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Simulation, Modeling and Verification of

Engine Performance

GROUP No.: 7

BATCH 2009-2010

NAME

SEAT NO.

1. Saad Saleem

AU-09037

2. Moghees Qureshi

AU-09022

3. Hassan Inayat Abro

AU-09012

Internal Advisor: Sir Munir Ahmed


Assistant Professor

DEPARTMENT OF AUTOMOTIVE AND MARINE ENGINEERING


NED UNIVERSITY OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

CERTIFICATE

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements of the degree of Bachelor of


Engineering (Automotive)

Project: Simulation, Modeling and Verification of Engine Performance

GROUP No.: 7

BATCH 2009-2010

NAME

SEAT NO.

1 Saad Saleem

AU-09037

2 Moghees Qureshi

AU-09022

3 Hassan Inayat Abro

AU-09012

Internal Advisor
Sir Munir Ahmed
Assistant Professor
Automotive Engineering Department

Examiner 1

Examiner 2

DEPARTMENT OF AUTOMOTIVE & MARINE ENGINEERING


NED UNIVERSITY OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY
i

ABSTRACT

The use of one-dimensional fluid dynamics engine simulation as a computer aided


engineering is an essential tool to the engine performance development process. Engine
design through simulation can drastically reduce time needed to perform engine
experiments and prototyping, as most engine experiments can be simulated within the
software as long as a model can be validated to high degree of accuracy.
The objective of the project is to explore the potential of Engine Simulation software by
modeling while collecting, measuring required data for input, of the actual available S.I
engine and generating performance output on software like Torque, Power, and BSFC
etc. as well as studying the effect of various parameters on engine performances.
Software results are shown but the accuracy of results must also be validated by the
experimental results from Hydra engine test bench and to calibrate the model for further
studying purposes.
After learning the software various geometric, operating parameters, solvers method
study is performed. Benchmark work of known Engine input and Dynamo data of a KTM
450cc Engine was perform with near accuracy, before making the detailed modeling and
experimenting on our Laboratorys Hydra engine test bench. Developing of Fuel flow
meter for steady state tests for the Hydra engine setup is also done to get data of
important performance characteristic curves for several different cases run.
This work has used only a small fraction of GT Power Engine Simulation Software
potential. Further research and study is possible in the areas of Combustion,
Optimization, performance tuning, acoustics, emissions, etc. using this software.

ii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

We are thankful and to our Project Advisor Mr. Munir Ahmed, due to his involvement,
technical and project management guidance from start till the end of the project. We also
express our acknowledgement to Chairman Prof. Dr.-Ing. Syed Mushahid Hussain
Hashmi for giving us the opportunity to work on this project and for his appreciations
regarding the content of this project and allowing us to work on Hydra Engine test bench.
Thanking as well Project coordinator Mr Assad Anis for his appreciations.

iii

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CERTIFICATE ..................................................................................................................... i
ABSTRACT .........................................................................................................................ii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ................................................................................................iii
TABLE OF CONTENTS .................................................................................................... iv
LIST OF TABLES .............................................................................................................. ix
LIST OF FIGURES ............................................................................................................. x
Nomenclature .....................................................................................................................xii
1

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION ................................................................................. 1


1.1

SCOPE OF THE PROJECT AND SOFTWARE ................................................. 1

1.2

PROJECT OBJECTIVE ........................................................................................ 3

1.3

PROJECT METHODOLOGY .............................................................................. 3

1.4

REPORT COMPILATION AND WORK BREAK DOWN STRUCTURE ........ 4

CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW ...................................................................... 5


2.1

INTRODUCTION TO INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES ........................ 5

2.2

HISTORY.............................................................................................................. 5

2.3

CLASSIFICATION OF ENGINES ...................................................................... 5

2.3.1

Types of ignition: ........................................................................................... 6

2.3.2

Working Cycle: .............................................................................................. 6

2.3.3

Basic Design .................................................................................................. 7

2.3.4

Position and number of cylinders of reciprocating engines ........................... 7

2.3.5

Air Intake Process .......................................................................................... 8

2.3.6

Method of fuel input for spark ignition engines ............................................ 8

2.3.7

Method of fuel input for compression ignition engines ................................. 9

2.3.8

Fuel used ........................................................................................................ 9

2.3.9

Type of cooling .............................................................................................. 9

2.3.10

Applications: .................................................................................................. 9

2.4

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN A TWO STROKE and FOUR STROKE ENGINE


9

2.5

ENGINE PERFORMANCE PARAMETERS .................................................... 12

2.5.1

Torque .......................................................................................................... 12

2.5.2

Power ........................................................................................................... 12
iv

2.5.3

Specific Fuel consumption:.......................................................................... 12

2.5.4

Mechanical Efficiency ................................................................................. 13

2.5.5

Volumetric Efficiency.................................................................................. 13

2.5.6

Other performance parameters:.................................................................... 13

2.6

ENGINE COMPONENTS .................................................................................. 14

2.7

TERMINOLOGY AND ABBREVIATIONS USED FOR ENGINES .............. 16

CHAPTER 3: INTRODUCTION TO MODELING AND SIMULATION .............. 18


3.1

ENGINE SIMULATION SOFTWARES ........................................................... 18

3.2

ONE DIMENSIONAL SIMULATION .............................................................. 20

3.3

INTRODUCTION TO GT SUITE ...................................................................... 22

3.3.1

GT-Suite Modeling: ..................................................................................... 22

3.3.2

GT-SUITE Applications: ............................................................................. 22

3.3.3

GT Post: ....................................................................................................... 23

3.4

INTRODUCTION TO GT-POWER................................................................... 24

3.4.1

GT-POWER Performance output: ............................................................... 25

3.4.2

GT-POWER Variable Predictions: .............................................................. 25

3.4.3

Model Accuracy: .......................................................................................... 26

3.5

GT VALVE TRAIN ............................................................................................ 27

3.6

GEM 3D .............................................................................................................. 27

3.7

BUILDING AN ENGINE MODEL.................................................................... 28

3.7.1

Engine layout: .............................................................................................. 28

3.7.2

Modeling cylinder valves:............................................................................ 29

3.7.3

Modeling cylinder ports: .............................................................................. 29

3.7.4

Fuel injection: .............................................................................................. 30

3.7.5

Air filters: ..................................................................................................... 30

3.7.6

Mufflers and silencers: ................................................................................. 30

3.8

MULTI-CYLINDER ENGINE TUTORIAL MODEL....................................... 31

3.9

DATA NEEDED TO BUILD AN ENGINE MODEL ....................................... 32

3.10

ENGINE OPERATING PARAMETER MODELS ............................................ 34

3.10.1

Engine Friction Model: ................................................................................ 34

3.10.2

Heat Transfer Model: ................................................................................... 34

3.10.3

Combustion Models: .................................................................................... 35

3.10.4

Predictive vs. Non-Predictive Combustion .................................................. 36


v

CHAPTER 4: BENCHMARK MODEL AND SIMULATION ................................. 38


4.1

INTRO TO PERFORMING BENCHMARK ..................................................... 38

4.2

OBJECTIVES OF BENCHMARKING: ............................................................ 39

4.3

REPORT SEARCHING ...................................................................................... 39

4.4

REFERENCED REPORT FOR BENCHMARKING ........................................ 39

4.4.1
4.5

KTM ENGINE MODELING .............................................................................. 41

4.5.1

Data Required for GT Power Simulation: ................................................... 40

Model Description ....................................................................................... 44

4.6

SIMULATION CASE SETUP............................................................................ 46

4.7

SIMULATION RESULTS:................................................................................. 46

CHAPTER 5: HYDRA ENGINE TEST BENCH ...................................................... 50


5.1

INTRODUCTION............................................................................................... 51

5.2

RICARDOENGINES .......................................................................................... 51

5.2.1

Standard Gasoline Engine ............................................................................ 51

5.2.2

Standard Diesel Engine ................................................................................ 52

5.3

THE AUXILIARY SYSTEMS ........................................................................... 53

5.3.1

Base Frame Assembly.................................................................................. 53

5.3.2

The Coolant System ..................................................................................... 53

5.3.3

The Oil System ............................................................................................ 54

5.3.4

Fuel System .................................................................................................. 54

