^' "^
Should, however,
^^
ahke
'
and
tan
^^
(p^
and
^
and then
'^'^^^
also differ considerably,
write
and calculate
cot !
=I
{cot
cot a^
=l
{cot
+ cot
f^ + cot
(p^
v^j),
^^
lastly
tan
It is obvious that
=I
{tan a^
+ tan
a^.
by reversing the needle any deviation
of the magnetic from the geometrical axis of the needle will
be eliminated.
II.
and
III. are
Formula
I.
also needs
no remark.
obtained by supposing the
Formulae
unknown
dis
placement of the centre of gravity resolved into its components, parallel and perpendicular to the magnetic axis of
the needle, and considering the conditions of equilibrium
between magnetic force and that of gravitation.
163
MAGNETIC INCLINATION.
Were
ment
there, for instance, only a longitudinal displace
of the centre of gravity towards the north
pole of the needle, then taking
angle,
<p^
the observed
the weight of the needle,
mag
its
mo^nent, and T the total intensity
terrestrial magnetism, we should have
= MT sin {f^  i).
pi cos
netic
of
<f>^
now
If
'
the magnetisation of the needle be
'
reversed, so that the displacement of the centre of gravity
we have
MT sin (i f^
is
towards the southern end,
pi
By
cross
cos
p^).
two equations, and
multiplication of these
elimination of the sines by division by cos
i cos
<p
cos
<p^,
we
obtain
tan
tan f^
or (II.) tan
It
is
is
=
= tan
(tan
<p^
(p^
 tan
tan
i ;
p^)
assumed that the magnetic moment of the needle
the same before and after remagnetisation, which
nearly the case
if it
is
stroking a thin and frequently remagnetised needle.
advisable that the
should not give
and
very
be performed by carefully and equally
It is
displacement of the centre of gravity
rise to too gTeat differences of position before
after remagnetisation.
reverse for a few tunes the
It is
well,
to
begin with, to
magnetism of a needle which has
been long magnetised in one way.
Further, before
observations f^
and
<p^,
the
needle
is
stroked exactly in the same way.
The stroking
.
itself is
Holding
performed in the following manner
the needle
by one
half,
with the fingers
near the axis of rotation, the other half
lengthwise over the pole of a magnet
is
drawn
as in the
So, for instance, the two surfaces of one
end should be twice gone over then those of the
other end four times, and then the first twice
figure.
Fie.
^ 12.
On
again.
account of the friction
tion of rest of the needle
it is
well to deduce the posi
from observations of oscillation
(7).
MAGNETIC DECLINATION.
164
Declination of Tereestrial Magnetism.
57.
By
" declination "
understood the angle which the
is
magnet makes with the astronomical meridian
cate
from the
latter
declination
"
is
to
the
magnetic
of a
.axis
and, to indiis
counted
us, therefore,
As we cannot he
west."
position of the
With
former.
angle
the direction of the deflection, the
the
certain of the
needle,
we must,
for
exact determination, observe the magnet in two positions.
For the measurement (after Gauss) we require a theowith a horizontal circle, a distant mark (or if near, in
the focus of a lens placed before it), of which the astronomical azimuth (that is, the horizontal angle which a straight
line, drawn through it from the theodolite, forms with the
astronomical meridian) is known (see 88); and lastly, a
magnetometer of which the needle can be turned upside
down.
The theodolite is placed nearly in the
same magnetic meridian as the suspending thread
of the needle, and its telescope at the same
dolite
height as the magnet.
We assume, as is most convenient, that the
magnet has a longitudinal sight, which at the
end towards the theodolite has a lens of the same
the length of magnet.
focal length as
other end
cross
is
threads,
through the
mark
or
lens,
At
the
(screen with small opening,
divided glass),
which, seen
appears as a very distant object.
The
theodolite
is
num
divided so that the
ber increases in turning
the telescope the same
way
as the sun (that
from
The
Fig. 13.
is,
left to right).
observations,'
after the axis of the in
strument
is
made
are as follows
vertical
by the
aid of the level
(p.
161),
MAGNETIC DECLINATION.
(1.)
The
telescope
is
pointed so that the terrestrial mark
appears on the crosswires.
now = a.
If
165
Let the reading of the
circle
be
astronomical azimuth of the mark,
be the
counting from north to west (see previous page), the theodolite
must be turned
to the division
line of vision of the telescope
(2.)
magnet,
The
let
may
a + ^ in order that the
point north.
telescope being directed to
the reading of the circle be
the
mark on
the
a^.
The magnet is turned on itself 180, or so that the
uppermost which was previously below, and the telescope directed again to its mark.
Let the reading of the
circle be a^.
The readings a^ and a^ always differ but very
(3.)
side
is
slightly.
Now
clearly the westerly declination will be
when
To determine
the suspending thread has no torsion.
and eliminate the latter, we must measure the angle to which
For this
the thread has been twisted in the observation.
purpose the magnet must be taken from its stirruj), an unmagnetised bar of equal weight substituted for it and the
turning of the stirrup by this change measured on a divided
Should this angle of rotation = f in
circle laid underneath.
the same direction as the sun's daily course, the declination
;
will be
d
= d' +
0(p
being the ratio of torsion (55).
The smallest
is
ratio of torsion in proportion to its strength
given by the cocoon thread, but
its
position of equilibrium
of torsion is very changeable, and, in a bundle of fibres, de
pendent on the weight hung to
moments
it.
Moreover, for small
of torsion, the observation of angles of torsion is
tedious and inexact, so that a
brass) answers best if the
metallic wire (thin iron or
magnets are not too small.
MEASUKEMENT OF HOKIZONTAL INTENSITY.
166
SUEVEYING WITH THE COMPASS.
58.
Table 23 contains the angles of deviation of the magfrom the astronomic meridian, for the (geographical)
The declination so
latitudes and longitudes of midEurope.
netic
1.
obtained will rarely differ from the actual more than
This possibility of determining an astronomical direction
with the magnetic needle is of the greatest value in surveys
where only moderate accuracy is required.
On the use of the instruments concerned we will not
touch further than to say that the universal directions for
instruments for angular measurement are applicable to them.
The accuracy is principally dependent on the length of the
compassneedle, since the shorter it is the greater is the
and geometrical axis.
on the point is lessened by
possible difference between its magnetic
The influence of
slightly shaking the
friction
compass before reading.
It is obvious
that both ends of the needle should always be read.
59.
The
Measurement of Horizontal Intensity of the
Earth's Magnetism by Gauss's Method.
intensity of the magnetic force at a place, likewise
the strength of a magnetic
field, is
that force which
it
exerts
The miit pole again is defined
on a unit magnetic pole.
as exerting on a similar pole at unit distance a unit force.
Compare on this and the rest of the section Appendix 6 to
16.
The measurement depends on two observations viz.
From
of a time of oscillation and of an anyle of deflection.
the
first
intensity
moment
be obtained the product MT, of the horizontal
magnetism, and the magnetic
may
of the earth's
of
inertia of the
the
swinging magnet,
magnet be known.
The
if
the
M
ratio
fp
moment
is
of
found by
observing the deflection of another magnetic needle, caused
by bringing the
first
to a
measured distance from
it.
From
167
HORIZONTAL INTENSITY.
these two
M may be
numbers
eliminated by division and
determined.
After Gauss
all
times are given in seconds, lengths in
and masses in milligrammes.
Centimetres and
grammes give a number for the earth's magnetism onetenth
of this.
(See Appendix 14 to 16, and Table 28.)
millimetres,
I,
Determinatioii of
MT.
The period of oscillation of the magnet, suspended by a
thread, and swinging in a horizontal plane, is determined.
If,
then,
= the
period of oscillation in seconds, and reduced to an
infinitely small arc (52, 53)
K= the
moment
= the
ratio of torsion of the thread (55)
magnet (54)
of inertia of the
the required product
MT
M.T= f
^^
(1
+ 0)
MT
For the directing force acting on the magnet is
and the square of a time of oscillation divided by
TT^ gives, as is well known, the ratio of the moment of
This number
inertia to the directing force (Appendix 10).
(1 + 0),
we
A.
In the suspension of small bars cocoon silk is always
employed on account of its small torsion either in single
Such a bundle may
fibres or in bundles of several threads.
be produced by fixing two glass rods on the edge of the
will call
table, as far apart
silk is
as the required length of thread.
wovmd round them,
its
drawn slightly farther asunder, so
and the loop so formed suitably
point of suspension.
The
ends knotted, and the rods
stretch the thread,
as to
fixed to the
single cocoon
fibre
magnet and
will
sustain
Bars exceeding
about 1 5 grm. without danger of breaking.
1 pound in weight must be hung by wires (of brass or
steel).
In
this
the effect of the
torsion
of
the wire
is
eliminated by the simple artifice of using as carrier for the
168
HORIZONTAL INTENSITY.
magnet a
stirrup of such weight, that
when hung alone on
when loaded
has the same period of oscillation as
with the magnet.
the wire
it
Determination of ^
II.
By
allowing the magnet used above, of which
we have
from two pairs of
equal distances on a magnet needle which can oscillate in
a horizontal plane, and each time observing the angle through
which the needle is deflected, we obtain the ratio of the
magnetic moment
to the horizontal force of the earth's
magnetism according to the following rules.
(For the effect
ofjhe suspending thread, see pp. 159 and 165.)
called the magnetic
moment M,
to act
First Arrangement
c is
the centre of the compass
S
The
position
NS represents
line
which the
the magnetic meridian,
free needle takes.
The
deflecting
i.e.
the
magnet
placed east or west of the compassneedle, so that its
is in the positions a, a', V, I, successively ; the distances of the centre of the magnet from that of the compass
is
centre
are equal in pairs, ac =
The bar
westward.
at both ends.
that
its
he, a'c
= b'c.
placed, for instance, at a, with the north pole
The position of the compassneedle is read off
is
The
deflecting bar
opposite pole
is
is turned round 180, so
towards the compassneedle, which
is now deflected in the opposite direction, and again
read at
both ends.
The differences of the two positions of each
end are halved, and the arithmetical mean of the two halves
taken as the angle of deflection for the position a of the
deflecting magnet.
HOKIZONTAL INTENSITY.
169
supposed in the foregoing that the circle of the comdivided in one direction from 0 to 360, the most
It is
pass
is
convenient arrangement.
two
are
zeros,
sides, instead of
a', h',
and
nearly equal angles for
wiU thus be
If we take
(each
f
<p'
r
r
it
Exactly the same
they
case,
numbered
is
the half differences of the readings,
of course, take their half sum.
the positions
sometimes the
as is
If,
from each of which
to both
we
is
must,
done
for
The arithmetical means of the
and for a'h', must then be taken
h.
cib,
the result of 8 single observations).
= the mean angle of deflection for a and h
=
a and h'
= half the distance ah in millimetres
=
ah'
then the required number
3f
r*
tan
~T^^
The number thus
<p
 r'*
tan
<f)'
r  r"
obtained,
which we denote by B,
immediately gives the required intensity T,
3TT=A
by
M
m=B, and
if
we
divide
extract the square root
If a short needle, lying in a line
Proof for a Short Needle.
with the magnetic axis of a bar magnet of magnetic moment 31,
and with poles east and west, and at a distance r from the centre
of the needle, be deflected through the angle p, then (compare
%\
2 31 f
Appendix 1 5 and 16), tow p = ^
( 1 + ,
where x is a constant
j
for each magnet.
observed,
first
subtraction, the
r tan
<p
If at a second distance
we have
plying the
 r'^
similarly tan
(p'
^
;^(
the deflection
+ 2)
By
f'
be
multi
equation by r and the second by r'\ and by
constant x is eliminated, and we obtain
unknown
tan p'
{f  r").
(See following example.)
horizontal intensity.
170
Second Aerangeivient
3f
may also be
in the
"77
,,
,
obtained by placing the deflecting magnet, as
annexed diagram, at equal distances successively 7iorth
and south of the compass C, and obtaining two pairs of
such observations for different distances as before.
The
same mode of procedure must be followed as has been
previously described, both in regard to the observation
and in calculating the mean value. Using also the same
notation as before for the distances of the centre of the
magnet from the compass viz. r = i ah, / = J ah' ;
deflecting
and <p' for the mean angles of deflection
for the positions ah and a'b', it is only necessary to omit the
factor ^ from the previous result, and to take
and
further, taking
<p
31
The method
following aims:
r^
tan
 r'^
<p
of observation
By
tan
<p'
above described achieves the
reading the angle of deflection from
both ends of the needle, and taking the mean, the influence
any eccentricity of its centre with regard to the graduated
compass disappears. The poles of the deflecting
magnet are reversed, to eliminate the effect of any unsymThe same thing is accommetrical magnetisation in itself.
plished for the compassneedle by causing the deflections
of
circle of the
alternately to each side.
It is obvious that the exactness
of the results will be
increased in proportion to the eightfold repetition of each
single reading.
In order that the errors of observation may
have the least possible influence on the result, it is best
that the ratio of the two distances r r' should equal 4:3.
The angles of deflection should be as large as possible, but
to produce this the deflecting bar must not be brought so
:
near the needle as to
make
times the length of the har.
the lesser distance a'b' less
The length
needle should not be more than ^\^th of
Simplification
The
of
a'h'.
when the sam,e Magnet is
two different distances
deflection at
than 6
the compass
repeatedly used.
is
necessary for
HORIZONTAL INTENSITY.
l7l
unknown distribution of magnetism
and the needle, which is accomplished by the
foregoing formula.
If the same bar and needle be repeatedly
used for the determination of T, the observation and calculathe elimination of the
in the bar
tion
to
may
make
be simplified.
It
only necessary, once for
is
the observation for two different distances.
all,
From
this is calculated the factor x
,2
r'^
/
If,
tan
tan
then, the angle of deviation
distance
of the bar,
'
<(>
be found for one suitable
we have simply
M_
or, similarly,
 r^ tan p
 r'^ tan
a'
<p
EUan ^
omitting the factor ^, by the 2d method {vide
anted).
If the deflection be
measured with a magnetometer with
mirror and scale (48), instead of with a compass, the procedure is the same as above described (except the reading
from both ends of the needle).
The scaledivisions must
be reduced to tangents of the angles (49).
It is, however,
necessary to take account of the torsion of the suspending
thread by multiplying the tangents by 1 } 5 ; a being the
ratio of torsion (55) for the deflected bar,
and the expression
becomes
M _r^ tan <pr" tan
T
r'
In accurate determinations
magnetism
that the
<p'
(1+^)
r"
of the
it
bar
must
when
also be considered
pointing north and
south in the oscillation observations is greater than when
pointing east and west in the deflection observations, so that
the terrestrial magnetism
found somewhat too gTeat by
is
moment
error may amount to a few
the relative increase of the magnetic
of the bar by the horizontal force be known the
value of
the above experiment.
parts per
fraction.
1000.
The
If
originally found
must be diminished by i
this
HOEIZONTAL INTENSITY.
172
The observations
made
course, be
oscillation
of
in the
same
local influence (and especially articles in
might exercise a
pocket of the observer, or steel spectacles), must be
the
removed from the neighbourhood.
of
and deflection should, of
Iron articles, which
place.
the earth
or
the
of
Variations of magnetism
bar (the latter specially through
change of temperature) are most likely to be excluded when
the two sets of observations follow each other as closely as
possible.
For the comparison
the simplest means
oscillation period of
53).
The
of the horizontal force in
magnetic forces are inversely as the
terrestrial
On
squares of the times of oscillation.
ability of
moment
must be made soon
the magnetic
observations
two places
by determining at the two points the
a magnet suspended by a thread (52,
is
account of the vari
the magnet the two
of
after
one another, and
if
they have been at different temperatures they must be
reduced to the same temperature.
Example.
Measurement
of
T with Weber's Portable
Magnetometer.
I.
Moment of
Determination of MT.
Inertia.
The
magnetic
of Avhich the length
12'5 mm.
Its weight
parallelepiped,
=
156) its moment
breadth
p.
&
K= 19860
bar
a
a rightangled
is
= 100 mm., and
m= 119860
mgr.
By
the
(54,
of inertia
^QQ +^^'^
12
^ 101440000 mm.^ mg.
Ratio of Torsion of Suspending Thread.
It was found that a
single complete rotation of the thread produced a deflection of
the magnet of 1"4.
By
(55) the ratio of torsion
This
Time of Oscillation.
where the mean arc of
infinitely small arc, gives for
t
was found
to
oscillation Avas 30.
= 7414 
be (52) 7414 sec,
This, reduced to an
time of oscillation
7414 X 00043
= 7*382
sec.
l73
HOEIZONTAL INTENSITY.
Calculation of BIT.
^_
31416^ X 101440000
or7^
^^^
faT)
Determination of
is
loom
nnn
''''''''
7382 X 10039
II.
The required value
"^' S
^^^
compass stands on the 500th division of a rule divided
and perpendicular to the needle. The same
was used in the determination of 3IT is placed with
its centre successively on the 100th, 200th, 800th, and 900th
once with its north and once
divisions, twice on each division
with its south pole towards the compass (see Fig. on p. 168).
In these positions the following observations of the needle were
into millimetres,
magnet
as
made
When
the magnet was placed on 100 the readings were
2d end.
1st end.
i\^
pole towards needle
994
pole towards needle
799
Half difference
975
Mean
2798
2606
960
967
In a similar manner was found, when the centre of magnet
lay
at
200 mm.
800
900
The two angles of
mean of each similar
2267
987
deflection,
the
<p
i
= 977 = 9
2241
<p
and
46'
(p
2254
distances r
100) = 400 mm. r'=
From
M=
1
^
these
we now
= 22
32'.
obtain
(p.
(800  200)= 300
mm.
169)
4.00Uan 9 AQ'  SOOUan 22 32'
5
400^300'
The required
obtained by taking
and / are
The two
h (900
p',
pair of observations, are as follows
^^.onr^ mm.
=5387800
horizontal intensity of terrestrial magnetism
therefore
'=
/ 18301 000
5387^
5387800
= 1843
mo'^
"
sec.
mm.i
is
174
HOKIZONTAL INTENSITY.
In the cm.
g.
system the numbers for the moment of inertia
and 3ITwi\l be 100000 times
smaller, therefore for T^
T= 01843 ^
cm.*
The
sec.
smaller, those for
00 times smaller.
(See also
\
Thus we
Appendix
and Table
1
factor x calculated for our
magnet from
1000 times
shall
have
28.)/
this investiga
tion will be
PC
400 X300 400^^a7i946'300^^a/i2232'~'^^^^
In the case when only one observation of deflection <p' = 2232'
300 mm. has been made, the calculation by the
formula (p. 171) gives
for the distance
300' tan 22 32^
^=
T
^
3627
= 5387800,
soothe same value as above.
In order not to be obliged to calculate the fractional parts of
the degrees as read off into minutes we may make use of the
excellent " five figure " tables of Bremiker.
In the form of magnetometer used by the English
Note.
Government, a bar, turning on a horizontal graduated circle,
carries the telescope, the deflecting magnet, and the point of
suspension of a needle, furnished with a mark and collimating
In observing, the telescope and
lens, as described in article 57.
bar are turned till the mark (crosswires, scale) of the needle
coincides with crosswires of the telescope, the circle is read, the
deflecting bar placed in its carriage at a certain distance from
the needle, and the whole turned till the mark again coincides,
and the difference read as the deflection. The observations are
conducted in other respects precisely as above, and the results
reckoned by the same formulae, except that sin <p, etc., is substituted for tan <p, etc.
The method has the advantage of keeping
the needle always in the same relative position to the deflecting
bar, and of introducing no variation of torsion in its suspending
fibre.
The same apparatus is also adapted for measurement of
declination, as the telescope is movable in altitude (see Admiralty
Manual of Scientific Inquiry, p. 96 j and Airy on Magnetism,
Under some circumstances, and where very great accup. 57).
racy is required, corrections must be introduced for change of
THE COMPENSATED MAGNETOMETER,
175
temperature of the magnets, and for magnetism induced in them
of the earth (see Airy, p. 165 ; Ad. Manual, p. 100).
by that
Trans.
Determination of Horizontal Intensity by the
60,
Compensated Magnetometer,
The compensated magnetometer
for the
is principally intended
comparison of horizontal intensity at different places,
but will also serve
absolute determination.
for
It consists
compass and a frame carrying four magnets of similar
form to the compassneedle.
The two smaller of these are
twice the length, breadth, and thickness of the compassof a
needle, while the larger are
is
placed with
its
threefold.
When
the frame
four holes on corresponding pins on the
compass, the smaller bars are east and west of the needle
(p,
The
168), and the larger ones north and south
deflecting force of all the bars
and therefore the poles
direction,
must
(p.
170),
same
magnets
act in the
of the smaller
must be in the opposite direction to those of the larger
ones.
The distance between the larger bars should be
about 1*204 times that of the smaller ones.
Deflections of
about 50 are most favourable for accuracy in the
The compass is so placed
of Deflection.
the frame is set upon it the line connecting the
Ohservation
that
when
magnets
larger
is
in
is
noted,
turned 180 in
both
The half
ends
difference
of
The frame
the magnetic meridian.
being put on, the position of the needle
frame
result.
plane, and
its
the
needle
of these
is
observed, the
the position again
being read
two positions
is
each time.
the angle of
deflection.
Observation of Period of Oscillation.
A small pin is
screwed into one of the holes near the large magnets, and
by this the frame is hung in a stirrup attached to a cocoon
thread.
mirror
may
also be screwed into another hole
near the point of suspension for observation with telescope
THE COMPENSATED MAGNETOMETEK.
176
moment of inertia, two
which are hung by cocoon
(Compare
threads over the outer endsurfaces of the frame.
also Pogg. Ann., Bd. 142, S. 547.)
and
To
scale.
the
determine
cylindrical weights are employed,
Comparison of Horizontal Intensity at Tioo
I.
Places.
magnetism of the deflecting bars may be conunchanged between two observations (that is, when
there is only a short time between them and the temperatures of the two places are nearly equal), it is only
necessary to observe the angles of deflection, <p^ and <p^.
The horizontal intensities of the places are inversely proIf the
sidered
portional to the tangents of these angles
Tj
_ tan
Differences of temperature
may
vided " the temperature coefficient
" of
the magnets
known.
frame in the two places,
poles in the
II.
same
when all
Then
we
and t^, of the
four magnets have their
also observe the times of oscillation,
If
is
however, the magnetism of the bars be altered,
If,
must
easily be allowed for pro
t^
direction.
t^
T,
t^
tan
tan
<p^
9,
Determination of AhsoliUe Horizontal Intensity.
we
call
2r the distance
of.
the centres of the smaller (east and west)
magnets from each other
2R that of the larger magnets ;
f the angle of deflection ;
t the time of oscillation with magnets all in the same direction;
T that when the smaller magnets are turned 180
the ratio of torsion of the thread in the first case';
K the moment of inertia
We
then have the absolute horizontal force
r\/]tan
'
f V
r'
21^
l77
BIFILAR MAGNETOMETER.
The centre
pin on which
of a
it is
magnet
is
considered to be that of the
movable.
To eliminate any want
of
symmetry
may
this point, the angle of deflection
time after turning
the second
their
pivots
mean
the
magnet about
the magnets 180 on
two angles being taken
all
the
of
of the
be twice observed
as
(p.
(p.
168), the deflection of a short needle increases with dimin
With
a deflecting
magnet
to the east or west of the needle
ished distance more rapidly than tlie inverse cube of the latter
with one acting from the north or south (p. 170) more slowly;
that is, the quantity denoted by x in the note (p. 169) is in
the former case positive, and in the latter negative.
These corrections compensate each other with similarlyformed magnets,
when
the dimensions are as 2 to
and the distances
3,
(see Pogg. Ann., Bd. 142, S. 551).
If,
moments
M the
and
of the magnetic
magnets respectively, in
smaller
cos (p=
sum
T sin
magnets,
The time
(p.
yields
Hence follows
the
therefore,
our
of oscillation
result
(p.
167)
1*204
of the larger
instrument
/,
as 1
we denote by
and
(^+03)
with similarly directed
{M+m) T=^^
under
7T.
31
be considered constant, and the ratio of torsion is small.
The time of oscillation, Avith oppositely directed magnets,
at once the formula
I.,
the ratio 7n
if
tt'K
yields
M + 'm\}
{M  m) T = ^(
and by combining these
Mmy
two equations the formula under
and
and
lastly,
61.
In order
to
by writing
II.
by elimination of
follows
for
BiFiLAR Magnetometer.
measure the variation of horizontal force at
is hung by two
the same place at different times, a magnet
threads equidistant from
The
line joining the
its centre,
so that
it lies
horizontally.
two upper, and that connecting the
BIFILAE MAGNETOMETER,
178
two lower points of attachment of the threads, are turned
till they form such an angle that the moment of rotation
caused by terrestrial magnetism is balanced by that from
the weight of the suspended magnet when the latter is at
It is best that this
right angles to the magnetic meridian.
angle of torsion should be about 45.
The
by mirror and
slight rotation (read
scale)
which
is
then caused by variations in the horizontal intensity of
magnetism may be taken as proportional to this
Increasing intensity moves the north pole of the
terrestrial
variation.
magnet towards the north it is therefore convenient wdien
motion in this direction corresponds to increasing numbers
;
of the scale.
In order
to
determine the value of a scaledivision in
absolute measure, a horizontal magnet of
moment
(following article)
is
known magnetic
brought near the magneto
meter, at the same height as the needle, and at a considerable measured distance, r millimetres, to the north or south.
The reading
magnetometer will
divisions
on
turning the north and south poles of the bar towards
it.
Then one
of the
differ
division denotes a change of horizontal force of
A=
When,
4if.
as is customary, the value of the scale
is
to be
expressed in fractional parts of the horizontal force of the
place, it is only necessary to divide
If,
then, the scalereading
by
7'
(Table 22).
corresponds to the hori
zontal force T, that of ^' will be
T
The
bifilar
=T
[l+(i^'l')].
magnetometer
in this simple
form
is
only adapted
for the observation of variations of intensity in short spaces of
time, since, with change of temperature, the distance
between the
suspending tlireads and their length is variable, and the magnetic
moment of the bar may also alter with time.
Demonstration.
Taking
as the magnetic
moment
of the
MAGNETISM OF A BAR.
179
the terrestrial magnetism will exert on it a moment
of rotation niT.
By a change in T of say A, the moment of
rotation will vary ??iA.
The approach of the magnet
to the
bifilar bar,
(great) distance r increases or diminishes the
moment
M
i (comr
pare Appendix).
duced,
we have A
If a deflection of
:
= ^
n.
For the determination of the values
from torsion and oscillation observations
magn. Fereins, 1841,
62.
I.
p.
1,
scaledivisions be thus pro
the scaledivisions
Gauss, Eestdt. d.
of
cf.
or Appendix, vol.
v.
p.
404.
Detekmination of the Magnetism of a Bar in
Absolute Measure.
The method described in
applicable to this case.
from the two numbers
It
is
article (59) is completely
only necessary to eliminate T
MT=A
and
M
= ^ by multiplication,
and we obtain 31= \/ AB.
But M, as we have seen, is the
employed for deflection and
oscillation, expressed in Gauss's absolute measure.
(Compare Appendix No. 15a, Table 28.)
The magnet employed in the previous example has
magnetic
moment
of the bar
magnetic moment
^^= V18301000
5387800 = 9929800 mm.^ mg.^
or v/l8301 X 53878
II.
As
= 99298
cm.^
q}
sec.
sec.
"^
Determination hy Observations of Deflection.
the magnetism of bars varies with time and change
of temperature, great exactness is seldom
demanded, and
since the horizontal intensity for the place of observation
approximately
known
(the value given in Table
seldom more than 1 per cent in
error),
deflection (59, II.) alone are sufficient.
22
is
beino
the observations of
MAGNETISM OF A BAR.
180
In most cases
enough to observe a single
it is
If
at one distance.
we
deflection
call
the horizontal intensity of terrestrial magnetism
magnet from that of the
;
r the distance of the centre of the
needle in millimetres
latter by the magnet
f the angle of deflection of the
the magnetic
moment
M of
the magnet
is
given by the
for
mula
M = lf
if
tan
<p,
the deflecting magnet be east or west of the needle, as in
the figure on p.
168;
or
M=
if it
be north or south
rigorously exact
when
r^
(p.
tan
l70).
f,
This
formula
is
only
the lengths of the magnet and needle
compared to the distance between them.
So long, however, as the distance r between the magnet and
are infinitely small
the needle
is at least
3, 4, 5, 6, or 7
times the length of the magnet,
a short needle being also employed, the error introduced by
the simplified determination cannot exceed at most
6, 3, 2, 1,
or 1 per cent of the whole value.
In this case the method of angular measurement, with
may be Used with advantage, the torsion of
mirror and scale,
the thread
being corrected by multiplying
by (1+0)
(article 55).
In the examination of a magnet not in the form of a
magnetic mineral, the magnetic axis
of which cannot be determined from its form, the body is
turned into that position in which it produces the greatest
By this means we obtain at the same time the
deflection.
"
viz. in the " first position
position of the magnetic axis
(p. 168), as the line joining the centres of the magnet and
needle; and in the "second position" (p. 170), as the per
bar, as, for instance, a
pendicular to this line.
Instead of this
we may determine
181
MAGNETISM OF A BAR.
the components of the magnetic
moment
in three positions
For this purpose we may fix
the mineral in a cubical block, and place this east or west
of the magnet needle in such a position that an edge of the
perpendicular to each other.
cube
is
parallel to the line joining the centre of the
cube
The deflection is then observed.
and that of the magnet.
Then the same observation is made with each of the other
If the deflections of the magnet are small,
sets of edges.
the components parallel to each set of edges are calculated
The distance r
exactly as above.
we have
M=
of the magnetic axis
may
M^, M^,
Jig,
to
is
be reckoned from
we obtain for these the values
s/m^ + M^^ + M^. The position
If
the centre of the cube.
also be lound, since
j^, are the cosines of the angles
which
it
~,
^, and
makes with the
three experimental directions.
Determination hy Oscillation.
III.
In a bar
moment
of regular
of inertia
of oscillation
t,
form we
may
easily calculate the
X (54), and then we have from the time
neglecting the torsion of the suspending
thread (55)
The
torsion
may be
eliminated
by employment
of a
stirrup of such weight that its time of oscillation alone is
the same as that with the magnet upon it.
The number obtained by dividing the magnetic
moment
by the weight of the magnetic body in milligrammes (or
grammes according to the system) is called its specific
In the best magnets of elongated form this
magnetism.
may amount to about 1000 (100 in the cm. g. system).
ohm's laws.
182
General Eemaeks on Galvanic Work.
63.
I.
Ohm's Laws.
In simple undivided
The
(1.)
is
electrical resistance
Circuits.
of a cylindrical conductor
directly proportional to its length
sectional area a;
oi
w=^s
in dififerent substances, and
As we
the body.
we may
call
k=
sq.
is
ordinarily take
 the
mm.
column
section)
at 0 C.
cylindrical
and inversely
factor s varies in value
as
the conductivity
of resistance (resistance
mercury 1 metre in length, and
of
be employed, the specific resistance of
must be taken
body of length
as unity.
The
resistance of a
metres, and section q sq. mm.,
the specific resistance referred to quicksilver.
find that in a cylindrical conductor (wire,
in a prismatic vessel), of length
sq.
so
of a conductor.
specific conductivity
then expressed in mercury units by the number
we
to its
called the specific resistance of
Siemens or mercury unit
If the
at 0 C. of a
mercury
The
~.
q
/,
s ~, s
being
Conversely,
column
is
if
of fluid
metres, and sectional area q
specific resistance of the
mm., the resistance = w Siem., the
material
= %u~, and
its
specific conductivitv
"
k =  =
s
q.
referred to quicksilver.
The
stances
specific
is
The
(2.)
conductivity of the most im23ortant sub
given in Tables 25 and 26.
total resistance of a circuit is the
sum
of the
resistances of all the separate parts.
(3.)
braical
(4.)
The
sum
total electromotive force is similarly the
alge
of all the separate electromotive forces.
The currentstrength or
intensity
portional to the electromotive force
the resistance
iv,
or
i
=C 
e,
i is
directly pro
and inversely
so to
183
ohm's laws.
The numerical value
units in which i, c, and w
when
of the factor
C=
these are so chosen that
1.
depends on the
most simple
For example, we have
are measured.
It is
such a system of galvanic units if we express the current
IVchers magnetic measure (67, p. 193), the
strength in
Siemens
resistance in
units,
electromotive force in units
and
of which that of a Grove's or Bunsen's cell =20*0, or of a
We
Danieirs= 117.
have then simply
=
.
For ex
produces in a closed
^ p
p 8 X 20
circuit of 100 Siems. resistance a current oi ^^[7)7^ = 1""
ample, a battery of 8 Grove's
(Compare
magnetic units.
cells
also
App. 1921 on Absolute
Galvanic Measure.)
Derived Currents in divided Circuits.
If a current i between two points of the undivided conductor branches into several paths of the resistances %v^,
w^
and in which correspondingly we have the currents
.
(5.)
The sum
of the divided currents
divided current, or
^^
is
equal to the un
= i.
Z2
(6.) The divided currents are inversely proportional to
the relative resistances of their respective paths (or duectly
,...,..
to their conductivities), %^'.%^:
(7.)
sum
J.
of
The
.=
11^:
total conductivity of the divided circuit is the
aU the
conductivities of the single branches
=
l^
Ohm's
Law
according
to
The laws given above, from 2
the two following, which give
Kirchhoff.
to
directly
7, are
combined in
the equations for
currents in divided conductors.
A. At any point of division, the sum of the currentstrengths in all the branches = 0, taking the currents toivards
the juncture as of opposite sign to those
fro7P,
it.
184
GALVANIC BATTERIES.
B. If
consider any part of the conductor which forms
we
a closed circuit in
and reckon in
itself,
it
the electromotive forces and currents in
all
one direction as positive, and in the other
negative, the
sum
of the products of the
individual
resistances
into
strengths
equal to the
sum
is
the
current
of the electro
Fig. 14.
motive forces.
For example, in Wlieatstone's bridge we obtain six
equations by taking the divided currents and their corre
sponding resistances
/
i^
^3
Ii^%=0
i
i^iv^
i^w^
iw
iw
 =
+'14
i,
+ i,w, = E
+ i^w^ =
iw
+ i/w. =
2
IW\
i.
The remaining equations
(as i
\
'i'2~
S^ 0)
^.re
contained in
the above.
Galvanic Batteries.
II.
As
immersed dilute
seldom use it
stronger than of a sp. gr. 1"06, i.e. about 1 volume of the
strong acid to 2
volumes of water.
For feeble currents a
much weaker acid is mostly sufficient.
The mixture of
the
is
which the zinc
in
fluid
sulphuric acid
almost always used.
is
We
the acid a.nd water produces a considerable rise of temperature,
on which account the acid
is
poured slowly with con
stant stirring into the water.
The
solution of sulphate of copper in the Daniell's cell
It becomes exhausted by the current,
and therefore the battery becomes inconstant.
The strength
of a Daniell's cell usually increases for a time on first
should be saturated.
setting up.
The
nitric acid
"concentrated"
where constancy
(sp.
in
gr.
Grove's and Bunsen's cells
is
of current is desired.
pour the sulphuric acid into the cell
so as to moisten the porous cell with it, that the other
It is best to
may
used
1'3 to 1"4) for strong currents or
penetrate to the zinc as
little as possible.
first
fluid
185
GALVANIC CONNECTIONS.
For bichromate cells, Bunsen prepares 1 lit. of fluid as
follows
92 grms. of powdered bichromate of potash are
rubbed down to a uniform paste with 94 c.c. of strong
sulphuric acid.
To this is added 900 c.c. of water, keeping
it stirred and continuing the stirring until all is dissolved.
If the zinc is to remain a longer time than usual in the
fluid this must be diluted with water.
Strong constant
currents must not be expected from the bichromate battery.
The zinc is amalgamated by first producing a clean
metallic surface by brushing and dipping in dilute sulphuric
acid, and then either rubbing on metallic mercury or dipping
the zinc into a solution of chloride of mercury and finally
cleaning off the solution.
The mercury need not be clean.
Many carbons lose their efficiency by long use. We may
try to clean them by filing off the surface or by heating.
Porous cells which are to be washed are best kept for
a considerable time under water after surface rinsing, and
letting the water soak through.
This prevents the efflorescence of the salts on the upper edges which soon spoils
:
the
cell.
