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ARCHITECTURAL STRUCTURES:

FORM, BEHAVIOR, AND DESIGN


ARCH 331
DR. ANNE NICHOLS
FALL 2013
lecture

reed.tamu.edu

fourteen

system assemblies
& load tracing
Load Tracing 1
Lecture 14

Architectural Structures
ARCH 331

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Structural Loads
gravity acts on mass (F=m*g)
force of mass
acts at a point
ie. joist on beam

acts along a line


ie. floor on a beam

acts over an area


ie. people, books,
snow on roof or floor
Load Tracing 2
Lecture 14

Architectural Structures
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Concentrated Loads

Load Tracing 3
Lecture 14

Architectural Structures
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Distributed Loads

Load Tracing 4
Lecture 14

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Equivalent Force Systems


replace forces by resultant
place resultant where M = 0
using calculus and area centroids
L
W wdx dA
A loading
0

loading

w(x)

x
x el
Load Tracing 5
Lecture 14

dx
L

dx
Architectural Structures
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Area Centroids
Table 7.1 pg. 242

b
3

Load Tracing 6
Lecture 14

Architectural Structures
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right triangle only

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Equivalent Load Areas


area is width x height of load
w is load per unit length
W is total load
w x W

w x W

2
2 w

2w
w

0
x

W
W/2

W/2
x/2

Load Tracing 7
Lecture 14

x/2

2x/3

x/3

Architectural Structures
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x/2

x/6 x/3

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Distributed Area Loads


w is also load per unit area
w

Load Tracing 8
Lecture 14

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Load Tracing
how loads are
transferred
usually starts at top
distributed by
supports as actions
distributed by
tributary areas

Load Tracing 9
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Load Tracing
areas see distributed
area load
beams or trusses
see distributed line
loads
collectors see
forces
columns
supports
Load Tracing 10
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Load Tracing

tributary area

Load Tracing 11
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Load Tracing
tributary load
think of water flow
concentrates load of
area into center

load
w
tributary width
area

Load Tracing 12
Lecture 14

Architectural Structures
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width

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Load Tracing
Patcenter
Rogers 1986
www.columbia.edu

Load Tracing 13
Lecture 14

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Load Tracing
Alamillo Bridge
Calatrava 1992

http://en.structurae.de

Load Tracing 14
Lecture 14

Architectural Structures
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Load Paths
floors and framing

Load Tracing 15
Lecture 14

Architectural Structures
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Load Paths
wall systems

Load Tracing 16
Lecture 14

Architectural Structures
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Load Paths
openings & pilasters

Load Tracing 17
Lecture 14

Architectural Structures
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Load Paths
foundations

Load Tracing 18
Lecture 14

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Load Paths
deep foundations

Load Tracing 19
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Spans
direction
depth

Load Tracing 20
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Levels

determine span at top level


find half way to next element
*include self weight
look for collectors
repeat

one:
Load Tracing 21
Lecture 14

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Levels
two:

three:

Load Tracing 22
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Irregular Configurations
tracing still each side

Load Tracing 23
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Slabs
edge support

linear and uniform distribution

Load Tracing 24
Lecture 14

Architectural Structures
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Girders and Transfer


openings
no load & no half way

girder actions at beam supports

Load Tracing 25
Lecture 14

Architectural Structures
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Sloped Beams
stairs & roofs
projected live load
dead load over length

perpendicular load to beam:

w w cos

equivalent distributed load:

w
wadj.
cos

Architectural Structures
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Framing Diagrams
beam lines and dots
breaks & ends

Load Tracing 27
Lecture 14

Architectural Structures
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Spanning direction of decking or reinforcement

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Retaining Walls
purpose
retain soil or other material

basic parts
wall & base
additional parts
counterfort
buttress
key

Load Tracing 28
Lecture 14

Architectural Structures
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Retaining Wall Types


gravity wall
usually unreinforced
economical & simple

cantilever retaining wall


common

Load Tracing 29
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Architectural Structures
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Retaining Wall Loads


gravity
W=V

fluid pressure
p = h
P = p h at h/3

friction
F=N

soil bearing pressure, q


Load Tracing 30
Lecture 14

Architectural Structures
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Retaining Wall Equilibrium


sliding - overcome friction?
overturning at toe (o) - overcome mass?
SF

M resist
M overturnin g

1 .5 2

P
o
R

Load Tracing 31
Lecture 14

Fresist

Fhorizontal resist
SF
1 .25 2
F sliding
Architectural Structures
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Pressure Distribution
want resultant of load from pressure inside
the middle third of base (kern)
triangular stress block with pmax
x = 1/3 x width of stress
equivalent force location:

p max 3 x x
W x

2
3
2W 2W
p max

3x
a
Load Tracing 32
Lecture 14

when a is
fully stressed

Architectural Structures
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Wind Pressure
distributed load
collected into V
lateral loads
must be
resisted

Load Tracing 33
Lecture 14

Architectural Structures
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Bracing Configurations

Load Tracing 34
Lecture 14

Architectural Structures
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