5.3.5

Manual Control Station ................................................................................ 55

5.4

DYNAMOMETER ............................................................................................. 55

5.4.1

Inertial Dynamometers................................................................................. 55

5.4.2

Steady State dynamometers ......................................................................... 55

5.4.3

Types of Dynamometers based on Working ................................................ 56

5.4.4

Electric Motor/Generator Dynamometer ..................................................... 57

5.4.5

Hydra Dynamometer .................................................................................... 57

5.4.6

Dynamometer Usage .................................................................................... 57

5.4.7

Types of Dynamometer Test Procedures ..................................................... 58

5.5

VARIALBE HYDRA PARAMETERS AND CONTROL PANEL .................. 59

5.5.1
5.6

Variable Parameters: .................................................................................... 59

ENGINE MEASURED AND ACQUIRED DATA............................................ 60

5.6.1

Inlet/Exhaust System Measurement ............................................................. 60


vi

5.6.2

Engine Head Measurement .......................................................................... 62

6 CHAPTER 6: FUEL FLOW CALCULATIONS, MEASUREMENT and


HARDWARE DEVELOPMENT ...................................................................................... 64
6.1

OUTLINES AND INITIALS .............................................................................. 64

6.2

STOICHIOMETRIC COMBUSTION ................................................................ 64

6.3

TEST CASES AND FUEL FLOW CALCULATIONS: .................................... 65

6.4

FUEL FLOW METER WORK STUDY AND DETAILS ................................. 66

6.4.1

Alternate Methods of Fuel flow Measurements........................................... 66

6.4.2
Fuel Flow Metering using Pressure Sensor with Dip Tube level
Measurement .............................................................................................................. 67
6.4.3

Pressure Sensor Selection Calculations ....................................................... 69

6.4.4

Sensor Electronic Hardware: ....................................................................... 73

6.5
7

FUEL FLOW METER ........................................................................................ 74

CHAPTER 7: HYDRA ENGINE MODELING ........................................................ 75


7.1

OUTLINES AND INITIALS .............................................................................. 75

7.2

INTRO TO RICARDO ENGINE ....................................................................... 76

7.3

MODEL SETUP ................................................................................................. 77

7.4

FLOW OBJECTS DESCRIPTION AND USAGE IN MODEL ........................ 79

7.4.1

Discretization Length ................................................................................... 80

7.4.2

Surface Roughness ....................................................................................... 81

7.4.3

Initial State Name ........................................................................................ 82

7.4.4

Orifice Connections ..................................................................................... 82

7.4.5

Different Inlet/Outlet Cross Section Pipe .................................................... 84

7.4.6

FlowSplits .................................................................................................... 85

7.5

FUEL INJECTION ............................................................................................. 88

7.6

IN/EX VALVES TRAIN .................................................................................... 90

7.7

CYLINDER ......................................................................................................... 93

7.8

CRANK TRAIN .................................................................................................. 94

7.9

MODEL MAP SETUP and ENGINE MODELS ................................................ 95

CHAPTER 8: MODEL SIMULATION and PRACTICAL TESTINGS ................... 98


8.1

OUTLINES AND INITIALS .............................................................................. 98

8.2

TEST CASES PREPARATION ......................................................................... 98

8.3

MODEL SIMULATIONS: ............................................................................... 100

8.4

PRACTICAL EXPERIMENT .......................................................................... 101


vii

8.4.1

Faults to be considered and Removed ....................................................... 101

8.4.2

Fuel Measurement and Observations ......................................................... 102

8.4.3

Experiment Test Run ................................................................................. 103

8.5
COMPARISION, PAST EXPERIMENTS REVIEWS AND DIFFERENCES
HIGHLITING............................................................................................................... 104
8.6
9

MANUAL CALCULATIONS/FORMULATION ........................................... 107

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS ..................................................... 109


9.1

RECOMMENDATION/FUTURE POSSIBLE WORK ................................... 109

APPENDICES ................................................................................................................. 111


A.

FOUR CYLINDER ENGINE MODEL ............................................................ 111

B.

MEASURED INTAKE/EXHAUST GEOMETRIES CHART ........................ 112

C.

CAM LOBE PROFILE VERSUS CAM ANGLE ............................................ 113

D.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM OF FUEL FLOW HARDWARE ................................. 114

E. TABULAR RESULTS OF HYDRA SIMULATION AND EXPERIMENTS .... 115


F.

DYNO AGAINST SOFTWARE OF FOREGIN REPORTS ............................... 116

BIBILIOGRAPHY .......................................................................................................... 117

viii

LIST OF TABLES
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11

Table 1 Variables in GT-Power continuity, energy, and momentum equations ........ 21


Table 2 KTM Engine Valves Specs............................................................................ 40
Table 3 KTM Engine Technical Specs ....................................................................... 41
Table 4 Features of different Dynamometers ............................................................. 56
Table 5 Ricardo Engine specifications and attribute chart ......................................... 63
Table 6 Pressure vs change in height chart ................................................................. 70
Table 7 Differential pressure sensor characteristics and figure .................................. 72
Table 8 Ricardo Engine specifications installed in hydra .......................................... 76
Table 9 Surface roughness data chart ......................................................................... 81
Table 10 Ricardo Valves specifications ..................................................................... 90
Table 11 Gasoline fuel properties ............................................................................. 102

ix

LIST OF FIGURES
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53

Figure 1 Classification of Heat Engine ......................................................................... 6


Figure 2 Actual and Ideal Cycles for SI Engines ....................................................... 10
Figure 3 The two stroke operating cycle .................................................................... 11
Figure 4 Labeled Engine Cylinders ............................................................................ 16
Figure 5 Discretized components ............................................................................... 20
Figure 6 GT Suite applications chart .......................................................................... 23
Figure 7 Schematic of Engine model in GT Power .................................................... 24
Figure 8 Example multi-cylinder turbo-charged pipe flow model ............................. 24
Figure 9 Example model of accuracy plotting of engine simulated results ................ 26
Figure 10 GT ValveTrain Kinematic figure ............................................................... 27
Figure 11 Engine layout of one cylinder engine model .............................................. 28
Figure 12 Engine Cylinder geometric models ............................................................ 33
Figure 13 Valve lift against crank angle of Intake/Exhaust valve of KTM................ 40
Figure 14 Map View of KTM 450 Engine GT Power Model .................................... 42
Figure 15 Geometric blocks KTM Engine view......................................................... 43
Figure 16 Flow Pipe view of KTM Engine ................................................................ 43
Figure 17 Brake Power vs Engine Speed Graph Un-calibrated- KTM Engine .......... 46
Figure 18 Brake Power vs Engine Speed Graph Calibrated- KTM Engine ............... 47
Figure 19 Brake Torque vs Engine Speed Graph Calibrated- KTM Engine .............. 48
Figure 20 BSFC vs Engine Speed Graph Calibrated- KTM Engine .......................... 48
Figure 21Combined Torque/Power vs RPM difference KTM ................................... 49
Figure 22 Hydra Fuel Conditioning system................................................................ 54
Figure 23 Steady state Power Rpm sweep test ........................................................... 58
Figure 24 Transient sample test for Torque ................................................................ 58
Figure 25 Digital AutoTest input window .................................................................. 59
Figure 26 Air filter and Air box .................................................................................. 60
Figure 27 Cylindrical Plenum and Air heater box ...................................................... 61
Figure 28 Intake/Exhaust Runners.............................................................................. 61
Figure 29 Geometric measurement of port geometry ................................................. 62
Figure 30 Cam lobe profile measurement .................................................................. 62
Figure 31 Fuel flow measurement initial drawn figure .............................................. 68
Figure 32 Pressure vs change in height column chart ................................................ 70
Figure 33 Sensor electronic hardware schematic ....................................................... 73
Figure 34 Fuel flow meter hardware .......................................................................... 74
Figure 35 Ricardo Engine Valve timing diagram and Engine Picture ....................... 76
Figure 36 Modeling process chart .............................................................................. 77
Figure 37 Labeled Ricardo Intake/Exhaust CAD ....................................................... 78
Figure 38 Pipe Circular Object template .................................................................... 79
Figure 39 Fluid flow schematic in Engine .................................................................. 82
Figure 40 GEM3D Intake Runner .............................................................................. 84
Figure 41 GEM3D Exhaust system ............................................................................ 84
Figure 42 Plenum FSplit Template ............................................................................. 85
x