In order to cover platinum or silver
black
(to " platinise "
the
foil is
of chloride of platinum, to
has been added, and
a current, or
with
is
foil
with platinum
placed in a dilute solution
which a
little
hydrochloric acid
then made the negative electrode of
touched under the surface of the fluid
is
zinc.
III.
Galvanic Connections.
The simple touching of two
generally
give a
satisfactory
connection cannot be
made
solid conductors does
connection.
Where
not
a firm
the touching parts should be of
platinum.
Even when using binding screws the
surfaces
must be
brightened and the screws firmly screwed down.
The plugs
in rheostats are set in firmly with
clean cloth or
a slight
They should be frequently wiped with a
with blottingpaper, and from time to time
turn in the hole.
rubbed with the
finest
emerypaper.
186
GALVANIC RESISTANCES.
Even mercury connections only give a
when the metal touching the mercury (brass
safe junction
or coj^per)
is
For this purpose the surfaces are cleaned
with acid and then amalgamated either by rubbing with
mercury or by dipping into a solution of that metal.
Wlien commutators are placed in the circuit, special
care must be taken in the manner mentioned above to make
It is always a doubtful prothe contacts truly conducting.
amalgamated.
ceeding to use iron as a connection.
The contact
of a metal with carbon should generally be
over a large surface.
The disturbing
influence
needles of a galvanometer
on the
of conducting wires
may mostly
be avoided by placing
wires carrying the current in opposite directions close to each
other.
needles,
In any case single wires should not be led near the
and large loops, especially vertical ones, should be
avoided.
The simplest commutator
1 2
4 mercury cups
a,
of
consists of a board with
which we can connect by means of a
and 3 with 4, or 1
and 2 with 4. The wires from the battery are connected with 1 and 4 and the ends of the circuit with 2 and 3.
pair of metal bridges either 1 with 2,
with
3,
IV. Galvanic Eesistances.
For resistance units and
sets,
German
silver wires
are
usually used, because this metal possesses a high specific
which moreover varies but little with changes of
The increase of the resistance for 1 amounts
about 0"0004 in parts of the whole, but is not the same
resistance,
temperature.
to
for all
specimens of wire.
marked change
is
New
also influenced
wires experience at
The amount
of resistance.
" bifilar."
by the winding.
After Siemens's example, resistance coils
wound
first
of the resistance
The wire
is
are suitably
bent in the middle, and be
ginning from there both parts are
wound
arrangement gives two advantages.
The
together.
coils
when
This
currents
are passing exert no magnetic influence around themselves
EFFICIENCY OF BATTERIES AND GALVANOMETERS.
187
and secondly, they are not, when the currentstrength alters
(as on closing and opening the circuit), exposed to the dis
may
turbing electromotive forces of the extra current which
easily lead astray.
On
is
the comparison of resistances, see (70) and (71). It
we must avoid warming the coils by strong
obvious that
and longcontinued currents.
The resistance unit " Ohmad " or " Ohm " introduced in
England is nearly J^ larger than Siemens's mercury unit.
More accurately 1 Ohm =1*049 3 Siem. For the signification of the Ohm, see Appendix No. 16.
V. Efficiency of Batteries and Galvanometers.
Strong currents in conductors of low resistance depend
principally on the size
and nearness of the metal plates in
the battery, and on the conductivity and degree of concentration
of
the
copper solution or
weaker currents in
conductors
of
the
acid.
For
resistance
these
nitric
high
circumstances are of less importance than the number of
consecutive cells.
In a battery of several elements, when the greatest
is to be aimed at, they must be
so arranged (by connecting the cells either consecutively or in
current in a given conductor
multiple series) that the interior resistance
as possible equal to the exterior,
in single
when
series,
ti^
may
cells have,
be as nearly
when connected
times the resistance which they have
all their similar
above rule for the
poles are connected together.
maximum
The
current assumes, however, that
the efficiency of the separate cells does not vary with the
strength of the current.
rents are strong
resistance
is
we
In
reality,
when the curwhen the interior
however,
obtain better results
smaller than the exterior.
The decomposition of water
or Grove's cells
or
requires at least 2 Bunsen's
Daniell's.
When
a voltameter
is
included in the circuit the foregoing rule no longer holds
good.
That thickness of wire should in general be chosen in
188
TANGENTGALVANOMETEK.
the construction of galvanometers (or electromagnets) for
any special purpose, which will make the resistance of the
galvanometer nearly equal to that of the rest of the circuit.
In the same way, when the very highest sensitiveness is
required we have to connect the different layers of wire of
a galvanometer, either in single or multiple circuit, according
to circumstances.
Measurement of Cureents with the Tangent
64.
Galvanometer.
For many purposes relative measurement, or determination of the ratio of currentstrengths, only
will therefore consider this case
is sufficient.
We
first.
or tangentgalvanometer, consists
The tangentcompass,
of a multiplier fixed with the plane of
its
the mag
coils in
In the centre is a compass, of which the
netic meridian.
very
short compared to the diameter of the
be
needle must
coils.
two currents passed through the multiplier deflect
the needle respectively f and ^', their relative strengths
If
(intensities,
quantities of electricity in
unit
of
time) are
proportional to the tangents of the angles of deflection, or
i:
= tan
ip
tan
<p'.
(Proof in 67.)
For accurate measurement the angles
of deflection should
be neither very large nor very small, those of about
being
most
advantageous
(see
p.
9).
It
is
45
necessary,
therefore, for currents of very different intensities, to
employ
galvanometers of different degrees of sensitiveness
that
with
is,
coils of different diameters or of different lengths, or
may be so constructed that the current may
through
a greater or less number of coils as
be passed
The results of different instruments may be
required.
the instrument
compared with each other by passing the same current
through both at once.
manner a
If,
for instance,
we
obtain in this
deflection of 665 in the first instrument,
and of
142 in the second, the tangents of the angles of deflection
189
TANGENTGALVANOMETER.
.
.X
of No. 1
to
make
method
1. T 1
.1
by
must be multiplied
^
1
"^
tliem
^fW4
,
to^i
U2
pn^o^
66 "0
0253
= ttwk =
2'30
The
2,
number and
comparable with those of No.
of finding the reductionfactor from the
dimensions of the
Commutator.
n
iin
0llU,
coils is
The
given in (67,
tangentcompass
p.
is
193).
usually adjusted
when the plane of the coils
Whether this is accurately the
the magnetic meridian.
must be tested, especially when a very short needle
so that the needle points to zero
is
in
case
is
employed, for the proportionality of currentstrengths to
the tangents of the angles of deflection only holds good
if
the
instrument be exactly placed, and especially so with powerful
This difficulty may, however, be easily avoided by
currents.
passing the current successively in opposite directions through
the galvanometer, and taking the
mean
of the deflection to
both sides (half the combined deflection) as
p.
In the value
thus obtained, errors from incorrect position are eliminated.
It is convenient for this purpose that a commutator should
be permanently connected with the galvanometer, which wiU
allow the current to be reversed without altering any other
This gives the additional advantage of
part of the circuit.
a double degree of accuracy, and renders
it
unnecessary to
observe the zeropoint exactly ; and lastly, a wellarranged
commutator serves conveniently to open and close the
circuit.
Law
of Proportionality of Tangents.
In order that the proportionality of tangents to currentstrengths may be accurate within 1 per cent for all angles,
Deviation
from
the
the length of the needle
diameter ot the
coils.
must not
A short
at
most amount
to ^^ the
needle, with a long attached
pointer (for instance, a thread of glass, attached with varnish,
or a slip of aluminium foil creased down the centre to give
should be employed, which makes it possible to
use needles less than 1 inch long (compare also p. 195).
The deviation from the law of tangents may also be
it stiffness),
diminished by placing the needle not in the plane of the
TANGENTGALVANOMETER.
190
but about
coils,
of 1
their diameter to one side of
An
it.
error
per cent would then only be produced by a needle
a diameter in length, while with one not exceeding
error
may
of

the
be considered inappreciable (Gaugain, Helmholtz).
For reading the position of the needle at rest, or when
only slightly deflected, two pointers at right angles to the
To avoid parallax in reading, the
needle are convenient.
compass may be furnished with a piece of lookingglass in
the centre, above which the eye must be held so that its
In exact
reflected image coincides with the needle or index.
measurements both ends of the needle should always be
read (compare
168).
p.
To bring the needle to rest, a small magnet may be
employed, which is brought near or withdrawn as required.
The commutator may also, with practice, be employed for
the same purpose by reversal of the current, the circuit
being at first merely interrupted, and only closed at the
instant when the needle begins to return from an oscillation
to the opposite side.
Shunts on Galvanometers.
galvanometer
poses
to
is
too sensitive,
remedy
it,
any other
If the tangent or
it
is
possible for
many
pur
by passmg a portion of the current
through a suitable shunt (wire connecting the binding screws)
on the galvanometer.
So long as the shunt remains the
same the instrument may be used with a shunt
for
com
parison of currents just as without one.
Measurements with
different
among themselves when the
shunts
shunt w' to that of the galvanometer
fraction
are
comparable
ratio of the resistance of the
is
known
of the current
which passes through the
Shunts of
or similar ratio to the
for the
latter is
..J
W + ll/
^, g^g,
are therefore convenient.
main
circuit.
191
SINEGALVANOMETEK.
SineGalvanometer or SineCompass.
65.
The sinegalvanometer, like the tangentgalvanometer,
and a firmly attached compass, or, in
consists of a multiplier
place of the latter, a needle with a single positionmark.
The multiplier
movable over a second graduated
itself
is
circle.
In each measurement with the sinecompass the coils are
till they make the same angle
turned on this second circle
with the
needle
(compassangle)
w^ords, the needle is
as
before
or,
in other
always brought to the same division of
its circle.
The strength
of the current
then proportional to the
is
sine (Table 38) of the angle of deflection
<p
viz.
the angle
through which the multiplier has been turned to make the
compassangle the same as it was without current
i
In the measurement
angles must be employed
angles also
must be
= sin
i'
large.
by which
currents small compass
in that of powerful currents the
Eesults so obtained are not
directly comparable, but a factor
multiplication
sin f '.
of feeble
may
easily be determined,
will reduce the measures of one
compassangle to those of another.
For
this
purpose the
same current must be observed with the two compassangles,
1 and 2, to be compared, and the corresponding deflections
S%7h
Then n = ~
noted.
Ct
?,
by which
all
measurements with
sin a^
compassangle 2 must be multiplied to reduce them to the
same value
as those
with
1.
We may thus
passangles 0, 50, 70, 80, to the
The advantage
sines
is
reduce the com
same measure.
is, that the law of
and form of both needle
of the sinecompass
independent of the
size
and multiplier the disadvantages are its troublesome adjustThe limit
ment, and the doubled sources of error in reading.
of difference of currentstrengths wdiich can be compared by
this instrument is the same as that of the tangentcompass
if the coils are of large diameter, and wider if they be narrow.
;
ELECTKODYNAMOMETER.
192
66.
MiKROE Galvanometers.
Fixed multipliers, which closely surround the needle, can
only be employed in general as galvanoscopes, or to test
which
of the currents
compared
is
the greater.
At
purposes of measuring they require a previous
graduation by observing the deflection with
and constructing a table (most
individual instrument.
If,
least for
empirical
known
currents,
easily graphically)
for the
however, very small deflections
only are observed with the mirror and scale (48, 49), the
currents are proportional to the tangents of the angles of
deflection
or, if
the latter do not exceed a few degrees, to
the deflections themselves measured in divisions of the
The
limit within
which
this
is
allowable
is
scale.
naturally depend
ent on the dimensions of the multiplier and needle.
simple method for determining the factor to reduce
such readings to absolute measure will be found at the end
of (69).
Should a galvanometer with
coils
closely surrounding
the needle be employed to measure currents producing considerable deflections, the only
way
is to
graduate
it
empiri
by comparison with the sine or tangent galvanometer,
cally
or voltameter (68).
Current MeasIirement with the Electro
66 a.
Dynamometer (W. Weber).
The dynamometer
of wire, which are
consists of a fixed
and a movable
coil
both traversed by the current to be
The coils should stand perpendicular to each
The deflections of the movable coil (measured with
mirror and scale) are proportional to the squares of the
currentstrengths, and do not therefore change their direction
measured.
other.
when
is
the direction of the current in the whole instrument
reversed.
we must
coils.
To have
deflections
on both sides of the
scale,
therefore reverse the current in one only of the
193
ABSOLUTE MAGNETIC MEASURE.
If to deflection
a a current
%=C
where
we
corresponds,
liave
\/ a,
a factor for the individual instrument.
is
sensitiveness
If the
of
the instrument be varied
changing the distance apart of the
inversely proportional to the time
bifilar
of
suspension,
oscillation
by
is
the
of
movable coil.
Eor accurate measurements, the dynamometer requires
several precautions on account of the earth's magnetism,
elasticity of the torsion suspension, and the form of the
coils.
Tlie
most frequent use
of the
instrument
is for
alternat
which quickly follow each other
The dynamometer
in equal strength in opposite directions.
ing currents,
i.e.
for currents
measures not the strength of such currents in the ordinary
sense, but the total energy of the current.
be noticed that as the deflections are proportional
square of the currentstrength, the dynamometer is
not sensitive for weak currents, and for very weak ones
It is to
to the
quite useless.
If the
two
coils are
not accurately perpendicular to each
other, they induce inverse currents in each other.
correct placing of the coils
may be known by the
An
in
fact that alter
nating currents passed through the fixed coil only produce a
deflection in the movable coil when this is simply closed,
(For the use of the dynamometer in measuring resistances, see 72, II.)
67.
Measurement oe Currents
in
Absolute Magnetic
Units avith the TangentCompass.
The methods previously described only
results
when
the observations are
ment, since in each case
made with
we employ
dependent on the dimensions
the same instru
a merely arbitrary unit
of the instrument,
zontal intensity of terrestrial magnetism.
measurements in a universally
yield comparable
and the
hori
In order to express
intelligible unit
we may employ
ABSOLUTE MAGNETIC MEASURE.
194
the magnetic or Weber's^ unit of current strength, which may
be defined as that current which exerts a unit of magnetic
From
force.
a measurement
by the tangentcompass we may
calculate the value of the current in this unit in the following
Calling
manner.
11
number of the circular windings
mean radius in millimetres
the
r their
of the multiplier
the horizontal intensity of terrestrial magnetism (59 and
Table 22);
a the angle of deflection of the needle
then the strength
deflection
is,
current which produces
of the
this
in magnetic measure
= 
tan a
2W'T
rT
and we may
call
^^ the
reductionfactor of magnetic
mea
sure.
For cm. and gm. r and
each become 10 times, and
therefore the strength of the current,
and the reductionfactor
The
100 times smaller numbers than for mm. and mg.
system chosen maybe denoted by adding mm.*, mg.*,
sec.~\
(For this and for electro
or cm.*, gm.*, sec."^ to the numbers.
magnetic measurements see App. 19.)
The total length of the coils is 2nrT. The current i
Proof.
tends to turn the needle perpendicularly to the plane of the coils,
and exerts on a short needle in the centre of the coils, and deflected
through the angle a from their plane, a moment of rotation
InvK
iM
V cos
a.
merifrom the masinetic
also the deflection
is
r'
dian,
tion,
and the
MT sin
earth's
a, in
magnetic force produces a moment of rotaThe formula is obtained
the contrary direction.
by combining these
results.
The mean radius r
for multipliers
with
'
of the coils
many
Weber
is
windings,
unit
most easily obtained,
by dividing the
^
^.
total
195
ABSOLUTE MAGNETIC MEASURE.
length
by
by the number n
of the wire
of the coils multiplied
27r, or
'
2}i7r
The reductionfactor
of a tangentcompass will, of course,
vary with time and place, since
tensity of terrestrial magnetism.
For places where
taken from Table 22
dependent on the in
it is
has not been determined
local influences,
all
may
it
be
such as iron
and especially long iron conductors, being as much
removed from the neighbourhood.
Care must be taken that the currents in the external
objects,
as possible
conducting wires connected with the instrument do not affect
This is most certainly accomplished by placing
the needle.
those leading to and from the instrument close beside each
other.
Example.
multiplier
formed by winding a wire 19480
is
19480
..^ = 129*2 mm.
^
3"1416
Taking r=l'92, the strength of a current which produces the
deflection a is, in magnetic measure in mm. mg. system
mm.
in
long,
*^'
24
Then r=
circular coils.
1292 X 192

2 X 24 X 31416
In the cm.
g.
001645 tan
a.
tan
system r becomes
48
,
1 G45 tan
a= ,,^.
1292,
a.
r= 0192;
therefore
Formulae of Correction for Length of Needle and Section of
It is assumed in calculating the above formula that
Coils.
the section of the coil
is
very small compared with
its dia
meter.
It frequently happens that this condition is imperIf, as is generally
fulfilled
in coils of many windings.
fectly
the case, the coil
formula
may
/^i j_
2/iff
_.
^'^
be
is
of
rectangular
corrected
__!__), where
^ ^
by
h
section,
writing,
is
the
the
instead
original
of
breadth and
rT
^
h the
^'
depth of the rectangular section.
Lastly, if tlie length of tlie needle be not very
snifdl
VOLTAMETER.
196
compared
to the diameter of tlie coil,
above expression the factor
must write
l+xf 2
sin^ <Pj
we must add
to the
 ^s^j, and, instead of /rm
tan
Here
f.
the distance
is
f,
between the north and south poles (the " centres of gravity
If I be not deterof northern and southern magnetism ").
mined by experiment, 0*85 of the whole length may be
taken in an ordinary needle as the distance between the
poles.
The complete formula, assuming that the
corrections are
small, will be
The
correction for the length of the needle disappears
If the needle be suspended
ratio of torsion
(55),
by a thread
we must
write
of
when
which the
T (l+@)
instead
of T.
The remarks on the use
of
commutators and on reading
both ends of the needle (pp. 189, 190)
are, of course, appli
cable to the above.
Current Measurement in Chemical Units with
68.
THE Voltameter (Faraday).
chemical decomposition produced by
by a voltameter, they always bear an
exactly defined relation to the currentstrength, and form a
measure comparable with the magnetic by the aid of the
If the products of
a current be measured
following rules
(1.)
rents
is
(2.)
The decomposition
in a given time
by
The decomposition products
of the
same current in
different electrolytes are chemically equivalent.
law.)
different cur
proportional to the currentstrength.
(Faraday's
VOLTAMETER.
(3.)
current of unit strength in magnetic measure (mm.
mg., see previous art.) decomposes
minute.
This quantity
0565 mgr.
electrolytes
we employ
g.
of
Weber
called after
is
chemical equivalent of water (in cm.
As
197
water per
the electro
system 0*0565
grni.).
either water acidulated with
sulphuric acid between platinum electrodes, or an aqueous
solution of cupric sulphate or argentic nitrate, with copper
and
The
silver electrodes respectively.
dilute sulphuric acid
when
should be chemically pure, and conducts best
gravity of about 122, or about
specific
metallic solutions
may
30%
of the
The
H^SO^.
be prepared by diluting the saturated
volume of water.
solution with an equal
In measuring a current with the voltameter, it is passed
for a measured time, and the products of decomposition
determined.
The amount
of the latter divided
by the time
We
gives the quantity decomposed in unit of time.
will
count the latter in minutes.
Volume Voltameter.
In
the watervoltameter the mix
ture of oxygen and hydrogen liberated
is collected and meaFor the sake of exactness the
the gases must be reduced to 0 C. and 760 mm.
sured in a divided glass tube.
volume of
(18) by the formula (Table
7)
V
^""1 + 0003665
^^
'
7~60
Here
V
Vg
is
the observed volume
the
volume reduced to 0 temperature and 760 mm.
pressure
t
the observed temperature of the gas ;
the pressure in millimetres of mercury under which the
gas was confined.
The
In this
liberated gas
is
almost always collected over a
case, to find the pressure
the fluid in the tube above the free surface,
of the fluid,
and
fluid.
H, we take the height h of
b the height of the
>S'
the density
barometer (20)
then
198
VOLTAMETER.
If the gas be
13*6 being the specific gravity of mercury.
have,
of
course,
only
II='b~h.
we
mercury
retained over
With
hydrogen only should be collected,
mixed gases calculated by multiplying
feeble currents the
and the volume
by "I, the oxygen being partially absorbed in the form of
On the same account, it is advisable repeatedly to
ozone.
(See example, p. 199.)
the
same sulphuric acid.
employ
of
If the gas be collected over the acidulated water itself,
it
may
The
be regarded as saturated with aqueous vapour.
h of the vapour tension over the acid to the maximum
ratio
tension
of the vapour (Table 13) at the given temperature
is for
33%
27,
18,
113, 120, 125
or sp. gr.
^
To reduce
to the dry
09,
of acid
08, 07
volume we must subtract h.e from H.
and hydrogen on platinum
Since the polarisation oxygen
produces an electromotive force, in the contrary direction to
the current, of about 2 Daniell
cells,
we
require at least 3
Daniell or 2 Bunsen cells for the decomposition of water.
Weight Voltameter.
Instead of measuring the gas, the
may be determined by
weighing before and after the experiment
a small drying
weight of the decomposed water
apparatus, containing
concentrated
sidphuric
acid,
being
attached to prevent escape of aqueous vapour Avith.the dis
As the density of the mixed gases at 0 and
"0005363, 1 cubic centimetre corresponds to
0"5363 mgr. of water. For approximate reduction we may
note' that under ordinary conditions (exactly at 16 C. and
750 mm.) 1 c.c. of the mixed gases weighs ^ mgr.
In the copper and silver voltameters the currentstrength
is found by determining the gain of weight of the negative
engaged gases.
760 mm.
is
electrode.
By
Reduction of the different CurrentMeasures
the employment of different voltameters
to
each other.
we have
four
separate definitions for the unit of strength of a galvanic
current, viz.
199
VOLTAMETER.
(1.)
The volume
(2.)
(3.)
(4.)
mixed gases
of
at 0
and 760 mm. liberated
minute.
(In ordinary use
Jacohi.)
The weight of water decomposed in 1 minute.
The weight of copper deposited in 1 minute.
The Aveight of silver deposited in 1 minute.
in
That we may have convenient numerical values, the
volumes are reckoned in cubic centimetres, and the weights
in milligrammes.
(5.)
To these chemical units we may add
The magnetic
unit (67)
measured with the
tangent
compass.
Very frequently
it is
necessary to reduce measurements
in currentstrength obtained in one of these units, to those
For
in another.
this
purpose the information given above
respecting the density of the
of
if
mixed
gases,
and the quantity
water decomposed by a magnetic unit current will suffice,
the equivalent weights 9, 31'7, and 107*9, for water,
copper, and silver respectively, be taken into account.
For
greater convenience, however. Table 2 7 gives reductionfactors
'to
convert each measure into any of the others.
It will be there found, for example, that the unit current
in magnetic measure (mm.* mgm.^sec"^) deposits in 1 minute
1'99
mgm.
of cop)per, or 6'78
mgm.
of silver.
that by reducing the
800 mm., instead of the
It is not uninteresting to note
volume
the mixed gases to
of
ordinary 760 mm., we pass from Jacobi's chemical (1) to
Weber's magnetic (5) unit with quite sufficient exactness
for ordinary purposes.
Example.
Measurement of CurrentStrength with the
Volumetric Water Voltameter.
The duration of the current was =10 min., the volume of
= 18"4 c.c, the temp. = 14, the height of
barometer ==758 mm., and the gas was collected over a column
liberated hydrogen
of dilute sulphuric acid of the specific gravity 1"23, which, at the
was 55 mm. high.
hydrogen correspond to 27'6
close of the experiment,
18'4
c.c.
The pressure of the gases
= 745 mm.
It
would
is,
as above, //=
therefore, at 0
of mixed gases.
1'23
0"75 x 12
55
c.c.
758 
and 760 mm.
(p.
197), have
REDUCTIONFACTOR OF A GALVANOMETER,
200
276
^^"^equently
'
we have 2*574
by Table
745
^^'^^ ''
+ 0003665x14 760 =
^^' ^"^"^^"
c,c.
mixed gases liberated per minute, and
of
this
25^
= 2574 X 05363 = 1 380
= 2574x1889 = 4861
= 2574x6432 =1655
= 2574 x 09481 = 2441
mgr. of water per minute.
copper
j,
silver
mm.*, mgm.*, sec.i.
Determination of the Reduction Factor of a
69.
Galvanometer.
If the
unknown,
number
or
if
of windings
from
a galvanometercoil be
of
irregular shape or other cause the
its
cannot be calculated,
it will be necessary
For shortness' sake, we will
speak only of the tangentcompass, but if a sinecompass be
employed, it is only necessary to substitute sin a for tan a,
if a dynamometer {6Qa) v/a for tan a.
reductionfactot
to determine it expermientally.
I.
Tangent compass of knoivn Bedudionfador C' is
connected in the same circuit with the instrument to be
If the deflections of the two instruments are
examined.
respectively
u and
a^
then
^, tan a!
tan a
=G
or
tan a
.
sin
or
>
^, tan
s/
II. With the Voltamder.
The same current is passed at
once through both instruments for a measured time.
If,
then
= the
time
m = amount
a
of electrolyte decomposed in the voltameter
the angle of deflection of the galvanometer ;
the required reductionfactor C,
or,
in other words, the
num
ber by which the tangent of the angle of deflection must be
multiplied to reduce
it
to absolute
measure
r tan a
is
201
REDUCTIONFACTOR OF A GALVANOMETER.
Here C will be the reductionfactor for the special chemical
measure of the voltameter employed, but by the aid of Table
2 7 it may easily be reduced to any other measure.
Since a current rarely remains constant for long together,
so with
an intercalated voltameter, the position
at regular intervals, say from
minute to minute, during the experiment, and at the end the
arithmetical mean must be taken as the true deflection, or
and especially
of the needle
when
must be observed
the variation
considerable the
is
mean
of the tangents
A commutator may be employed with
must be taken.
The measurement will be most exact when the
advantage.
angle of deflection
is
about 45.
As an example, we
will suppose that the current
measured
by the voltameter in the previous section gives a
deflection
of 42'6.
In this case the reductionfactor
10 tan 4:2^
=2"('99; and a current which, with this tangent
2574
U J J
25*74
G=
<j
compass, produces the deflection
<p,
will liberate 2*7 9 9 tan
<p
cubic cm. per minute of mixed gases at 0 C. and 760 mm.
In magnetic measure the factor =2*799 x 0"9484 = 2'655
mm.* mgm."*
sec."^ (Table 27).
By means
III.
of a knotvn Electromotive Force.
very
simple and universally applicable method follows from the
law that currentstrength
is
directly proportional to electro
motive force and inversely to resistance, or that
i=
, i being
to
currentstrength,
electromotive force> and
electromotive force
e,
and
if
a,
the total resistance (of cell, galvanometer, and rheostat) be
The
of
cells
the deflection produced be
If
iv resistance.
the galvanometer be included in a circuit with
and
lo
tan a
electromotive force of a Grove's or Bunsen's cell
is
about 192, and that of a DanielFs 108, in absolute electro
magnetic
units.
(See
Appendix A,
absolute magnetic measure.
5.)
CwiU,
of course, give
202
DETERMINATION OF RESISTANCE.
The method
is
specially appL'cable to reflecting galvano
meters, and as the intercalated resistance in this case will
usually be very large compared to the internal resistance of
the cell and that of the galvanometer, these
neglected,
and
may
usually be
taken as equal to the rheostat resistance
alone.
Determination of Galvanic Eesistance with the
70.
Eheostat.
This problem
may
be divided into two cases
viz.
the
proof of equality between like resistances, and the determination of the ratio of the
means
amounts
of
When by
unequal ones.
of a rheostat (set of resistance coils)
we can
increase
one of the resistances at will by known amounts, we may
always employ the method of equality.
We will first consider this simplest case.
It is obvious that the
same methods are adapted
for copy
ing resistances.
Measurement of Resistance hy Suhstittttion in a simple
Two resistances must be equal, which, when substituted for each other in the same circuit, give the same
I.
Circuit.
currentstrength.
circuit is formed,
consisting of a galvanic cell E, a gal
vanometer
G, and the rheostat B.
The resistance, W, to be measured is
shown in the figure as intercalated,
but may be excluded by restoring a
connection without sensible resistance
at a.
First, the position
of the gal
vanometerneedle must be noted
W, and a
when
sufficient length of rheostat
wire to reduce the deflection to a convenient amount
is
included in the circuit (see next page).
W must then be excluded, and an amount
ance added in
its
of rheostat resist
place sufficient to bring back the needle
to its original position.
DETEKMINATION OF KESISTANCE.
This added rheostat resistance
203
equal to the required
is
resistance JF.
If the resistance of the rheostat cannot be altered
sufficiently small intervals,
but
as, for
with plug arrangement
resistancecoils,
by jumps, we must make use
by
instance, in Siemens's
can only be altered
a method of interpolation
of
described in (4(x).
The position of the
observed with the nearest resistances above and
below that required, and if the difference of deflection is
similar to that
needle
is
may
small, the increase of resistance
to the decrease of current.
needle be
be taken as proportion
If the observed position of the
a with the required resistance TF
cCj
then
;r
IF
rheostat resistance
= iv, +
(w
Tor accuracy and quickness
always to be preferred.
Example
IV J
this
'^
'
method of interpolation
Deflection 453
The method
only a
currents.
of substitution
Eh. 15
445
479
IF=U + f'l~f'l
479  445
if
is
Included in the circuit JF Eh. 14
cable
tv^;
=U76.
almost universally appli
is
the resistances are not too small, and
galvanoscope
constant
Daniell's cell is best).
to
prove
element
Any
eliminated by repeating the
the
is,
slight
equality
it
of
requires
the two
however, necessary (a
change in the latter
observation
and
is
taking the
mean, and the disturbing effect is also diminished by rapid
observations.
For this reason it is best to make a rough
measurement of
before the final determination.
When the resistance to be measured is small it is often
necessary to include in the circuit a constant resistance in
addition, because otherwise the galvanometerneedle
be deflected beyond the graduation.
the measurement will be less sensitive.
In this
case,
would
however,
It is better, there
204
DETERMINATION OF RESISTANCE.
fore, to
bring back the needle to the graduation by
magnet placed near
of a
means
it.
may
greater sensitiveness
by making
by " shunting " the galby resistance in the main
often be attained
a part of the current inoperative
vanometer instead of reducing it
conductor.
It may also be advisable when measuring small
resistances to introduce them into the " shunt " instead of
into the main circuit and then introduce the rheostat into
the same just as above.
II.
By
simiple Division
ential Galvanometer.
equal,
when,
if
The
of
tlie
Current through a Differ
two conductors are
resistances of
inserted as two branches of a circuit, the
them (63, I. No. 6).
two currents is determined by the differgalvanometer, the coil of which consists of two wires
current divides itself equally between
The equality
ential
of the
wound together. One current passes through
one wire, and the other through the other, in opposite direcof equal length
tions
and
thus,
when
the currents are equal, they neutralise
each other's influence on the needle inside the
two currents,
needle
is
known
therefore, are
The
coils.
be equal when the
to
undeflected.
The annexed
figure
shows the connections
ment
two
of resistances.
of the
coils
meter,
Avitli
The current
measure
differential galvano
ends
their
the
of
for
represents the
brought out.
cell
di\ddes
between the two middle ends, and so
passes through the coils in opposite
From
directions.
half
of
the
the outer ends one
divided
current
is
led
through W, the resistance to be meaj'io.
jg_
sured,
and the other through the rheo
stat R, uniting
pole of the
cell.
The amount
calated to bring the needle back to
equal to the resistance
may
be employed here.
W.
again at the opposite
of rheostat resistance interits
normal position
The method of
is
interpolation
DETERMINATION OF EESISTANCE.
Testing the Differential Galvanometer.
the differential galvanometer
perties
that
first,
the needle
the
same current through both
is,
In
this
to possess
method
two pro
when
currentstrengths are equal
This
uninfluenced.
is
assumed
is
20]
tested
is
by passing the
coils in opposite directions
counting the terminals of the galvanometer from
that
left
to
and 2 must be connected with each other, and 3
and 4 each with a pole of the battery.
The needle should
remain undeflected.
Secondly, that the resistances of the
The previous requirement being fultwo coils are equal.
filled, this may be tested by allowing the current from one
right, 1
battery to divide itself through the
just given, but without
coils, as
Any
needle must again be undeflected.
tion of the instrument should be
Lastly,
made
required correc
in the above order.
we may be independent of the
if we connect
and
exact fulfilment
of these conditions
in the figure
any resistance introduced when the
with a commutator, so that their posi
tions
may
are equal
be easily reversed.
when
and
reversal of their 'position does
not influence the deflection of the needle.
The connecting wires should be of
small resistance, and of equal length and
tliickness for both divisions of the current.
The advantages of the method are its
and independence of the
sensitiveness
element.
Fig. 17.
Another arrangement of the Differential
Galvanometer.
Wlien
the resistance
to
be
measured
IS
smaller than the resistance of one branch of the galvanometer
a greater sensitiveness
ment.
is
The two branches
the circuit of a
cell,
of the
galvanometer are included in
not side by
but so that the current
directions.
attained by the following arrange
The two
may
resistances
are arranged as " shunts " of the
III.
By douUe
side,
but one after the other,
traverse
and
them
to
in
opposite
be compared
two galvanometer branches.
division of the current ivith Wheatstone's
206
DETERMINATION OF RESISTANCE.
Bridge.
With
the currentdivision figured at the side the
G of the " bridge " is equal
currentstrength in the branch
to zero
if
the resistances are in the
proportion
a\h~c:d.
This follows immediately from the last
equations on
If,
Fig. 18.
184 by putting
p.
therefore,
= o.
a and h are two con
ductors of equal resistance, c the rheostat,
and d the resistance to be measured.
If further, E represents a cell and G a galvanometer, we have d determined
as equal to that rheostat resistance which must be introduced to make the current in G vanish.
The arrangement
of the resistances may also so be varied that the known
equal resistances are in the branches a and c, while those
to be compared are in h and d.
If the resistance in the
undivided conductor
arrangement a
is
greater than that in the bridge the
gives
the
greatest
sensitiveness
and
vice vei'sd.
The
sensitiveness depends, of course, on the magnitude
branch resistances as well as on their ratio to the
resistances to be compared and to that of the galvanometer.
of the
It is well, therefore, to prepare separate pairs of equal resist
ances {e.g. 1, 10, 100, 1000 mercury units [or Ohm's]) of
which the most suitable may be chosen for use. In addition
see for the best arrangement of the
^

measurements, Pogg. Ann.,
p. 428.
vol. cxlii.
Commutator.
We become independent of the equality of the resistances a and h which we have
assumed above by the method described under II.
The resistances
c and d are equal if when they are
^'S ^^
substituted for each other the reading of the galvanometer
is
unchanged.
tion is seen
How
by the
a commutator
figure.
is
used for this substitu
DETERMINATION OF EESISTANCE.
Interpolation.
ance by
tlie
we cannot make np tlie exact resistwe obtain it by interpolation from two
If
rheostat
When
approximating observations (4a).
used the following
207
is
a commutator
the method to be used
The
is
galvano
meter readings m, and m^ are observed with the nearly
correct rheostat resistance
increased
ings
by the
W.
This resistance
relatively small quantity S
and n^ are observed.
The
figures 1
The
the positions of the commutator.
is
then
and the readand 2 indicate
desired resistance
is
then equal to
W+
^'^^
For the measurement of very great or very small resistances
may be advisable to choose the branch resistances a and
& in a known ratio (1:10, 1 100), and alter the rheostat
it
which will bring the needle to zero in the same
proportion.
In this case the possibility of a control by
substitution is done away with.
In order to measure the resistance of a galvanometer
witJwut using a second instrument it may be included in one
of the branches, e.g. d (previous page).
If the deflection
resistances,
of the needle does not alter whether the bridge connection
open or shut, the resistances are a:h = c:d {Thomson).
Here if the deflection should be too great it may be reduced
by approaching a magnet to the galvanometer in such a
manner as to effect the object.
In order
avoid the
to
temperature by the current
differential
production
it
is
of
alterations
advisable, in using
of
the
galvanometer or the bridge, to use the current
only for an instant so that induction currents (81)
may
be
used.