54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77

Figure 43 Plenum FSplit 3D perspective view ........................................................... 86


Figure 44 FSplit Y sketch ........................................................................................ 87
Figure 45 Exhaust Y - FSplit 3D perspective view .................................................... 87
Figure 46 Fuel injector templates ............................................................................... 88
Figure 47 Valves connection template ....................................................................... 90
Figure 48 Valves train kinematic analysis .................................................................. 91
Figure 49 VT Design follower smoothed lift ............................................................. 92
Figure 50 In/Ex valve lift of Ricardo .......................................................................... 92
Figure 51 Flow coefficient chart for valves ................................................................ 93
Figure 52 Cylinder template Ricardo Model .............................................................. 93
Figure 53 Wiebe, HT and Cylinder temperature values ............................................. 94
Figure 54 CrankTrain attributes of Ricardo Model .................................................... 94
Figure 55 Ricardo Engine Model Map View ............................................................. 96
Figure 56 Ricardo Engine Pipe flow Model View ..................................................... 97
Figure 57 Software Case setup of Hydra model ......................................................... 99
Figure 58 Software simulation run setup .................................................................... 99
Figure 59 Power/torque against engine speed Hydra model .................................... 100
Figure 60 Power/BSFC curves against Engine speed Hydra model ......................... 101
Figure 61 Sealed exhaust pipe .................................................................................. 102
Figure 62 Fuel density measurement ........................................................................ 103
Figure 63 Simulation, Exp1 and 2 BP graph-Hydra ................................................. 104
Figure 64 Simulation, Exp1 and 2 BT graph- Hydra................................................ 105
Figure 65 Power, Torque, BSFC 450cc engines experiment comparisons .............. 106
Figure 66 Volumetric efficiency of Hydra ............................................................... 108

xi

NOMENCLATURE
Symbol
Description\Abbreviations
________________________________________________________________________
1D

One dimensional

3D

Three dimensional

A/F

Air-fuel ratio

IC

Internal combustion

EC

External combustion

BSFC

Brake Specific Fuel Consumption

Fuel flow rate

Brake Power

Indicated work

Frictional Power

Indicated Power
Mechanical efficiency
Volumetric efficiency
Mass of air
Air density
Displaced cylinder volume
Number of crank revolutions per power stroke

TDC

Top-Dead-Center

BDC

Bottom-Dead-Center

GDI

Gasoline Direct Injection

HCCI

Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition

WOT

Wide- Open throttle

ID

Ignition Delay

OHV

Overhead Valve
xii

OHC

Overhead Cam
Air mass flow rate
Mass of fuel

ISO

International organization for standardization

EGR

Exhaust gas recirculation

VVT

Variable valve timing

VVL

Variable valve lift

DOHC

Dual Over Head Cam

BTDC

Before top-dead-center

ABDC

After bottom-dead-center

BBDC

Before bottom-dead-center

ATDC

After top-dead-center

DC

Direct Current

AC

Alternating Current

ICE

Internal Combustion Engine

SI

Spark Ignition

CAE

Computer Aided Engineering

CAD

Computer Aided Design

ADC

Analogue to Digital Converter

Rpm

Revolutions per minute

xiii

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION

Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) tools are used widely not just for industrial
applications but also in the classroom as a learning tool. The attractiveness of
CAE software packages can be generalized irrespective of whether that software is
for structural analysis, thermal analysis, kinematics, etc. CAE software packages have
become popular because they can accomplish the analysis of complex tasks that would be
very time consuming by conventional analytical methods and costly to conduct physical
testing.
The design of an internal combustion (IC) engine is a complex compromise between
performance, fuel economy and emissions. These three factors are interrelated and they
cannot be simultaneously optimized. Furthermore once the physical parameters such as
displacement, cam profile, compression ratio, intake/exhaust manifold design, etc. are
determined, a conventional engine has nearly fixed performance, fuel economy and
emissions properties.
The challenges for developing and improving the conventional engine are constantly in
demand to reduce the environmental pollutions, meet fuel economy and performance. So
uses of sophisticated methods to overcome these challenges and to get optimized results,
computational methods are being used.
This project will document the use of engine simulation software as a CAE tool for the
predicting the performance of real available SI Engine with generating several
performance results and correlating with experimental results and study of parameters
required to perform the solution of the engine model.

1.1

SCOPE OF THE PROJECT AND SOFTWARE

The use of one-dimensional computation fluid dynamic engine simulation software is


widespread throughout the engine development industry. This simulation method allows
for characterizing engine operation without the need for high-end processing and timeintensive computations. Various commercial software packages are available; however,
software costs generally prohibit use in small organizations, primarily making them
industry-specific software packages. There is a great value in being able to use such
engine development methods at the under-graduate level.
In modern engine research and study, using hardware experiments alone would be very
expensive and time-consuming, and many cause and effect relationships implicit in the
test results are often hard to interpret. On the other hand, modeling and simulation
approaches, although less precise in predicting the outcome of a specific test,
could effectively isolate one variable at a time and conduct parametric studies on it.
1

Therefore simulation could point out cause-effect relationships more clearly, and a
validated model could be a very useful tool to study new type of engines or engines
running with new type of fuels.
With the need of high performance and efficient engine and technological development of
the engines, their testing, optimizing calibration is in progress with the use of high
computational methods virtually with the aid of high performance computers which can
perform big and complex solutions without a break. Engine simulation softwares with
capability of powerful modeling and solving capabilities with the speed and accuracy onscreen work has progressed very far keeping correlation with real life results.
With the powerful CAE packages like GT Suite, Ricardo Wave, AVL, etc. which are
more inclined to be use for Power train side of the vehicle which includes analyzing
Engine performance, Thermal analysis, Mechanical work, Cooling system, Drive line,
Combustion analysis, etc.
The creating of an engine model requires a broad range of experimental data. To make an
accurate model, the data must span the entire range of operating conditions. However,
sometimes experimental data, theoretical data or assumption needs to be done. This
project focuses on how an engine model is created from data of the real engine and how
to use the model to perform certain simulations.
In this report the abilities of GT-Power will specifically be explored. Most of the
simulations performed will be on steady state conditions. The simulations will show the
effect of various variable parameters affecting on engine performance with respect to
change in speed of engine and correlating it with experimental results also calibration of
those results.

1.2

PROJECT OBJECTIVE

The objective of this project involves study of One-Dimensional Engine simulation


software in detail without getting into the deep and detailed fluid dynamics and
thermodynamics involved. It will highlight the input data that must be gathered,
measured, and calculated to develop a successful 1-D engine model and simulation of it
as well as the techniques used to obtain some of the data and the approach for validation
of the software model on actual SI Engine test bench.
Another foremost important objective is to introduce it in our department, to be used for
further research aspect on vehicle driveline/Power train such as in vehicle project
competitions, industrial research, Thesis writing.

1.3

PROJECT METHODOLOGY

To complete our project objective:


1) First of all we had to learn to perform the modeling and simulation of one of the
module of GT suite that is GT power, and other modules for graphical designing
and results viewing GT post, GEM 3D and ValveTrain which aided is modeling in
GT Power. Alongside software learning also theoretical processes regarding
engine working, operating conditions, background had to be known.
2) Then to perform Benchmark modeling and simulation of the known engine input
data and its dynamometer generated results from any published report.
3) Measured and calculated geometric and operating parameters required to model a
1-D engine, of Hydra test bench engine. Then using those gathered data, extensive
and detailed modeling on GT Power is done.
4) Fuel flow meter development for the test bench to suite our experimental need.
5) Develop cases to perform the simulation and experiments to correlate the results
and cause and effect on performance of the SI natural aspirated engine also
includes calibration of simulated results to know which operating input data
affects the model more or less.