This method, however, must be rejected
of a coil of wire
is
if
the resistance
to be determined, because in this, during
the closing of the current, electromotive forces (extra cur
which influence the
rents) are generated
of
if
deflection of
this
source
even with currents only closed for a
we arrange, by means of a suitable key.
error is avoided,
very short time,
first
With Wheatstone's Bridge
the galvanometer.
208
DETERMINATION OF RESISTANCE.
that the connection with the bridge
later
than that with the
Note.
This
key described
sists
is
is
completed an instant
effected
by the simple contact
cell.
most readily
in the Brit. Assoc. Rep.,
1864,
of three strips of thin brass, a a and a
353.
This cona a are connected
p.
;
J^
Ffi^
J^
L<^\^'^^VI
Lp
I<!
Fiff. 20.
with the battery and bridge at h b, and are brought into contact
by pressing the small block of guttapercha c while a, also
separated from a by a little block of guttapercha, connects the
sliding contact with the galvanometer by touching g. It is desirable to determine roughly the relation of the resistances with an
;
ordinary galvanoscope before employing a very delicate instruto save time and to avoid injury to the more delicate
one.
See also Brit. Assoc. Bejwrts, 1863, 1864, and 1867.
ment both
Trans.
Eheostat resistances when wound should be wound
doubled (see 63, IV.) to avoid the extra currents.
Method for very small Resistances.
Wlien the resistances
measured are those of short thick wires, their connec
to be
tions with the rest of the conductors can frequently not be
made
sufficiently perfectly conducting.
The following varimakes ns independent of
ation of the bridge connections
such connectionresistances (W. Tliomson).
Let A B and ^ C be the wires to be compared, connected at B with each other at
A
let
and
with a
Further,
cell.
the two branches marked
and those marked
%o
be re
spectively equal resistances of
not too small amounts.
is
Fig. 21.
the lastnamed branches,
sensitive
In
galvanometer.
Four points M, N, P, Q are
then fonnd by trial at which
well connected with
the
wires.
COMPARISON OF UNEQUAL RESISTANCES.
make the current in G vanish. The
F Q are then equal to each other.
With
IV.
Two
resistances
the Differential Inductor.
(81) consist of two equal wires
coil
209
M N and
Let an induction
wound with each
other.
opposite ends of the two wires are connected directly
with one terminal of a galvanometer, the other ends with the
and thence
resistances to be compared,
of the galvanometer.
to the other terminal
the two resistances are equal the
If
needle experiences no current by an "induction impulse."
Wound
many
resistances of
coils
cannot be thus deter
mined without further precautions on account
of the extra
currents.
Comparison of Unequal Eesistances.
71.
Here we have the problem
of
measuring a resistance
without a rheostat, but only with the unit in which the
measurement
I.
With
vanometer).
is
the
and a constant
to be made.
Galvanometer {Tangent, Sine, or Reflecting Galcircuit is made, including the galvanometer
cell
(when necessary also an additional resistp. 203), and the currentstrength
ance or a shunt, comp.
is
measured.
Let
it
be
One
i.
of the
resistances,
W^,
next included, and the current strength again measured
The other
resistance,
currentstrength of
may
W^,
is
substituted for W^, and gives a
The required
i^.
is
is i^.
ratio of the resistances
then be calculated
W^
For
^,
i^,
io,
we
i^
i^
naturally take the tangents
respectively of the angles of deflection.
or sines
The method
rarely
gives exact results, as the electromotive force of almost all
elements
is
dependent on
tlie
currentstrength.
Further,
it
involves of necessity all the difficulties dependent on currentIt is the less exact the smaller the
measvirement (64, 05).
resistances to be compared and the greater their difference
p
210
COMPARISON OF UNEQUAL EESISTANCES.
(see 81).
The formula follows from
:i^;
and
i^
{
Wy
where
(63,
No.
I.
is
4), since
the resistance
w^
the currentstrength.
Example.
The observed
deflections of a tangentcompass were,
including
No
resistance to he
43 '6
^
^
Therefore /F,
II.
measured 23"9 tangent
Ohm
^,
and
Metliocl
h represent
= 2333
= 0'443
tangent = 0952
668 tangent
resistance
The
One
23330443
0952
^,,^,
x ^^ = 294 Ohm.
3.333,0.3,^
with Wheatstones Bridge.
two
resistances, of
In
the figure a
which the
when a and
the case
is
h together
consist of
a stretched (platinum or
silver)
in
can be
ratio
This
easily varied.
German
wire of uniform diameter,
which we may take the
resist
ance as proportional to the length.
On
the wire
is
(platinum),
tact
a movable
con
which
to
the
connecting wire of the galvanoscope
The
attached.
is
conditions are fulfilled
same
when
b is
a rheostat and a a resistance the
Fig. 22.
value of which in rheostat units is
known.
and B are the two resistances to be compared,
and when no current passes through the galvanoscope, G,
they bear the same relation as a and h.
Therefore ^7
The connecting wires of
when their resistances
it is
and TV have no influence
same ratio as B W. Hence
determine this latio by a preliminary
are in the
advisable roughly to
COMPARISON OF UNEQUAL RESISTANCES.
experiment, and to approximate to
wire (of the same sort) on each
this
by
purpose
it is
that of the len gths of
it
For
side.
convenient to join
211
to
and to connect the galvanoby means of a movable bind
a single wire,
meter wire
to
it
:W
ing screw.
The
positions of h
as in No. III.
and
R may be
reversed,
of the preceding article, the
other observations in which
may
also be referred to.
Since equal lengths of a
Calibration of a Bridge Wire.
wire do not usually give exactly the same resistance, we
must
measurements with a bridge wire compare
This is most simply
it.
effected by a series of resistances the ratio of which is known
{e.g. 1
8, 3
9, 2
7, etc.), and which are compared with the
A resistance box with plugs may be
wire in the bridge.
for accurate
the resistances of separate parts of
used for the comparison, by putting
parallel with the wire,
I
2 H 5,
[
2,
it
the
into
circuit
and then when the proper plugs (1:2
1 ^ 2
f
5,
1 H 2) are with
drawn, connecting the contact piece of the wire with the
This contact
proper metallic block of the resistance box.
need not be free from resistance.
Comparison of short
tliick
Wires.
The
resistance of
short thick
may
conductors
be determined in
the following way, ac
cording to A. Matthieson, independent of
any
uncertainty of the contact.
Let
nM
P^, a point ifj is sought at
^ ^
and
^ C
be the two pieces to be
compared,
?ai ordi
DE
nary
stretched
wire.
Taking a position
which the current
bridge
in the galvano
COMPARISON OF UNEQUAL EESISTANCES.
212
meter disappears. Similarly the pairs of points P^ If.^, P^ M^,
Then the resistances are in the
and P M^ are determined.
^or the vanishing
ratio Pi P2
^4 = ^i ^^2 ^^3 ^iof the current in G shows that in the corresponding points of
:
contact there are equal electrical potentials.
But the
resist
ance between two points of one and the same conductor
by a current
traversed
is
proportional to the difference of
potential between the points, or
183),
(p.
when
i is
by the KirchhoffOhm laws
the current in
C, % that in
ADE
C,
we have
AP^.i==(AD + mQi'
AP, i=^{AD + DM,)i'
From which P^ P^ i = M^ M^
.
i'
In exactly the same way
from which the proportion previously given follows.
From the Damping of a Swinging Magnetic Needle.
needle swinging inside a closed coil induces currents in
III.
A
it
to
by
its
motion, which react upon the needle in opposition
that motion.
The diminution
of arc of oscillation so
due to the needle itself,
and the form and number of the windings of the coil,
dependent only on the collective resistance, lo^ + w, of the
coil and of the wire closing the circuit.
Theory shows that
of
small
the logarithmic decrement (51)
oscillations is inw^ and u\ are the resistversely proportional to w^ + w.
ances to be compared.
The logarithmic decrement X^ is
observed when the multiplier, of which the resistance is iv^,
is closed by a wire of no sensible resistance
caused
Xj
\
X'
then
is,
in addition to the effect
when
when
the resistance ?c, is included
Wj is substituted for iv^
with the open multiplier, which is therefore that due to
the mechanical resistance of the air
213
COMPAEISON OF UNEQUAL RESISTANCES.
we wish
compare the resistance with that
mi;ltiplier itself, by wliich it may be measured if the
is known, we have
Or
if
to
of tlie
latter
X >.
1
This method
is
only applicable to small resistances, since
with large ones the damping
measured.
The time
too feeble to be exactly
is
same time, the damping,
may be increased by the employment of an astatic pair of
needles, or by weakening the earth's directive force by bringof oscillation, and, at the
This must, of course,
ing a magnetic bar near the needle.
have the same position in
a correction of
Fofjg.
must
Ann., Bd. 142,
The above formula
S.
be subtracted from
It
(Compare
X.
430.)
^0
'^+^l
^'^0
+ ^2
has been observed that
with the open multiplier
X'
01442^
with the
large
follows at once from the equation
(XX'):(XX'):(X,X')
Example.
When \ is
all obseivations.
coils closed
01442
= 0*0025
X =01435
through
Ohm
(?^,)
X,
= 00612
>.
=00978
the resistance M' to
be measured 00980 
^^^^^J^
Then
w =1
The
0143500978
0143500612
0061200025 ^,^,
zTTc;: = 0342 Ohm.
0097800025
resistance of the multiplier
is
0061200025 ^^,orM
,
^''=l^1435^(y^6r2 = ^^^^^^^"^
resistance of an electrolyte.
214
Eesistance of an Electrolyte.
72.
I.
When
With a constant Current.
the resistance of a fluid which
the current
is
decomposed by
be measured, account must be taken of the
is to
opposing electromotive force of polarisation arising on the
The simplest method
electrodes.
(70,
I.)
that of
is
substitution
in the following modified form:
Let the fluid have the form of a column of constant
section,
and
For
purpose either a rectangular trough
this
let
an electrode be movable longitudinally in
height (Horsford)
is
taken,
or, better,
filled to
it.
a certain
If the de
a glass tube.
accompanied by evolution of gas, the glass tube
is bent into the form of a U, and placed with its branches
upright.
In the one limb is a fixed electrode, in the other an
electrode which can be moved in it.
The straight part of
the lastmentioned limb is calibrated by measurement or
weighing of successive portions of water or mercury.
The
composition
fluid
is
thus prepared
is
in a simple
included
a rheostat, a galvanometer, and a galvanic
tion of the needle
column
of fluid
is
then observed
(and, if necessary,
resistance; see also 70, p.
202)
is
cell.
when
so
circuit
with
The
posi
much
included that the deflec
a convenient amount; then the one
tion of the
needle
electrode
approached to the other by the length
is
is
of the
an addition of rheostat
(in
bent tube the movable electrode must always be kept at some
distance from the bent part), and such
rheostat resistance
thrown into the
an amount
circuit that the
of
same
deflection of the needle is produced.
The resistance w is
then that of the fluid between the two positions of the
movable
electrode.
If
is
given in Siemens's units,
obtain the specific conductivity
with that of mercury, as k =
we
(63) of the fluid compared
Z;
where q
is
the area of the
mm. and / the length in mm.
The current must not be too feeble, so that the
section in sq.
polarisa
RESISTANCE OF AN ELECTROLYTE.
tion
may
On
be constant.
the other hand,
remain closed too long, on account
of the fluid round the electrodes.
215
must not
and change
it
of the heating
Since the conductivity of fluids varies greatly with their
temperature, this must be observed, and be kept constant
through both experiments, which
plished
by placing the tube
is
most certainly accom
in a waterbath provided with a
thermometer.
In the case of solutions
copper, zinc, silver,
of
electrodes of the respective metals
cases of platinised platinum
tion
may
185).
(p.
be used
etc.,
in other
Since the polarisa
constant only with great current intensity at the
is
electrodes,
and since evolution
gauze, or a spiral wire with
column
of fluid,
may
of gas
its
mostly occurs, platinum
plane in the section of the
be used instead of a platinum
foil.
(For the process with Wlieatstone's Bridge, see Tollinger,
Wied. Ann.,
i.
510.)
The resistand with the terminal faces of radii
Glass tubes have usually a conical section.
ance of a cone of length
r^
and
rg
amounts
composed
to
I,
of a substance of specific conductivity
or
=
if
V is the
volume
of the cone
3kV
II.
The
With Alternate
influence of polarisation
ance of an electrolyte
may
is
Currents.
avoided, and the resist
by using currents in direction and"^
Such currents are supplied by a
magnetic inductor consisting of a coil within which a magnet
The
rapidly rotates (see Pogr/. Ann. Jubelhand, p. 290).
of a metallic conductor,
of exactly equal strength.
induced currents of an induction apparatus with a rapid
current interruption may also be used.
The electrodes consist of platinised platinum (for " platinising " see 63,
p.
~.
be measured directly, just as that^s^'^^"^
185), and are from 10 to 20
sq.
cm.
;;;
KESISTANCE OF AN ELECTROLYTE.
216
in area.
the fluid may have
with the electrodes the forms
The
glass vessel to receive
For the
figured at the side.
purpose of accurately deter
JD
mining the temperature
it is
placed in a waterbath with
a thermometer.
Fig. 25,
In order
first
to determine
the resistance 7, which the apparatus would have when filled
of a fluid (best
with mercury, the specific conductivity
sulphate of zinc)
is
obtained by Sec.
conductivity (Table 26)
is
taken.
I.,
or a fluid of
It
is
known
most convenient
to take for this purpose one of the following solutions, the
resistance of
which
is
determined without a qmte
sufficiently
According as vessels of
greater or less " mercury resistance " are to be measured, a
accurate quantitative analysis.
better or worse conducting fluid
that the total resistance
At temperature
is
may have
chosen to
fill
them, so
a suitable magnitude.
the conductivity Preferred to mercury
at 0 is of
7 H,SO Sp. Gr.  1224
000006914 + 000000113 {t  18)
Sulphuric Acid
K=
of 304
Saturated Solution of Coimmon Salt
Sp. Gr.
of 264
7o NaCl,
1201
K= 000002015 + 000000045
{t
 18)
Solution of Sulphate of Magnesia of 173 7o MgSO^,
(anhydrous) Sp.
K=
If
(^
 18)
7^ C.H^,, Sp. Gr. = 1022
0000000152 + 00000000027 {t  18).
Acetic Acid
K=
Gr.= 1187
000000456 + 000000012
of 166
the fluid in the vessel
Siemens's units,
its
shows a resistance
resistance capacity
7= WK.
of
If,
another fluid in the same vessel has the resistance w,
conductivity referred to mercury at
is
^
then,
its
For measuring the alternating currents, an ordinary gal
RESISTANCE OF AN ELECTROLYTE.
21
vanometer cannot be used, but Weber's electrodynamometer
is
suitable (66a).
Since the source of the current will not be quite constant,
Wlieatstone's arrangement (70, III. and 71,
II.) is
used for
the measurement, but in the bridge the whole dynamometer
not included, because this
is
zero {66a), but only one
is
not sensitive enough near the
coil,
while through the other
is
passed the undivided induction currents.
In the
J is
figure,
the apparatus for the production of the
alternating currents; a the
the inner coil of
outer, i
the dynamometer
fluid,
the
which
is
known
metallic re
units)
bridge
of
100
and
of
rheostat or a
(a
suitable coil
10
F the
measured
to be
sistance
resistance
A B C
between
mercury
are
resistances,
Fig. 26.
the
either a
stretched
contact or two constant resistances.
to
which
also
we
refer for
wire
with
sliding
(70, III. or 71, II.
remarks on the reversal of the
by double wind
resistances, equalising the connecting wires,
ing of the resistance coils and the changing over of
F and B.)
Since the dynamometer has no " damping," care must be
taken when the current
is
closed and opened that incon
veniently large oscillations of the movable coil are not produced.
Also interpolation from two approximate observa
(4 and p. 207) will usually be more simple, and
always more accurate than a direct determination of the
tions
which make the deflection disappear.
To avoid induction of one coil on the other, they must
resistances
be placed exactly perpendicular to each other.
(See 66a.)
by an apparatus
with current interrupter, they may be detected by the aid of
Bell's telephone, which then takes the place of the dynamoIf the alternating currents are jiroduced
meter.
It is inserted in the
" bridge," and, of course, other
sounds must be as far as possible avoided.
The use
of thin
EESISTANCE OF A BATTERY.
218
conducting wires to the telephone, removal to a distance of
the interrupter, or stopping the ear not in use with cotton
wool, will suffice.
The
resistance of an electrolyte varies several hundredths
whole by a variation of 1 in temperature, and on this
account the measurement in a bath of constant temperature
of the
is
to be preferred.
73.
Measurement of the Internal Eesistance of a
Battery.
With
I.
The
circuit of the battery to be
through
galvanometer
additional resistance
convenient amount.
J, is
the Galvanometer.
65,
(64,
examined
66) and
is
completed
sufficient
added to reduce the deflection to a
The currentstrength, which we will call
is
then observed.
Then, in the same
known amount
reduce the currentstrength
From
an additional resistance, tu, of
most advantageously, such as to
circuit,
included
is
i,
now measured,
to about half J.
these two observations the total resistance, TV, of
the circuit in the
first
observation
is
obtained
J i
From
the quantity, w, so calculated,
we deduct
sistance of the galvanometer, previously measured,
the additional resistance included in the
and
first
the re
and
also
experiment,
so obtain that of the battery alone.
The accuracy
noted in (71,
of the result
I.),
and
is
is
affected
by the difficulties
by them when
especially affected
the internal resistance of the battery
is
very small, so that
the method can but seldom be used.
Example.
is
The
resistance of a battery of 6 Daniell's elements
to be determined.
the connecting wires
tangentcompass was,
The
resistance of the tangentcompass
may be
neglected.
The
and
deflection of the
219
RESISTANCE OF A BATTERY.
including 50 units resistance, 55'7 ; tan= 1'466 ;
389; ^a?i = 0807;
130
Therefore, calling the resistance of the cell JF^
O'SOT
;r..50H13060)j,j^^^^^ = 980
therefore the resistance of the cell alone
II.
By
known
the aid
With
and
Galvanosco'pG
of a
W^=
units;
48 "0
units.
Rheostat,
and of a galvanoscoi^e of
rheostat,
or negligible resistance, the internal resistance of a
number of similar cells may be obtained
manner
A circuit is formed, including the
galvanoscope, the battery, and a known amount of rheostat
battery of an even
in the following
resistance,
and the deflection of the needle
is
Let w^
noted.
be the total resistance of the circuit outside the battery
and connecting
of galvanoscope, rheostat,
Secondly, the cells are arranged in pairs, with
zincs to the
cut, for
same
side, as
shown
a battery of four
in the annexed
resistance will be required.
collective
resistance
Then the
ment is
resistance,
amount
We
the
of
iv,
all
zJi
the
zh
and the needle
cells,
again brought to the same deflection as before
to effect which, a different
(viz.
wires).
~~j
;
of rheostat
take w^ as the
external
circuit.
of the battery in the first experi
For if e be the electromotive force of the battery in the first
arrangement, and w its resistance, in the second case ^ e will be
Hence we have
the electromotive force and \ lo the resistance.
for the currentstrength
w+
of
=
w^
=
j^
w+
or
w=
4/;,
2iv..
w,^
This method is only applicable to very constant
which the resistance is considerable.
cells
220
EESISTANCE OF A BATTERY.
By
III.
the
Method of Compensatio7i
methods of measuring small
Tlie only possible
of inconstant
cells
momentarily
are those in which
closed.
currentstrength
is
{Bcetz).
Since in this
the
resistances
only
circuit is
measurement of
impossible, we must have recourse to
case
determination by bringing the currentstrength to zero in the
following way {Pogg. Ann., cxlii. 573 ; Wied. Ann., iii. 1)
:
Ah
IB
thin stretched platinum wire of
2i
known
upon which
sistance,
movable contact
are
re
two
pieces.
is
the battery of which the resist
ance
__
we
(in wliich
include the
resistance of its connecting wires)
is
to be measured,
of
battery,
less
another
e is
electromotive
force than B.
The batteries
must be connected with A by
their similar poles.
The
contactpieces are
now moved
so
We
that no current passes through the galvanoscope G.
denote the two resistances of the platinum wire so included
by a and
h.
Eepeating the experiment
ances, a'
and
h',
Tv
Proof.
circuit
with
two
different
resist
we have
= ah ah
r
Since no current passes through
the branch Ge, the
be traversed throughout by the same current.
we have (p. \%?,) E = {JV + a + h) i; and e = ai, and
A a hE must
Calling this
by division
i,
1.
J^+b'
JF+h
andwi,
therefore
=
X.
Similarly
The
.
W a'hah'
r.
a  a
,,,
we have
>
or
object of the method, the merely
momentary
closure
most easily accomplished by connecting the
end of the platinum wire at A with a mercurycup.
The
of the circuit,
is
ends of the connecting wires of
E and G
are amaliramated
RESISTANCE OF A BATTEEY.
221
and twisted together, and are dipped for an instant into the
cup and immediately withdrawn.
In order that the circuit
of e may not be closed alone, and so deflect the galvanoscope,
the end of the wire connected with E may be allowed to
project a little beyond the other.
It is obvious, from what has been said, that a must at
least
W^
0.
If
it
in order that the current in
G may
become
be found by experiment that no position of the
contacts will answer, a feebler auxiliary battery
must be
substituted, or the variable resistance increased.
The same end may be attained by always passing part
of the current from e through a shunt of suitable resistance
This method gives the resistance of the
(Feussner).
E in
cell
In order to determine the resistance when the circuit is closed a shunt is applied to E in
such a way that it is thrown out of circuit by the key at A,
an instant before the connection of the cells with the rheostat
wire is made.
its
\_Note.
til
em
unclosed
state.
Copper
terminals are easily amalgamated by dipping
in a solution of mercuric nitrate or chloride.
Tnins^
IV. In Wkeatstone's Bridge (Ifance).
In the figure on p. 2 1 let the cell be in the branch TF, the
galvanoscope in E, while the branch G can be momentarily
If the deflection of the galvanoscope is not altered
closed.
by
this closing of G, the resistance of the cell is
W = R*a
By a magnet placed near it the needle of
may be kept near the position of rest and
the galvanoscope
the sensitiveness
so increased.
Here the
resistance of the cell
is
measured while the
The strength of tlie current in the cell may
be measured by a tangentgalvanometer included in its
current flows.
branch of the bridge.
COxMPARISON OF ELECTROMOTIVE FORCES.
222
74.
Comparison of
Two Electromotive
Forces.
In order to measure an electromotive force, we may
that of some known constant element as a unit
choose
that,
this case the
In
Daniell
for instance, of the
phate, sulphuric acid,
reduced to
(copper, cupric sul
cell
zinc sulphate)
or
is
usually taken.
measurement of an electromotive
force is
comparison with that adopted as a unit.
its
(See Table 24c.)
In judging of the measurements we must remember that
no galvanic cell is quite constant in its electromotive force.
Independently of the variations arising from the time the
current has passed, the electromotive force of all cells de
In
creases with increasing current.
cells
with large plates
depositing copper from concentrated solutions or with strong
nitric acid, the
diminution of electromotive force
ceptible with
moderate
fluids
current strength.
is
not per
Elements with
diluted or that have been longer in use, especially
and " inconstant " elements
{e.g. Smee, Leclanche), may show with powerful currents a
value several times smaller than when " compensated " or
with
chromic
acid
solutions
with a quite weak current.
I.
is
Comjxtrison toith Galvanoscope
and
Rheostat.
circuit
formed, including a rheostat, a galvanoscope, and an elec
tromotive force, which
we
much
is
extra resistance
deflection to
will call
E.
intercalated
convenient amount.
as
If necessary, as
will
reduce the
The second
electro
motive force is then substituted for the first, and the
current brought to the same amount as before by means
of
the rheostat.
Calling the total resistance in the
experiment W, and that in the second w,
E_
w'
first
we have
and w are in each case the resistances of the rheostat
and that of the remainder of the circuit taken together.
Especially the internal resistance of the battery itself must
223
COMPARISON OF ELECTEOMOTIVE FORCES.
must be measured according
This
not be neglected.
the preceding
article.
to
however, the resistance of the
If,
rheostat be very large compared to that of the remainder of
may
the circuit, which
always be made the case by em
ploying a very sensitive galvanometer (one of long
coil),
the
be neglected, or at least may be roughly estimated.
In this case the method is both simple and convenient.
latter
may
II.
motive
and
Coynparison hy the Galvanometer.
forces,
E and
e,
and
w^, the currentstrengths J^
E_
6
How we may
E
the ratio
is
If
two
electro
produce in circuits of resistance,
i^,
W^
then
J. TV
i
.to'
determine, by the aid of the galvanometer,
Tor
clear without further explanation.
this
the measurement of the resistance
that of the battery
is
necessary, and especially
itself.
The method becomes very simple and independent of
measurement of resistance if we make the part of the
resistance constant in the two experiments very large com
this
pared to that of the batteries to be compared, so that the
The currentstrengths being J and
latter may be neglected.
i,
we have simply
E_ J
i'
In this method we can employ only a sensitive galvanometer (tangent or sine compass with many windings [e.g.
Siemens's universal galvanometer (75) or a reflecting galvanometer
(66)]),
and
always
included
sufficiently large
resistance.
The only
III. Comparison hy Method of Compensation.
methods applicable to inconstant elements, of which the electromotive force varies with the currentstrength,
is
to bring
the current to zero by opposing an equal electromotive force.
Poggendorff's method, which
is
very convenient, as
it
involves
no measurement of internal resistance, requires the use of a
galvanoscope G, a galvanometer T, and a rheostat B, and, in
224
COMPARISON OF ELECTEOMOTIVE FORCES.
addition, that of an auxiliary battery
of constant electromotive force greater than either of those which are to be
^S',
compared.
experiment
The arrangement of the
shown in the figure. In
is
the left division of the circuit are the
galvanoscope
force
to be
G and
the electromotive
measured
vanometer
T.
the auxiliary battery
E and
>S^
in the right,
and the
gal
are so placed
that their similar poles are turned towards each other.
the middle part of the circuit, which
batteries, is the rheostat
As much
is
common
to
In
both
Pi.
rheostat resistance
EG
as will cause the current in
fTmust now be
to vanish,
intercalated
and the current
J va. T must then be observed.
The other electromotive force e must now be substituted
for E, and the current in G again reduced to zero by the
rheostat.
The currentstrength in T will now be ^, while
strength
the rheostat resistance
is %v.
Then the proportion
of the
two electromotive forces
is
E_JW
iw
It follows
from
(63,
1.
the current in the branch
It
is
and B) that
GE
E = JJF and e = iw when
zero.
sometimes a convenience to intercalate an additional
resistance in the branch S.
greater rheostat resistance
G,
is
is
The effect of this is, that a
required to reverse the current in
and that the current in
IV. Bosschas Method
of
is feebler.
(See also 76, II.)
Com;pensation.
In
this
ar
rangement
two rheostats (stretched platinum
wires) and a galvanoscope serve to compare
the electromotive force e
of an inconsta^ element
with that
E of "a stronger
^'S 30.
and constant one, usually one or more Daniell's
cells.
Let a
225
COMPAKISON OF ELECTKOMOTIVE FORCES.
and
be the lengths of rheostat wires (from the connected ends
which are required in order that no
In a second
effected by two different lengths, a' and V.
E = ^ hh'
1 +
to the shifting contacts)
may
current
pass through the galvanoscope G.
experiment this
is
Then
a a
The proof
found in (73,
will be
The experiment may
>
III.)
also
be arranged with only one wire
with two sliding contacts, as in
the figure.
The same
E
=
relation holds
^
Compare
which
it is
hh'
a
Y\g. 31.
(73, III.) for the proof
and the conditions under
practicable.
V. Dubois Raymond's Method of Compensation.
+ & is constant and
changed we have the desired electromotive force
proportional to the length a, therefore
For
if
is
The
factor
= C
C may
W+a+
simply
a.
E and
its
connect
h'
be obtained once for
by using
all
In order that the methods IV. and V.
a=W^
E e
or larger cell
in
un
for e a
cell.
cable, it is necessary that at least
to
If,
is
E
Daniell's
the resistance of the cell
wires
incj
the last figure, the length
If
a does not amount
E must
resistance
may
be practi
one resistance must amount
to
this,'
a stronger
o
be used.
box with plugs may
also
be used
for
the
by connecting firmly the wires from E to the
ends of the rheostat, and with the wires from e and G
touching the two ends of so much of the resistance that the
current in G disappears.
The lastnamed contacts need not
be free from resistance.
observations,
SIEMENS'S UNIVEKSAL GALVANOMETEE.
226
75.
SiEMENs's Universal Galvanometer.
This instrument
sinegalvanometer
for
determining
electromotive
may
(65)
for
weak currents be used
further
it
as a
contains arrangements
and for the comparison of
by the bridge methods (71, II. and
resistances,
forces
74, V.)
The accompanying
figure represents, in a diagram, the
parts
and connections of the uni
versal
galvanometer.
galvanometer
coil
is
the
resistances
and 100 Siemens's units,
which are thrown into the circuit
by removing the plugs a h the
of 1, 10,
circular stretched
platinum wire.
and IV. are bindingwhich III. and IV. can
be connected with each other by
means of a plug.
Finally, C is
II.,
I.,
III.,
screws, of
the contact which can be placed on the platinum wire (the
connection of this with the bindingscrew
made under
I. is
in reality
the instrument).
The instrument is used as a sine galvanometer by
II. and IV. with the circuit.
By removing a plug from R a resistance may be at the same time
inserted.
The divisions of the platinum wire, which are
numbered as degrees, are used as the graduation of the
I.
simply connecting
circle.
In order to compare resistance
II.
resistances of B, the screws
cell, II.
and IV,
and
W with one
II. are
of the
connected with a
and IV. with W, and the plug inserted between
It will
II.
be easily seen that the connections are then
essentially as in the figure
and
I.
on
p.
210,
if
only the branches h
are substituted for one another.
That position of the sliding contact C is now sought at
which the placing of C on the platinum wire communicates
no deflection to the galvanometerneedle. Then W:R = b:a.
227
SIEMENS'S UNIVEESAL GALVANOMETER.
is
here to be so chosen that
&
and a are
as little un
equal as possible.
For the comparison of electromotive forces after the
compensation method of DuboisEaymond, the plug between
III. and IV. is removed, but the plugs of B inserted, and one
(e) of the electromotive forces to be determined is inserted
between the screws I. and IV., the (stronger and constant)
comparison cell E between II. and III. with the similar poles
III.
Then, again, that position of the
contact C is sought at which the galvanometerneedle is not
moved by a momentary closing of the current. Exactly the
same experiment is made with the other cell /.
connected to
I.
and
III.
a and a' are the portion^ of wire on the
the first and second cases respectively, we have
If
e:c'
left
hand
in
= a: a'.
See (74, V.) and the figure there given, also the remarks
on the conditions under which the determination is practicable.
jVo/g.
(71, II.)
It is obvious that the
may be employed both
Wheatstone Bridge arrangement
and that of
in this determination
(73, III.), if (by means of "mercury cups) additional resistances
I will only
can be inserted at the end of the stretched wire.
wires conthe
IV.)
If
to
appHcation
its
detail
in
(74,
describe
nected with the shifting contacts in Fig. 30 be connected with
the ends of the stretched wire of the Wheatstone Bridge, and the
galvanoscope wire, with its movable contactpiece (as in Fig. 22),
the current may be reduced to zero by shifting the contact, and
If
a and h will then be the lengths of the wire on either side.
now an additional resistance R, of which the value in units of
the bridge wire is known, be inserted at one end, between it and
the wire from one of the batteries, so as to increase its resistance,
the contact will have to be again moved to bring the current to
zero, and we shall have a the length of the bridge wire on one
side, and 6' that on the other, + the length of the added resistIn (73, III.) one pole of both cells must be connected with
ance.
only with
one end of the bridge wire, and the opposite pole of
the other.
The value of the bridge wire, as compared to the added resistance, is easily found by putting R and /F (Fig. 22) equal, when
be added at the end of
a=h. If then an additional resistance
ABSOLUTE MEASUEE OF ELECTROMOTIVE FORCE.
228
and
b, and the current again brought to zero, we have a' = b' +
R' = a  h'. If this be repeated from each end, inequalities of the
wire will be eliminated, and R' will be equal to the length of wire
between the two opposite positions of the contact.
Eesistance coils are easily made of covered German silver
wire, soldered at the ends to strong copper terminals, and, with
,
may readily be adjusted to equality with a standard
by drawing one end of the fine wire through a drop of melted
solder on the top of the terminal.
A cotton reel, with terminals
of strong copper wire fixed in grooves cut across each end, while
the fine wire is coiled on the reel, is a convenient arrangement.
the bridge,
coil,
Trans.
Determination of an Electromotive Force
76.
Absolute Measure.
IN
its comthe help
may,
by
parison with another of known amount, we
of
currentOhm's
law
in
terms
of
(63, I. No. 4), express it
that
employ
strength and resistance.
As a unit, we then
electromotive force which produces a unitcurrent in a circuit
Instead of defining an electromotive force by
of unitresistance.
current
J" in
Universally,
if
a circuit of resistance
the force
produces a
E=WJ.
We
must naturally
resistance
and
In the absolute system
now
specify in
currentstrength are measured.
what units
England the unit of resistance (Weber's,
(82), and Appendix, p. 285) is that
resistance against which a unit force will perform unit work
in unit time, and may be represented by a column of mercury
of 1 sq. mm. section, and 1034'9 mm. long.
The unit of
in general use in
Brit. Assoc, or
current
is
Ohm
the magnetic unit (67).
Such a measurement may be performed by the combinations mentioned under II. and III. (previous article), if we
measure not only relative but absolute currentstrengths (67).
I.
Ohm's Metliod.
electromotive force
The
current source
of
to be measured
with a rheostat and galvanometer.
We observe
is
which
the
is connected in circuit
ABSOLUTE MEASURE OF ELECTROMOTIVE FORCE.
the currentstrength /, with induded rheostat resistance
229
W;
Then
E=Jl
r =
^
J i
C
cot
<p
cot
^'
where <p and
are the deflections corresponding to i and
and C the reductionfactor for absolute measure (6769).
<I>
To obtain exact
results, it is desirable to proportion
/,
the
resistances so that the currentstrength in one experiment
is
about double that in the other.
The deviation
of the deflection from the law of tangents
will be eliminated if the
two
deflections together
90.
If
one deflection be approximately 35, and the other 55, this
requirement will be fulfilled as well as if both had been near
45.
The method is, of course, only applicable to constant
and it must be remembered that in all batteries
the electromotive force is diminished by strong currents.
elements
(See p. 222.)
Example.
The electromotive force of a Grove's element is to
be measured in Ohm's or British Association units of resistance,
and magnetic current measure.
The reduction factor of the
tangentcompass employed is, for magnetic units, 1"586.
We observe with the resistance
TF= 10 Ohm's,
w= 20 Ohm's,
The two
/=
the deflection 442 tan=0d725
277 ^aw = 05250
currentstrengths are therefore in magnetic units
1586 X 09725
i= 1586
15424
whence the required electromotive
E= 154:24:
08326
force
..!?~^^oo^
 08326
15424
,
05250
= 08326
is
1809 absolute units.
If the multiplication be performed with logarithms, that of
the
tangent
is
taken
w W
E= C cot cot
<p
directly
from
a table.
The formula
is
<i>
more convenient
for calculation.
HORIZO^^TAL FORCE BY GALVANIC METHODS.
230
II.
Poggendorff^ s Metliod,
When
by the combination shown in
the current in the galvanoscope
Fig.
29
reduced to zero by intercalation of resistance
is
(p.
rheostat B,
224).
if
W in the
J"= currentstrength in T, the electromotive
force of the battery
is
E=WJ.
This method
is
(Compare
universally applicable.
direc
tions, p. 224.)
Measurement of the Horizontal Force
77.
OF Terrestrial Magnetism by Galvanic Methods.
As by means
of a tangentcompass of
a galvanic current
may
horizontal force of terrestrial
magnetism
conversely, the horizontal force
tangent compass,
known dimensions
be measured in absolute units
when
its
may
is
known
if
the
(67), so,
be determined with the
deflection
current of which the absolute strength
is
is
observed with
otherwise known.
I.
By
the
Voltameter.
"We pass the same current at once through a tangentcompass and a voltameter, and observe the deflection f of
the needle, and the quantity of the electrolyte decomposed
per minute (regard being had to the dkections in 67, 68).
If r be the mean radius, and n the number of coils of the
and, further, denoting by A the
tangent  galvanometer
;
number given
in the last
column
of Table 27, for the volta
meter employed, the horizontal force of
terrestrial
magnetism
is
T=
InrrA
m
tan
On
the one hand, namely, the current force i=A')n (68), and on
rT
the other
we
(p
=
ta7i
^ (67).
obtain the formula.
By combining
these
two
results
; ; ;
HORIZONTAL FORCE BY GALVANIC METHODS.
231
In case the needle and the dimensions of the section of
the coils are not very small compared to the diameter of the
we must
latter,
in
which
h, h,
insert in the
and
denote the same as in (67).
With
II.
denominator
the Bifilar Galvanometer.
The bifilar galvanometer (Weber) consists of a coil, suspended by two wires, which also serve to conduct the current.
The instrument is so placed that the plane of the coil is
brought into the magnetic meridian by the directing force of
the suspending threads,
Let
/be
the
sum
K the moment
by the coils (83)
of inertia of the instrument referred to its
of the areas surrounded
axis of rotation (54, II.)
its
period of oscillation (52)
a the angle of deflection produced by a current passing
through the instrument
then the currentstrength in magnetic measure
is
Further, let a tangentgalvanometer be given, of which
is
If
number of coils
mean radius of the
the
r the
coils
(compare 67).
now
at the
the same current i passes through both instruments
same time, and produces a deflection in the tangent
galvanometer of f
the horizontal force of terrestrial magnetism
m_
/'tt'K
and the strength of the current
2n'!r
is
tan a
is
HOEIZONTAL FORCE BY GALVANIC METHODS.
232
= /J
f^
For the correction of tan
of
7,ir^
^'^'^
compare
<p,
f^^
9
also the last paragraph
I.
If a current i traverses a coil with area of coils /, the
hehaves with respect to distant forces as a magnet of magThe terrestrial magnetism r therefore
netism /i (App. No. 19).
exerts on the coil deflected through the angle a, the axis of which
therefore now makes with the magnetic meridian an angle of
Proof.
coil
90 
a,
the
moment
T cos
fi
The
directing force
time of oscillation
t,
a.
of the suspending wires
and the moment of
D='^"^z (App. Nos.
The moment
from
its
By
given from the
9, 10.)
of torsion of the threads on the coil deflected a
is therefore
position of rest
JJ
stn
=T
a,
5
sin a.
moment
equating this expression with the
restrial
is
inertia K, as
of torsion of ter
magnetism we have
iT=
777
tan
a.
if
This formula, together with that for the tangentgalvanometer
gives
by multiplication
By employing
f,
by
division T^.
a commutator, which reverses the current
in both galvanometers,
any inaccuracy in the position
of
the instrument will be compensated (64).
If the needle of the
tangentcompass be suspended by a
thread of ratio of torsion
(55),
we must
write r (1
+ 0)
instead of r throughout.
The current
in one galvanometer
ought to
exert
no
233
HORIZONTAL FORCE BY GALVANIC METHODS.
(Compare Pogg. Ann., Bd.
deflecting force on the other.
138,
S.
1.)
With
III.
the Bifilar
(A.) If instead of
we
Galvanometer and a Magnet.
making use
of a tangentgalvanometer
current in the bifilar galvanometer at the same
let the
time deflect a magnet needle,
obtaining the area of the
we
are spared the trouble of
coils.
Let a short magnet be hung east or west from the bifilar
mm. from it, and at the same height.
coil at a distance of a
Let the same current which produces the (small) deflection
a of the
angle
bifilar
galvanometer deflect the magnet through the
Let, further
f.
= the mean radius of the suspended coil, and
= the torsion ratio of the magnet needle (55),
then the horizontal intensity
I
t
i
/V +
(ce
(rt^
is
^K
?^)t
Here the depth and breadth
tan a
(1
+ 0)
tan
<p
of the windings are
assumed
to
be so small in comparison with the distance a, that the
second powers of theit ratios to a may be neglected.
In order to avoid any uncertainty in determining a, the
is hung first west and then east of the coil, and a
taken as the half of the distance of the suspension thread
in the two positions.
The mean of the two observed deflections, and of the torsion coefficients
on both sides, is
needle
Of course, the observations are each time repeated
taken.
with reversed current (see
(B.)
If
p.
189).
the suspending wires of the bifilar coil are fine
enough, and their distance great enough to be accurately
measured,
we may finally in this method avoid
moment of inertia and the time
mination of the
tion.
We
the deterof
oscilla
assume that the wires are nearly of equal length
and equally stretched.
Let, in addition to the above
and
meanings
for a,
<p,
a,
r,
HORIZONTAL FORCE BY GALVANIC METHODS.
234
= the
length of the two suspension wires taken together
and e' = their distance from each other at the top and
bottom
m = the mass of the parts hung on the wires ;
I
gi\\Q acceleration of gravity
= 9810 mm.
50;
for latitude
finally, let
= the
elastic
directive
power of one suspension wire
(see
below)
then
we have
ee'qm
tan a
T= V
To determine
{(X
+ r)f
+ 0)
(1
tan
take a piece of the same wire as that used
for the suspension wires, of the length of one of these,
hang
and
body (rod, or sphere) of which the moment of
Then
k (54), and observe the time of oscillation t'.
to it a
inertia is
The suspending wires should be
compared with
^^
so
thin that
so
small
is
that a determination of this cor
rection once for all is sufficient.
Proof.
The
statical directive force
D of the suspending
found (A) from the time of oscillation
inertia K,
is
From
the measured distances
and
t,
wires
and the moment of
and the length
of the
suspending wires taken together, the directive force produced by
the weight gm of the suspended mass m
ee'gm
"
to which, to obtain D,
"^
must be added the
elastic
directive force
26 of the wires.
If the area of the coils =/, the current
a given by
sin
a=fiT.
cos a.
produces a deflection
MEASUEEMENT OF CUKRENTS OF SHORT DURATION.
235
deflection p of a short magnet needle at a distance a from
the middle point of the coil is given by
The
(1
^
+ &)
'
sin
(p
2fi
,
('
o,
?)!
cos a,
^'
from which the previous expression for T is easily obtained.
The magnet needle is assumed to be so short that the square of
The
the ratio of its length to the distance a may be neglected.
angles of deflection a and <p are observed with mirror and scale.
The disturbing eff'ect of the currents in the suspending wires is
avoided by placing the line joining the wires perpendicular to the
magnetic meridian, and observing the deflections on both sides
with reversed currents.
78.
Measurement of Currents of Short Duration.
If a current
a time which
is
flows through a galvanometer only during
short compared with the period of oscilla
tion of the needle,
it
imparts to the needle a velocity pro
portional to the quantity of electricity
which flows through
This quantity
the section of the conductor.
we
will call the
" quantity of the current."
If
at rest, the (small) deflection
produced by the impulse of the
current
is
the needle were previously
proportional to the quantity of the current.
Let
= the
= the
a = the
c
i
reductionfactor of the galvanometer (67, 69)
period of oscillation of the needle (52) ;
arc of oscillation produced by the impulse (taking as
unit the angle 57"3 ; compare 49);
then the quantity of the current amounts to
produced by a galvanic battery which
closed for a short time, then ceteris paribus the arc of
If the current is
is
oscillation of the needle is proportional to the duration of
the current.
This relation
may
be used for the comparison
of short spaces of time (time of fall, velocity of projectiles,
236
etc.)
MEASUEEMENT OF CURKENTS OF SHORT DURATION.
by arranging
that at the beginning of the time the cur
rent shall be closed and interrupted at the end {Pouillet).
In the foregoing formula it is assumed that the oscillating
For a damped needle the
is not sensibly " damped."
needle
proportion between arc of oscillation and quantity of current
still subsists,
but the absolute measurement of the latter re
quires the ratio of
If
we
call the
damping k
known.
to be
logarithmic decrement
X=
the quantity of the current
is
Q^Cj^a.k
log. k,
tan
23026.
'^
(2'3026X is equal to the natural logarithm of k),
Tor a moderate damping the last member approximates
to the value ^k, so that then
Q=CThe quantity
of
a^k.
electricity
is
naturally obtained in
the same units in which the reductionfactor
e.g.
is
measured,
in terms of that quantity of electricity which, with unit
current (Weber's magnetic measure), flows through a section
of the conductor in the unit of time.
19.)
(Compare App. No.
If the arc of oscillation is so great that the propor
tionality
between arc and
scale readings
no longer
subsists,
these must be reduced as in (49) to the sines of half the angles
of deflection, since the velocity of passing
tion of equilibrium
the pendulum.
is
From an observed
sions, therefore, iJ.
through the posi
proportional to this, as in the case of
is
deflection =
subtracted, where r
is
7i
scaledivi
the distance
r"
of the scale
from the mirror.
(Compare
also
79 and
85.)
METHODS OF MULTIPLICATION AND EECOIL.
237
Methods of Measuring Querents of Short
Duration by Multiplication and Eecoil.
79.
In measuring currents
with a damped
of short duration
needle (51), especially, for instance, in the measurement of
induced currents, it is often advantageous to repeat the im
In
pulse at regular intervals.
this case,
from the damping of
the needle, there finally results a constantly maintained movement, exactly like that of a clock pendulum, which at each
swing receives an impulse from the driving weight, but by
and the resistance of the air is so damped that a
series of swings maintains a constant amplitude.
Therefore, if this final result be employed, we obtain an
observation which can be easily repeated, and from which
friction
an exact mean can be taken
and, further,
it is
ant that the needle should be at rest at the
not import
commencement
of the experiment.
It is
assumed that the
that the damping ring
damping
is
oscillations
remain so small, or
so broad that a constant ratio of
obtains.
Method of Multiplication.
I.
The proceeding is quite analogous to the example of the
pendulum already adduced. An impulse is imparted
At the
the needle, which swings out and turns back.
clock
to
instant
when
it
passes
a second impulse
the
first,
the
so that
position of equilibrium backwards,
it
following passage through the
another impulse
first,
its
imparted in the opposite direction to
At
increases the motion of the needle.
is
and
so on.
point
of
equilibrium,
imparted in the same direction as the
The oscillation is each time wider, till it
is
reaches an amplitude at which that given by previous impulses is only just maintained, and of course this limit is
the sooner reached the stronger the damping.
Assuming that small oscillations are employed, which
are observed by the mirror and scale (48), the limiting arc
METHOD OF
238
is
RECOIL.
proportional to the increase of velocity through a single
impulse, and
proportional to the quantity of
therefore
is
electricity passing through the multiplier in a current of short
Mostly this proportionality is sufficient, as for
duration.
instance in the following article.
We may
also calculate the arc
oscillation a,
of
which
the needle previously at rest receives from a single impulse
obtained by
without any damping from the limiting angle
multiplication, as soon as the ratio of
damping
or the logar
/t
\ = log. k is known (51). The
swinging damped needle shows, namely, that
theory of
ithmic decrement
the
1\
]
/,
^
(2'3026X.
,
Jc
tan^
23026\
TT
^/
small values the last factor
!For
nat. log. k).
of the equation approximates to the value
i^k,
and we
have
A kl
"=271
The angular
velocity
a single impulse,
needle,
v,
communicated
being
to the needle
by
time of oscillation of the
the
is
V=
II.
3fethod of Recoil.
This method, which
is
employed with more powerful
impulses, yields at the same time the ratio of damping of
the needle.
The needle
is set
in motion
by a
single impulse,
and
is
allowed to swing out, back, and out in the opposite direction, then, at
the instant of again passing
its
position of
equilibrium (scaledivision which the needle indicates
at rest), a second impulse
to the
since
first.
it
By
is
given
it
when
in the opposite direction
this the needle will
be thrown back again,
has lost velocity by the damping.
It
is
now allowed
METHOD OF
239
RECOIL.
again to turn twice, and again thrown back at the
when
next passes
it
When
position of equilibrium,
its
moment
and so
on.
this proceeding has
been several times repeated, the
throw of the needle takes a constant value, and this takes place
the sooner, the stronger the damping.
When this is the
case the oscillations are
of
the
form
grapliic
ally represented in the
diagram
annexed,
in
which the times are the
abscissae, and the scaledivisions, reckoned from the position
Fig. 33.
of
equilibrium of the
needle, are the ordinates.
The establishment
hastened
if
the
first
of these regular oscillations will be
impulse be enfeebled, and the more so
the feebler the damping
ing, the first
damp
indeed, there were no
If,
is.
impulse should only amount to half the suc
ceeding ones, as follows from the figure.
The method
of recoil yields, on taking the
mean
of the
corresponding observations, 4 turningpoints on the scale.
The
a between the two outer we will call the
two inner
difference
greater arc of oscillation, the difference h of the
the smaller
Then
(See Fig. 33.)
arc.
damping
directly the ratio of
The arc
is
communicated by a
of oscillation
single impulse
is
when
as,
the damping
for
is
a'
\/ ab
comparison of
inserting the factor k
and
"^
resistances
amount;
(81).
By
_j 23026X
of,
lf
small, or only varies slightly in
instance, in
taken account
"'^
for feeble
^^
the damping
damping
is
fully
INCLINATION BY THE EARTHINDUCTOE.
240
23026X
may
be substituted.
To obtain the angular
by a
single impulse,
of oscillation
velocity v
we must,
of the needle.
itself,
in addition,
communicated
know
the period
Then
k
t
"/ab
If the arcs of oscillation are larger the elongations
must
be reduced to the sines of half the angles of elongation
(78 end).
Compare, respecting the methods of multiplication and
W. Weber, Electrodynamische Maassbestimmungen
insbesondere Widerstandsmessungen.
Abh. d. K. Sack. Ges. d.
Wiss., 1, S. 341
also J. C. Maxwell, Treatise on Electricity, vol.
reversal,
ii.
pars. 750, 751.
80.
Measurement of the Inclination of Terrestrial
Magnetism by the EarthInductor (Weber).
This measurement rests on a comparison of the currents
produced by the horizontal and vertical components in the
same revolving
coil (inductor).
Since the scalereadings of the galvanometer (when large
M
^_
reduced to the sine of
deflection to
one side; compare end of 78) are
proportional to the currentstrengths,
and the
latter
to the required
com
ponents, the ratio of the scalereadings gives the tangent of the angle
^
Fig. 34.
rotation
" induction
may be

of inclination.
The earth inductor consists of
coil, of which the axis of
a rotatable
placed horizontally or vertically.
An
impulse " will be caused by rapidly turning
the coil through 180, the plane of the coil both before and
241
INCLINATION BY THE EARTHINDUCTOK.
after the rotation being perpendicular to the required
com
ponent of terrestrial magnetism.
To measure the current produced by this rotation, a
galvanometer, with a suspended needle, which has a time
of oscillation of at least 10 seconds, should be employed.
Ordinarily a double astatic needle
of the multiplier serve to
not
sufficient,
damp
the damping
is
increased
is
The narrow
used.
coils
the needle, and, if these are
by a copper casing
inserted in the multiplier.
The
coil (or
of
the ratio
damper)
damping
assumed
same
is
the
is
to
for
be so broad that
both induction
impulses.
In observation the multiplication method (79) is usually
we assume in the following. It is only with
employed, as
very powerful inductors that the use of the method of
reversals
is
practicable.
Induction hy the Vertical Component.
LL, the
coils
By
are placed horizontally, and,
magnetic needle, the axis
is
turning on
by the
aid of a
brought into the magnetic
meridian.
LL
must next be carefully levelled by means
The
and a spiritlevel placed upon it.
and
changed,
position of this axis must not be afterwards
screw
with
the
any further correction must be made only
at the back (shown in the middle of Fig. 34).
of the coils
We must now set the axis of rotation
The
axis
of the footscrews,
exactly horizontal
level placed
when
it
is
observations
that
is,
so that the bubble in a spirit
keeps the same position in the tube
Now a set of induction
turned end for end.
upon
it
must be made, according
to
I.,
previous article,
must be turned 180.
produced we will denote by A^.
in which, for each impulse, the coil
The
is
arc of oscillation finally
and turned to one of the stops, and a spiritlevel
placed on the top of the axis M, so that its tube is in the
vertically
is
The inductor
Induction hy the Horizontal Component.
coils
are placed
34
the
is,
that
placed as shown in Fig.
242
INCLINATION BY THE EAKTHINDUCTOE.
The
magnetic meridian.
till
by turning the
Jf
central footscrew
the position of the airbubble
in
is
coils
When
180.
vertical
is
is
now turned
unchanged in the tube
this
the case, the axis
is
plane perpendicular to the magnetic
meridian.
We
now make
a second set of observations precisely as
and call the constant arc of oscillation A2.
Then the J is given by the formula
before,
tan
J=r
'
Testing of the Instrument.
It is most easily known in
the second position of the coils when the two oppositesided
positions given by the two stops really differ by 180, if it
be provided with a small plane mirror, silvered on both
The
sides.
axis
is
placed
and the
and the eye
the mirror, and perhaps a
mark {e.g. a windowbar) is
perpendicularly,
mirror also placed perpendicularly upon
brought to the same height as
metre distant, so that a vertical
visible in
it.
On
it,
rotating to the second position the
mark
must again appear.
A
coils,
second test consists in proving that the plane of the
when
magnetic
resting against the stops,
component
be
is
perpendicular to the
In a geometrical
may be
determined for the horizontal component by a compass with rightangled case held against the frame,
and for the perpendicular by the spiritlevel.
In
inductor
Fig. 35.
to
wound
measured.
carefully in a frame this
other cases the annexed (Fig. 35) arrangement
be employed, which
is
fixed to the stops,
the rotatory play to perhaps 30.
With
this limited angle
of rotation a set of induction observations
side,
of
which the resulting
final
may
and limits
is
made on each
deflections
should
be
similar.
A slight error
(say 1) in the fulfilment of these two con
ditions only causes a vanishing error in the result,
provide against
ing
MM with
it
and to
the greatest care must be taken in adjust
the spiritlevel.
RESISTANCE BY THE MAGNETOINDUCTOR.
Compare W. Weber on the Employment of Magnetic Induction
Measurement of Inclination Ahh. d. Gott. Ges. d. Wiss., Bd.
for
5,
243
1853.
Comparison of
81.
Two
Eesistances with the
MagnetoInductor.
The magnetoinductor of Weber consists of a solenoid,
through which a bar, consisting of two magnets, each somewhat longer than the solenoid, with
and firmly connected with a short
middle piece
Pushing
this
can be pushed.
through from one stop
of brass,
other produces an electro
to the
their like poles Oj^posed
motive force in the
coils
^:^mmmm^^
[p
differing
^'S ^^
in direction with that of the motion
The end positions
regulated by movable stops that near them a slight
of the bar, but
are so
motion
there
is
always similar in amount.
produces no electromotive force.
such a position, which
may
At each
easily
side
be found
by
experiment.
If the
ends of the mductorcoil are connected by a con
ductor, a certain quantity of electricity will pass through
it
and this quantity with the same
solely dependent on the collective resistance of
(solenoid and external conductor) to which it is
at each inductive impulse,
inductor
is
the circuit
inversely proportional.
If
a galvanometer, with suspended
astatic needle of suitable period of oscillation,
the circuit, this quantity
may
form part
of
be measured either according to
by the method of multiplication or recoil (79).
employ the latter, which is independent of the
variation of damping produced by the intercalated resistance.
In order to compare two resistances, w and lo^, it is
necessary to make three sets of observations, namely
(1.) In which the inductorcoil and galvanometer alone
The great and little arcs are
form the circuit.
a and h.
(78)
or, better,
It is best to
244
ABSOLUTE MEASUREMENT OF RESISTANCE.
(2.)
(3.)
In which the resistance iv^
are a^ and h^.
In which tv^ is substituted
and
a^
^
Denoting,
"
i^,
is
included.
for
w^
Tlie arcs
The
arcs are
1)2.
a'
then, the expression
we have (compare
p.
b'
y=^,
etc.,
by
i,
and
209)
w,
iv^
iI 
i,
?j
%^
The observer must of course make sure that the movements of the inducing magnet do not affect the galvanometer
A vertical
needle.
position of the induction solenoid, at the
same height as the magnet needle, is most convenient, as
then the magnet can be moved with a string passing over a
pulley and attached at the other end to a balancing weight.
Induction impulses with this inductor are also very
convenient and effective for comparisens of resistance with
the differential galvanometer or the bridge (70, 71) if the
resistances give no extra currents.
The advantage
tained of short alternating currents, but
we can
magnitudes of the oscillations to the method
{Pogg. Ann., cxlii. 418.)
82.
is
ob
also apply the
of interpolation.
Absolute Measurement of Eesistance.
We
employ an earthinductor (80), of which the area of
by the coils is known, and a galvanoscope, of which the wire is wound on a nonconducting
frame, so that the damping of the needle depends on the
wire of the coil only.
The coil should be so broad that the
ratio of damping may be constant for all the observed oscillations.
The time of oscillation of the latter, which is
usually a double astatic combination, must be at least 15
seconds, and its sensitiveness sufficient to permit of the
employment of the method of recoil (79, II.) Taking
surface surrounded
K the moment
t
its
of inertia of the galvanometerneedle (54)
time of oscillation
245
ABSOLUTE MEASUREMENT OF EESISTANCE,
/ the sum
of the surfaces surrounded by the coils of tlie inductor in sq. mm. (83)
T the inducing component of the earth's magnetism (59)
a and h the two arcs of oscillation (p. 239), taking as unit an
arc equal in length to its radius
X = nat. log. a  nat. log. h, the natural logarithmic decrement
of the needle with closed circuit
>.'
that with interrupted circuit (compare 71, III.)
;
then the absolute resistance
32/r
If
is
the
of the closed circuit is
XT^
moment
m\^tan^^'
ah
of torsion
which a current
of unit
strength would exert on the needle in the galvanometer, the
rule obtains, according to the law of induction
20), that the needle,
w within the
coil,
if
(Appendix
moves with the angular velocity
it
induces in this an electromotive force Dio
in absolute measurement.
circuit
this
Since
to
the resistance of the
is
Du
This
w
moment of
corresponds
to a current
^
exerts on the swinging needle a reverse
D.
If
moment
of
is
the
moment
current
torsion
inertia of the needle this
of
torsion corresponds to a displacement
^ u
of
the needle.
Now
this
latter
period
the
r=
of
period
of
52),
this displacement
by
^ the equation
^
oscillation
The
\\ =r
is
of
needle
the
connected with
D^
^>, where
wK
damped needle.
damping
the
of
oscillation
without
r
If
is
is
(therefore
TT
wK
rotation of the inductor with the area enclosed
=/
the
we have
the coils
\\'
decrement
the logarithmic
which proceeds from
through 180 gives
now an
by
induction impulse
AREA OF THE COILS
246
^^,
of quantity (78)
communicates to the galvauo
wliicli
meterneedle the ansjuLir velocity v = 
hand, from the arcs of oscillation a and
2,72
By
This value of
wK
4/r
a^
&^
^/ab
the other
we
find
On
^>.
h (79, II.),
equating these two expressions for v
we have
/\  z tani
\b
'
inserted in the expression before given for
is
determined as given above.
X k' gives
from which
'?
Very approximately,
Compare Appendix 1921
Abh.
metei's
p.
et scq.
d.
Gutting.
we may
instead of the above
Ges.
d.
and
W. Weber upon
JFiss.,
Bd. 10
take
Galvano
Pogg. Ann.,
also Reports of Com. of Brit. Assoc. 1862,
vi.
et seq.
Determination of the Area of the Coils of a
83.
Bobbin of Wire.
For a wire not too thin the sum of the coil areas of
may be measured while winding it by determining
the number of coils and the length of the wire wound on.
I.
a bobbin
If the coils are circular
section
I
and form a layer of rectangular
calling
= the
total length of wire
n = the number
of coils
h = the depth of the layer of wire
consequence)
(the breadth
is
of no
OF A BOBBIN OF
we have
for
247
WIIJE.
the effective area of the coils
when
acting
on a distant object
II.
The
may
bobbin already made up
effective area of a
be determined experimentally by measuring
magnetic
its
moment when
traversed by a current of known strength.
For this purpose the bobbin is arranged with its axis
east and west, at a considerable distance from a short
magnet needle, so that the middle point of the needle lies
in the line of the axis of the bobbin (compare p. 168, the
1st position).
Let
a
= the
distance between the middle points of the bobbin
and needle
r
= the mean
= the
radius of the bobbin, which need only be ap
proximately
the bobbin
then the
known
deflection of the magnetic needle
coil area
by the current
in
is
/= I ^ (a" + r')\
tan
a.
For the moment of torsion of the current in the bobbin on
magnet needle of moment m which is deflected through
the short
the
ande
a amounts to
.,
{a'
The
1 9.
Tin
sin a.
terrestrial
When
.,.
+ r)^
magnetism
the needle
is
cos a, as
follows from
exerts the
moment
in equilibrium the
must be equal from which the above expression
Appendix
of torsion
twoforces
follows.
The formula assumes that the breadth and depth of the
compared with the distance a
that their squares may be neglected compared with a?.
When the needle is suspended by a thread we must add to
layer of wire are so small
rthe
factor (1
If at the
0) (55).
same time the current
tangent galvanometer of
is
passed through a
known dimensions
placed
at
COMPARISON OF ELECTROSTATIC POTENTIALS.
248
distance, the deflection in this gives
^, which factor can
accordingly be eliminated from the expression for/ (67).
If the needle of the
tangent galvanometer can also be
used as the deviation needle for the bobbin,
or west from the middle of the latter.
it is
placed east
Let a current give the deflections
a^
when
the
direction
a2
when
through both parts in such a manner
on the needle are in the same
flows
it
that
actions
;
the current in the tangentgalvanometer alone
is
reversed by a commutator
then the area
/ of
the coils
"^n
is
o.z
li
n and
found
/fan
a,
+ fan a\
\fan
a^
J'
tan
a.
R are the number of coils and the radius of the tangent
galvanometer.
If a^ is
on the other side of zero from
a^,
the sign of tan a^ in numerator and denominator must be
reversed.
Of course each deflection
is
measured on both
by
means
sides
reversing the whole current by a commutator and the
taken; compare (64) commutator.
The
torsion
of
the sus]3ending thread
is
here
of
no
consequence.
Comparison of Electrostatic Potentials.
84.
With
I.
We
the Sine Electrometer {B. Kohlrausch).
here measure
the force with which a magnetic
by a horizontal arm at a given relative
position of the two parts of the apparatus,, when the electrometer is connected with the conductor of which the potential
needle
is
is
repelled
to be determined.
This arm, together with the casing of
the instrument, can be rotated round a vertical axis over a
graduated
circle.
In making the observation we look through a
slit
in the
249
COMPAKISON OF ELECTROSTATIC POTENTIALS.
casing
into
reflected,
is
image
correct the
it, in which the
and when the adjustment is
mirror placed opposite to
magnetic needle
of
mark over the
reflected in a
slit,
mirror attached to the magnet, also appears.
must
at
each observation be brought to
The needle
by
adjustment
turning the instrument until the reflected image of the
coincides with a
mark made on
mark
the needle mirror.
According to the strength of the potentials to be determay be made either with different
nained the observations
needles or with different angles between this and the repelling
arm (compare the
This angle
end).
the case of the instrument in
Wlien
its
is
adjusted by rotating
base plate.
this is done, and, furthermore, the axis is placed
vertical (which
may
be
known
placed on the instrument
is
to
be the case when a level
not affected by
rotation
its
compare p. 161), Ave have first to bring the needle of the
uncharged electrometer to adjustment. In what follows, the
angles ^ are reckoned from the position of the Vernier here
If a charged conductor (usually a Leyden jar or
read off.
battery) is now connected with the instrument, the arm will
repel
the needle.
The instrument is rotated until the
and the angle of rotation p is
original adjustment obtains,
read
The
off.
potential
the
of
electricity
is
then pro
portional to
\^sin
(p.
The needle as well as the repelling arm takes, in
Proof.
similar relative positions, a charge proportional to the potential
of the electricity, since the conducting case
on
all sides
prevents
Therefore the repelling
the action of outside electrical charges.
force exerts on the needle a moment of rotation proportional to
On the other hand, this moment of
equal to the moment of rotation due to terrestrial
magnetism which is proportional to sin <p.
the square of the potential.
rotation
is
Observations
with
different
different angles between the
needles,
arm and
or
those
with
must be made
For this purpose,
needle,
comparable with each other by experiment.
one and the same Leyden jar of large capacity is successively connected with the instrument under the conditions
250
COMPARISON OF ELECTKOSTATIC POTENTIALS.
to be
The
compared and the deflections observed.
loss
of
electricity during the intervals of observation is eliminated
by observations
at equal short intervals.
In order that no
may
loss
occur by the production of
a residual charge in the battery,
it
advisable that the
is
battery should have been already kept some time charged.
(Compare Pogg. Ann.,
With
II.
the
88, p. 497.)
vol.
Quadrant Electrometer {Thomson and
Kirchhoff).
The quadrantelectrometer
of
small
electrical
serves for the
potentials, especially
of
measurement
differences
of
potential.
First of
all,
the jar in the foot of the instrument
is
charged by means of an electrical machine or a charged
Leyden jar, the inner coating of the instrument jar being
accessible through an opening in the case.
This charge
is
communicated to the needle of the electrometer by a wire
which dips into sulphuric acid contained in the jar. The
instrument cannot be used for some time after charoins,
since at
first
the position of the needle
The two conductors from the
not constant.
is
pairs of quadrants (con
nected crosswise) which project from the instrument are
now
of
means of the footscrews
which the glass suspending thread
joined to each other, and, by
and the torsion head
the needle
is
to
hung, the needle,
i.e.
middle
its
line, is
Then
when the
brought over a diameter separating the quadrants.
the connection of the conducting wires
is
severed
needle should remain constant in position.
If the quadrants of the instrument
same
level,
do not
lie
at exactly the
the needle will frequently place itself diagonally.
It
should be tried whether raising the needle or charging it less
obviates the difficulty.
The "fly " attached to the vertical Avire
of the needle must lie completely under the surface of the sulphuric acid, otherwise the surface tension of the fluid prevents
the use of the instrument.
If
two conductors
of a galvanic
battery)
of
different potential
are
now
{e.g.
the poles
connected with the two
QUANTITY OF ELECTRICITY IN A LEYDEN JAR.
251
conducting wires, a deflection of the needle ensues (observed
with mirror and scale
48) which
nearly proportional to
is
the difference of potential.
It is easy to test the proportion or construct a table of
corrections for the indications of the instrument
by observ
ing the readings obtained from several cells separately and
in circuit.
under
It is advisable
circumstances to change the
all
poles during the observations by
(64).
means
of a
Half the difference of the readings
is
commutator
then taken as
the deflection.
Comparison of Medromotive Forces with the quadrantelectrometer.
The
electromotive force of a cell
is
proportional
to the difference of potential at its poles, so that the electro
motive forces are in the ratio of the deflections produced in
the electrometer.
Comparison of Resistances.
If one
and the same current
flows through several conductors, the differences of potential
at the ends of the conductors vary as the resistances.
The
compared are therefore joined end to end,
and a current passed through the whole.
The two end
resistances to be
points of a resistance are then connected with the conducting
wires of the electrometer and the deflection observed.
same process
is
The
gone through with another resistance, and
the ratio of the deflections gives also that of the resistances.
Tolerably accurate results will only be obtained with great
The constancy
measurement must be proved.
resistances.
85.
of
the
Quantity of Electricity
I,
With
in
current
during
the
a Leyden Jar.
the Sine Electrometer.
Since the quantity of electricity in a given Leyden jar
or battery
is
proportional to the potential of the electricity,
and the same battery may be compared by means of the sine  electrometer (84).
With respect to the " residual charge," i.e. that quantity of elecdifferent charges of one
252
QUANTITY OF ELECTKICITY IN A LEYDEN JAE.
which remains in a jar after a momentary discharge,
be remarked that this residue has no effect on the
The indications of the electropotential of the electricity.
meter are therefore proportional to the " available " charge,
i.e. to that quantity which is discharged by a momentary
connecting of the two coatinos.
tricity
it
may
II.
With Lanes Unit Jar.
In charging the battery, the quantity of electricity
added may be determined by carefully insulating the battery,
connecting one coating with the electrical machine and the
other with a unit jar.
Every spark discharge of the unit
jar corresponds to a definite increase of the charge in the
coating of the battery connected with
The
tance
is
indications of the unit jar,
it.
when
the striking dis
varied, are reduced to each other experimentally
comparing with
the
sine electrometer
the
potentials
wliich the different striking distances correspond.
by
to
If the
may be assumed
be approximately proportional to the potentials.
The
unit jar, of course, measures the quantity of electricity,
striking distances are not too small they
to
including the residual charge.
III.
The quantity
determined by
its
With
of
the Galvanometer.
in
electricity
battery
may
be
discharge through a sufficiently insulated
The danger of the discharge striking through the insulation of the wire is diminished by including in the circuit a great resistance, such as
galvanometer, as explained in (78).
a wet thread.
To reduce the galvanometric
units of the quantity of
it must be
measured in
magnetic measure, contains in mm. mg. system 30 x lO^**, in
cm. grm. system 3x10^" electrostatic units.
(Compare App.
No. 11 and end of No. 14, and Table 28.)
electricity
to
absolute
electrostatic quantities,
remembered that unit quantity
of electricity, as
253
ELECTRICAL CAPACITY.
With
IV.
The depression
the
Air TJiermometcr
column
of the
discharge traversing the wire
of
is
(Biess).
of fluid
by an
electrical
proportional to the product
the quantity of electricity discharged and
potential
its
assumed that the resistance of the wire in the thermometer bulb is very great
compared with that of the remainder of the circuit through
which the discharge is effected.
In this way quantities discharged from one and the
same Ley den jar or battery may be compared by the airbefore the discharge.
It is here
thermometer, for since the charge
is
here proportional to
the potential, the quantities discharged vary as the square
roots of the depressions produced in the airthermometer.
made, the air inside and outsome time in free communiWarming by radiation from the body or touching
Before the discharge
side the
cation.
thermometer
is
is left for
with the hand must be avoided.
Electeical Capacity.
86.
The capacity of a conductor is that quantity of electricity
which it holds when it is charged to the unit potential
(App. 13).
In order, therefore, to compare the capacity of different
condensers or Leyden jars with each other, or to measure
when that of the other is known
we have to determine the potential and
that of the one
in absolute
measure,
quantity of
electricity
and (85,
with any charge in both condensers after (84,
II. or III.)
the simplest
I.
condenser
two
(p
the Sine or
I.)
methods will be
is
the deflection
<p
is
observed.
connected with the
now produced
we have
capacities,
Quadrant Electrometer.
charged and connected with the sine
is
when
other condenser
flection
of the following
Wiih
electrometer
One
is
observed.
first,
If x^
Then the
and the deand X2 are the
ELECTRICAL CAPACITY.
254
v^ sin
<p
'^ sin
<p'
\/ sin p.
^i
For since the quantity of electricity
x, sf sin p = (x^ + oc) sj sin <p'
the same in both
is
observations
The capacity
of the electrometer is here
assumed
be
to
The
capacity of the electrometer itself may, however, be compared with that of one condenser and then inserted in the
calculation in a manner easily seen.
To this end the
very small compared with that of the condensers.
deflection of the electrometer connected with the condenser
is
observed, the apparatus separated and the electrometer
discharged by
when
itself,
then again connected with the condenser,
the fresh deflection
is
observed.
The
calculation
is
exactly as given above.
The observations must be made rapidly owing
leakage of electricity, or
of the leakage
it
to
the
better to eliminate the effect
is
by repeating the measurements with
suitable
alternations.
If
may
weak charges
are
used the quadrantelectrometer
be used instead of the sineelectrometer, connecting the
conducting wires with the two coatings.
II.
With
the Galvanometer.
The condensers to be compared are charged to the same
by connecting them with each other. They are
then discharged separately through the same galvanometer
The capacities are in the ratio of the small
(85, III.)
potential
deflections of the galvanometer.
III.
Determination of the Cajpaeity in Absolute Measure.
condenser of very great capacity
by the help
The condenser
absolute measure
motive
force.
of
is
may
a cell of
be measured in
known
electro
charged by connecting
its
two coatings with the poles of the cell this connection
is then severed and the condenser discharged through a
;
255
SOME ASTllONOMICAL TERMS.
sufficiently
galvanometer
sensitive
known
of
reduction
factor (78).