1.4

REPORT COMPILATION AND WORK BREAK DOWN STRUCTURE

This report is compiled according to the order of the tasks done, literature, theories;
background required to know and needed to perform the project in the step by step
completion manner. Work Break Down structure is shown of the project, but performed
in sequential way.
Software Learning and
Background

GT Power

GT Post

GT Valve

GT GEM3D

Tutorial
modeling

Result
correlations

Calibration
of engine
model

Benchmark
Simulation

Reports
search, Data
collection
and

Data
conditioning

Engine
Modeling

Hydra Engine Test


Bench

Data
Acquiring

Hydra
Modeling

Fuel Flow
Meter

Experimental
Run

Engine data
Measuring,
collecting

Geometric,
operating
parameters

Fuel
Flow
Calculations

Experimental
Cases testing

Data
Conditioning

Simulations,
Cases Run

Fuel
Flow
hardware
making

Correlating
Results,
comparing

2.1

CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW

INTRODUCTION TO INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES

Engine is the device which converts chemical/thermal energy into mechanical energy.
The chemical reaction of the fuel inside the engine cylinder which is the combustion of
fuel, is the basic source of energy. This energy later converts into mechanical energy by
the reciprocating motion of piston (in reciprocating engines).
In this chapter of Literature Review of ICE, following will be discussed before
proceeding to project work, for which initial know how of engine is required:
History of Engines, Types, Working, Components, Terminologies and
Characteristics
Engines are basically the power plants of the vehicles; they provide power to the vehicle
by burning the fuel. Automotive engines are usually internal combustion engines because
the fuel that runs them is burned internally, or inside the engines.A heat engine may also
serve as a prime mover, a component that transforms the flow or changes in pressure of a
fluid into mechanical energy. An automobile powered by an internal combustion engine
may make use of various motors and pumps, but ultimately all such devices derive their
power from the engine.
2.2

HISTORY

The first commercially successful automobile, created by Karl Benz, added to the interest
in light and powerful engines. The lightweight petrol internal combustion engine,
operating on a four-stroke Otto cycle, has been the most successful for light automobiles,
while the more efficient Diesel engine is used for trucks and buses.
In 1862 Nikolaus Otto designed an indirect-acting free-piston compression-less engine
whose greater efficiency won the support of most of the market, which at that time, was
mostly for small stationary engines fueled by lighting gas. Then, in 1876 working with
Gottlieb Daimler and Wilhelm Maybach developed a practical four-stroke cycle (Otto
cycle) engine.
In 1879, Karl Benz developed an internal combustion engine based on Nikolaus Ottos
design of the four-stroke engine. Later Benz designed and built his own four-stroke
engine that was used in his automobiles, which became the first automobiles in
production.
2.3

CLASSIFICATION OF ENGINES

Heat engines are mainly classified into two types, internal combustion engines and
external combustion engines.
5

Figure 1 Classification of Heat Engine


They both are further classified into reciprocating and rotary. The reciprocating internal
combustion engines have been found suitable for use in automobiles such as in cars,
motor cycles, power boats, small aircrafts, etc. they have pistons that move up and down
or back and forth and also known as piston engines. Rotory engines have rotors that spin,
or rotate. The only such engine used in automobiles is the Wankel Engine.
Internal combustion engines are classified in a number of different ways:
2.3.1 Types of ignition:
Spark Ignition (SI)
An SI engine starts the combustion process in each cycle by use of a spark plug. The
spark plug gives a high voltage electrical discharge between two electrodes, which ignites
the air fuel mixture in the combustion chamber surrounding the plug. In early engine
development, before the inventor of electric spark plug, many forms of torch holes were
used to initiate combustion from an external flame.
Compression Ignition (CI)
The combustion process in a CI engine starts when the air-fuel mixture self-ignites due to
high temperature in the combustion chamber caused by high compression.
2.3.2 Working Cycle:
1) Four-stroke cycle
2) Two-stroke cycle

2.3.3 Basic Design


Reciprocating:
Engine has one or more cylinders in which pistons reciprocate back and forth. The
combustion chamber is located in the closed end of each cylinder. Power is delivered to a
rotating output crankshaft by mechanical linkage with the pistons.
Rotary:
Engine is made of a block (stator) built around a large non-concentric rotor and
crankshaft. The combustion chambers are built into the non-rotating block. A number of
experimental engines have been tested using this concept, but the only design that has
ever become common in an automobile is the Wankel engine in several Mazda models.
Mazda builds rotary automobile engines with one, two, and three rotors.
2.3.4 Position and number of cylinders of reciprocating engines
Single Cylinder:
Engine has one cylinder and piston connected to the crankshaft.
In-Line:
Cylinders are positioned in a straight line, one behind the other along the length of the
crankshaft. They can consist of 2 to 11 cylinders or possibly more. In-line four-cylinder
engines are very common for automobile and other applications. In-line six and eight
cylinders are historically common automobile engines. In-line engines are sometimes
called Straight (e.g., straight six or straight eight).
V-Engine:
Two banks of cylinders at an angle with each other along a single crankshaft, allowing for
a shorter engine block. The angle between the banks of cylinders can be anywhere from
15to 120 with 60-90. V-engines usually have even numbers of cylinders from 2 to 20
or more. V6s and V8s re common automobile engines, with V12s and V16s (historic)
found in some luxury and high performance vehicles. Large ship and stationery engines
have anywhere from 8 to 20 cylinders.
Opposed Cylinder Engine:
Two banks of cylinders opposite to each other on a single crankshaft (a V-engine with
180 deg V). These are common on small aircraft and some automobiles with an even
number of cylinders from two to eight or more. These engines are often called flat
engines (e.g., flat four).

W-engine:
Engines of two different cylinder arrangements have been classified as W-engines in the
technical literature. One type is the same as a V-engine except with three banks of
cylinders on the same crankshaft. Another type of W engine is the modern 16 cylinder
engine made for the Bugatti automobile (W16). This engine is essentially two V8 engines
connected together on a single crankshaft.
Opposed piston engine:
Two pistons in each cylinder with the combustion chamber in the center between the
pistons.. These engines are generally of large displacement, used for power plants, ships,
or submarines.
Radial engine:
Engines with pistons positioned in a circular plane around a circular crankshaft. The
connecting rods of the piston are connected to a master rod, which in turn, is connected to
the crankshaft. Operating on a four-stroke cycle every other cylinder fires and has a
power stroke as the crankshaft rotates, giving a smooth operation. Many medium and
large size propeller driven aircraft use radial engines.
2.3.5 Air Intake Process
Naturally Aspirated: No intake air pressure boosts system.
Super charged: Intake air pressure increased with the compressor driven off of the
engine crankshaft.
Turbo charged: Intake air pressure increased with the turbine compressor driven by the
engine exhaust gases.
Crankcase compressed: Two-stroke cycle engine which uses the crankcase as the intake
air compressor. Limited development work has also been done on design and construction
of four-stroke cycle engines with crank case compression.
2.3.6 Method of fuel input for spark ignition engines
Carbureted: A device for mixing air and fuel to facilitate the combustion process
Multipoint port fuel injection: One or more injectors at each cylinder intake.
Throttle body fuel injection: Injectors upstream in intake manifold.
Gasoline direct injection: Injectors mounted in combustion chambers with injection
directly into cylinders.

2.3.7 Method of fuel input for compression ignition engines


Direct injection: Fuel injected into main combustion chamber.
Indirect injection: Fuel injected into secondary combustion chamber.
Homogeneous charge compression ignition: Some fuel added during intake stroke.
2.3.8 Fuel used
1) Gasoline
2) Diesel oil or Fuel oil
3) Gas, Natural gas, Methane
4) Alcohol-Ethyl, Methyl
5) Dual fuel: There are a number of engines that use a combination of two or more fuels.
Some, Usually large, CI engines use a combination of natural gas and diesel fuel. These
are attractive in developing third world countries because of the high cost of the diesel
fuel. Combined gasoline alcohol fuels are becoming more common as an alternative to
straight gasoline automobile engine fuel.
6) Gasohol: Common fuel consisting of 90% gasoline and 10% alcohol.
2.3.9 Type of cooling
1) Air cooled
2) Liquid cooled, Water-cooled.
2.3.10 Applications:
Such as automobile, truck, locomotive, light aircraft, marine, portable power system,
power generation. Each application requires different arrangement and capacity of
enginee.g. for truck, locomotive and marine application only diesel engines are used.
2.4

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN A TWO STROKE AND FOUR STROKE


ENGINE

To understand the mechanical differences between a two stroke and four stroke engine,
lets first consider how the four stroke engine works as Figure 2. The four strokes are:
Intake: The piston travels down the cylinder while the intake valve is opened to
allow a mixture of fuel and air to enter the combustion chamber.
Compression: The intake valve is closed and the piston travels back up the cylinder
thereby compressing the gasses.