If
^ = the
electromotive force of the
(p.
compare 67 and 69,
the deflection
III.)
by the discharge
of the needle
the
of
condenser
= the period of oscillation of the needle (52) in seconds
we have
is
reductionfactor of the galvanometer {in magnetic
measure
a
cell
sec.~^:= 111 x 10^
sec. ~^
cm.^ gm. 2
C = the
Daniell's
mm.^ mg.^
nearly equal to 111 x 10^
absolute measure
cell in
228, compare App. No. 20)
the capacity in electromagnetic measure (78 and
App. 19 and 20)
_l
Cia
TT
In order to have a
% is generally a very small number.
convenient unit, a capacity= 10"^^ in the mm. mg. system,
or
10"^ in the cm. grm. system,
millionth part of
is
called 1 "Farad," the one
1 " Microfarad."
it
To obtain the capacity
in
multiplied by 9x10^'^ in the
must be
mg. system by 9x10""
electrostatic units x
mm.
in the cm. grm. system.
The measurement may be made more accurate by the
use of the method of multiplication (79), or even by rapidly
alternating charging and discharging by means of a key.
On
account of the production of the residual charge
accuracy of measurement
only possible
is
if
the discharge of
the condenser takes place in a very short time.
way
the capacity
The connection
is
In this
determined without the residual charge.
of the
condenser with the
cell,
on the other
hand, should not be too short, and should be interrupted
only
the
instant
before
Maxwell, Treatise on
87.
(1.)
the
Electricity,
discharge.
ii.
p.
(Compare
also
373.)
Some Astronomical Terms.
In the determination of the place of a heavenly hody
the following definitions are
made use
of
SOME ASTRONOMICAL TERMS.
256
Azimuth
The
arc of the horizon between the south of
the horizon and the vertical circle of the
Altitude
The
horizon and the
star.
the vertical circle between the
arc of
star.
ITour or Declination Circles
Great
circles
through the
pole of the heavens.
ITour Angle
The arc of the
celestial equator
between
the south point of the meridian and the hour circle
of the star.
Declination
The arc
equator and the
Altitude of the Pole
of the hour circle
between the
star.
:
The geographical
latitude of the
place.
The angle between the hour circle
and the vertical circle of the star.
Vernal Eqimiox The ascending node of the ecliptic.
Eight Ascension of a Star : The arc of the equator
between the vernal equinox and the hour angle of
The equator is divided into 24 h. or 360.
the star.
The E.A. is reckoned in a direction contrary to the
Parallactic Angle:
diurnal motion.
The other arcs of the equator or horizon,
same direction as the diurnal motion.
are reckoned
in the
(2.)
used
In determinations of time the following terms are
Sidereal
Time
The arc
of the celestial equator
between
the south point of the meridian and the vernal
equinox, the entire equator being reckoned equal to
24
Sidereal
hours.
Day
The time between two consecutive
minations of a fixed
star.
1 sidereal
cul
day = 1 mean
day minus 3 m. 55"91 sec.
The sidereal day begins with the passage over
A heavenly
the meridian of the vernal equinox.
body therefore passes the meridian (culminates) at
the instant
when
sidereal time.
its
right ascension is equal to the
257
THEODOLITE.
True or ajjparent Noon
Tlie time of the passage of the
sun's centre across the meridian.
True Solar Time
Eqimtion of Time
The hour angle
The mean or
of the sun.
civil
time minus the
true solar time.
The astronomical solar day begins at noon,
h. to 24 h., and bears the date of the
which it begins.
is
from
88.
The
reckoned
day in
civil
Theodolite.
theodolite measures angles of azimuth and altitude.
Since the angles
measured by
this
instrument have this
significance, one axis of the instrument
must be
vertical, the
other one horizontal, and the optical axis of the telescope
must be perpendicular to the horizontal axis.
To be independent of the possible eccentricity of the
divided circles, readmgs should always be taken by two
The most convenient way of calcuVerniers 180 apart.
lating is to always take the number of degrees from
Vernier I. and use the mean of the two readings for the
subdivisions only.
Adjustment of
I.
The
axis
not change
is
its
vertical
the Vertieal Axis.
when
the bubljle in the level does
position on rotation round this axis.
most conveniently attained by jolacing the level
parallel to the line joining
two of the
This
first
footscrews,
is
of all
and by
The
the use of these bringing the bubble to the centre.
instrument is then turned through 180, and if any change
has been produced in the position of the bubble half the
Finally,
difference is corrected by the aid of the footscrews.
a rotation of 90
is
given to the instrument, and by the aid
of. the bubble is
of the third footscrew the previous position
produced.
it
must be
If this process has left
any error the
first
time
repeated.
It will of
course be understood that for the sake of
S
258
THEODOLITE.
may
convenience the level
is
in its correct place
be so corrected that the bubble
when
exactly in the middle of the
level.
II.
Adjustment of the Horizontal Axis.
The ordinary method assumes that the two pivots
of equal size.
This is tested by
levelling the axis and then reversing the telescope (changing the positions of the pivots), and again placing the level
the same position of the bubble
in its previous position
shows the equality of the pivots.
(a.)
of the telescope axis are
This being assumed, the axis
when
for
is
known to be horizontal
when reversed end
the level gives the same reading
end as
it
did before.
It can, of course, be
telescope axis are round
tested whether the pivots of the
by turning them while the level is
standing on them,
(h.)
The horizontal position
of the axis is tested inde
pendently of the equality of the pivots by hanging a long
plumbline at a distance from the theodolite, and pointing
the telescope towards various heights along the plumbline.
(c.)
Finally, the
two theodolite axes are known to be
First, two rather
perpendicular to each other as follows
distant objects are found lying one immediately above the
which are observed in the telescope by simply rotating
on the horizontal axis.
Then the instrument is turned
through 180, and the two former objects observed again.
other,
it
If they
both again come into sight by a simple rotation
round the horizontal
each other.
axis, the
two axes are perpendicular
previous adjustment with the level
is
to
here
unnecessary, but the absence of coUimation error (compare
III.) is
III.
assumed.
Test ivhcther the Optical
dicular
to the
Axis of the Telescope
is
Perpen
Horizontal Axis {CoUimation Error).
(a.) The instrument is directed towards an object lying
nearly in the horizon and then rotated through 180 round
259
THEODOLITE.
the vertical axis
the telescope
former position by rotating
is
then again brought to
its
If
on the horizontal axis.
the same object is again exactly on the crosswires it shows
If there is any difference,
that there is no coUimation error.
half of
it
must be corrected by moving the
it
crosswires,
and
the test then be repeated.
Or
telescope to an object as
remain fixed and the telescope
reversed on its supports, and again directed to the same
object, which must still appear on the crosswires.
The equality of the telescope pivots is here assumed.
(J))
after
directing
before, the instrument is
the
to
IV. Measurement of an Absolute Altitude.
the
The instrument
(a.)
telescope
circle is
Determination of
Horizon and Zenith Points of a Theodolite.
is
adjusted as in
I.
to III.
The
then directed to the object, and the vertical
read off; the instrument is then turned through
is
180 on the vertical axis, the telescope brought round and
again directed to the object, and the vertical circle is again
The difference of the two readings gives twice the
read.
zenith distance of the object, the half difference, therefore,
subtracted from 90 furnishes the altitude.
The arithmetical mean of the two readings gives the
zenith point of the vertical circle, and
the horizontal point
(6.)
is
artificial
to this
obtained.
Artificial Horizon.
ment, an
by adding 90
Instead of rotating the instru
horizon (mercury bath)
may
be placed in
and we then obtain the altitude of
the object by measuring the angle between it and its image
The zenith and horizon points of the inin the mercury.
strument are of course readily obtained by this method also.
The artificial horizon may also be used in measuring
front of the telescope,
altitudes with the reflecting sextant.
This method
is
directly available for heavenly bodies at
their time of culmination.
mean of the times of
made quickly following one
for the
For other times also the altitude
the two observations if they are
another.
DETEEMINATION OF THE MERIDIAN OF A PLACE.
260
The observation of objects of liigli altitude is made
more easy by placing over the eyepiece a small
possible or
total reflecting
rightangled) prism.
{e.g.
Determination of the Meridian of a Place.
89.
I.
From
Observations of the Greatest Elongation
of a Star.
The meridian
attains
its
position in
by
is
when
circumpolar star at the time
greatest
easterly or westerly elongation,
which the
of
circle
both to
vertical, it is easy
for the observation,
daily motion
its
Since at this time the
a vertical circle.
the star
most simjDly determined by
of a place is
observations on a
and
to
also
make
i.e.
it
the
touched
is
movement
of
the proper time
tell
the adjustment con
veniently and accurately.
If the star
is
observed at both elongations, east and west,
the meridian bisects the
angle
but since
(Table 35, Nautical Almanac,
circles
the
between the two vertical
of the
declination
etc.)
star
is
known
an observation on one
side only suffices.
For
if
S
(p
= the
= the
declination
altitude of the pole at the place
the vertical circle of the greatest elongation makes with the
meridian the angle
6,
which
.
is
sm =
found by the formula
cos h
cos
<p
For the meridian, the vertical circle of the star and its hour
circle form at the time of the greatest elongation a rightangled
triangle with the hypotenuse 90  ^, one side 90 ^, and the
angle
opposite this latter side.
The nearer the
star
is
to the pole the
star is for these observations.
fore the best of
all.
The
more
suitable the
polestar itself
is
there
DETERMINATION OF THE MERIDIAN OF A PLACE.
or
261
The observations may be made with the theodolite (8 8)
even with two phimbliues which define a plane.
II.
From Equal
Altitudes of a Heavenly Body.
The telescope of a
made vertical (88, I.)
theodolite of
is
directed to a heavenly body, and
the
is
read
horizontal
circle
Without touching the
same body is again ob
off.
position of the vertical circle the
served after
its
which the axis has been
culmination, the telescope being so placed
body passes over the crosswires.
The meridian of
the place bisects the two readings of the horizontal circle.
Of course the instrument need not have a vertical circle.
that the
It is well, for the sake of accuracy, that the
change of
alti
tude should be as quick as possible at the time of observathe times are therefore chosen when the body is as far
and west as possible.
Wlien the sun is observed the vertical wire is placed in
the morning on the one edge, in the afternoon on the other,
The
while the horizontal w^ire touches, say, the upper edge.
bisecting line of the two positions, however, will not in
general pass exactly through the meridian on account of the
variation of the sun's declination between the observations,
but must be subject to a correction, which may amount to
some minutes.
tion
east
If
we
call e the variation in the sun's declination
during
a day (see Table 3 1 and Bremiker's FiveFigure Logarithms,
p.
137)
this correction
(tan
<p
amounts
tan
d)
to
O'lQ
Of course the observed bisecting
meridian in spring, and east of
it
(tan
<p
 tan
line lies
in autumn.
b).
west of the true
At
the solstices
the correction disappears.
The
its
instant at which a
highest point
is
body
of varying declination reaches
found as follows
The
pole of the heavens,
the zenith, and the body, are the angular points of a spherical
triangle which has the sides 90  f, 90  o, and 90  A (A is the
DETEEMINATION OF THE MERIDIAN OF A PLACE
262
90
altitude of the body), while the side
A
is
opposite to the
hour angle s of the body.
We have therefore
sin
The
= sin
declination
h may become a
sin d
(p
cos
varies with
maximum
cos d cos s
In order that the altitude
5.
the differential of sin h must be zero,
therefore
=
This
(sm f
s signifies
cos h
cos
(p
sin 8 cos s) cU
cos
<p
cos h sin s ds.
the hour angle at the time of the greatest altiis so small that cos s may be taken as
tude, and, for the sun,
2'rs
and
1,
sin
Here
s=.r^'
is
measured
in degrees.
The
equation above then gives us
360
But plainly 360
is
the variation of
i.e.
therefore during
III.
(B
^.
we have
nothing else than what
^
in degrees, while
els
increases
called
e,
by 360
day.
Fro7ii the Observation of the
If the true time (92)
is
Sun
at Noon.
known, the observation of the
( = mean time minus
centre of the sun at 12 h. true time
the equation of time, Tab. 31) gives the meridian directly.
this purpose the theodolite is pointed to either the
For
The observed azimuth
A which is
eastern or western edge of the sun.
E. or
W. must
then be corrected by an angle
calculated by the formula
sin p
sm A = ~^
sin
\<p
^)
0)
or with sufficient accuracy
A=
'
sin (p
Here p is the sun's radius (Tab. 33),
31), and p the altitude of the pole.
For the meridian, the
8 its declination (Tab.
vertical circle of the sun's
edge and
DETEKMINATION OF ALTITUDE OE POLE EOR ANY PLACE.
the radius to the point of contact of the vertical
rightangled triangle with the hypotenuse
905
263
circle, form a
and a perpen
dicular p opposite the angle A.
Determination of the Altitude of the Pole for
90.
ANY Place.
The geographical latitude or the altitude of the pole at
any place is most easily deduced from the observed altitude
of a heavenly body at its culmination.
If the meridian is
already known (89) the passage of the body over the meridian
simply observed, otherwise the object
is
is
followed
with the theodolite in the neighbourhood of the meridian,
and the highest (or lowest) position of the telescope is read
off.
The observed
altitude
must be diminished by the amount
given in Table 34 for refraction by the atmosphere.
the altitude so corrected
body
is
is
h,
(Table 35), the altitude of the pole
according as
it
= 7i90 +
or p
was the upper
If
and the declination of the
is
= A +90 a
or lower culmination that
was
observed.
The measurements
made on
The
are
most conveniently and accurately
the polestar on account of
its
slow motion.
sun, on the other hand, gives the advantage that a
previous determination of the time from
a solar altitude
(92) enables the time of culmination to be exactly foretold.
of the sun see p. 267 and Table 31.
Of course here the reading given for the upper or lower
edge of the sun must be corrected by the amount of the
For the declination
radius of the sun (Table 33).
heavenly body passes the southern meridian at the
instant
when
(87).
If,
its right
ascension
is
equal to the sidereal time
then, the sidereal time at
noon be subtracted from
the right ascension of a star, the time of
its
found reckoned in sidereal time from noon.
The sidereal time is taken from Table 31.
culmination
On
is
account
DETEKMINATION OF EATE OF A WATCH OR CLOCK.
264
of the periodical variation of tlie vernal equinox
corrected
by leap year
farther west a place
is,
and
mean time
argument in the
which
t is
required
table, not
t,
is
the
is later,
all
time correspond
If the sidereal
we must
therefore use as
but the corrected value
has a different value every year, which
Tc
noon
the table cannot be the same for
years and for all places.
ing to the
further, since
is
found in Table
32.
the geographical longitude of the place reckoned in dewestward / may be taken from Table 30, or from
is
grees
a map.
(Compare
also 92, p. 267.)
Deteemination of the Eate of a
91.
Two
Watch
oe Clock.
determinations of time (92) give, of course, the
making the observations. More
rate of the clock used in
simple, and often
more accurate, however, are the observabody at some definite azimuth.
tions of a heavenly
Observations on Fixed Stars.
I.
For
purpose any telescope which is provided with
and is movable on a horizontal axis can be
The azimuth to be employed is defined when at any
this
cross wires
used.
particular place
scope.
a distant
mark
is
used to adjust the
tele
Observations near the meridian are best.
It is still simpler
and very accurate
to use the
disap
pearance of a fixed star behind a distant object as observed
As the fixed point for the place of
window bar or any similar object is sufficiently
when the other object is distant 100 yards or so.
with the naked eye.
the eye, a
accurate
Hot chimneys
are unsuitable objects behind
which
to
ob
serve the disappearance of stars.
Of course, it is best to choose stars near the equator.
Between two passages of a fixed star through the same point
DETEEMINATION OF TIME FROM ALTITUDES OF SUN.
a sidereal day has elapsed wliicli
min.
= 006553
lirs.=
is
265
235'9 seconds = 3*9 3
000273 day shorter than the mean
day.
II.
Two
Ohscrvations on the Sun.
successive passages of the sun over the meridian
had to the daily variation of the equation
and Bremiker's FiveFigure Logaritlims, 'p.
137, where, however, the numbers for January stand one
give, regard being
of time (Table 31,
line too high), the length of the
mean
day.
It is
not here
necessary that the meridian should be quite accurately de
An
termined.
most about 2
error of 1
sees, in error.
makes the day
At
as observed at
the equinoxes and solstices
this uncertainty is the smallest.
telescope on a horizontal axis
is
used for the observa
time of the passage of the two edges of the sun
Where moderate accuracy only
over the wire being noted.
tions, the
shadow of a plumbline, or the image
The
thrown by a narrow opening, is sufficient.
time is noted when this shadow or the sun's image is bisected
by a mark on the floor, or on a wall opposite.
is
required, even the
of the sun
92.
^Determination of the Time from Altitudes of
THE Sun.
For a place of known geographical longitude and latitude
the simplest
method
of
determining the time
is
afforded
by
observations of the altitude of the sun above the horizon,
Those
is measured by the sextant or theodolite.
times are the most suitable for the observations in which
the ascending or descending motion of the sun is as rapid
which
when, therefore, its position
Times near noon are unsuitable.
as possible,
west.
is
directly east or
Let
(p
= the
geographical latitude of the place, or the altitude of
the pole
the declination of the sun at the time of observation (see
following page)
h = the altitude of the sun's centre
DETERMINATION OF TIME FEOM ALTITUDES OF SUN.
266
then the sun's hour angle
I5t=
cos
t,
or the "true solar time" of the
by the formula
observation, will be got
sin
h sin
cos
cos d
sin d
(p
The angle 15t expressed in degrees gives t in hours
course, in the morning negative, in the afternoon positive.
;
of
In the spherical triangle, which has for its sides the zenith
its distance j; from the pole of the heavens,
and the distance a of the pole from the zenith, while a and p
enclose the hour angle 15^, we have
distance z of the body,
cos z
= COS
cos
Seeing that /i + 2 = 6+j?
given follows at once.
From
is
p+
sin
p + a
sin
90,
\M.
cos
the
expression already
the observed altitudes the true altitude of the sun
found as follows
The observed place appears too high on account of the
atmospheric refraction and must be corrected by subtracting
from
it
the refraction given in Table 34.
Further, the observations are not
made
directly on the
centre but on either the upper or lower edge of the sun.
position of the centre
the case
may
is
The
found by adding or subtracting, as
be, the radius (Table 33).
however, the horizon point of the altitude circle is
not already known, but has to be eliminated by reversal, a
If,
second observation being made with the instrument turned
through 180, the sun's diameter may be eliminated also by
observing first one edge and then the other.
It is necessary
to
if
make the two observations
we want to use the mean of
quickly following each other
the two observations as the
altitude of the sun's centre at the
mean
observation, since the rate of the sun's rising
Some
The
is
times of
not uniform.
geographical latitudes are given in Table 30.
latitude of a place
0'01.
of the
may
be taken from a good
map
to
The
about
For the method
of determining it see (90).
sun's declination at the time of the observation
taken from Tables 31 and 32.
Let
is
be the geographical
DETEKMINATION OF TIME FROM ALTITUDES OF SUN.
267
longitude of the place measured in degrees west of Berlin
{i.e.
east of Berlin reckoned negative.
The geogTaphical
longitude of Berlin is 311 E. of Ferro, 111 E. of Paris,
and 13"4 E. of Greenwich).
So that the Berlin time to
which the table
local time
+ ooO
refers,
expressed in fractions of the day,
On
L.
is
account of the periodic alteration of
the beginning of the year, owing to the year exceeding
365
must be further corrected by taking for each
year a quantity k from Table 32.
The time for which the
angle b is calculated from Table 31, which gives the sun's
declination for noon at Berlin, is therefore
days, the times
Local time +
The
local time
i^^L +
need not be exactly known, since a difference
of 3 minutes produces
a variation in
^
If the
degree.
town
When
p,
the true solar time
tables
is
kept to show the
in Bavaria,
must be put
Munich
for Z.
has been calculated from
h,
found
mean
time.
and directions here given neglect corrections
of less than 0"01.
nautical
of a
the equation of time taken from Table 31 must be
to it in order to get the civil or
The
be
most
1000
{e.g.
time) the longitude of this other place
and
added
of at
or railway clock
time of some other standard place
h,
k.
More exact
tables with instruction will
in Bremiker's FiveFigure
Logarithms and the
and astronomical almanacs.
Instead of
the sun, another
heavenly body which
not too near to either horizon or pole
The value
of
may
be made use
calculated from the formula given above
then the hour angle of the body.
If
to
this
is
the right
ascension be added, the sidereal time of the observation
obtained from which the
is
of.
is
mean time may be found by Table
31, or more accurately from the astronomical almanacs.
II.
If the
Fi'om Observations of Equal Altitudes.
two points of time
are
observed at which a
heavenly body passes through the same altitude before and
DETERMINATION OF TIME FROM ALTITUDES OF SUN.
268
mean
after its culmination, the
of tlie times
is
the
moment
which the body attained its greatest altitude.
For a fixed star this coincides with its southern meridian
The right ascension of the star is therefore equal
passage.
to the sidereal time at this instant, and from it the civil or
mean time may be obtained from the tables in the almanacs.
Compare above under I.
If the sun is observed, the greatest altitude coincides
at
with the meridian passage
{i.e.
the true noon) at the sol
and then by adding the equation of time (Table 31)
In general, however, a correcthe mean time is obtained.
tion is necessary on account of the daily alteration of the
sun's declination, in consequence of which the sun attains
its greatest altitude somewhat after noon in the first half
of the year, and somewhat before noon in the second half.
stices,
If
<p
= the
= the
geographical latitude
declination of the sun (Table 31)
the daily alteration of the declination in degrees (Table
31, or Bremiker's FiveFigure Logarithms, p. 137)
this correction in seconds of
38'2
As
is
means
to instrumental
time amounts to (com.
{tan
this
<p
tan
method
p.
261)
5).
of time determination
very simple, requiring, in addition to a clock of uniform
rate,
only a telescope with a vertical axis of rotation with
out any graduation.
Tor ordinary purposes no account need
be taken of the atmospheric refraction, and in observations
of the sun only the upper or lower edge
is
observed each
time without our being obliged to reduce the altitude to
that of the centre.
To make the determination
as accurate as possible, the
heavenly body should be observed as far from the meridian
as possible.
On
the simple methods of keeping a knowledge of the
true time
when
it
has once been found, compare (91).
APPENDICES.
APPENDIX
A.
The Absolute System of Electkical Measueement.
Every kind
that
its
is,
nature as
magnitude requires
This unit
itself.
defined, for
measure
of
numerical expression
many kinds
(scale,
of
standard)
is
measurement
for its
some
unit of the same
at first arbitrary,
and may be
magnitude, as a preserved original
but in other cases
as, for
stance, velocity, or quantity of heat, or electricity
in
such a
Hence, such magnitudes are ex
definition is impossible.
pressed by means of geometrical and physical laws, in terms
as when, for inof other quantities which can be so defined
;
stance,
we
select
as units the velocity
with which a body
traverses unitlength in unit time; that quantity of heat
which will raise one unit of mass of water 1 in temperature
and that quantity of electricity which will exert unitforce
upon a similar quantity at unit distance. As distinguished
from the arbitrary or primary measures, we may call the
latter " derived measures."
The introduction
first
of such measures, unavoidable in the
instance, will be seen
Eor
very advantageous.
of the
number
on further consideration
it
of arbitrary
cates an advance, while the
is
to
be also
olwious that the diminution
primary measures in itself indinew units may be so chosen that
the natural laws which they serve to define are expressed by
them in a simpler form. For instance, the space / traversed
by a moving body
is
universally proportional to
tlie
velocity
ABSOLUTE SYSTEM OF MEASUEEMENT.
270
u and the time
t,
or
= Const,
ut
the numerical value of
the constant depending on the unit selected.
Should we
take as unit of velocity that of a falling body at the end of
the
first
According to the
second, this constant =^.
tion previously given,
law will take
its
defini
however, the constant =1, and the
simplest form,
= ut.
The geometrical relations are similarly simplified if we
employ for the measurement of area and contents, instead of
arbitrary units, the square and cube of the unit of length, an
advantage of which science has always availed itself, but
which is not yet fully carried out in common life.
In this manner each " derived unit " serves to eliminate
the constant of a natural law.
Among
the
objects
to
which
preserved
elementary
we may count almost all magnetic
and hence we have here a specially
standards are inapplicable
and electrical quantities,
prominent application of the system of derived units.
This
application was carried out by Gauss and Weber, who showed
that all these
length, mass,
quantities
and time.
might be expressed in units
of
Units deduced in this manner are
specially called absolute measure.^
The choice
is
is
of
primary units
of length, mass,
in the first instance entirely arbitrary.
If,
and time
however, water
taken for the determination of the unit of density, the
unit of volume of w^ater
then necessarily
we have
is
fixed as the unit of mass,
and
for units
The term "absolute" was first applied in this manner to the unit of
magnetism defined by Gauss. In opposition to the
arbitrary practice, previously common, of taking the intensity at London as
unity, and making other observations merely relative to this, Gauss gave in
his Intensitas vis magneticm terrcstris ad mensuram ahsolutam rcvocata an
1
intensity of terrestrial
is, not a merely comparative) unit for terrestrial magnetic indeduced from the primary units of length, mass, and time only, and
applicable to magnetic quantities in general.
In a similar manner W. Weber,
in supplying the need of independent, and not merely comparative measures,
for the various electrical quantities, has retained the same designation.
The name "absolute measure" has now become a scientific phrase of
determinate meaning, and must therefore be unconditionally retained, although
it must be admitted that the term " derived measure " hits more exactly the
absolute (that
tensity,
essential point of the system.
{Brit. Assoc. Rep., 1863, p. 112.)
ABSOLUTE SYSTEM OF MEASUEEMENT.
of length
of
mass
27l
millimetre, centimetre, decimetre, metre.
milligramme, gramme, kilogramme, 1000
kilo.
It must also be distinctly understood that, in this case, a
milligramme means the mass of 1 cubic millimetre of water
whilst, in popular language, grammes, etc., are usually spoken
For example, the moment of inertia of a small
of as weights.
body
tion,
of
is,
mgr.,
and distant a mm. from an axis
=ahn, and not
in the absolute system,
of rota
cv^
On
the other hand, the weight of this body
moment
account the
of rotation,
which
is
it
mg, and on this
experiences from
the attraction of the earth, at a horizontal distance a from
an axis
of rotation = ?n (7,
where by g we denote the acby gravity, measured in mm. and sec, which at
45=9806.^ To avoid confusion it is advisable,
celeration
latitude
when
of
it
the
as a
gramme is used as the name of a weight, to speak
grammeweight.
According to what has just been
said, all
magnitudes are
represented as functions of length, time, and mass; a velocity, for instance, as
a length divided
by
a time, a
volume
^ It is worth mentioning that Gauss in his first treatise on this suhject
{Erdmagnetismus imd Magnetometer, Scliumacher Jahrbuch 1836 Gauss,
Werke, Toh v. p. 329) defined the absolute magnetism of a bar by means of
the unit of vjeight, and that it was only at a later date that he assumed the
gi'amme as a wass.
If a general answer be desired to the question whether grammes, etc.,
have to serve as units of mass or weight, there can be little doubt as to the
scientific reply
That, as the weight of a body is clearly entirely indeterminate, and is even variable on the earth's surface to the extent of \ per cent,
the weight of a body can never serve as a unit of weight.
It would also be
MTong to say that as unit of weight we take a cubic centimetre of water at
45 latitude
since then a set of weights would have to be specially adjusted
for each degree of latitude.
What is really meant by the phrase set of
weights " is nothing but a set of masses and a weighing with an ordinary
The weight, that is,
balance is no measurement of weight, but one of mass.
the force with which a body is attracted by the earth, is obtainetl by the
measurement of velocity of falling as, for instance, by the time of oscillation
of a body suspended by a thread.
In fact also the aim of weighing is generally measurement of mass. The
chemist, the merchant, and the doctor, have nothing to do with the pressure
of a body on what supports it, but solely with its mass, for to this its chemical
;
'
'
power,
its
nutritive or its
money
value,
is
proportional.
ABSOLUTE SYSTEM OF MEASUEEMENT.
272
power of a length, a force as a length multiplied
and divided by the square of a time.
mass
In the
by a
following article we will define this function with regard to
each magnitude, and, at the same time (after the example
Brit. Assoc. Bep., 1863, p. 132), will
of Maxwell and Jenkin
as third
take the " dimensions
out
we denote
"
of the related magnitude.
a length by
The dimensions
/,
a time
of a space are
= l^,
by
t,
Throusih
and a mass by m.
of a velocity
= It ~^,
of a
force mlt~^.
These
"
dimensions
" give
the power to change from the
constant arbitrary units, mm., mgrm., and sec, as used by
Gauss and Weber,
to
British Association.^
deduced unit in the
in the ratio
Jc"'
if
say the cm., grm., sec, used by the
For
nth.
if
a primary unit occurs in the
power, the deduced unit
is
the primary be changed in that of
changed
The
k.
numerical value of the magnitude thus expressed will be
changed in the ratio k^^\
The number representing a
^ For many years the system founded on the fundamental units mm.,
mgrm., and sec, was universally used. It was in England, where the British
Association, and especially J. C. ]\Iaxwell and Sir W. Thomson, have done so
much for the knowledge and dissemination of the absolute measurements, that
cm. and grm., instead of mm. and mgrm., were introduced by general agree
ment.
In fact mm. and mgrm. are inconveniently small units for many purposes,
and the magnetic and electrical measures derived from them have in some
cases this disadvantage to a tiresome extent.
Tliere is some advantage in this
respect in using cm. and grm. It must nevertheless be doubted whether it was
expedient to destroy the uniformity before existing in the absolute system.
For the disadvantages are but partially removed.
The resistances and
electromotive forces, for instance, which occur in practice are even in the cm.
grm. system expressed by quantities of
many
millions of the units.
On
the
other hand, the galvanic unit of current reaches such a magnitude that most
currents which are used are expressed as only small fractions of it.
And if
the physics of the future has more to do with the absolute numbers of atoms
than we have at present, even the cubic mm. would be inconveniently large.
Every consistent system of measurement must give rise to awkward numbers.
However, the gramme is more convenient to have to do with than the
mgrm., and the most easily understood, and frequently occurring magnitudes of mechanics, force, work,
expressed in
much more
moment
of inertia,
and
so on, are usually
convenient numbers in the cm. gim. system.
The
used and the authority of the British Association also
lend considerable weight to this system.
Both systems will therefore be
extent to which
noticed here.
it is
Table 28 gives the ratios of the units in the two systems.
275
ABSOLUTE MECHANICAL MEASURE.
velocity, will,
by the change from mm. to cm. as units of
1 0^\ by change from
The numerical value of a force,
that of 60+^.
cm. and grm., instead of mm. mgrm., will be
length, be changed itself in the ratio
sec. to
min. in
expressed in
diminished in the ratio 10"'^
1000^^
""
10000
(Compare
"
Table 28.)
Measures of Space and Time.
As
(1.)
length
is
the unit of surface (/) the square of the unit
Dimensions =
used.
Unit volume
(2.)
is
/^.
the cube of the unit of length.
Dimensions = P.
An
(3.)
subtends
it
the unit of
sions
that
of
If
(5.)
therefore, is
Dimen
to the radius.
is
measured by the space passed through
The unit
velocity, therefore,
traversing unitlength in unit
time.
the velocity increases by the quantity m in the
h=
the body experiences an acceleration
t,
is
That angle,
independent of the fundamental units.
a point
which
in mechanics, equal to the arc
the time occupied.
Dimensions =
unit
is
iG
Velocity u
divided by
time
is,
divided by the radius.
which the arc is equal
y= 1,
(4.)
is
angle
therefore that acceleration
r^
The
which produces the unit
I
velocity in unit time.
The
9806 m.
Dimensions = ^
acceleration by gravity amounts to 9806
sec. 2 or 9806602 = 35302 m. min.'.
mm.
sec."" or
Mechanical Measures.
(G.)
velocity
Force.
By an
elementary law of mechanics, the
force h to a body of mass
u communicated by the
Jet
in time
t,
is
given by the formula
being dependent on the unit selected.
T
C
^
the constant
Taking
C= 1,
and so
ABSOLUTE MECHANICAL MEASUKE.
274
giving the law
also=
1,
simplest form, and letting
its
v,
m, and k
t,
we have
Unit of force that force which in nnit time comDimenmunicates unit velocity to a unit mass.
;
sions
The
= hnt~''^.
on
exerted
force
9806^^^^^^^^?^
mgr. by the
Work
attraction
= 09806^^^?^.
sec'
sec."
(7.)
earth's
Work
application of a force
when
will be performed
is
moved by
the point of
The performed work
it.
the force Jc, and to the distance /, over
If we take the law
which movement has been performed.
in its simplest form, and set work as the product of force
and distance, A = Jd, then
'A is proportional to
The unit of work is performed when a point, acted
on by unit force, is moved by it through unit
Dimensions, Pmt~^.
distance.
In raising
9806
grm.
^^^IS^,
metre, the Avork 1000 x 9806 x 1000
or
9806 x 100
= 98060 'J^L^:^
=
is
sec.
sec."
performed.
For the quantity of heat
if
we
call the unit
also a unit
here obtained
is
quantity of heat that which
is
equivalent
to the unit of work.
The unit of heat ordinarily used, which lieats 1 grm. of Avater
from 0 to 1, and which is equivalent to 430 grammemetres of
work, is in absolute measure 430 x 9806 x 10 =
422xlO"^"^rS,or 42200000 'J^'l^^.
sec,
(8.)
tion
Moment of Rotation.
Taking
the product of a
as
leverage
sec.
(that
is,
its
the
moment
of rota
force h into the length of its
from
distance
axis
of
rotation),
P=Jd; then
The unit
force
of
moment
acting
Dimensions, lmt~^.
given by unit
of rotation is
through
lever
of
unit length.
275
ABSOLUTE MECHANICAL MEASURE.
Directive Force.
(9.)
If a body,
movable round a fixed
axis,
has a stable position of equilibrium, a
tion
exerted on
is
small angle of deflection
We
moment
of rota
in any other position, which, for a
it
p,
always proportional to
is
^.
P
=
i) as the direc9
tive force, our unit of angular measure being that angle sub
therefore obtain the constant ratio
tending an
equal
arc
to
radius
the
(=57'296 = arcual
unit).
The unit
of directive force is obtained wdien the
from the position
Dimensions = /7/iP^.
of rotation for a small deflection
brium
equal to the angle.
is
The dimensions
of
an arc by a
pendulum moved by gravity, of Avhich
and the length / mm. from the point of susmm.^ mgr.
^
the centre of gravity, is therefore Im 9806
is
rngr.
pension to
and
of
moment
directive force of a
the mass
for the
as those of the
a simple number.
is
The
same
an angle, being the quotient
rotation, since
radius,
are the
moment
of equili
moment
of rotation for a deflection
for small angles,
Moment of
(10.)
may be taken
(p
Inertia.
as
= sin
Taking
the
Z" of a mass
K= Ihn,
several masses are present,
or, if
The unit
at
of
the distance
moment
from
<p^lm 9806
(p
moment
its
<p,
of inertia
axis of rotation,
K= %lhn
then
of inertia is represented
point, of unit mass, at unit distance
of rotation.
sin
from
by a
an' axis
Dimensions = Ihn.
The moment of inertia of a magnet hmig from a thread,
/ and width I' mm., and mass m mgr., is therefore (54)
of
length
K=m
Moment
oscillation
K
= ^
as
mm.
mgr.
K, directive force D, and time of
small arcs, are connected by the equation
of inertia
for
cr"
,^
the
dimensions
themselves
show, since
divided by lmt'" gives the square of a time.
Pm
ABSOLUTE ELECTEOSTATIC MEASUKE.
276
Electrostatic Measure.
(11.)
e,
Electrical Quantity.
tance
/,
simplest form,
Unit
and
at the dis
Zj
= ^,
in
1,
and
so giving the
the socalled mechanical
quantity
of electrical
^
the constant depends on the
of
Putting the constant
unit selected.
its
quantities of electricity,
other with the force Z;= Const.
repel each
which the numerical value
law
Two
as concentrated in points,
e, considered
is
that quantity which
repels an equal quantity at unit distance with
Dimensions = /im^"^~^.
unit force.
For the square of a quantity of electricity is given as a force
compare 6) niultipHed by the square of a length, there
{lm^t~'^,
fore the dimensions
units
\/l^mt''
of a quantity of electricity in
mechanical
ihn'r^
(12.) Electrostatic Potential.
When we have
to
do with
masses which attract or repel as the inverse squares of their
distances, the potential function or potential of these masses
on any point in their neighbourhood is tliat expression the
any direction gives the force exerted
on unit mass at the point in tliis direction.
By variation
we mean the amount by which the expression diminishes
when we pass from the point considered to another near to
it, divided by the distance between the points
in short,
variation of which in
the negative differential coefficient of the expression in the
given direction.
electricity e
several
Therefore the potential of the quantity of
on a point distant
quantities
e^,
e.^,
is
given by y;
l^,
l^.
from them
is
j
j
The
therefore the potential of the
unit quantity of electricity on
Dimensions = flmH~^.
on a
unit of electrostatic potential
there are
present, their potential
point distant
if
a point
at
unit distance.
277
ABSOLUTE MAGNETIC MEASUEE.
(13.)
Electrostatic Capadty.
electricity e
may
In
V is
so distributed that its potential
the conductor.
e
order that a quantity of
be in equilibrio on a conductor
The potential
is
equal on
it
all
must
l)e
points of
proportional to the quantity
=x
.V.
The
x^~
ratio
is
called the electrostatic capa
city of the conductor.
The capacity
of a sphere is equal to its radius, for the
quantity of electricity
uniformly distributed over a spherion the centre, consequently on
cal surface of radius r exerts
every point of the sphere the potential
That conductor has the unit capacity which
to
unit potential
by unit quantity
for instance, a sphere of radius 1.
charged
is
of electricity, therefore,
Dimensions =
/.
Magnetic Measure.
(14.)
Pole.
Quantity of Free Magnetism, or Strength of Magnetic
as above, we may write the elementary law
Exactly
two hypothetical quantities
jx' of
two magnetic poles of the nature of
of the interaction of
free
magnetism
(or
points, of strengths
fju
yu.
and
/x')
at the distance
/,
k=
and
so obtain as
Unit quantity
of
free
magnetism
(or
strength of
unit pole) that quantity or pole which
unit
force on a similar one
at
exerts
unit distance.
Dimensions = lhnH~^.
Each
(15.) Magnetism of Beer, or Magnetic Moment.
magnet has equal quantities of free positive and negative
magnetism.
The sunplest barmagnet would consist of two
opposite poles of the nature of points, and of equal strength.
If fM be the quantity of magnetism which is contained in
each pole, and I the distance between them, the action of the
bar at a distance will be proportional to l/n. Taking l/x as the
magnetic moment, or, shortly, as the magnetism of the bar,
278
ABSOLUTE MAGNETIC MEASUEE.
magnet which
of two poles, with the
magnetism (or of unit
and separated by unit distance, repre
quantity
strength),
the
sents
consists
of
unit
free
strength
of
barmagnet.
of
Dimensions, BmH~^.
The
magnetic moment to the
of the
ratio
milligrammes
called
is
the specific
amounts in very thin
It
mm.t mgi
sec."^
for
bars
to
mass in
magnetism of a bar.
at most about 1000
each mgm., or 100
cmi
gm.* sec."^
for each grm. of steel.
a magnetic pole
is
The force exerted by a magnet on
given by the following considerations
:
The magnetic pole
(a.)
fjf
lies in
a line passing through
the two poles
(first
position of Gauss), its
distance from
tlie
centre of the magnet
The nearer pole
being L.
fi
exerts a force
/j,
fjb/jb
and the further pole a similar
Ty^jyra'
direction
rrg
j^
(
and the
force in the opposite
total resultant force, attractive
"^^^
or repulsive, according to whether the opposite or similar
pole
is
the nearer, amounts to
/
"^"A(4r(4)j
but
Ifi is
2LI
""
the magnetism of the bar = if, and therefore
L
k
m,J^^.^{^L.)
(^^ir
If the distance
2y2
may
simply
be very great compared to
be neglected
in
comparison with
1,
I,
so
that
we have
ABSOLUTE MAGNETIC MEASUEE.
The magnetic pole
{l>)
placed on a line perpendi
is
fx
279
cular to the axis of the magnet, and passing
through
its
net.
The
force
If
centre (second position), and at
the distance
from the middle
of the
dissimilar pole exerts an attractive
12
'
^^^'^
/x
the similar pole a repul
sion of like amount.
Both
to the parallelogram
of
/^
mag
/j,
forces are resolved, according
into a single force acting
forces,
parallel to the axis of the bar, viz.
_
=
fj'/j''
lixfj!
For a great distance Z, k = ~^
Mfjf
jL/
If
we
replace the magnetic pole
by a short magnetic
and of
//.'
needle, at right angles to the direction of the force,
the length
l',
and of which each
of the poles has the strength
/jf,
a couple will be produced exerting a
2/i;
^
= Z;/'
ujDon
it.
the needle If, the
Since
moment
the magnetic
is
yu.'/'
of
moment
rotation
another magnet 3f at the distance
of rotation
moment
exerted on
(great
it
of
by
compared with
the length of the magnets) will be
In the
of
M, and
Jirst position,
when M'
.
at right angles to
In the second
it,
P=
position, that
perpendicular to M, and
is
lies in
the produced axis
^'^^
2 ~p^'
is,
when M'
lies
stiU at right angles
on the
with M,
MM'
^ U
'
Hence we may express the unit
of barmagnetism inde
pendently of the definition of single poles, but entirely
corresponding with the above, in the following manner
ABSOLUTE MAGNETIC MEASURE.
280
The unit of barmagnetism is possessed by a bar
which exerts on a similar bar at tlie (great) distance
L, in the second positio7i (compare previous page),
the
moment
If the deflected
of rotation p.
magnet makes an angle
direction of the force, the
moment
with the
<p
of rotation will obviously
be obtained by multiplying the above result by cos <p.
What is here indicated for ideal magnets, with points
for poles, is also true of the actuaL
For, in action at a dis
two mean points in which we may consider
the positive and negative magnetism to be concentrated.
tance, there are
Ordinarily, the positions of these " poles " are not exactly
known, on account
which (59,
of
in case a distance
II.),
I'
employed
ciable,
at
which the correction with
we must
is
is
not
mappre
repeat the observation at a second distance
in order to eliminate
it.
At any
(16.) Intensity of Terrestrial Magnetic Force.
point of the earth's surface a magnetic pole is acted on by
a force proportional to the strength
the force which
terrestrial
is
/*
of the pole.
We
take
exerted on a unit pole as the intensity of
magnetic force at the place,
tensity of terrestrial magnetism.
or, shortly, as
the in
T is
Horizontal intensity
the horizontal component of this force, which alone acts on
an ordinary needle.
For the sake
of brevity
we
will confine
our observations to this portion.
Since the force acting on a pole
moment
yu.
is
given by fxT, the
of rotation exerted on a magnetic needle at right
angles to the direction of the force, and with two poles
distant
from each other, will be
denotes the magnetic
moment
of
^ixT  =^dT=MT,\i
the
needle.
We
fju
have
therefore
As
unit of terrestrial magnetic force, that intensity
281
ABSOLUTE MAGNETIC MEASUEE.
of unit
moment
a unit
wliicli exerts
of rotation
on a bar
magnetic moment at right angles to the
Dimensions, l^hnH'^.
direction of the force.
Supposing that the magnet makes with the direction of
have a moment of rotation of
<p, we
sin <p.
So also
is for a movable magnet that magnitude which we have previously called directive force, and it
f
determines, therefore, the equation 2 = 77^ for time of oscilla
the force the angle
MT
MT
tion
t,
and moment
product
(59,
MT
of
of
inertia
K, from which we obtain the
magnetic moment and horizontal intensity
I.)
The angle through
wdiich a short magnetic needle
obtained as follows
The magnet
If
9 be the
is
placed in the "
position " (59, II.)
first
M' and
is
is
mametic
equal to the
M'T
sin
distance L.
moment
angle of deflection, the
exerted by the magnet for this angle = 2 ^3
which
is
which the moment
to the needle, of
is
by another magnet
deflected from the magnetic meridian
rotation
of
72
cos
<p,
exerted by the terrestrial
(p
Therefore
force.
2 71/ /
31
an equation which
The magnitude
is
employed in the determmation of ^.
there denoted
by
fication that \/2x is the distance
the magnet.
In the
"
second position
appears, and instead of ~^P
we
to 2
mm.
"
tlie
factor
dis
haveZ^.
Let the horizontal intensity of
amount
has the physical signi
between the two poles of
"^ nigrm.^ sec."^
terrestrial
(i.e.
magnetism
0'2 cm."* gra.* sec.~^).
Let a thin magnetic bar have a length of 100 mm. (10 cm.) and
Aveigh
10000 nigrm. (10 grm.)
Its
moment
of inertia therefore
ABSOLUTE GALVANIC MEASUEE.
282
10000100'
^^
isir=
X
Qoo
ooQnnnA mm. 2 gm, /lOlO'
= 8330000
z^
= 833cm.
grm.)
(
Let the magnetism of the bar be
M= 10* mm.Then the period
of oscillation
the expression given above,
sec, "^
mgrm.^
sec. "^).
of the bar, as calculated from
is
/8330000
,
^
(100 cm.^ grm.^
(or 314
'^*/ili7'=^"^V"T02^
/833\
/^)= 64
,
sec.
Galvanic Measure.
(17.)
Current Strength
Mechanical Pleasure.
merical value for a currentstrength
direct
is
The
nu
given in the most
manner by the mechanical measure of the quantity
276) which passes through a section of the
of electricity (p.
circuit in unit of time,
Unit
of
and hence the mechanical
currentstrength
that current
is
by which,
in unit time, unit quantity of electricity passes
through a section
This unit of current
is
of the great difficulty of
of
Dimensions =
the circuit.
not practically employed on account
such a measurement
but
we make
use of an effect of the current to define the currentstrength,
employing mostly
(18.)
its
chemical or magnetic action.
Chemical Current Measure.
Unit
is
Here
the
that current which in unit time effects unit
chemical action.
If
we knew
the absolute
number
this unit of electrical quantity
of the atoms in a body
would be most simply deter
which separated 1 (univalent) atom. As long as
the number of the atoms, and can refer only
to the weights separated, this measure is not absolute in the
full sense, for the quantity of an electrolyte decomposed by
the current is dependent on the nature of the substance
mined
as that
we do not know
283
ABSOLUTE GALVANIC MEASUKE.
and hence, not only on units of mass, length, and time, but
on an arbitrary quantity of the substance employed.
Since
the decomposition of equivalent weights
is
proportional,
since the chemist takes that of hydrogen as unit,
and
we employ
in currentmeasurement the separation of a unit of hydrogen
as unit of chemical action.
It is customary in practice to
reckon the amount of decomposition either in mgr. of water
or in
of
c.c.
Compare
mixed
measured
gases,
at
and 760 mm.
(68).
(19.) Magnetic {or Weber's)
CunxntMcasure.li we con
sider the action of a rectilinear portion of a current of length
I
and
of
distance
strength
i
L from the
we
to its direction,
on a quantity
pole, to be
simplest form,
Unit
Z:
free
magnetism, at a
by the
by the current
find the transverse force exerted
magnetic pole on the current,
on the
of
fx
currentelement, measured at right angles
or,
= Const. ^
conversely,
Expressing the law in
we have h = ^, and
its
as
of currentstrength that current which,
under
the above normal relations, exerts unit force on a
unit magnetic pole.
For
 =
^=
Jc.L^
force x lensfth
Hi
magnet pole
Instead of this
Dimensions, IhnH'^.
we may
The unit current
Imt'^ x
^^
l^m^t
linfit'i.
say, passing to actual bodies
in a circle of
the radius Z, sur
roimding a short needle of unit magnetism, which
lies in the plane of the circle, exerts on the needle
a
moment
of rotation
j^ = ^
Let a tangentgalvanometer have w = 10 coils of radius
Let the horizontal intensity
(10 cm.).
mm."3mgrm.Hec."^ (0"2 cm.^^grm.^sec. "^). Let a current i deflect
r
= 100 mm.
T=2
ABSOLUTE GALVANIC MEASUEE.
284
needle
the
100x2
an angle of 45.
tlirouorh
,
01Q mm.^
xl = 318
'
20x314
cm.i grm.*
mc;rm.=
sec.
if
M
\
tT
Then i=
r
tan<p
10x02
.^_^
^crr = 0'0318
20x314
^rr
sec.
According to Ampere's law of the reciprocal action of
two currents, the following definition is identical with the
above
Two
rectilinear parallel unit currents of unitlength
flowing in the same direction attract each other
at the (great) distance
Lastly,
we have
with a force jz'
the relation for a plane surrounded by a
current, that, in regard to the distant magnetic effect exerted
or experienced
its
by
it, it
behaves like a magnet passing through
centre and perpendicular to
moment /
i,
where
is
rounded by the current.
the unit of length
we may
is of
its
plane,
and of the magnetic
the magnitude of
As
the surface sur
unit of surface, the square of
course employed.
In other words,
say
unit current passing round a unit surface behaves
to other currents or
magnets
like a short
magnetic
plane of the surface, of
bar, perpendicular to the
imit magnetic moment.
The above
rule
circular current
axis.
may
which
easily be applied, for instance, to a
acts
on a magnetic pole
Let the currentstrength be
fi
lying in
its
the radius of the circle
i,
I,
and the distance of the poles from the plane of the circle Z.
Each small portion of the circle of length \ exerts the force
All these forces are resolved into a force acting
"^
Z2 + l^
from the centre
of the circle,
their
of the circle being eliminated.
components in the plane
need therefore only sum
We
the components perpendicular to this plane to obtain the
total force.
The component
resulting from
is
285
ABSOLUTE ELECTROMOTIVE FOECE.
Since the whole circumference = 2 tt/, the total force will
be
^KT
TT^i
{L +
where
is
nrV^
the surface
For a great distance
current.
P
may
^
rent acts exactly as a
take
therefore
magnet
of
as the
be neglected in com
p
parison to Z^, and the force beco^^es
may
surrounded by the
l)i
that
is,
magnetic moment
magnetic
the cur/'i.
moment
We
of the
Compare (77, III.)
which passes in unit current
current surrounding the plane/.
The quantity
of electricity
through a section of the conductor in unit of time, may be
called the unit of quantity according to the special method
of currentmeasurement.
The
is
ratio of the different units of current to each other
given as such that the unit current in magnetic measure
in the
mm. mgrm. system decomposes
in one second
0*00942
mgm. of water (electrochemical equivalent of water), and that
it passes in one second 30*10^ electrostatic units through
every section of the
In the cm. grm. system the
circuit.
corresponding numbers are
0*000942 grm. and
3'10^*^.
The absolute measure for this
deduced from the phenomena of magnetoinduction.
The law may be stated in its simplest case as
follows
In a field of uniform magnetic intensity T we
have a rectilinear conductor of length /, and perpendicular
Electromotive Force.
(20.)
magnitude
:
is
to the direction of T.
plane of
and
electromotive force
to the length
/,
Taking simply
This
is
moved
with a velocity
e is
w.
at right angles to the
By
this
motion an
induced in the conductor proportional
the magnetic intensity T, and the velocity u.
e
= lTu, we have
as
Unit, that electromotive force which is induced in a
rectilinear conductor of unitlength, moving with
unit velocity across a unit magnetic field in a
ABSOLUTE ELECTKOMOTIVE FORCE.
2 86
direction at right angles to itself
Dimensions,
netic force.
For the electromotive force
is
and
to the
mag
I'^iiiH"^.
given above as length, and
magnetic intensity ?indiYQ\ocitj = lxl~^m'^t'^y.lt~^ = l^'m^t^^.
If, for instance, in Central Germany, where the total mag
= 4 "5, we hold a straight wire of 1000""" length
perpendicular to the line of dip, and move it perpendicular to
itself, and to the magnetic dip, with a velocity of 1000 mm. per
second, the induced electromotive force = 1000 x 4*5 x 1000 =
netic intensity
4500000
sec. ~
mm
msr. 2
'^
^
sec.
100
045
100
= 4500
cm.^ gm.*
^.
In this absolute measure the electromotive force of a
Daniell's cell is 111x10^, and of a Grove's or Bunsen's 192
X 10'
sec.
The electromotive
grm.), or about
" volt."

of that
of
10^^
or
10^ (cm.
cell, is
termed a
(mm. mgm.)
a Daniell's
Further, the capacity of a condenser which
charged by 1
volt, contains a
10 mm.t mgm.2
1 farad.
force
when
quantity of electricity equal to
or 0*1 cm.t grm.i sec.~^ is said to be
sec."^
microfarad
the onemillionth part of
is
tliis.
The electromotive force induced in a revolving coil by
the earth's magnetism is of special practical importance.
This will be given in correspondence with the above definition
by the following rule
We
figure the coils as projected
on a plane perpendicular to the direction of the earth's
magnetism.
Let the sum of the surfaces surrounded by
all the coils change its amount at a certain instant during
the revolution by the small magnitude df in the short time
At this instant, therefore, the induced electromotive force
dt.
in absolute measure = the magnetic intensity multiplied by
the velocity
The wire
change of plane
and
passes twice over the area of coil in each rotation,
and therefore
rotation.
of the
Trans.
2rVr
>
where r = radius of
(Compare
coil,
and
Brit. Assoc. Eejj., 1803.)
time of
287
ABSOLUTE RESISTANCE.
Finally, the
same unit
of electromotive force is obtained
from the law of magnetic indnction, deduced in the following
Suppose a
universal form from the electromagnetic force.
wire of any form moving in the neighbourhood of a magnet
In order to obtain the induced electrowith the velocity u.
motive force, w^e suppose the conductor to be traversed by a
A motive force
unit current of Weber's measure (p. 283).
will then be exerted upon the conductor, and Jc being its
component at any instant in the direction of the actual
motion, the induced electromotive force at that instant is
e=  hu. In the case of circular motion h is the component
of the moment of rotation in the plane of revolution, and u
the angular velocity.
We
have employed another definition of electromotive
dependent on the units of current and resistance
force (75)
namely, writing Ohm's law
= , we have
as unit that elec
tromotive force which produces unit current in a circuit of
unit resistance.
(21.) Resistance to Conduetion.
In
the absolute (Weber's)
system of measurement we make use of Ohm's law to obtain
a unit of resistance from the units of current and electromotive
force,
As
and take
unit the
which
of a conductor, in
resistance
unit electromotive force produces a unit current.
Dimensions =
^
b or
resistance
lt~^.
electromotive force
current
l^vi'H~
,i
f
,^
= i't~
.
.
l^mt~'
measure the resistance of a column of mercury
and 1 sq. mm. section (Siemens's unit), has been
determined by various observers as from 934 to 972
In
this
1 met. long,
lO'^
mm.
The
sec."^ (or 10*"
cm.
sec.""^).
British Association has introduced the
for the resistance. 10^*^
mm.
sec. ~^ or earth
The unit commonly used under
this
name
name
"
Ohm "
quadrant second.
is
equal to 1'0493
Siemens's units.
The
resistance, or quotient of
an electromotive force by
CUKRENT MEASURE AND WORK.
288
a currentstrength,
may
therefore be expressed as a velocity,
and may actually be
so physically conceived.
the resistance of a
straight
wire
of
For instance,
unit length
is
that
which it must move through a unit magnetic
under the normal conditions (p. 285), in order to
velocity with
field,
produce in
it
a unit current, its ends being connected
by a
conductor without resistance, and which does not experience
induction.
of ahsohite Galvanic Measure with Current
advantage of Weber's system of electro magnetic
Connection
WorJc.
The
measure, which was
first
adopted only as the simplest ex
pression of the reciprocal action of electricity and magnetism,
is
shown by the
action receives
measure.
fact that another
its
The quantity
a conductor of resistance
or
eit,
where
current
is
primary law of current
simplest form by the
of heat
ic
in time
employment
of this
evolved by a current
t,
is
in
proportional to ihot,
the electromotive force which urges the
through the conductor of resistance w.
But by
the employment of absolute measure, and by taking, further,
as unit of heat that quantity which is equivalent to unit of
work (p. 274), the law takes its simplest form A = ihot = eit,
as shown by Helmholtz.
We may consider A the internal
work of the current. It may be remarked here that as the
dimensions of a currentstrength are lm^t'^, and those of a
resistance It''', the product ihot has the dimensions Pmt~^,
that
is,
those of " work."
This rule follows from the universal law of current induction,
on p. 286, in connection with that of the conservation
of energy.
In a closed conductor, which is moved under the influence of a magnet, an induced current is produced, which exerts
a motive force on the magnet, which is always opposed to that
causing the actual motion.
By this motion, therefore, work is
done which is proportional to the product of the resisting force
and the distance passed over. The distance is ut, where u = the
velocity, and t the duration of the motion ; the force is always
proportional to i, the strength of the induced current.
We may
take the force as ki, and hence have kkd = the work performed.
k obviously signifies that force which will be exerted by a
as expressed
289
DETEEMINATION OF WAVELENGTH.
unitcurrent in the conductor under the given relations of the
magnet.
But as the law of induction (p. 286) asserts that ku is
the electromotive force e in absolute measure, we have also for
the Avork performed, kiut eit = iSd.
Now
motion produced, as effecting this work, only
form of heat liberated by the current in the conductor,
it follows from the law of the equivalence of work and heat that
eit
or ihd stands for that quantity of heat into which the
mechanical work is converted by means of the current ; and that
quantity of heat is naturally taken as unit which is equivalent to
since the
exists in the
unit of work.
But necessarily the heat liberated in the conductor is due to
the interior action of the cu.rrent, and hence we have in i'wt or
eit the amount of heat liberated by a current i when it traverses
a conductor of resistance w, or is produced by the electromotive
force
or, in
We may
other words,
now
its interior
define the Weber's unit in relation to the
unit of current in the following
The unit
work.
manner
of electromotive force is that force which,
in producing a unit current, performs unit
work
in unit time.
Or the
Unit
of
resistance
is
the resistance
of
that con
ductor in which unit current performs unit work
in unit time.
APPENDIX
B.
Detekmination of Wavelength of Spectral Lines by
compaeison on the ptefeaction spectrum.
Since spectroscopes are not only constructed with different scales and dispersive powers, but the measurements of
the same instruments are variable with temperature and
it becomes necessary to have some standard
which all observations may be reduced for compariSuch a scale is furnished by the wavelength of the
but from insufficient light this can rarely be measured
other causes,
scale to
son.
lines,
290
DETERMINATION OF WAVELENGTH.
directly
by
described in (42).
diffraction, as
the spectrum be compared with a sufficient
of which the wavelength
of the
unknown
is
known
easily be determined
scales as described in (41,
for instance, the positions of the spectral lines to
mined and a sufficient number
down on the arbitrary scale
mapped
are
known
of
laid
rays
of
(Tables 19a, Idb), that
may
intermediate rays
by comparing the two
however,
If,
number
lines
I.
If,
4).
be deter
have been
of the spectroscope, the
together along the
two
lower edge of a sheet of
The known
lines are also laid down on a wavedown one side of the sheet. Perpendiculars are
then erected on the known lines of both scales, and a curve
paper.^
length scale
drawn through the points where these intersect. If, now,
any hue on the spectroscope scale be produced to cut this
curve, and a perpendicular dropped from the point of intersection to the wavelength scale, the point
new
latter will give the position of the
where
Line
it
cuts the
with regard to
the wavelength.
method be carried out on a sufficiently large scale,
not only the most convenient, but one of the most exact.
Wlien, however, it is only necessary to determine the posiIf this
it is
tions of one or two lines instead of those of a whole spectrum,
the following interpolation formula (W. Gibb's, Sillimans
Journal, 1870) may be more convenient.
If A,^ and \^ are
the wavelengths of two known hues, n^ and n^ their posi
tions
on the spectroscope
by the readings
scale, or
of the
micrometer eyepiece, and %, that of an intermediate
the wavelength ^2 of the latter will be
line,
r"2
r^
The following example from Dr. Watt's " Index of Spectra "
which the wavelengths of almost all known lines are given)
(in
will
make
the use of this formula clear.
"
One of
the brightest
spectrum of the Bessemer flame falls between two
bright lines produced by cadmium.
Reference to the table shows
lines in the
Suitable paper, ruled in inches and tenths,
Letts and Co,
may
be obtained of Messrs.
291
DETERMINATION OF WAVELENGTH.
that these lines have wavelengths 5378 and 5337 respectively.
When the crosswires of the telescope were made to coincide with
the lines, the micrometerscrew of the instrument gave the readings
1438 and 1527, while, when the wires were brought on the
Bessemer line, the reading was 14"81. Putting then n^=^ 15'27,
X^ = 5337, ?i^ = 1438,
5378, and ?^^ = 1481, we find for \ the
\=
value 5358."
If the line
not between the two reference
lies,
lines,
but on the
them
less refrangible side of
% \
K
and
if
more refrangible
'
% ^
>
^2 ^'
\Jh
%_n.
These formuloe are troublesome to work, as logarithms are
almost necessary, and yet cannot be used throughout.
Professor A. S. Herschell lias
with fixed prisms
vision instruments
shown
that in spectroscopes
such, for instance, as Browning's direct
the dispersion
is
nearly proportional to
the inverse fourth powers of the wavelengths.
may therefore obtain the inverse fourth power of the
We
wavelength of any line from that of two lines for which
is
known by
simple rule of three
Xj^X^
\'''^\~'^ ::
it
\n^
n^i\
Herschell gives the following table, which is sufficiently
extensive for the small directvision instruments to which
but of course, by employany required exactness may be
the method was originally applied
ing more reference
lines,
obtained.
Inverse fourth power
of wavelength
Frauuhofer Lines.
B
C
D
E
F
G
mm.
as unit.
4454
5423
8293
12965
18052
29453
41622
Billions.
Differences
969
2 870
4 672
5 087
11 401
12 169
THOMSON'S ELECTROMETEES.
292jSfoU.
The
spectra of small directvision instruments (like
Browning's " Miniature
")
are conveniently measured
by a
scale
fixed at a suitable distance at one side of the instrument, and
visible at the same time as the spectrum by direct reflection on
the oblique face of the prism, through a small hole drilled in
(See Nature, October 10, 1872, and
the tube of the eyepiece.
Proceedings Neiocastle Chem. Soc, December 1872, and January
1873.)
APPENDIX
C.
Measurement of Potential by Thomson's Electrometers.
These instruments are of two very distinct forms
the
and the " quadrant " electrometers.
The action
of each depends on measurement of the attraction betvt^een
two planes, one of which is electrified to a constant potential,
" portable "
and the other brought
to that
which
both forms the potential of the
tolerably constant
is to
In
be measured.
electrified
plane
is
kept
by being connected with a Leyden jar of
by the case of the instrument.
considerable capacity formed
Portalle Electrometer
TJie
"
consists
of
light
disc
or
" of
aluminium, balanced at the end of a lever,
and connected with the electrified interior of the glass case.
trapdoor
Opposed
which is connected with the
which the potential is to be measured, and which
is movable towards or from the electrified " trapdoor " by a
micrometerscrew.
The trapdoor is, of course, attracted by
the disc, and must be brought to a constant j)osition indicated, by a " sight " on the end of its lever, by varying the
to this is a larger disc,
object of
distance of the disc.
and the
If,
when
the jar
is
negatively charged,
with earth, the reading of the micrometerscrew be D, and when the disc is connected with a
body of potential F, the reading be D'
disc connected
V= {D'  D)
in
which
c is
c,
a constant to be determined for each instru
V be
negative {D'  D) will also be If, then,
one electrode of a battery be put to earth, and the other con
ment.
If
THE QUADEANTELEGTEOMETEE.
293
nected with the disc of the electrometer, the electromotive
may
force of the battery
be directly measured in electrostatic
The ordinary portable instrument
units.
will
measure a
difference of potential not less than that of about 1 Daniell's
cell.
The quadrantelectrometer
will
indicate
Daniell's
"needle,"
is
much more
difference of tension
of
and
sensitive,
xoo^^^
^^^^^
o^ ^
It consists of an aluminium plane or
suspended in a sort of box divided into four
cell.
quadrants, of which the opposite pairs are connected with
each other, and with electrodes on the exterior of the instrument.
The whole is contained in an inverted glass shade,
which contains sulphuric acid to dry the air, and which
Leyden jar to keep the needle at a constant
potential, the latter being connected with it by a platinum
wire dijDping in the acid.
The needle is suspended so that
it is equally within each of the four quadrants, and is retained in its position either by a bifilar suspension, or by a
small magnetic needle attached to it, and acted on by permanent magnets outside. Its motion is measured by attached
mirror and scale (48).
"When all the quadrants are at the
same potential the needle is equally attracted, and is not
moved.
If, however, one pair be at higher potential than
serves as a
the other, the needle
by the
is
turned
till
the attraction
is
balanced
torsion of the threads, or the directive force of the
magnets.
If
V be
the potential of the needle, and V^ and V^ those
of the pairs of opposite quadrants, moderate deflections are
I
proportional to
{V^
V.)
potential of the needle, the
and where
V +V
^
is
V~\
Y'+

more
sensitive
The greater the
is
the instrument,
very small compared with V, the deflec
tions will be nearly proportional to the difference of potentials
of the quadrants multiplied
quantitative measurements
"
by that
of the needle.
the latter must be kept
For
a
replenisher " at a constant value indicated by an attached
" gaugeelectrometer,"
and the value
of the scale
l)y
determined
CONDENSERS OR ACCUMULATORS.
294
either
known
par.
by comparison with a standard
electrometer, or
electromotive force, as that of a Daniell's
by a
cell.
(See Brit. Assoc. Rep. 18G7, p. 489 ; J. C. Maxwell, vol. i.
218; Everett's DeschaneVs Physics, par. 469b; Latimer
Clark, p. 111.)
APPENDIX
D.
Condensers or Accumulators.
The electromotive
force, or potential
of a battery,
may
be determined by measuring the quantity of the charge which
it
can give to a Leyden
an accumulator
jar, or
As
analogous arrangement.
of great capacity
is
required to receive a
perceptible charge from a feeble electromotor like a galvanic
battery,
it
usually consists of a large
tinfoil, alternately
number
of sheets of
connected with opposite electrodes, and
separated by mica or paraffined paper.
The charge Q received by a condenser
is
the product of
by
which it is charged, or Q = EG.
This quantity may be
measured by discharging the condenser through a sensitive
its electrostatic
galvanometer,
capacity
when
the
into the electromotive force E,
transient current will act like
sudden blow on the magnet, causing it to swing to an
extreme deflection Q.
Then n being the reductionfactor of
the galvanometer (67), and t the time of a single vibration
of its needle, the quantity
Q^^
of the discharge is
sin
^6 = EC.'
(1.)
Prom Q we may obtain the electromotive force of the battery
if we know the capacity of the condenser, or vice versa.
To determine C in absolute measure we may determine
^
This formula assumes no perceptible resistance to the swing of the
needle, which
may
this is not the case
be the case
we may
if its
write,
if
moment
of inertia be considerable.
the log. decrement X (51) be small
Q=~[i + l\)e.
If
295
CONDENSEES OE ACCUMULATOES,
the resistance
throngli wliicli the battery
employed
to
charge the condenser will produce unit deflection of the
galvanometer.
(B, of course, includes the internal resistance
and that of the galvanometer, but
of the battery
as
H is very
may
sometimes be neglected.)
Then (69, III.; 76, I.), with unit deflection
large these
E = En,
And
combining
this
with equation
2f
n
C = =,
vE
With
(79,
I.)
(2.)
(1)
sin
we
obtain
,
6.
a proper commutatorkey the methods of reversal
may be employed, but
not to be recommended where great accuracy is
or of multiplication (79, II.)
the latter
required.
is
From
the electric
"
absorption
"
(residual charge), the time of electrification
of the condenser
and that of con
tact during discharge through the galvanometer considerably
influence the result.
Latimer Clark,
1867,
If
p.
(See J.
120;
p.
Clerk Maxwell, 771
Brit. Assoc. Reports,
1863,
et scq.
p.
144;
484.)
by means of a commutator or wippe the electrode of
a condenser can be connected alternately with the opposite
poles of a battery, at short but regular intervals of time T,
the condenser will be discharged and recharged in the opposite
way
at each reversal,
and a regular
series of currents will
be produced, which will act on a galvanometer like a constant current,
if
be small compared to the time of one
vibration of the needle.
be
pj^,
where
is
The strength
of this current will
the caj)acity of the condenser
and
if
the same battery gives an equal current through a certain
resistance R,
^=
^^^jr,
and
R = j^,
so that the
condenser
and its commutator may be directly compared to a resistance,
and indeed may be substituted for it in a Wheatstone's
Ijridge, or with the
Maxwell, 775.)
differential
galvanometer.
(J.
Clerk
MEASUEEMENT OF RESISTANCE.
296
APPENDIX
E.
Additional Methods of Measukement of PiEsistance,
Comparison of very great Bcsistances.
I.
By
current be
difference
(J. C.
Maxwell, 353.)
two ends.
of potential of the
If
passed tlirough a conductor, the difference of
potential between its ends
is
proportional to
If the resistances are great, this
may
its
resistance.
be measured by the
quadrantelectrometer.
B,
11
i?3
P.
The resistances B^ B^ B^, etc., are arranged in a series,
and the current from a battery of great electromotive force
is
sent through them.
{PP^, (P^P^),
If
etc.,
be the
differences of potential corresponding to the resistances
B,:B^: B,{PP)
II.
(P,
 P,)
{P,P:).
Pour large resistances may be arranged
and an electrometer substituted
stone's bridge,
vanometer.
of allowing
as a
Wheat
for the gal
This has the advantage over the galvanometer
no current
to pass
through
it.
If the resistance be so great that no current meaby a galvanometer can be forced through it, the
quantity of electricity which passes in a certain time may be
accumulated in a condenser, and measured by discharge
III.
surable
through a galvanometer
(p.
294).
proportional to the resistance,
constant,
if
This quantity
is
inversely
the electromotive force be
(Bright and Clark's method for leakage of joints
of cables.)
IV.
A condenser of great capacity is
gradually to discharge
itself
charged and allowed
through the great resistance to
be measured, while the difference of potential between its
surfaces is measured by an electrometer.
Calling C the
capacity of the condenser, E^ tlie original reading of the
297
MEASUEEMENT OF RESISTANCE.
may he
we have
electrometer (which
after
time
t,
^^
and
iu arbitrary units),
E that
{log,
Eo 
log,
E)'
the condenser itself is not perfectly insulated, two experiments must he made, in one of which the condenser is disIf B^ be the resistance
charged by its own leakage alone.
of the condenser and
alone,
and
that
condenser
R'
the
of
As
conductor conjointly, then the resistance
of the latter is
given by the equation
R~R'~ r;
V. This method
is
of telegraphic cables.
denser, and as both its
increase in the
same
much used
ratio
with
the coating per unit of surface
time in which
it
in testing the insulation
The cable itself is used as the concapacity and the area of its coating
its
is
length, the resistance of
simply proportional to the
loses a definite portion (usually
)
of its
In practice the electrometer is generally employed
in conjunction with Thomson's slide resistance, which concharge.
a series of
sists of
100
resistancecoils of
100 Ohms
each.
between the coils is connected to one
of a series of metal blocks, which are traversed by a sliding
One end of the series is put to earth, and the
contact.
other connected with one pole of a battery, so that the
to that
potential rises uniformly through the series from
Each
of the junctions
of the battery end,
One
cable,
which we may
call
electrode of the electrometer
and another with a
loose wire,
100.
is
connected with the
which
shifted
is
block to block of the slide as the potential
falls,
from
so as to
The cable is charged from
keep the electrometer at zero.
the battery end of the slide, and the time noted at which
its
potential
E be
is
If
equal to that of each successive block.
c that to which it has faUeu
the original potential, and
in time
t,
it
log
will fall to ^^E in time T=j^',^
Clark, pp. Ill, 117.)
(Latimer
298
claek's potentiometer.
APPENDIX
P.
Determination of Electromotive Porce by Clark's
Potentiometer.
Of the methods described in (74),
and
I.
II. are
merely
approximate, while even III. and IV. have the disadvantage
which are being compared must be
and consequently that any slight variation in its
In Clark's method both
resistance will affect the result.
batteries are inactive, and this disadvantage is avoided.
that one of the batteries
in action,
Let
^ be
a battery of greater electromotive force than
either of those to be
compared.