Combustion: The spark plug ignites the compressed gas causing it to explode, which
forces the piston down.
Exhaust: The piston rises up the cylinder as the exhaust valve is opened, allowing the
piston to clear the chamber to start the process over.
Each time the piston rises and falls it turns the crankshaft that is responsible for turning
the wheels. This is how fuel is converted into forward motion. Of note here is that the
spark plug only fires once every other revolution. Also, there is a sophisticated set of
mechanisms working in synchronization to create the four strokes. A camshaft must
alternately tip a rocker arm attached either to the intake or exhaust valve. The
rocker arm returns to its closed position via a spring. The valves must be seated properly
in the cylinder head to avoid compression leaks. In other words, a symphony of
mechanical events occurs.
The ideal four stroke SI engine cycle is shown in fig. It consists of four internally
reversible processes:
1-2 Isentropic compression
2-3 Constant-volume heat addition
3-4 Isentropic expansion
4-1 Constant-volume heat rejection

Figure 2 Actual and Ideal Cycles for SI Engines

10

The execution of the Otto cycle in a pistoncylinder device together with P-v diagram is
illustrated in Fig 2. The ideal model for two stroke SI engine is same but the actual cycle
and processes differ. Since the four stroke engine is our mainly concern in passenger
vehicles, we will mainly discuss the four stroke internal combustion in our report.

In the Two stroke engine, all four events are integrated into one simple downward
stroke, and one upward stroke. Intake and exhaust are both integrated into the
compression and combustion movement of the piston, eliminating the need for valves.
This is accomplished by an inlet and exhaust port in the wall of the combustion chamber
itself. As the piston travels downward from combustion, the exhaust port is
exposed allowing the spent gasses to rush out of the chamber. The downward
stroke also creates suction that draws in new air/fuel through an inlet, located lower in the
chamber. As the piston rises again, it blocks off the inlet and exhaust port,
compressing the gasses at the top of the chamber. The spark plug fires and the process
start over. Significantly, the engine fires on every revolution, giving the two stroke its
power advantage.

Figure 3 The two stroke operating cycle


However, at the lowest point of travel of the piston when the chamber is filling with
fuel/air, the exhaust port exposed above allows some fuel/gasses to escape the
chamber. This is easily seen with an outboard motorboat; evident by the multicolored oil
slick surrounding the engine, but it happens with all two stroke engines. This along with
burning oil creates pollution and fuel-efficiency issues.
For these reasons, two stroke engines are reserved for intermittent use, where
weight-to-power ratio or orientation issues are important and where mileage isn't
primary. Meanwhile manufacturers are looking for ways to add advantages to four
stroke engines, making them smaller, lighter and more robust.

11

2.5

ENGINE PERFORMANCE PARAMETERS

The practical engine performance parameters of interest are power, torque, and specific
fuel consumption. Power and torque depend on an engines displaced volume.
A set of normalized or dimensionless performance and emissions parameters were
defined to eliminate the effects of engine size.
2.5.1 Torque
Torque is the twisting force produced at the crankshaft of the engine; it can be measured
off the output shaft using a dynamometer

The torque exerted by the engine is T:


T = Fb

Unit = Nm

2.5.2 Power
Power is the rate at which work is done. The power P delivered by the engine and
absorbed by the dynamometer is the product of torque and angular speed:
P = 2NT Unit = Watt or j/s
Where N is the crankshaft rotational speed
Brake power is used to specify that the power is measured at the output shaft, this isthe
usable power delivered by the engine to the load. The brake power is less than the power
generated by the gas in the cylinders due to mechanical friction and parasitic loads (oil
pump, air conditioner compressor, etc.)
2.5.3 Specific Fuel consumption:
Specific fuel consumption, sfc, is a measure of how efficiently the fuel supplied to the
engine is used to produce power:

12

2.5.4 Mechanical Efficiency


Some of the power generated in the cylinder is used to overcome engine friction and to
pump gas into and out of the engine.
The term friction power is used to collectively describe these power losses, such that:

And from it the mechanical efficiency is defined as:

2.5.5 Volumetric Efficiency


Due to the short cycle time and flow restrictions less than ideal amount of air enters the
cylinder. The effectiveness of an engine to induct air charge into the cylinders is
measured by the volumetric efficiency:

Where is the density of air at atmospheric conditions


Typical values for WOT are in the range 75%-90%, and lower when the throttle is closed
2.5.6 Other performance parameters:

Thermal Efficiency
Combustion Rate and Efficiency
Gas Exchange Process and Scavenging
Inlet and Exhaust Port Pressure
Mean Effective Pressure(MEP)
Engine Air-flow and Ram-Air Effect
Engine Specific Weight and Specific Volume

Above are listed factors as Performance Parameters. The above listed factors are the
variables which affects the performance characteristics of an engine. These variables are
measured by analytical means of Engine Simulation. It is convenient to describe the
variation of some of these factors by crank angle interval over the whole cycle of
operation at specified RPM.

13

2.6

ENGINE COMPONENTS

Engine Block: Body of engine containing the cylinders made of cast iron or aluminum.
In many older engines the valves and the valve ports were contained in the block. The
block of water cooled engines includes a water jacket cast around the cylinders. On air
cooled engines the exterior surface of the block has cooling fins.
Engine Head: The piece that closes the end of cylinders, usually containing part of the
clearance volume of the combustion chamber. The head is usually cast iron or aluminum,
and bolts to the engine block. The head contains spark plug in the SI engines, and the fuel
injectors are CI engines and some SI engines. Most modern engines have the valves in the
head.
Oil sump: Reservoir for the oil system of the engine, commonly part of the crankcase.
Some automobile engines with overhead crankshafts have a secondary oil sump in the
engine head to supply the cam and valve mechanism. Some engines have a separate
closed reservoir called a dry sump.
Water jacket: System of liquid flow passages surrounding the cylinders usually
constructed as part of engine block and head. Engine coolant flows through the water
jacket and keeps the cylinder walls from overheating. The coolant is usually a water
ethylene glycol mixture.
Valves: Used to allow flow into and out (Intake/Exhaust) of the cylinder at the proper
time in the cycle. Most engines used poppet valves which are spring loaded closed, and
[pushed open by camshaft action. Rotary valves and sleeve valves are sometimes used but
are much less common. Many two stroke cycle engines have ports (slots) in the side of
cylinder walls instead of mechanical valves.
Piston: The cylindrically shaped mass that reciprocates back and forth in the cylinder
transmitting the pressure forces in the combustion chamber rotating the crankshaft.
Connecting rod: Linkage connecting piston with rotating crankshaft usually made of
steel alloy forging or aluminum.
Piston rings: Metal rings that fit into circumferential groups around the piston and form a
sliding surface against the cylinder walls. Near the top of the piston are usually two or
more compression rings made with highly polished surfaces. The purpose of the rings is
to form a seal between the piston and cylinder walls and to restrict the high pressure gases
in the combustion chamber from leaking pass the piston into the crank case. Below the
compression rings on the piston is at least one oil ring, which assists in lubricating the
cylinder walls and scrapes away excess oil to reduce oil consumption.
Cylinders: The circular cylinders in the engine block in which the pistons reciprocate
back and forth. The walls of the cylinder have highly polished hard surfaces.