If
\C"
a wire
uniform
of
ah,
the
wiU.
fall
resistance
^ potential
continuously from 5
G^
\^
C^)
'
to
^^g ^^
pole of a standard cell
that of a, and
it is
a.
then,
If,
e^
with
, its
potential
equal to
is
obvious that at some point
the resistance of ah be sufficient, and
no current will
flow.
included in the
This
is
circuit.
larly connected with a, a
its
h^
in ah the
they be connected
indicated
by a galvanoscope
If,
point
current
falls
passes,
now, another
difference
cell
be simi
which
But since
and, when ho
&2 '^iH ^^ found, at
by that
of ah.
uniformly from a to
the
e^ if
if
potential also will be balanced
the potential
we
connect the similar
potential will be equal to that of the other pole of
G^,
its
by
poles be united
G.
&,
of potentials
of
the
poles
measures the electromotive force of a battery, the electromotive forces of e^ and e.^ will be proportional to the resistances ab^ and
practically
a&2' or,
measuring resistances from a
convenient arrangement
is
to
make
ah^
299
SIEMENS'S PYEOMETEE.
stretched
(71,
fine
and
II.),
calating];
o
divided into a scale
standard
cell
be equal to 1
the
give
required
say,
of,
volt, (see
bridge
G^ to zero by inter
resistance in the conductor JEh
suitably"
will
the Wheatstone
wire like that of
to bring the current in
&,
If,'
100
then, ah^ be
'
parts,
and the
Table 2Qh), the scale
electromotive
force
e^
at
once in
(Latimer Clark, Mec. Measurement,
absolute
measure.
106
Clerk Maxwell, par. 358.)
obvious that the principle of the potentiometer
It
J.
is
p.
is
identical with that of Thomson's slide resistance, and that a
sufficiently sensitive
electrometer might be substituted for
Appendix
either of the galvanoscopes, as described in
(V.)
Clark employs a platinum wire coiled on an ebonite
cylinder, instead of a simple stretched wire.
APPENDIX
a.
Application of Electeical Eesistance to Measueement
OF Tempeeatuee.
The
resistance of metals increases with temperature, that
of the pure metals
much more
and
reason that standard resistancecoils are
for this
it is
made
rapidly than that of alloys
of platinumsilver, goldsilver, or
preference
to
the
pure metals.
Dr. C.
German
silver,
W. Siemens
in
has
taken advantage of this variation of resistance for thermometric and pyrometric purposes.
In measuring resistances below 100 two coils may be
employed, one of which, the thermometrical coil, may be
buried, sunk in the sea, or placed wherever it is desired to
measure the temperature, being carefully protected against
moisture while the second or comparison coil is plunged
in a water bath, of which the temperature may be raised or
lowered, and accurately measured with a mercury thermo;
meter.
The two
coils
flows
down one
by a light cable, conThe current from a battery
are connected
taining three insulated wires.
of these,
and
is
then divided, one portion
SIEMENS'S PYKOMETEE.
300
passing tlirougli the thermometer
coil,
and then back through
one of the remaining wires, while the other portion passes
directly back through the third wire, and then through the
comparison coil, both currents being finally led back to the
j
battery through a differential galvanometer (70,
Both
II.)
conducting wires are thus under the same temperature con
and the coils alone can vary independently. When
they are at the same temjDerature their resistances are equal,
The temperature of
and the galvanometer is undeflected.
the comparison coil is varied till this is the case, and its
The
temperature is then that of the thermometer coil.
temperature
comparison coil may be dispensed with, and the
determined directly by calculation from the measured resistance of the thermometer coil.
Taking T as the "absolute"
273
temperature, reckoned from
C, the resistance r is
ditions,
for
Platinum
Copper
Iron
?
= 00393697^ f 000216407^ 02413
= 0026577ril00031443r 022751
= 0072545ri + 00038133r 123971
And Dr. Siemens has proved that this holds good for platinum
through a range of 1000.
For low temperatures the
coil
copper, but for those of furnaces,
is
etc., it
generally of iron or
consists of a platinum
wire coiled on a small porcelain cylinder, and protected by
a closed iron or platinum tube.
If the temperature of the
furnace does not exceed a full red heat, the coil
may
be
left
must be exposed only for a
short measured interval, say three minutes, and will acquire
a temperature lower than that of the furnace by a deterin
it
continuously
if
hotter
it
minable small amount.
Wheatstone bridge may, of course, be substituted for
the differential galvanometer, and Siemens had also employed
a differential voltameter, consisting of two similar voltameter tubes.
In this case the polarisation and resistance
of both are similar, and counterbalance and eliminate each
other
the
and
known
if
7 be the
resistance,
resistance of the voltameter,
and
the unknown, while
and C
and
MEASUEEMENT OF
are
the volumes
(C+y) r={C' + j)
of
r',
may
gas liberated in
given time
and
VV may be measured in
ture and pressure
301
TIME.
any arbitrary
be neglected
if
units,
and tempera
alike for both.
The
may
be brought to the same level within and without
the tubes by small supply reservoirs connected by indiaacid
rubber tubes.
By
valves at the top of the tubes the gases are brought
to zero at the beginning of each observation.
Royal
Society,
April 27, 1871; and
APPENDIX
J. C.
{Proceedings
Maxwell,
par. 360.)
H.
Measurement of Short Intervals of Time.
In physical experiments
short intervals of time,
ments
it is
when
often necessary to measure
perfect and elaborate instru
like the electric chronograph are not accessible.
The
following methods are simple and only require apparatus
easily obtained
I.
is
Pouillet^s Metliod ly Deflection of
arranged that a
circuit,
a Galvanometer.
It
including a constant battery and
a galvanometer, shall be closed during the short time to be
measured.
If the period of closure be short compared to the
time of oscillation of the needle, the amplitude of its first
swing from its place of rest will be proportional to the time
of contact.
deflection,
To determine the actual value in time of the
M. Pouillet employed a rotating glass disc with a
metal radial
made
strip,
which
for a small part of its revolution
contact with a spring.
M. Schneebeli
{Pogg. Ann.,
239; and Phil. Mag., vol. xliv. p. 477), who has
successfully appUed the method to measure the duration of
collision of elastic bodies, used a metallic pendulum, carrying
at its lower part a triple sjjring, which rubbed on a strip of
vol
cxhii. p.
MEASUEEMENT OF
302
steel fixed in the
same
of the pendulum.
TIME.
vertical plane as the axis of rotation
glass plate applied horizontally to the
steel caused the spring to slide into it
duration
of
contact was
square root of the height of
The
without shock.
inversely proportional to
fall
H of the
the
pendulum, and
being the breadth of the strip
h
If the resistance
and electromotive force
of the circuit
be known, and consequently the quantity passing through
the galvanometer in unit of time, the time
by formula
(1),
()
The
II.
Et
may
be found
2nT
sin
interval of regular pulses
of the note produced (see Table
mined
Appendix D.
18).
6.
is
given by the pitch
This
may be
deter
by a syren (Tyndall, Sound, p. 64), which is
brought into unison with it, and which counts its pulses by
a clockwork register or by determining the length of wave
in air (37).
The vibrations may often also be made to
record themselves on a sheet or cylinder of smoked glass,
which is drawn under a point attached to the moving object,
a tuningfork of known number of vibrations per second
being similarly made to register at the same time.
The
velocity of rotation of a disc or gyroscope may be measured
by smoking the rim of the disc, and lightly touching it with
either
a tiny cone of indiarubber attached to one prong of a vibrat
The lampblack will be rubbed off in spots,
n contacts correspond to m degrees of angular rotation
ing tuningfork.
and
if
of the disc, and the fork vibrates
number
of revolutions of
tlie
times per second, the
disc per second will be
mt
360w
If the primary of an inductioncoil be put in circuit
a connection which
is
by
broken at a given moment, a current
MEASUKEMENT OF
will be
produced in
which may
tlie
303
TIME.
secondary at the instant of rupture,
by piercing a revolving
by marking a black varnished
metallic disc, or by making a brown dot on a paper preA smaller spark is
pared with potassic iodide and starch.
This method has been applied
also produced by closure.
register
paper disc with
to
its
itself
either
spark, or
measure the velocity of a
divided wires placed across
the disc was not known,
it
its
bullet,
course.
which
successively
If the velocity of
might, of course, be determined
by employment of a second coil in which contacts were
made and broken by a large tuningfork, or other isochronous
vibrator.
III.
MM.
Lucas and Cazin {Phil Mag.,
vol. xl. p.
78)
by them to measure the
duration of the electric spark, in which they avail themselves
A blackened mica disc of
of the principle of the vernier.
15 cm. diameter was divided round the edge into 180
transparent divisions, and rotated 100 to 300 times per
A silvered glass disc was fixed very near to it,
second.
which had six transparent divisions like those of a vernier.
The light of the spark was observed with a telescope through
the transparent divisions, and the number of these which
could be seen by one spark was counted.
describe a chronoscope employed
IV. Wheatstone's Metliod for time between two sparks in
the same conductor consisted in observing the angular deviation between the two images reflected in a mirror rotating on
an axis parallel to its plane. In some later observations this
deviation has been measured by making the two images
coincide by means of a telescope with divided objectglass,
of
which onehalf was movable by a micrometerscrew.
EESISTANCE OF MERCUEY.
304
APPENDIX
I.
Eesistance of Meecury in Tubes.
If
ance
be the length of the glass tube, g the weight of
mercury
it
contains,
and
o
its
W in Siemens's units at
sp. gr.
(=13'557),
its resist
0 C. is
The resistance of mercury increases 8*3 per cent between 0
and 100 C.
Glass tubes are always conical, for which we
must
correct
by multiplication by
'^
"^
Va where a
,
is
the ratio between the greatest and smallest area of section,
which varies inversely with the length of a short column of
mercury in different parts of the tube (see Art. 23).
The connections must be made by stout amalgamated
copper electrodes pressed against the ends of the tube.
(Compare
Brit. Ass. Ee^.,
1862.)
TABLES.
TABLE
1.
Density of Bodies.
and Fluid
(a) Solid
Aluminium
Lead
Bronze
26
113
CclS L
765
78
wire
,,
Cast steel
Ivory
Copper
Bodies.
Wood, pine
86
775
75
Iron, malleable
J J
Ice at 0 .
Water at 0
Water at 15
Brass
German
Ether at 15"
Alcohol at 15
Silver
Platinum
Wax
Aniline at 15
Benzol at 15
Silver
19
Zinc
Chloroform atl 5 1
Glass,
crown
27
Tin
Gold
flint
35
Calcspar
193
Cork
Sulphur
Glacial Acetic
Acid at 15
1
Glycerine at 15 1
15
Olive Oil at
Mercury at 0 13
Bisulphide
of
Carbon at 15 1
Wood, ebony
,
beech
oak
,,
12
07
075
Quartz
Bismuth
Spirits of Turpentine at 15
(b)
At
Air
Oxygen
Nitrogen
Hydrogen
....
....
....
.
Carbonic dioxide
Mixed gases from electrolysis
of water
Aqueous vapour
9167
99988
99915
7202
7938
023
884
499
053
27
915
596
27
872
Gaseous Bodies.
Compared
temp, and 760 ram. pres
tn air at similar
pressure and temperature.
sure compared to water.
00012928
00014293
00012557
000008954
00019767
100000
110563
097137
006926
152910
00005361
041472
06230
TABLE
2.
Eeduction of Arbitrary Hydrometer Scales.
P gr.
Lichter than Water.
Beck.
i3aume.
075
58 4
0.80
463
356
261
177
100
085
090
095
100
567
425
300
189
89
00
Cartier
Sp,
Heavier than Water.
im6.
Beck.
Twaddell
430
336
252
177
110
1
1
5
20
6
6
oo
oo
154
283
392
486
567
637
700
756
805
850
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
1400
1600
180
2000
306
TABLES.
TABLE
3.
Percentage Contents and Specific Gravity at 15
OF Aqueous Solutions of
Caustic Potash, Cpiloeide of Potassium, Nitrate, Sulphate,
Carbonate, and Bichromate of Potash,
Ammonia and Chloride of Ammonium,
Caustic Soda, Common Salt, Nitrate, Sulphate, and Carbonate
OF Soda,
Chloride op Calcium, Chloride of Barium,
Sulphates of Magnesia, Zinc, and Copper,
Nitrate op Silver, Acetate of Lead,
Sulphuric, Nitric, and Hydrochloric Acids,
Cane Sugar and Alcohol.
Compared with Water at
Principally from Gerlach
4.
Fre.senius' Zeitschrift fiir Analyt.
CJiemie, VIII. 279.
The percentage signifies the weight
parts by weight of the solution.
of the substance contained in 100
The
salts are all
reckoned as an
hydrous.
Id the case of Alcohol only what
is
the volumes of Absolute
Specific Gravity.
Percentage
Alcohol in 100 volumes of the
Per
is
given
spirit.
centage
Contents.
Contents.
kho.
KCl.
KNO3. K,SO,. K2CO3 K^C^aOy
NH3.
NH4CI.
0999
0999
0999
0999
0999
0999
0999
0999
1045
1032
1031
1040
1045
1036
0978
1015
10
1092
1065
1064 (1083) 1092
1072
0958
1030
10
15
1141
1099
1099
1141
1109
0941
1044
15
20
1191
1135
1135
1192
0924
1058
20
25
1242 (1172)
1245
0910
1073
30
1295
1300
0897
30
35
1349
1358
0885
35
40
1406
1417
40
45
1466
1479
45
50
1528
1543
50
25
307
TABLES.
TABLE
SContmiied.
Specific Gravity.
Percentage
Percentage
Contents.
Con
NaHO.
NaCl.
NaNO.,. Na^SO^. Na,C03.
CaCl^.
BaCl^.
MgSO^.
tents.
0999
0999
0999
0999
0999
0999
0999
0999
1056
1035
1032
1045
1052
1042
1045
1051
10
1111
1072
1067
1092
1105
1086
1094
1105
10
15
1166
1110
1103
(1159) 1133
1148
1161
15
20
222
1150
1141
1181
1205
1221
20
25
1277
1191
1181
1232
1269
1 284
25
30
1333
1223
1286
30
35
1387
1267
1343
35
40
1442
1314
1402
40
45
1496
1365
45
50
1548
1417
50
Specific Gravity.
Percentage
Per
centage
Contents.
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
70
75
80
85
90
95
100
H,SO,.
HNO3.
HCl.
CuSOj
0999
0999
1029
1058
1089
1121
1154
1187
0999
0999
1050
1103
1161
033
1068
1105
1143
1182
1223
1264
1307
1352
1399
1449
1503
1558
1616
1676
1734
1786
1820
1840
1839
1 220
1253
1287
1 320
1350
1377
1402
1424
1443
1461
1479
1497
1514
1530
1 024
ZnSO^.
PbA
0999
1052
1108
1168
1236
1307
1382
0999
1037
1076
1119
1164
1213
1266
1049
1074
1100 (1225 )
1126
1152
1177
1200
A,,'N03.
57 1043
1090
10
1141
15
1197
20
25 , 1257
1323
30
1396
35
1479
40
1572
45
1677
50
1792
55
1919
60
1 324
1388
, ,
, ,
, ,
, ,
, ,
, ,
, ,
, ,
, ,
, ,
..
Cane
Sugar.
0999
1
020J
1040
1061
1083
1106
1130
1154
1179
1206
1233
1261
1290
1320
1351
1383
ConAlcohol.
0999
0992
0986
0980
0975
0970
0965
0958
0951
0943
0933
0923
0916
0901
0889
0876
0863
0849
0833
0816
0794
tents.
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
70
75
80
85
90
95
100
TABLES.
;08
TABLE
4.
Density Q of Water at
Temperature t.
(From determinations of
Despretz, Hagen, Hallstrom,
Jolly,
TABLE
Kopp, Matthiessen,
and
Pierre,
Also Yolumes
F" of
Rosetti.)
a glass vessel at
15,
5.
Expansion of Water
FROM 0 TO 100.
which
at the temperature in the table
appears to contain 1 grm. of water when
weighed against brass weights in
density '00120 (compare p. 33).
air
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
99988
99993
99997
99999
00000
99999
99997
99994
99988
99982
99974
99965
99955
99943
99930
99915
99900
99884
99866
99847
99827
99806
99785
99762
99738
99714
99689
99662
99635
99607
99579
5
4
2
1
+1
2
3
6
10
12
13
15
15
16
18
19
20
21
21
23
24
24
25
27
27
28
28
00154
00148
00142
00137
00134
00132
00132
00132
00135
00139
00145
00151
00159
00168
00179
00191
00204
00218
00233
00249
00267
00286
00305
00326
00348
00370
00392
00416
00441
00467
00493
Volume of
Grm. of Water
in Cubic Centimetres.
Diflf.
of
+ 3
+ 4
+ 6
+ 6
+ 8
+ 9
+ 11
+ 12
+ 13
+ 14
+ 15
+ 16
+ 18
+ 19
+ 19
+ 21
+ 22
+ 22
+ 22
+ 24
+ 25
+ 26
+ 26
Temp.
Volume.
10001
10000
10
0003
15
0009
20
rooi7
25
10029
30
10043
35
10059
40
10077
45
10097
50
10120
55
10144
60
10170
65
10197
0227
70
75
10258
80
10290
85
10323
90
10358
95
10395
100
10432
Increase per
000012
000016
000024
000028
000032
000036
00040
000046
000048
000052
000054
000060
000062
000064
000066
000070
000074
000074
1".
309
TABLES.
TABLE
6.
Density of Dry Atmospheric Air
Compared with Water
For Temperature
at 4 C.
and Barometric Pressure
h (in Lat. 45),
(By E. Kohlrausch from Eegnault's Observations.
t.
6=:700iii
710niin.
720mBi.
730mm.
740mm.
750miii.
Comp.
700mm.
770mm.
000
000
000
000
000
000
000
000
1191
1186
1182
1178
1173
1169
1165
1161
1157
1153
1208
1203
1199
1195
1190
1186
1182
1177
1173
1169
1225
1220
1216
1212
1207
1203
1198
1194
1190
1186
1242
1237
1233
1228
1224
1219
1215
1211
1206
1202
1259
1254
1249
1245
1241
1236
1232
1227
1223
1219
1276
1271
1267
1262
1257
1253
1248
1244
1239
1235
1293
1288
1283
1279
1274
1270
1265
1260
1256
1251
1310
1305
1300
1296
1291
1286
1282
1277
1272
1268
10
1149
1165
1181
1198
1214
1231
1247
1263
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
1145
1141
1137
1133
1129
1125
1121
1117
1113
1161
1157
1153
1149
1145
1141
1137
1133
1129
1177
1173
1169
1165
1161
1157
1153
1149
1145
1194
1189
1185
1181
1177
1173
1169
1165
1161
1210
1206
1202
1197
1193
1189
1185
1181
1177
1226
1222
1218
1214
1209
1205
1201
1197
1193
1243
1238
1234
1230
1225
1221
1217
1213
1209
1259
1255
1250
1246
1242
1237
1233
1229
1224
20
1109
1125
1141
1157
1173
1189
1204
1220
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
1106
1102
1098
1095
1091
1087
1083
1080
1076
1073
1121
1118
1114
1110
1106
1103
1099
1095
1092
1088
1137
1133
1130
1126
1122
1118
1114
1110
1107
1103
1153
1149
1145
1141
1138
1134
1130
1126
1122
1119
1169
1165
1161
1157
1153
1149
1145
1142
1138
1134
1185
1181
1177
1173
1169
1165
1161
1157
1153
1149
1200
1196
1192
1188
1184
1180
1176
1172
1169
1165
1216
1212
1208
1204
1200
1196
1192
1188
1184
1180
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
18.)
Prop.
Parts.
17
mm.
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
2
3
5
7
8
10
12
14
15
R
ID
j^mm.
6
8
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
13
14
F.
10
30
imm.
2
3
4
5
3
4
6
7
9
7
8
9
10
12
13
TABLES.
;io
TABLE
7.
Keduction of Volume of Gas to
t.
+ af.
t.
+ af.
t.
+ at.
0 C.
t.
= 00 03 6 65.
+ at.
t.
+ a.
10000
20
10733
40
11466
60 12199
10037
21
10770
41
11503
61
12236
81
10073
22
10806
42
11539
62
12272
82
10110
23
10843
43
11576
63
12309
83
13042
10147
24
10880
44
11613
64
12346
84
13079
10183
25
10916
45
11649
65
12382
85
13115
0220
26
10953
46
11686
66
12419
86
13162
10257
27
10990
47
11723
67
12456
87
13189
10293
28
11026
48
11759
68
12492
88
13225
10330
29
11063
49
11796
69
12529
89
13262
10^
10366
30
11099
50
11832
70
12565
90
13298
11
10403
31
11136
51
11869
71
12602
91
13335
12
10440
32
11173
52
11906
72
12639
92
13372
13
10476
33
11209
53
11942
73
12675
93
13408
14
10513
34
11246
54
11979
74
12712
94
13445
15
10550
35
11283
55
12016
75
12749
95
13482
16
10586
36
11319
56
12052
76
12785
96
13.518
17
10623
37
11356
57
12089
77
12822
97
13555
18
10660
38
11393
58
12126
78
12859
98
13592
19
10696
39
11429
59
12162
79
12895
99
13628
20
10733
40
11466
60
12199
80
12932 100 13665
80 12932
12969
3005
311
TABLES.
TABLE
7a.
Reduction of Volume of Gas to 760 mm. Pressure.
TABLE
8.
Reduction of a Weighing with Brass Weights
TO Weight in Vacuo,
A.
Ic.
07 +
08 +
09 +
10 +
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
157
136
119
106
095
086
078
071
066
061
056
052
049
046
k.
A.
20 + 046
30 + 026
40 + 016
50 + 010
60 + 00(J
70 + 0(i3
80 + 001
90  01)1
100  002
120  004
140  006
160  007
180  008
200  oo
00012
1000
\\
84/
Compare
p. 33.
weighed body has the density A,
in air he m grammes, mk
mgrm. must be added to reduce the weighing
If the
and
its
to vacuo.
weiglit
TABLES.
312
TABLE
9.
Coefficients of Expansion for 1 C.
The length i
of a
body
by PL for each degree of
volume Vhy 3f3F. (Compare
increased
is
increased temperature, and
its
26.)
00000285
0000012
00000085
0000015
Gold
00000175
Co]iper
Vulcanite 000008
Lead
Brass
Iron
Glass
German
The volume
volume at 0 for
At
of
000019
000017
000009
000019
000029
000022
Silver
Platinum
Silver
Zinc
Tin
0' 0001815
quicksilver increases
of
its
1.
15 a solution of
per cent of the following substances
jj
expands for 1
Strong spirits of wine 00003 + 0000009 j^;
sugar '00016 + 0*000004 ^j; common salt, dilute sulphuric acid
000016 + 000001 Oj>.
:
TABLE
Boiling Temperature,
Pressure
h.
680
681
682
683
6S4
685
686
687
688
689
690
691
692
693
694
695
696
697
698
699
700
&.
t.
t,
of
10.
Water at Barometer
b (after
6.
t.
Regnault).
6.
h.
t.
t.
96 92
700
97 72
720
9849
740
99 26
760
100 00
9S
01
75
21
53
41
29
61
04
97 00
04
08
12
16
20
24
28
02
03
04
05
06
07
08
09
710
79
83
87
57
22
61
23
65
24
69
25
72
26
76
27
80
28
84
29
88
730
92
31
95
32
33 98 ^99
34 99 OS
07
35
11
36
14
37
38
IS
22
39
740 99 ^26
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
750
33
07
^59
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
63
770
36
67
71
40
70
52
74
53
78
54
82
55
85
56
89
57
93
58
96
59
760 100 00
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
780
44
32
36
40
44
48
52
56
60
64
68
97 72
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
720
91
95
99
97
98 03
07
11
15
19
22
26
30
34
38
42
46
98 49
51
37
41
44
48
52
56
11
15
18
22
26
29
33
47
51
55
58
62
65
69
10072
313
TABLES.
TABLE
lOa.
Tension of Aqueous Yapouk.
In
of Quicksilver between 90 and 101 (Regnault).
mm.
90
91
92
93
94'"
mm.
mm.
mm.
ram.
mm.
95
90
97
mm.
mm.
6338
6575
mm.
6820
98
99
100
mm.
mm.
mm.
7073 7332 7600
5254 5458 5668 5884 6107
5274 5478 5689 5906 6130 6361 6599 6845 7098 7358 7627
5295 5499 5710 5928 6153 6385 6624 6870 7124 7385 7655
5315 5520 5732 5950
5335 5541 5753 5973 6199 6432 6672 6920 7176 7438 7719
5355
5376 5583 5797 6017 6245 6479 6721
5396 5604 5818 6040 6268 6503 6746 6996 7254 7519 7793
5417
5437 5646 5862 6085 6314 6551
5562 5775 5995
6176 6408 6648
6222
5625 5840 6062 6291
6456 6697
6895 7150 7412 7682
6946 7201
7465 7737
6971
7492 7765
7227
6527 6771 7021 7280 7546 7820
6795 7047 7306 7573 7848
314
TABLES.
TABLE
11.
REDrCTION OF THE BAROMETER READING TO
0.
On
account of the expansion of the Mercury and of the Scale
(comp. 20).
If h is the height of the cokimn of mercury as read off, t the
temperature, /3 the coefficient of expansion of the scale, we
must, in order to obtain the reading reduced to 0, subtract
.
from h the amount (O'OOOISI
/3)
The
ht.
table contains
with /3 = '0000 19.
If the scale is engraved on the glass tube it is sufficient to
increase the numbers of the Table by 0"008^.
See the
last column.
this correction for a brass scale
Observed height
(li)
in
mm.
+ooos<
6S0.
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
690.
roo.
710.
720.
7S0.
740.
750.
760.
770.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
011
022
033
044
055
066
077
088
099
110
121
132
143
154
165
176
187
198
209
220
231
242
263
264
275
286
297
308
319
330
011
022
034
045
11
23
12
23
35
46
58
69
81
12
23
35
47
58
70
82
93
05
12
24
35
12
24
36
48
60
72
84
96
08
20
32
44
56
68
80
92
2 04
2 16
2 28
2 40
2 52
2 64
2 76
2 88
3 00
3 12
3 24
3 36
3 48
360
12
24
36
49
12
25
37
49
62
74
86
98
10
23
35
48
60
72
85
97
09
22
34
46
59
12
25
37
50
62
75
87
99
12
25
37
50
62
75
87
2 00
2 12
2 25
2 37
2 49
2 62
2 74
2 87
2 99
3 12
3 24
3 37
3 49
3 62
374
34
45
57
68
79
0.56
067
078
089
101
112
123
134
145
156
168
179
190
200
212
224
235
246
257
268
279
291
302
313
324
335
92
04
15
27
38
50
91
02
13
25
36
47
59
70
61
81
93
2
2
2
2
2
2
04
15
27
38
49
2
2
73
84
96
07
19
30
42
53
65
76
88
99
61
2
2
2
2 72
84
95
06
18
29
340
2
2
3 11
3 22
3 34
345
2
2
3
3
3
17
28
40
52
63
75
87
98
2 10
2 22
2 33
2 45
2 57
2 68
2 80
2 92
3 03
3 15
3 27
3 38
350
47
59
71
83
95
06
18
30
42
54
66
77
89
2 01
2 13
2 25
2 37
2 48
2 60
2 72
2 84
2 96
3 07
3 19
3 31
3 43
355
61
73
85
97
09
22
34
46
58
70
82
94
2
2
2
2
2
07
19
31
43
55
2 67
2 79
2 92
3 04
3 16
3 28
3 40
3 52
365
2
2
2
2
2 71
2 83
2 95
3 08
3 20
3 32
3 45
3 57
369
ram.
01
02
02
03
04
05
06
06
07
08
09
10
10
11
12
13
14
14
15
16
17
18
18
19
20
21
22
22
23
024
315
TABLES.
TABLE
Mean Height
12.
of Barometer at Elevation
Sealevel.
Temperature of Air taken at
H.
H.
metres.
Eng.
feet.
328
656
984
1312
1640
1968
2296
2624
2952
3280
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
h.
6.
H.
mm.
inches.
metres.
760
751
742
733
724
716
707
699
690
682
674
2992
2957
2921
2885
2850
2819
2783
2752
2717
2685
2653
1000
1100
1200
1300
1400
1500
1600
1700
1800
1900
2000
TABLE
H.
Eng.
feet.
3280
3608
3936
4265
4592
4920
5248
5577
5905
6233
6561
H above the
C
6.
I).
mm.
inches.
674
666
658
650
642
635
627
620
612
605
598
2653
2622
2590
2559
2527
2500
2468
2441
2409
2382
2354
12a.
Eeduction of Millimetres to Inches.
mm.
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
inches.
393708
787415
1181124
1574832
1968539
2362247
2755955
3149663
3543371
3937079
mm.
mches.
710
279532
283469
287406
291343
295280
299217
303155
307091
720
730
740
750
760
770
780
790
800
3110'29
314966
316
TABLES.
TABLE 13. For Hygrometry.
Pressure of aqueous vapour e in mm., and weight of water / in
grms., contained in 1 cubic metre of air, with dewpoint t
or, when at the temperature t, the air would be saturated
(From the observations of Magnus
with aqueous vapour.
and Regnault
e.
mm.
gr.
20
22
24
26
28
31
33
36
39
42
46
21
24
27
30
32
35
38
41
44
46
49
t.
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
t.
see 28.)
e.
t.
mm.
0"
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
TABLE
46
49
53
57
61
65
70
75
80
85
91
49
52
56
60
64
68
73
77
81
88
94
10"
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
Lead
00.314
Iron.
Glass
0114
019
00324
00951
0094
00324
00570
00955
00562
Gold
Copper
Brass
Platinum
Silver
Zinc
Tin
gr.
91
98
15.
Temperature.
104
111
119
127
135
144
154
16'3
174
Heats
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
21
22
23
30
002
004
008
016
035
075
174
18'5
172
182
193
204
215
229
242
256
270
286
301
p. 84).
0516
0615
00333
0426
0555
10000
10005
10012
1 0020
Water at 0
10
20
30
,,
mean between
and 100
Tension of Mercurial Vapour
Mercury (Regnault).
Tension.
gr.
197
209
222
236
250
265
281
298
316
24
25
26
27
28
29
(comp.
/.
mm.
Ether at 17
Alcohol at 17
Quicksilver
Oil of Turpentine at 17
Glycerine
Temperature.
mm.
0
20
94
100
106
113
120
128
136
145
151
162
172
TABLE
e.
t.
mm.
Specific
14.
c.
10050
in
Mm.
Tension.
mm.
160
59
15
240
260
280
110
199
347
588
967
1552
31
300
2422
180
200
220
of
317
TABLES.
TABLE
16.
Capillary Depression of Mercury in a Glass
Tube. Interpolated from observations of Mendelejeff and
Gutkowsky.
Height of the Meniscus in
mm.
Diameter
04
06
08
10
12
14
16
18
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
4
5
6
0'S3
047
027
018
122
065
041
028
020
015
154
086
056
040
029
021
015
010
008
004
198
119
078
053
038
028
020
014
010
007
237
145
098
067
046
033
025
018
013
010
180
121
082
056
040
029
0'21
015
012
143
097
065
046
033
024
018
013
8
9
10
11
12
1.3
TABLE
p,
113
077
052
0.37
027
019
014
17.
Modulus of Elasticity E, Breaking Strain
AND Velocity of Sound in some Metals when
STRETCHED AT
1 7
C. (after
The numbers represent
^'^
mm.
sq.
Wertheim).
that
is, if
a wire be employed
"^
the load in kilogrammes which
of 1 sq. mm. section,
would be required to double its length and 2^ the weight in
It follows that the increment of
kgr. which would break it.
signifies
length
of a wire of length
a stretching weight of
q sq.
mm.
and section
kgr., will
be
q sq.
mm., caused by
L
P
^, and
a wire of
will break Avith a strain of qp kgr.
An
Example.
diameter; or
stretched
its
iron wire
section
by a load of
5 kgr.
broken by a load of 05 x 61
Lead
....
Iron
Steel
Gold
Copper
.
Brass
Platinum
Silver
Zinc
Tin
Glass
1000 
is
0*4"
x 3"14
in length,
0"i )0 sq.
^ ^^^^^
"^
in
It will
be
It will
be
and 0'8
mm
053"^"^
305 kgr.
E.
P
1800
19000
21000
8100
12400
9000
17000
7400
8700
4000
7000
60
80
27
40
60
30
29
13
2
u.
1300^
sec.
5000
5100
2100
3700
3200
2800
2700
3500
2300
5000
318
TABLES.
TABLE
Ci
Ci
C.
c.
c,.
Cj.
1635
1732
1835
1944
2060
2182
2312
2450
2595
2750
2913
3086
3270
3465
3671
3889
4120
4365
4625
4900
5191
5500
5827
61 73
6541
6930
7342
7779
8241
8731
9250
9800
1038
1100
1165
1235
1308
1386
1468
1556
1648
1746
1850
1960
2076
2200
2331
2469
2617
2772
2937
3112
3297
3492
3700
3920
4153
5233
5544
5874
6223
6593
6985
7400
7840
8306
8800
9323
9877
(7,
H
B^
18.
Number of Vibrations per Second op Musical Notes.
Pitch and
TABLE
4400
4662
4939
C4.
<3
2093
2218
2350
2489
2637
2794
2960
3136
3322
3520
3729
3951
1047
1109
1175
1245
1319
1397
1480
1568
1661
1760
1865
1975
19.
Lines op the FlameSpectra op the most important
Light Metals,
according
to
Bunsen and
KircliliofFs scale
taken as 50, and the sHt having a breadth of
the sodinm line
being
1 division.
The first number denotes the position of the middle of the line
upon the scale, the Eoman figure indicates the brightness, I being the
brightest, and the third number gives the breadtli of the band when
it
exceeds
1 scaledi\'ision,
the breadth of the
slit.
sharp and clearly defined, s that
it is tolerably so
the remaining lines being nebiilous and illdefined.
The lines most characteristic of each body are printed in thick type.
The brightness of the lines of Ca, Sr, and Ba, is that of a constant
spectrum.
If the chlorides be employed, the spectra are at first much
brighter. In many cases the flamespectra are really those of compounds,
the spectra of the metals themselves obtained by the electric spark being
frequently entirely difterent, and consisting of much finer lines.
signifies that the line is quite
;
The
colours of the spectrum are approximately
to 52, green to 80, blue to 120,
K.
Na.
Faint con
331 IV. 2
367 IV.
452 IV. s
417 I. 15
468 III. 2
500
I.
I.
tianoiis
spectrum
from 55 to
120
1530 IV.
to 48, yellow
490 III.
298
321
338
363
386
415
458
528 IV.
549 IV.
608 I. 15
680 IV. 2
1350 IV.
Ba.
Sr.
320
red
violet beyond.
Ca.
Li.
175 IL s
and
in.
II.
II.
IL
III.
III.
352 IV. 2
415 III. 3
456
in.sr5
I.
521 IV.
560 III. 2
608
II. 5
665 III. 3
714 in. 3
1050 III.s 768 in. 2
827 IV. 4
89 3 in. 2
319
TABLES.
TABLE
19 a.
WaveLengths of the Principal Lines of the Solar
Spectrum in TenthMetres in Air at 760 mm. Pressure
AND 16 Temperature (Angstrom); .AND of some of the
Principal Bright Lines in the Spectra of the Elements, AND their Approximate Positions on Bunsen
and Kirchhoff's Scale.
In order to obtain the wavelengths in vacuo the numbers
must be multiplied by the respective
refractive indices of the
rays for air at 16 C. (Watts).
Approximate
Positions oh Bunsen and
Kirehlioif s Scale.
A
B
Element.
Lio.
Ea
11" metre
175
6867
276
6562
84 0
Di
D,
5895
5269
5183
757
4861
900
4307
1275
3968
1620
3933
1660
WaveLength.
7685
7604
110 metre
500
;;}
5889
Scale
710
Number.
175
6705
320
6562
340
Lip
6102
452
Na
5892
500
5662
58
Edge
of
band seen in blue of candle flame
(probably a hydrocarbon
Tl
5348
67
5170
75
HP
4861
90
Sr
4607
105
Ga
4226
135
Hy
4101
151
Kp
4080
153
line).
Edge of band in candle flame (probably a
hydrocarbon
line).
Approximate in flame spectrum.
Flame spectrum.
TABLES.
320
TABLE
196.
Colours of Newton's Rings
Shown by a
film of air of thickness
h in reflected and transmitted
light for perpendicular rays.
Wavelength for mean yellow or "white" rays = "000551
(according to Quincke, Fogg. Ann., cxxix. 180).
Reflected.
h.
mm
Transmitted.
mm
ORDER.
106
133
137
140
153
166
215
252
268
275
3 ORDER.
Iron gray
White
White
564
violet
Lavender gray Yellowish wh.
Brownish wh.
Gray blue
Yellow brown
Clear gray
Greenish wh. Brown
Almost pure
Bright red
white
Yellowish wh. Carmine red
Dark red
Pale straw
brown
yellow
Straw yellow
Pure yellow
Lively green
Brown yellow
Red orange
Warm red
Deep red
Dark
Bright blue
violet
Indigo
Blue
Gray blue
Blue green
294
332
364
374
Purple
Indigo
Impure
low
629
Blue
Flesh colour
(gieen
Violet
Skyhlue
low
Golden yellow
Orange
Greenish blue
Brown orange
Green
Bright
Indigo
667
688
Sea green
Intense green
Brown red
713
Greenish yellow
Flesh colour
Carmine red
Dull purple
Violet gray
Gray blue
747
767
810
826
413
Bright green
Purple
421
Yellowish
Violet purple
433
green
Greenish yel
Violet
550
4 ORDER.
841
Gray blue
855
Dull sea green Yellondsh
872
905
Bluish green
963
Clear gray
giay
Pine clear
Grayish red
Carmine red
green
Grayish red
green
1003
Gray, almost
white
Flesh colour
5
Dark blue
Greenish blue
Dark
Green
violet
Greenish yellow
Grayish blue
Green
ORDER.
Indigo
Bright
red
orange
red
Sea green
Fine green
Dull sea green
Yellowish
giay
1024
455
474
499
Violet
car
mine red
low
Pure yellow
Orange
yel
ish)
Pale green
Yellow green
Bright green
Greenish yel
Yellowish
green
575
2 ORDER.
282
287
Transmitted.
lOS"
lilack
20
48
79
109
117
129
Reflected.
h.
mm.
1169
Dull blue
green
1334
Dull
Dull
flesh
colour
flesh
colour
Dull blue
green
"
321
TABLES.
TABLE
20.
Indices of Eefraction of some Bodies.
(For the most part from Beer's Optics, also Kettler, Pogrj. Ann.,
vol. 140; according to observations by Baden Powell,
Dall and Gladstone, Fraunliofer, Grailich, Kohlrausch,
Mascart, Rudberg, Schrauf, Verdet, AYiillner, and others.
Comp. 39.)
At 17 "5 the Index
in temperature
of Eefraction diminishes for 1 increase
for
Water, about O'OOOl
for Bisulphide
of Carbon, 00008.
For Biaxial Crystals the numbers given are when not otherwise mentioned for the mean ray.
B.
C.
D.
13306 13314 13332 13353
Water at 175
13628 l3633;i 3654 13675
Alcohol at 17 '5
'5
16167 162031629316421
Bisulphide of carbon at 17
'5
17
15924 15958 1605316194
Oil of Cassia at
1524 1525 1528 1531
Crown Glass [^^^;
1612 1613 1615 1619
;
1602 1604 1608 1615
Flint Glass {^
;
1741 1743 1751 1762
1653 1654 1658 1664
Ordinary ray
Calcsnar /
Oalcspar
1484 1485 1487 1489
 Extraordinary
1541 1542 1544 1547
Ordinary ray
Ouartz f
yuartz
1550 1551 1553 1556
1 Extraordinary
1676 1678 1682 1686
Arragonite (mean)
1610 1611 1614 1617
Topaz (mean)
1540 1541 1545 1550
Rock Salt
j
154
168
150
157
154
136
152
144
Canada Balsam
Ether
Felsjiar
(har(
rd)
Fluor Spar
The
three principal
0.
152
164
131
150
197
1 47
156
148
165
Ice
Nitre
Phosphorus in CSg
Rape Oil
....
Sugar
Turpentine
Tourmaline
Indices of Refraction for
"
Sodium
Yellow are
Selenite
East Indian Mica
Arragonite
Topaz
1529
1 522
600
1594
1686
1621
1 682
1614
s.
l3374'l3407 13436
l3696jl3733 13761
16539J16781 17004
1634016652 17009
1534 1540 1545
1621 1627 1631
1620 1631 1640
1772 11792 1811
1668 1676 1683
1491 il495 1498
1550 1554 1 558
1559 1564 1568
1691 1698 1705
1619 1624 1627
1554 1562 1569
Gypsum (Selenite)
Heavy Spar
100029
Air
Apophyllite
Augite (Diopside)
Benzol
Beryl
E.
1520
1561
1530
1612
TABLES.
122
TABLE
21.
For Eeduction of Time of Oscillation to an Infinitely
Small Arc.
I
64
a,
If the observed time of oscillation of a magnet or pendulum be t,
with an arc of oscillation of a degrees, kt must be subtracted from the
observed value in order to reduce the time to that of an infinitely
small oscillation.
k.
a.
k.
10
000000
000
002
004
008
012
017
023
030
039
000048
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
000048
058
069
080
093
107
122
138
154
172
000190
20
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
TABLE
000428
457
487
518
550
583
616
651
686
723
000761
000190
210
230
251
274
297
322
347
373
400
000428
21
21a.
Eeduction of Deflection n observed on a Divided Scale
When
By
the Distance from the Mirror
subtracting the
number
in the
is
r Scaledivisions (49).
Table the scalereading
becomes proportional to the angle of
r.
m = 50.
deflection.
100.
150.
200.
250.
300.
350.
400.
450.
500.
111
077
057
044
035
260
182
134
103
082
502
353
261
200
159
854
603
447
344
273
1333
945
703
543
430
1948
1390
1038
803
640
2714
1947
1460
1133
904
3635
2625
1973
1538
1230
521
1000
1200
1400
1600
1800
004
003
002
002
01
033
023
017
013
010
2000
2200
2400
001
001
001
001
001
008
007
006
005
004
028
023
019
016
014
066
055
046
039
034
129
107
090
077
066
222
183
154
132
114
351
291
245
209
181
432
364
311
269
737
612
516
442
382
1005
835
705
603
521
000
000
000
000
000
004
003
003
003
002
002
012
011
010
009
008
007
029
026
023
058
051
045
040
036
032
099
087
077
069
062
056
158
138
123
110
098
089
235
207
183
164
147
133
333
293
260
232
209
188
455
401
356
318
286
258
2600
2800
3000
3200
3400
3600
3800
4000
00
021
018
017
123
TABLES.
TABLE
22.
Horizontal Intensity of Terrestrial Magnetism,
For Central Europe, at the beginning of the year 1880 (after
Lamont's Maps from the new Gottingen Observations).
The Horizontal Intensity
North
Longitude East from Ferro.
Latitude.
20
45
208
204
200
196
192
187
184
180
176
173
168
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
increases about O'OOS per year.
30
25
211
207
203
199
195
191
187
183
180
176
174
40
220
216
211
207
203
199
195
224
220
216
212
207
203
199
194
190
186
182
216
212
208
203
199
195
191
187
184
181
177
35
TABLE
191
187
183
180
23.
Western Declination of Magnetic Needle,
For Central Europe,
at the beginning of 1880.
Declination diminishes about 0"13 yearly.
North
Longitude East from Ferro.
Lat.
45
50
55
45
50
55
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
159
171
185
155
166
177
151
161
169
146
155
163
142
150
157
137
144
151
132
138
144
128
132
138
123
128
133
119
124
128
114
118
122
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
ll4
ll8
122
109
113
116
104
107
111
99
102
106
94
97
100
90
92
95
87
86
89
82
81
83
78
76
78
74
71
72
68
65
65
324
TABLES.
TABLE
24.
Inclination,
For Central Europe,
The
for the beginning of the year 1880.
Inclination diminishes about 0"03 yearly.
North
Longitude.
Latitude.
25
30
35
45
623
614
46
47
48
49
631
637
621
605
613
621
629
637
644
652
660
666
673
681
20
50
51
52
53
54
55
644
651
658
664
671
677
684
645
652
658
665
671
677
684
629
637
644
652
659
665
671
678
685
40
615
622
631
638
646
653
661
669
677
TABLES.
TABLE
25.
Galvanic Resistances compared to that of a Column of
Mercury at
0 C.
An increment of temperature of 1 C. at a mean temperature,
produces an increased resistance in
Pure Solid Metals of about 0*4
German
,,
004
008
,,
I'O
Silver
,,
Mercury
Sulplmric Acid
mean
per cent.
,,
,,
,,
Calling the value given in the Table for any substance s, the rew of a column of / metres length, and q sq. mm. section,
sistance
expressed in Siemens's mercury units, will
be
to
instance, the resistance of a pure copper wire of 0'5 sq.
and 10 metres length
at
^o
10x00162
20 C. 0324 + 0324 x 0004 x 20
^
=
mm.
, .
=0324
0350 Siem.
feiem.,
For
section
,
and
at
These numbers
(according to Matthiessen) refer only to the pure metals, and
must with commercial metals be regarded as mere approximations.
That of commercial copper especially is frequently much greater.
Resistances of Metals.
Brass (hard)
Copper (hard)
(soft)
Gas Carbon
0360
0133
0051
00166
00162
40120
Silver (soft)
(hard)
,,
0212
00209
Tin
Zinc
Antimony
Bismuth
(pressed)
,,
German
Silver (hard)
Gold
Iron
(soft)
Lead (pressed)
Mercury
Platinum (soft)
.
0986
199
0000
0918
0153
0166
134
0571
TABLES.
326
TABLE
26.
Conductivity of some Salts and Acids in Aqueous
Solution at 18 referred to Mercury at 0.
(ZnSO, according to Beetz NaCl, NH^Cl, and HNO3 according to
Grotian and Kohlrausch, the others according to the author's
Compare Fogg. Ann. clix. 257 and Wied.
observations.)
;
Ann.
By
vi.
37.
the percentage
is
meant the weight of the dissolved sub
The salts are anhydrous.
stance in 100 parts of the sohition.
h is the conductivity at 18, A^ the increase per cent of Ic for
1 temperature.
Per
7..
10
15
20
25
Per
Cent.
107
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
50
60
70
80
Mi
63
113
153
183
22
200
23
21
21
2 '2
241
431
573
665
720
734
719
686
590
480
370
250
Afc
86
166
242
315
376
20
19
17
16
15
fc.l07
Ak
38
64
83
24
25
26
Ak
J.107
A/c
;c.io7
150
145
140
138
138
139
143
149
369
590
698
713
677
620
553
483
159
157
156
155
154
153
152
195
366
508
611
671
691
678
636
505
349
202
103
HCl
H2SO4
KHO
MgSOi
ZnSO.
^".
107
24
39
45
45
39
CUSO4.
Ak
Alum.
Afc
A. 107
Ak
23
24
25
27
18
2"2
22
23
30
39
fc.l07
A/v
32
64
98
136
175
215
257
296
367
416
21
20
19
18
18
17
16
15
14
14
Z11SO4.
107
24
AM 07 Ak
18 23
30 23
39 23
43 24
44 26
41
34
30
40
Ag NO3.
A:.107
24
44
64
81
99
116
131
146
173
196
349
Conductivity.
107 = 7330 at 297 per cent.
7174 at 183
6914 at 304
5100 at 28
451 at 17
442 at 235
A:.
Afc
20
29
KL
121
128
136
145
154
162
170
178
193
213
256
Maximum
HNO3
A;.
H2SO4.
HCl.
16
16
15
13
MgSO^.
Naj SO4.
71.107
HNO3.
fc.l07
NH4CI.
NaCl.
Cent.
Sp. gr.
185
092
224
274
183
286
KHO.
Ak
A. 107
Ak
22
22
22
161
295
19
19
19
20
21
23
24
21
21
21
21
21
21
21
399
468
506
508
477
422 27
327
TABLES.
TABLE
26a.
Eesistances of Metals
" In the following Table
column
metre long, and
Maxwell).
(J. C.
the resistance in Ohm's of a
weight, at 0 C; and r is
is
gramme
the resistance in centimetres per second of a cube of one centimetre, according to the experiments of Matthiessen."
Specific Gravity.
R.
Percentage
Increment of
Resistance for
r.
1 C. at 20 C.
1050 hard drawn
01689
895
01469
1927
04150
,,
11391 pressed
2257
13595 liquid
13071
15218 hard or annealed 1668
Silver
Co])per
Gold
Lead
Mercniry
Gold 2, Silver 1
Selenium at 100 C. crystalline form
1609
1642
2154
19847
96146
10988
0377
0388
0365
0387
0072
0065
100
6x1013
TABLE
26b.
Electromotive Force of Constant Batteries
(J. C.
Maxwell).
Concentrated
Volt.
Solution of
Daniell
I.
II.
III.
H2SO4+ 4Aq
Amalgamated Zinc
+ 12 Aq
+
Bunsen I.
IL
Grove
+
+
Volt.
CUSO4 Copper
CUSO4
CUNO3
HNO3
,,
Carbon
sp. gr. 138
Aq
1079
0978
100
1964
1888
1956
,,
HNO,
riatinum
Cm.
(See pp. 228, 286.)
Sec.2
TABLE
27.
Comparison of Measures of Electric CurrentStrength.
Must be multiplied by the
to reduce
Curi'entStrength which
is
measured in
Cubic
Cm. Water
Gases
per Minute.
Cub. Cm. Water Gases
per min.
Mgr. Water per Min.
Mgr. Copper
,,
Mgr. Silver
,,
Magnetic Measure
Mm.^ Mgr.*
Sec.
Mgr.
Water
it
Mgr.
Copper
following
to
Numbers
Mgr.
Silver
per Minute. per Minute. per Minute.
Magnetic
Measure
Mm.^ Mgr.*
Sec.
05363
1 865
1889
3522
05294
01555
02839
00834
02937
1054
05653
1991
6432
1199
3405
09484
1769
.5023
01475
6779
328
TABLES.
TABLE
Dimensions of the Various Magnitudes in
THE ABSOLUTE SYSTEM OF MEASUREMENT
with the ratio of THE ALTERATION WHEN THE FUNDAMENTAL UNITS ARE VARIED. (Compare App. p. 272.)
28.
PIIACTIGAL USE IN
The fundamental magnitudes of the absolute system of
measurement are length /, mass m, and time t ; the dimensions
show how any other magnitudes are expressed in the fundaniental magnitudes.
In the GaussWeber's system of measurement the fundamental
and SEC. The numbers of the Table show in
units are MM., MGM.,
what
when cm. grm. are substituted for
Quantities expressed in the cm.grm. system must
ratio the units increase
mm. and mgm.
be multiplied by these numbers to reduce them to
Gauss Weber measures.
therefore
grm. cm. see.
Dimensions.
......
........
......
Work, moment of torsion, directive force
Aloment of inertia
P
P
Force
m
m
m
1%
mh
Magnetism of a bar (Magnetic moment)
Quantity of
electricity, meclianical
mgm. mm.
sec.
100,000.
10,000.
measure
mi
magnet pole
1,000.
Electromotive force, electromagnetic'measure
Current strength, mechanical measure .
/
"I
t
Electrostatic or magnetic potential'
\
Current strength, electromagnetic measure /
Magnetic intensity at a place
Electrical resistance
Electrical capacity, mechanical measure
Electrical capacity, electromagnetic measuie
.
II
....
I'h
ml
100.
i^
mi
10.
I
I
101.
TABLE
28a.
Practical Units Employed in Electric
....
....
Engineering.
Electromotive Force
the
Approximately equal
Resistance
the Ohm
Value in
C. G. S. Unit.
Volt.
Or theoretically one eartliquadrant per second.
Current
the
A vipire
the Coulomb
Being the current produced by 1 Volt, through
Quantity
10**
to one Daniell's Cell.
10*
10~^
Ohm.
= 10~
10^
Conveyed by one Ampere in one second.
Capacity (electromagnetic) the Farad
The prefix in "mega" signifies "a million times;" that of "micro,"
"one millionth." Thus, a megohm means one million Ohms a microfarad,
;
one millionth of a farad.
329
TABLES.
TABLE 28&. Birmingham Wire Gauge
Diameter
BWG.
in
inches.
BWG.
Diameter in
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
0083
065
049
0340
284
238
203
165
134
109
4
6
8
10
12
TABLE
Mean
28 c.
Water
From
,,
200
230
TABLE 28d
Phosphorus
Zinc
Iron
Tin
1233
Copper
Carbonic Oxide (CO)
Marsh'bas (CH4)
Gas (C2H4)
Alcohol (C2H5HO)
From
Potassium
Zinc
Iron
Tin.
Antimony
Arsenic
Copper
0 to
009
008
007
005
004
012
(Pouillet).
100 C.
,,
300
500
700
1000
,,
1200
,,
,,
,,
00335
00343
00352
00360
00373
00382
in
Oxygen
Compound
(Stewart),
Observer.
formed.
602
2431
2403
13063
13108
11942
11858
6850
7183
OH2
23783
2655
1529
1745
1079
707
994
961
Favre and Silbermann.
Andrews*
Favre and Silbermann.
Andrews.
Favre and Silbermann.
Andrews.
SO,
Psbs
ZnO
^6304
Snbg
CuO
CO,
Favre and Silbermann.
C02 + 2H20Andrews,
2CO,"+2H.p
2C0j+3H.,0
Heat OF Combustion
Hydrogen
32
33
84
35
36
Gramme.
34462
33808
8080
7900
2220
2307
5747
1301
1576
Carbon
OlefiaAt
0014
of
Water raised
1 C. by
Combination
of
Hydrogen
Sulphur
Platinum
10013
10035
10067
10109
10160
10204
Grammes
28
30
Heats of Water and Platinum.
Heat of Combustion
Substance burned.
inches.
035
028
022
018
Specific
40 C.
80
120
160
,,
Diameter in
inches.
(Regnaiilt).
0 to
(Holtzapffel).
Favre and Silbermann.
Andrews.
Favre and Silbermann.
in Chlorine.
and Sillicrmann.
HCl
Favi'e
KCl
ZnCl
FeXlg
Andrews.
SnCl4
SbClj
ASCI3
CuCla
330
TABLES.
TABLE
29.
Symbols, Atomic Weight, Valence, and Specific Heat of
SOME Elements.
The Atomic Weight
the smallest proportion in wliicli the element
is
hydrogen being taken as 1.
The Valence or Atomicity indicates the number of atoms of hydrogen
or other univalent element which one atom will replace or coriibine
with.
In some cases the element acts as if its valence were less by 2 or
4 than that given. Equal quantities of electricity liberate equal valences.
Specific Heat multiplied by atomic weight is nearly constant for
enters into combination
the same physical state in
The
at the positive pole or
positive, or those whicli
Eoman
all
elements.
which in
Electronegative elements, or those
The
type.
Name.
Aluminium
Antimony
zincode, are
Al
Sb
Atomic
Weight.
275
Valence.
VL
in.
V.
V.
Bi
11
IV.
Bromine
Br
80
I.
Calcium
Ca
40
u.
Carbon
12
IV.
CI
Cr
VL
VL
Barium
Bismuth
Boron
.
Co
Cu
Au
1967
Chromium
Cobalt
Copper
Gold
As
Ba
355
525
588
635
Chlorine
Hydrogen
Iodine
Iron
Fe
127
56
207
24
55
200
I.
IL
IIL
I.
I.
Vl. IIL
IV.
Lead
Pb
Mg
Mn
Hg
Nickel
Nitrogen
Oxygen
Phosphorus
Ni
588
N
P
14
16
31
Platinum
Potassium
Pt
1974
39
I.
285
IV.
Silicon
Silver
.
,
Sodium
Strontium
Sulphur
Tin
Zinc
Si
Ag
Na
Sr
Sn
Zn
108
23
875
82
118
65
Heat of
Equal Parts.
Specific
02143
00508
00814
n.
V.
Magnesium
Manganese
Mercury
.
appear
the electro
appear at the negative pole or platinode, in
only one of degree.
122
75
137
208
Arsenic
difference, however, is
Symbol.
electrolysis
printed in italics
IL
IIL
VL
II.
VL
IIL
V.
IL
V.
IV.
I.
I.
00308
/ 01060 Liquid.
\ 00843 Solid.
/ 024 15 Charcoal.
\ 01468 Diamond.
01210 Const, press.
01070
00951
00324
34090 Const, press.
00541
01188
00314
02499
0114
00319 Solid.
01091
02438 Const, press.
02175
00324
01696
00570
02984
II.
VL
IV.
IL
01776
00562
00955
331
TABLES.
TABLE
30.
Geographical Position and Height above the Sea
OF SOME Places.
Long.
E. from
Ferro.
North
Above
Latitude.
SeaLevel.
AixlaChapelle
237
508
Amsterdam
224
524
Metres.
160200
Basle
253
476
Berlin
525
311
40
Berne
251
470
550
Bonn
248
507
50
Brunswick
282
523
100
Bremen
264
531
Brussels
220
509
90
Darmstadt
263
499
140
Dorpat
443
584
260
314
511
100
263
501
90
134
515
Hamburg
276
535
Cologne
246
509
Copenhagen
303
555
176
51'5
50
269
455
130
Dresden
Frankforton
Greenwich
London
Milan
klaint
40
Munich
293
481
530
Paris
200
488
60
367
475
70
St. Petersburg
480
599
Prague
321
501
Rome
302
419
Stockholm
358
593
Strasbourg
254
486
150
Stuttgart
268
488
270
Vienna
340
482
140
Zurich
262
474
420500
Pesth
200
332
TABLES.
TABLE
31.
Declination of the Sun, Equation of Time, and Sidereal Time
AT Mean Noon, Berlin Time.
The
figures in brackets are for
DifferDeclinaEquation
tion of the ence for
of Time.
1 day.
Sun.
Day.
m.
Jan.
(1)
(6)
10(11)
2310
2264
2199
15 (16)
20 (21)
25 (26)
30 (31)
Feb.
2116
2016
1901
1771
4)
1627
9(10)
14(15)
1473
1308
1134
952
(3
19 (20)
24 (25)
March
1
11
16
21
26
31
April
5
10
15
20
25
30
765
573
378
181
016
213
408
+ 600
+ 787
+ 969
+ 1145
+ 1312
+ 1471
May
5
10
15
20
25
30
+ 1619
+ 1757
+ 1882
+ 1994
+ 2092
+ 2174
June
4
9
14
19
24
29
+ 2242
+ 2292
+ 23 26
+ 2344
+ 2343
+ 2326
0092
0130
0166
0200
0230
0260
0288
0308
0330
0348
0364
0374
0384
0390
0394
0394
0394
0390
0384
0374
0364
0352
0334
0318
0296
0276
0250
0224
0196
0164
0136
0100
0068
0036
0002
0034
S.
+ 3
+ 5
+ 7
+ 9
+ 11
+ 12
+ 13
25
34
42
36
+ 14
+ 14
+ 14
+ 14
+ 13
10
27
25
+ 12
+ 11
+ 10
+ 8
+ 7
+ 5
+ 4
36
31
15
52
23
52
19
13
33
32
Sidereal
at
Time
DeclinaDifferEquation
tion of the ence for
of Time.
Sun.
1 day,
Day.
Noon.
h.
m.
38
58
18
37
57
17
20 36
18
18
19
19
19
20
July
s.
42
24
4
9
14
19
24
29
50
33
16
58
+ 2292
+ 2241
+ 2173
+ 2091
+ 1994
f
20 56 41
21 16 24
21 36 7
21 55 49
2215 32
22
22
23
23
23
+ 1759
+ 1623
+ 1476
+ 1319
+ 1154
+ 981
58
41
23
6
49
32
+
+
+
2 49
24
53 14
112 57
1 32 40
152 23
2 12 5
2 52
1 23
04
5
3 27
 3 48
3 53
3 45
3 23
2 49
24

+
+
+
11
10
55
20
32
13
18'
23
28
Sept.
2
3515
54
14
34
54
13
33
3148
5131
311 14
3 30 57
3 50 39
4 10 22
4 30 5
12
17
22
27
155
Oct.
2
7
12
17
22
27
Nov.
349
542
732
919
1099
1273.
1438
1594
1738
1871
1989
2092
11
16
21
26.
Dec.
6
11
6 28 22
16
21
26
31
9 30
5 29 13
5 48 56
6 8 39
801
616
427
235
040
7^
2179
2249
2300
2332
2345
4 49 48
1883
Aug.
3
28
Leap Year.
2339
2312
m.
068
102
136
164
194
222
5 29
5 58
6 13
6 13
248
272
294
314
330
346
5 57
5 27
4 42
3 44
2 33
1 11
360
370
378
384
390
390
388
386
380
374
360
348
s.
4
4 49
20
1 59
3 41
5 26
7 12
8 55
10 34
12 4
24
14 31
15 23
16
13
330
312
288
266
236
206
16
16
174
140
102
064
026
012
054
10
18
16
15 52
15
14
7
2
12 36
53
8 54
6 40
4 17

49
41
333
TABLES.
TABLE
32.
Correction Table for the Beginning of the Year.
(Compare
Year.
p.
Correction.
267.)
Year.
Correction
t
1880
1881
1882
1883
1884
1885
+082
+058
+034
+009
+085
+061
TABLE
1886
1887
1888
1889
1890
1891
+037
+012
+088
+064
+040
+016
33.
Sun's Radius.
Radius.
Date.
January 1
February 1
March
April 1
]\Liy 1
June
0272
0271
0269
0267
0265
0263
TABLE
Date.
July
August 1
September
October
November 1
December 1
0263
0263
0265
0267
0269
0271
34
Refraction at Different Altitudes.
Altiturle.
10
15
20
30
40
Refraction.
Refraction.
Altitude.
016
009
006
004
0028
0019
50
60
70
00(16
80
90
0003
0000
0013
0009
334
TABLES.
TABLE
Mean Places
35.
of some Principal Stars for 18820.
Right Ascension.
hr.
a Cassiopeise
a Arietis
a Tauri (Aldebaran)
YearlyVariation.
Yearly
Declination.
Variation
min.
sec.
33
500
+ 337
55
53
24
+ 198
314
+ 337
22
54
14
+ 172
29
100
+ 344
16
16
17
76
443
45
52
35
41
sec.
a Aurigaj (Capella)
585
a Orionis
48
471
+ 325
23
10
39
569
+ 266
16
33
21
47
27
39
+ 384
32
45
75
33
75
+ 315
31
36
89
a Leonis (Regulus)
10
52
+ 320
12
32
47
174
a Ursse Majoris
10
56
261
+ 375
62
23
15
194
+ 315
a Canis Majoris
(Siriiis)
a Geminorum (Castor)
a Canis Minoris (Procyon)
13
18
587
10
32
44
189
a Bootis (Arcturus)
14
10
167
273
19
47
22
189
a Coronse (Gemma)
15
29
415
+ 254
27
47
123
a Scorpii (Antares)
16
22
104
+ 367
26
10
 83
18
32
566
+ 203
38
40
29
32
19
45
16
+ 293
33
28
93
20
37
245
+ 2 04
44
51
34
+ 127
+ 333
o Virginis (Spica)
(Vega)
Lyrffi
a AquiliE (Altair)
a Cygni
....
a Piscis Australis (Fomalhaut)
a Pegasi
a Ursse Minoris (Polaris)
5 Ursae
Minoris
30
14
50
+ 190
298
14
34
16
+ 193
2178
88
40
47
+ 190
1944
8S
36
34
51
77
22
58
530
15
289
18
10
234
22
10
oob
TABLES.
TABLE
36.
Numbers frequently required.
(The fractions in brackets are approximate values.)
7r
= 31416
(V),
7r2
= 9870,
= 03183, ^=7854,
4
log.
7r
= 04971499.
TT
The modnlus of natural logarithms = 2"3026.
The angle of which the arc is equal to the radius =
343775'
57 '2958
206265".
Ratio of the probable to the mean error == 067449 ().
= 032484 metre Q).
1 metre = 30784 Paris feet.
=22588 mm. (f).
1 Paris line
1mm. = 044330 Paris line.
1 Rhenish foot = 031385 metre (If).
1 metre = 31862 Rhenish feet.
English feet.
1 English foot =030479
1 metre = 32809
,,
(^V)1 Ger. mile
= 74204 kilom. (\).
1 kilom. = 013476 Ger. mile.
1 English mile = 160929
1 kilom. = 062138 English mile ().
,,
1 Paris foot
Half the major axis of the earth
minor
,,
,,
The mean semidiameter of earth
=
=
=
6377400 metres.
6356100
,,
6366800
,,
Length of Seconds Pendulum.
Aocelerative force of Gravity.
9935 mm.
At 45 latitude 9806 mm.
9909 ,,
At the equator 9780 ,,
9962 ,,
At the poles
9832 ,,
Mean length of civil year 365 days 5 hours 48 minutes 48 seconds.
1 sidereal day=l mean day 3 minutes 559 seconds.
Velocity of sound at 0 G. in dry air
The
Mtr.
330
expansion of gases 0003665 (tts)Latent heat of water = 794.
Latent heat of steam at 100 C. = 540.
Sjjecific heat of air at constant pressure = 0237.
Atomic weight divided by vapourdensity, compared to air, gives 28 88.
Vapourdensity compared to hydrogen = molecular weight.
1 litre of hydrogen at 0 and 760 mm. weighs 00896 grm.
Mechanical eciuivalent of heat
1 lb. water heated 1 Fahr. =
772 foot pounds.
jibrC.
=1390
^
1 gim.
= 424 gramme metres = 4157 Mtr.^Grm.
1 C.
,,
coefficient of
Electromotive Force
Bunsen = 200 Siemens. Weber
Daniell = 116
,,
Volt
i=
=
I
=
=
192 Volts.
111
090DanieU.
100000 absolute electromagnetic units, or
Cm
^ M<nn ^
^ '.
'
bec.^
galvanic current of 1
^^
decomposes 0565 mgr. of water per
units (Mm. Mgm.), and develops
minute, produces
in 1 Siemens's unit of resistance during 1 minute 0136 grammecalories of heat.
Siemens's mercury unit of resistance is in absolute measure 096 Ohm or
in 1 sec. 3010^'' electrostatic
B.A
unit.
Earth quadrant
Metre
= __
10^ "5
3".
FT^^
J
Second
Second
Wavelength of sodium light (D. Fraunhofer)
,
^,
=
Ohm
plate of quartz 1
light 21 67.
mm.
00005892
mm.
thick rotates the plane of polarisation of sodium
TABLES.
;36
TABLE
37.
Squares, Square Roots, and Eeciprocals.
n.
Vn.
?l2.
n.
50
1
16
25
36
49
64
6
7
8
9
81
10
100
121
144
169
196
225
256
289
324
361
400
441
484
529
576
625
676
729
784
841
900
961
1024
1089
1156
1225
1296
1369
1444
1521
1600
1681
1764
1849
1936
2025
2116
2209
2304
2401
2500
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
1000
1414
1732
2000
2236
2449
2646
2828
3000
3162
3317
3464
3606
3742
3873
4000
4123
4243
4359
4472
4583
4690
4796
4899
5000
6099
5196
5292
5385
5477
5568
5657
5745
5831
5916
6000
6083
6164
6245
6325
6403
6481
6557
6633
6708
6782
6856
6928
7000
7071
10000
05000
03333
02500
02000
01667
01429
01250
01111
01000
00909
00833
00769
00714
00667
00625
00588
00556
00526
00500
00476
00455
00435
00417
00400
00385
00370
00357
00345
00333
00323
00313
00303
00294
00286
00278
00270
00263
00256
00250
00244
00238
00233
00227
00222
00217
00213
00208
00204
00200
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
to2.
2500
2601
2704
2809
2916
3025
3136
3249
3364
3481
3600
3721
3844
3969
4096
4225
4356
4489
4624
4761
4900
5041
5184
5329
5476
5625
5776
5929
6084
6241
6400
6561
6724
6889
7056
7225
7396
7569
7744
7921
8100
8281
8464
8649
8836
9025
9216
9409
9604
9801
10000
Vm.
7071
7141
7211
7280
7348
7416
7483
7550
7616
7681
7746
7810
7874
7937
8000
8062
8124
8185
8246
8307
8367
8426
8485
8544
8602
8660
8718
8775
8832
8888
8944
9000
9055
9110
9165
9220
9274
9327
9381
9434
9487
9539
9592
9644
9695
9747
9798
9849
9899
9950
10000
1_
n
00200
00196
00192
00189
00185
00182
00179
00175
00172
00169
00167
00164
00161
00159
00156
00154
00152
00149
00147
00145
00143
00141
00139
00137
00135
00133
00132
00130
00128
00127
00125
00123
00122
00120
00119
00118
00116
00115
00114
00112
00111
00110
00109
00108
00106
00105
00104
00103
00102
00101
00100
337
TABLES.
TABLE
Angle.
Sine
0191
0208
0225
0242
0259
0276
0292
0309
.0826
20
0342
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
0358
0375
0391
0407
0423
0438
0454
0469
0485
30
0500
21
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
0515
0530
0545
0559
0574
0588
0602
0616
0629
40
0643
31
000
017
035
052
070
087
105
123
141
158
0174
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
11
Trigonometrical Functions.
17
18
17
18
17
18
18
18
17
18
17
17
17
16
17
17
16
194
213
231
249
268
287
306
325
344
18
19
18
18
19
19
19
19
19
20
20
384
404
424
445
466
488
510
532
554
20
20
21
21
22
22
22
22
23
601
625
649
675
700
727
754
781
810
42
43
44
45
0656
0669
0682
0695
0707
24
24
24
26
25
27
27
27
29
29
2605
2475
2356
2246
2145
2050
1963
1881
1804
142
130
119
110
101
95
87
82
77
72
1664
1600
1540
1483
1428
1376
1327
1280
1235
64
60
57
55
52
49
47
45
43
1192
839
869
900
933
966
000
5145
4705
4331
4011
3732
3487
3271
3078
2904
31
33
33
34
Cotangent.
1150
1111
1072
1
036
90
000
000
999
999
998
996
995
993
990
988
87
86
85
84
83
82
81
985
526
440
374
320
279
245
216
193
174
157
1732
577
15
15
15
14
15
14
14
14
13
14
811
643
2747
364
16
17
16
16
16
15
16
15
16
15
oo
5729
2864
1908
1430
1143
9514
8144
7115
6314
5671
176
17
17
17
30
41
Cosine.
Tangent.
0000
0017
0035
0052
0070
00S7
0105
0122
0139
0156
10
38.
982
978
974
970
966
961
956
951
946
79
78
77
76
75
74
73
72
71
940
70
934
927
921
914
906
899
891
883
875
69
68
67
66
65
64
63
62
61
866
60
857
848
839
829
819
809
799
788
777
59
58
57
56
55
54
53
52
51
50
766
42
39
39'
36
36
1000
Tangent.
11
755
743
731
719
707
12
12
12
12
49
48
47
46
45
338
TABLES.
TABLE
39.
Logarithms to 4 Places,
N.
0253
0645
1004
1335
1644
1931
2201
2455
2695
2923
0294
0682
1038
1367
1673
1959
2227
2480
2718
2945
0000
11. 0414
12 0792
13
1139
14 1461
15
1761
16
2041
17 2304
18
2553
19
2788
10
0043
0453
0828
1173
1492
1790
2068
2330
2577
2810
0086
0492
0864
1206
1523
1818
2095
2355
2601
2833
0128
0531
0899
1239
1553
1847
2122
2380
2625
2856
0170
0569
0934
1271
1584
1875
2148
2405
2648
2878
0212
0607
0969
1303
1614
1903
2175
2430
2672
2900
0334
0719
1072
1399
1703
1987
2253
2504
2742
2967
;Diff.
0374
0755
1106
1430
1732
2014
2279
2529
2765
2989
42
38
35
32
30
28
26
25
23
22
'
20
3010
3032
3054
3075
3096
3118
3139
3160
3181
3201
21
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
3222
3424
3617
3802
3979
4150
4314
4472
4624
3243
3444
3636
3820
3997
4166
4330
4487
4639
3263
3464
3655
3838
4014
4183
4346
4502
4654
3284
3483
3674
3856
4031
4200
4362
4518
4669
3304
3502
3692
3874
4048
4216
4378
4533
4683
3324
3522
3711
3892
4065
4232
4393
4548
4698
3345
3541
3729
3909
4082
4249
4409
4564
4713
3365
3560
3747
3927
4099
4265
4425
4579
4728
3385
3579
3766
3945
4116
4281