14

Crankcase: Part of the engine block surrounding the rotating crankshaft in many engines
the oil pan makes up part of the crankcase housing. In some high performance engines the
crankcase is designed with windows between the piston bays to allow free airflow
between bays. This is to reduce air pressure build up on the backside of the pistons during
power and intake strokes.
Crankshaft: Rotating shaft through which engine work output is supplied to external
systems. The crankshaft is connected to the engine block with the main bearings. It is
rotated by the reciprocating pistons through connecting rods connected to the crankshaft,
offset from the axis of rotation.
Flywheel: Rotating mass with large moment of inertia connected to the crankshaft of the
engine. The purpose of the flywheel is to store energy and furnish a large angular
momentum that keeps the engine rotating between power strokes and smoothes out
engine operation.
Camshaft: Rotating shaft used to push open valves at the proper time in the engine cycle
either directly or through mechanical or hydraulic linkage (push rods, rocker arms, and
tappets). Most modern automobile engines have one or more camshafts mounted in the
engine head (Overhead cam).
Carburetor: Venturi flow device that meters the proper amount of fuel into the air flow
by means of pressure differential. For many decades it was the basic fuel metering system
on all automobile (and other) engines. It is still used on low cost small engines like lawn
mowers but is uncommon on new automobiles.
Spark plug: Electrical device used to initiate combustion in an SI engine by creating a
high voltage discharge spark across an electrode gap. Spark plug is usually made of metal
surrounded with ceramic insulation. Some modern spark plug has built-in pressure
sensors that supply one of the inputs into engine control.
Fuel Injector: A pressurized nozzle that sprays fuel into the incoming Air on SI engines
or into the cylinder on CI engines. On SI engines, fuel injectors are located at the intake
valve ports on multipoint port injection systems, upstream at the intake manifold inlet on
throttle body injection systems and in the combustion chambers in the direct injection
systems.
Glow plug: Small electrical heater resistance mounted inside the combustion chamber of
many CI engines, used to preheat the chamber so that combustion will occur when first
starting a cold engine. The glow plug is turned off after the engine is started.
Intake Manifold: Piping systems that carries Air/Fuel mixture into the engine cylinders,
usually made of cast iron/Aluminum.
Exhaust Manifold: Piping systems that carries exhaust gases away from the engine
cylinders, usually made of cast iron.

15

2.7

TERMINOLOGY AND ABBREVIATIONS USED FOR ENGINES

The following terms and abbreviations are commonly used in engine technology literature
and are used throughout the world.
Top-Dead-Center (TDC): Position of the piston when it stops at the furthest point away
from the crankshaft. Top because this position is at the top of most engines (not always)
and dead because the piston stops at this point. When the piston is at TDC, the volume in
the cylinder is a minimum called the clearance volume.
Bottom-Dead-Center (BDC): Position of the piston when it stops at the point closest to
the crankshaft. Some sources call this Crank-End-Dead-Center (CEDC) because it is not
always at the bottom of the engine.
Direct Injection: Fuel injection into the main combustion chamber of an engine.
Indirect injection: Engines either have one main combustion chamber (open chamber) or
a divided combustion chamber made up of a main chamber and a smaller connected
secondary chamber. Fuel injection into the secondary chamber of an engine with a
divided combustion chamber.

Figure 4 Labeled Engine Cylinders


Bore: Diameter of the cylinder or diameter of the piston face.
Stroke: Movement distance of the piston from one extreme position to the other: TDC to
BDC or BDC to TDC.
Clearance volume: Minimum Volume in the combustion chamber with piston at TDC.
Displacement volume: Volume displaced by the piston as it travels through one stroke.
Displacement can be given for one cylinder or for the entire engine (one cylinder times
number of cylinders). Some literature calls this swept volume.
16

Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI): Spark ignition engine with fuel injectors mounted in
combustion chambers. Gasoline fuel is injected directly into cylinders during
compression stroke.
Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI): Compression-Ignition engine
operating with a homogeneous air/fuel charge instead of the diffusion combustion
mixture normally used in CI engines.
Wide- Open throttle (WOT): Engine operated with throttle valve fully open when
maximum power and/or speed is desired.
Ignition Delay (ID): Time interval between ignition initiation and the actual start of
combustion.
Air Fuel Ratio: Ratio of mass air to mass of fuel input into engine.

Fuel-Air ratio: Ratio of mass of fuel to mass of air input into engine.
Overhead Valve (OHV): Valves mounted in engine head.
Overhead Cam (OHC): Camshaft mounted in engine head, giving more direct control of
valves which are also mounted in engine head.

17

CHAPTER 3: INTRODUCTION TO MODELING AND


SIMULATION

Computer simulation has become a key part of the automotive development process.
Simulation is used in many contexts, such as simulation of technology for performance
optimization, safety engineering, testing, training, education, and video games. Often,
computer experiments are used to study simulation models. Simulation is also used with
scientific modeling of natural systems or human systems to gain insight into their
functioning. It can be used to show the eventual real effects of alternative conditions and
courses of action.
Engine Simulation is the imitation of the operation of a real-engine process or system
over time. The act of simulating something first requires that a model be developed; this
model represents the key characteristics and functions of the selected physical system or
process. The model represents the system itself, whereas the simulation represents the
operation of the system over time. Major issues in simulation include acquisition of valid
source information about the relevant selection of key characteristics and behaviors, the
use of simplifying approximations and assumptions within the simulation, and fidelity
and validity of the simulation outcomes.
In this chapter of Intro to Modeling and Simulation, some important aspects of simulation
software and their requirement and modeling are necessary to discuss before writing
about the project work. This chapter includes:

Overview of Engine Simulation Softwares


Commercially available softwares
Discussion on 1D Simulations
Introduction to GT Power and its packages
Steps to model Engine, modeling details, data needed, operating parameters

Engine simulation by means of more or less detailed models is a crucial aid in the design
of the control system and of the subsystems: on the one hand, it avoids part of the
experimentation and reduces design costs and times, on the other it makes it possible to
perform a detailed analysis and to characterize the phenomena taking place inside the
engine.
3.1

ENGINE SIMULATION SOFTWARES

Now days, a variety of 1D engine simulation softwares is playing a vital role in making
the engine optimization good and more advanced. With several modeling and simulation
features, these softwares help us to develop different engineering methods and techniques
to improve the engine performance, fuel consumption, polluted exhaust reduction and
many other different required parameters.

18

Following are some details of widely used engine simulation softwares industrially and
academically:
GT POWER:
GT-Power is software developed by Gamma Technologies that can simulate an entire
internal combustion engine. The software is used by almost all major car and truck
companies including Volvo Car Corporation, General Motors, etc. The software can
simulate all the parts of the engine and also be coupled with external software programs
to study specific parts as well whole power train modeling
WAVE:
WAVE is the market-leading ISO approved 1D engine and gas dynamics simulation
software package from Ricardo Software. It is used worldwide in industry sectors
including passenger car, motorcycle, truck, locomotive, motor sport, marine and power
generation. WAVE enables performance simulations to be carried out based on virtually
any intake, combustion and exhaust system configuration, and includes a drive train
model to allow complete vehicle simulation.
DYNOMATION-5:
Dynomation-5 can calculate pressure waves and mass flow in cylinders and engine
passages. Dynomation-5 will accurately display how much power an engine will produce,
but it will also show you why it makes that power and where you should put your efforts
to optimize performance.
LOTUS ENGINE SIMULATION:
Lotus Engine Simulation is a modeling environment for predicting the steady-state
or transient performance of both 2- or 4-stroke engines. It combines models for
unsteady gas flow in manifold components with those characterizing the combustion
process and features an intuitive user interface that allows engine models to be built
and checked rapidly. The built-in post processing tools allow engineers to gain valuable
insights into the performance of their engines.
AVL BOOST:
AVL BOOST is an advanced and fully integrated Virtual Engine Simulation Tool with
advanced models for accurately predicting engine performance, acoustics and the
effectiveness of exhaust gas after treatment devices. It supports engine development such
that for a given vehicle concept, the required torque and power can be delivered in
combination with optimized emissions, fuel consumption and passenger comfort
(acoustics and transient behavior).

19

3.2

ONE DIMENSIONAL SIMULATION

1-Dimensional engine simulation software is capable of applying and solving the


equations of thermodynamics and unsteady compressible fluid flow in one dimension and
the way it will treat the behavior of a number of fluids including air, air and fuel mixtures
and products of combustion. One dimension is considered acceptable for analyzing
the flow in engine ducts but it is not capable of analyzing flow behavior in really
complex regimes such as complex bends, junctions.
GT-Power, the software used in our project, is also based on one-dimensional gas
dynamics which account for fluid flows and heat transfer. Each component in a GTPower model is discretized or separated in many smaller components. These
subcomponents have very small volumes and the fluids scalar properties in these
volumes are assumed to be constant. The scalar properties of a fluid include pressure,
temperature, density and internal energy. Each volume also has vector properties that can
be transferred across its boundaries. These properties include mass flux and fluid velocity.
Figure5 illustrates the difference between vector and scalar properties. GT-Power
determines the change in the scalar properties by solving simultaneous one-dimensional
equation.

Figure 5 Discretized components

The 1D equations used in solving the problem are: the first equation ensures the
conservation of mass Related to the mass equation is the conservation of momentum
relationship. From these two equations the trapped air and residuals masses can be found.
The equations are also used to determine the fuel dynamics and mass flow rates. GTPower also uses Equation which ensures that energy is conserved. Using these equations,
the heat transfer from a volume to the walls or another volume can be determined.

20

Continuity:
Energy:

=
=

Enthalpy:
Momentum:

| |

)
-

| |)

An advantage of 1-Dimensional engine simulation is that it requires less computational


effort than multidimensional models and therefore results can be obtained faster and a
personal desktop computer is sufficient in terms of hardware requirements. Many
commercially available software packages that fit this description are also capable
of being coupled with a CFD (computational fluid dynamics) solver that will
analyze flow in complex regimes and transfer the results back in the 1Dimensional solver as a method of refinement. This is method of coupled
simulation is beyond the scope of the project though its merits are acknowledged.

Table 1 Variables in GT-Power continuity, energy, and momentum equations

21

3.3

INTRODUCTION TO GT SUITE

GT-SUITE, which contains GT-POWER, is a single software package CAE tool for
modeling and simulation of systems in automotive and transportation engineering and
beyond. It is based on a multi-physics platform, but offers higher-level, added-value
toolboxes for various types of vehicle applications.
3.3.1 GT-Suite Modeling:
GT-SUITE features an object-based code design that provides a powerful model building
facility and reduces user effort. Models are built by a highly versatile graphical user
interface, GT-ISE (Integrated Simulation Environment), common to all applications
which simplifies the task of managing object libraries and building, editing, executing and
post-processing models. GT-ISE minimizes the amount of input data entry, as only
unique geometrical elements must be defined. Models are built by this point-and click
GUI from a library of GTI-supplied or user-defined reusable objects.
3.3.2 GT-SUITE Applications:
GT suite is specifically tailored to a continually broadening set of applications:

Engine performance modeling (including combustion and turbocharging)


Analysis of measured engine cylinder pressure (combustion profiles)
Exhaust after treatment
Acoustics of intakes and exhaust
Sil, HiL and Real-Time simulation of engine, vehicle, and cooling
Vehicle dynamics (drive cycles, drivelines)
Hybrid and electric vehicles, fuel cells
Cooling systems
Vehicle Thermal Management
Underhood cooling module analysis (3-D solution with COOL3D)
AC and Rankine Two-Phase Flow (AC, Rankine)
Lubrication circuits and bearings
Fuel injection systems
Valve train/Camshaft kinematics and dynamics
Crank train kinematics and dynamics (balancing, engine bearings and mounts)
Crankshaft durability and fatigue
Chain, gear and belt system dynamics (timing drives)
Waste Heat Recovery
Transmission Modeling transmission mechanics, hydraulics, and control

22

GT-SUITE, being a single program, allows modeling of these applications both


independently, as has traditionally been the norm in the industry, or with several of these
systems in one model to get the full integrated effect of the system. For example
consider the cooling circuit with Charged-Air-Cooler and EGR Cooler and its link to
engine performance: this can be readily analyzed in a single model for warm-up analysis
and for the design of combined cooling circuit and engine.
3.3.3 GT Post:
A user-friendly interactive post-processing tool, GT-POST, can be used to manipulate
and view all of the plot data generated by a GT-SUITE simulation. For example, the user
can combine plots of a selected result for different components or cases. Important
performance data can be plotted against parameters from a multiple case run as in figure
9, Contour plots, mapping and various manual calculations, manual data input, all
graphical and tabular result interfaces.

Figure 6 GT Suite applications chart

23

3.4

INTRODUCTION TO GT-POWER

GT-POWER, a module of GT Suite package, and a dedicated engine performance CAE


tool is the market leading engine simulation software used by every major engine
manufacturer for the design and development of their engines. It is applicable to all sizes
and types of engines, and its installed base includes a highly diverse group of car, truck,
motorcycle, motor sport, marine, locomotive, power generation, mining and construction,
agricultural, and lawn and garden equipment manufacturers.
GT-Power is a one dimensional flow solver specifically designed to simulate internal
combustion engine flows, accounting for cylinder motion, combustion, gas composition,
and temperatures among others. GT-Power calculates the flow motion in time using many
different models for all parts of the engine. The models are mainly based on experimental
empiricism and curve fitting from tabulated data.
GT power not only solve for ICE cylinder but also a solution based on 1D fluid dynamics,
representing the flow and heat transfer in the piping and other flow components of an
engine system. In addition to the fluid flow and heat transfer capabilities, the code
contains many other specialized models required for system analysis.

Figure 7 Schematic of Engine model in GT Power

Figure 8 Example multi-cylinder turbo-charged pipe flow model

24

The All aspects of the engine in the schematic and modeled figure shown above and more
can be modeled. By being comprehensive, the code is well suited for integration of all
aspects arising in engine and vehicle development. The programs main parts are the
different pipes and flow splits that are used to build up the geometry. For the more
specialized parts (e.g. cylinders, turbochargers, after-treatment devices, etc.) the program
uses models and tables to calculate the values needed (e.g. pressure, heat release, mass
flow, efficiency, etc.).
3.4.1 GT-POWER Performance output:
For engine performance analysis, providing the breadth of features required to allow the
engineer to analyze a number of engine configurations and performance characteristics,
including:

Torque and power curves, airflow, vol. efficiency, fuel consumption, emissions.
Steady state or full transient analysis, under any driving scenario.
Turbocharged, supercharged, turbocompound, e-boost, pneumatic assist.
SI, DI, HCCI and multi-mode combustion, multi-fuel, and multi-pulse injection.
Infinitely variable valve timing and lift (VVT and VVL).
Acoustic analysis of intake and exhaust systems.
Manifold and cylinder component thermal analysis, with included FE solver.
Controls system modeling, via built-in controls library or Simulink coupling.

3.4.2 GT-POWER Variable Predictions:


GT-POWER can be used to predict either steady-state conditions or transient behavior of
engine systems. Outputs include time variation of quantities such as:

Flow rates and flow velocities in all passages


Temperature in the system
Pressures in the system
Component temperatures: pipes, flowsplits and other components
Engine volumetric efficiency, power, and torque
DI diesel and SI predictive burn rate models
SI NOx and knock
DI diesel NOx and soot
After treatment chemistry
Heat transfer
Calculation of noise at an external microphone
Transient noise
Pass-by noise

25

3.4.3 Model Accuracy:


GT-POWER has long been recognized for its high degree of accuracy in predicting the
behavior of complex engine related phenomena. At its core, the GT-POWER solver is
based on the 1D solution of the fully unsteady, nonlinear Navier-Stokes
equations. Beyond this core lie state of the art thermodynamic and phenomenological
model solvers to capture the effects of combustion, heat transfer, evaporation, in-cylinder
motion and turbulence, and engine and tailpipe out emissions, to name just a few. This
combination of solvers provides for unmatched model accuracy for both macro level
quantities such as torque, bsfc, airflow, etc. as well as detailed micro level quantities
such as crank angle resolved cylinder pressure resulting from multi-pulse injection
strategies, as well as emission specie concentrations anywhere in the system.

Figure 9 Example model of accuracy plotting of engine simulated results

26

3.5

GT VALVE TRAIN

GT ValveTrain also was use for modeling purpose of valve components. GT Valve can
be used to design valve train system of engine and used to analyze:

Multi-body Dynamic Analysis


Kinematic Analysis
Quasi-Dynamic Analysis

As Kinematic analysis for cam-follower profile was required;


Kinematic Analysis of Valvetrains
The first step in design of valvetrain mechanism is the choice and design of the
mechanism geometry and cam profile(s) which will produce the requisite valve lift and
meet certain other basic design criteria. Most valvetrain mechanisms are topologically
"kinematic", i.e. assuming perfect geometric contacts/joints between parts, the motion of
one part determines the motions of all other parts in the valvetrain mechanism. Therefore,
Kinematic Analysis can be used for this purpose.

Figure 10 GT ValveTrain Kinematic figure


3.6

GEM 3D

GEM3D is a tool that can be used to build 3D models of flow systems that can be
discretized and made into model files for use with GT-SUITE. It provides the ability to
build the model in a 3D environment so that the full details of the model can be included.
GEM3D can be used to build any flow system that contains only flow components like
pipes, mufflers, manifolds, air boxes, etc.

27

3.7

BUILDING AN ENGINE MODEL

In broad terms, a model is created using two types of discretization. Firstly, the complete
powertrain system is grouped into general components. These components consist of air
cleaners, valves, piping, valves, fuel injectors, mufflers, intake/exhaust components,
catalytic converters, combustion chambers, and if applicable Turbo charger/Supercharger.
The second aspect is separating each component into multiple control volumes. Each
control volume is bounded by another control volume or wall. By discretizing the system
into sufficiently small volumes, the properties of the fluid in that volume can be assumed
to be constant.
GT-Power is an object oriented program with a logical user interface. To create a model,
components are placed on a worksheet. Components are connected using lines to show
the fluid paths. Several parameters must be entered into each component to specifically
reflect the physical engine. To define these values, a user must double click on the object
and enter the required values in a graphic user interface window.
3.7.1 Engine layout:
A typical engine in GT Power is modeled using 'EngCylinder' and 'EngineCrankTrain'
component objects and 'ValveConn' and 'EngCylConn' connection objects. 'EngCylinder'
and 'EngineCrankTrain' are used to define the basic geometry and characteristics of the
engine. Both objects refer to several reference objects for more detailed modeling
information on aspects such as combustion and heat transfer. Cylinders must be
connected to the engine with 'EngCylConn' parts made from the predefined object "ign",
which is available in the template library. While 'EngCylConn' parts have no user-defined
attributes, the global cylinder number (used for firing order, etc.) for each cylinder is
assigned by the port number where the 'EngCylConn' connection is attached to the
engine. Cylinders are connected to intake and exhaust ports with 'ValveConn'
connections. Many 'ValveConn' connection templates are available to define different
types of valves and their characteristics.

Figure 11 Engine layout of one cylinder engine model

28

3.7.2 Modeling cylinder valves:


There are different templates available for each of the common cylinder valve types (cam
driven valves, solenoid valves, etc.). The majority of these templates use a discharge
coefficient to describe the valve flow area. Typically, discharge coefficients are calculated
from flow measurements taken on a cylinder head.
3.7.3 Modeling cylinder ports:
The intake and exhaust ports into an engine's cylinder can be modeled geometrically with
pipes. Typically, flow coefficients of cylinder valves are calculated from measurements
of mass flow rate for a given pressure loss. These measurements are made in the specific
head in which the valves will be installed on the engine. Pressure losses caused by the
shape of the port (changes in diameter and bends), surface roughness and the valve stem
cannot be separated easily from this measurement. So, the flow coefficients of the valves
include the flow losses caused by the port.
Engines with 3 or more valves per cylinder may be modeled by adding more valves and
ports to the model, plus any required flow-splits. The expansion diameter of the opening
of a flowsplit that connects to the intake or exhaust manifold (now called the first
opening) should be the same as the diameter of the opening in the head.
In-cylinder flow:
The in-cylinder flow model breaks the cylinder into multiple regions: the central core
region, the squish region, the head recess region, and the piston cup region. At each time
step in each region, the mean radial velocity, axial velocity, and swirl velocity are
calculated taking into account the cylinder chamber geometry, the piston motion, and the
flow rates of the incoming and exiting gases through the valves. These velocities are used
in the "flow heat transfer model. The flow model also contains single zone turbulence
and tumble models.
In-cylinder heat transfer:
Heat transfer in 'EngCylinder' and 'EngCrankcase' objects is modeled using
'EngCylHeatTr' and 'EngCylTWall' reference objects. 'EngCylHeatTr' allows the user to
select the desired heat transfer Inlet Outlet Burned gases Fresh Charge model that is used
to calculate the in-cylinder heat transfer coefficients. Either 'EngCylTWall' or
'EngCylTWallDetail' can be used to impose temperatures for the head, piston, and
cylinder walls. If temperatures are not available for the cylinder, the following
temperatures are typical at full load:
Head Temperature 550-600 K
Piston Temperature 550-600 K
Cylinder Temperature 400 K

29

3.7.4 Fuel injection:


In each of the injectors a "Vaporized Fuel Fraction" attribute is used to specify the
fraction of liquid fuels that evaporates immediately upon injection. The evaporation
changes the enthalpy of the fuel that has been injected according to the heat of
vaporization, resulting in a cooling effect on the air/vapor fuel/liquid fuel mixture. The
vaporized fuel will also "displace" the other gases (i.e. air) that already exist in the target
component.
Injection into a pipe or flowsplit:
For a typical port-injected gasoline engine, the initial fuel vaporization is typically about
0.3. However, its effect on the volumetric efficiency is not particularly strong for portinjected, gasoline engines because the cooling effect on the air/fuel mixture cancels the
effects of the displaced air from the vapor fuel. This attribute may be more important for
fuels such as alcohols due to their large latent heat of vaporization or if the point of
injection is far upstream of the port so that the fuel has more time to vaporize.
3.7.5 Air filters:
Most engine systems include an air box / filter assembly in the intake system. The typical
air box has a cross section that is significantly larger than the entering and exiting pipes
and can be quite unusual in shape. The air box also typically contains an air filter (usually
paper). The filter assembly has a significant effect on intake system pressure drop and
acoustic behavior, and is therefore an important part of the engine model. The intended
purpose of the model should be considered when deciding the level of detail that will be
included. For air boxes with very simple geometry (single cylindrical or rectangular
chamber), a single 'Pipe*' or 'Flow-Split*' object can be used to model the volume. For
more complex geometry (i.e. if the air box "turns a corner" or has multiple connected
chambers), it may be necessary to connect two or more flow-splits to create the air box
volume.
3.7.6 Mufflers and silencers:
Exhaust silencers and mufflers typically involve large volumes that contain internal pipes,
baffles, and other elements used to reduce exhaust noise and attenuate certain sound
frequencies. An integrated tool has been provided that allows a muffler or silencer to be
drawn in the same manner as a CAD program. Then the tool automatically creates the
interconnected flow splits and pipes that make up the 3-D representation of the muffler.
This tool can be accessed from the GT-ISE Tools menu (GEM 3D).

30

3.8

MULTI-CYLINDER ENGINE TUTORIAL MODEL

A tutorial data of given multi cylinder engine was modeled by team members for
learning, and getting to know different intake/exhaust system conditions and their parts
like plenum, orifices, etc.
The Engine
The engine is a 4-stroke, 4 cylinder, 2.0L engine. There are four valves per cylinder and
fuel is injected into the intake port. The engine runs in "speed" mode, where the engine
speed is entered by the user and the engine torque is calculated. Combustion is modeled
by the SI Wiebe method, in-cylinder heat transfer is modeled using the Woschni method.
This simulation will run until it reaches steady-state conditions for four different engine
speeds.
The Intake System
The intake system starts with an ambient 'EndEnvironment' part which is connected to a
smooth "bellmouth" orifice. The orifice has been made effectively smooth by setting the
forward and reverse discharge coefficients to "1". Downstream in intake is a pipe and a
flowsplit representing an air box. The pressure loss from the filter is usually small
compared to the loss from the large expansion and contraction at the inlet and outlet of
the air box and can be ignored. However, three dimensional effects can contribute
pressure loss and an orifice placed between the pipe and flow-split can be used to
calibrate pressure losses in the intake system. The discharge coefficient or diameter can
be reduced from the default values to make this calibrate if required according to manual
of GT Power.
A throttle exists downstream from the air cleaner. This throttle has been made to match
the characteristics of many common throttles, where the change in discharge coefficient is
large at low throttle angles, but then levels off at higher throttle angles.
The log plenum of the intake manifold (located after the throttle) has been modeled using
seven parts. Four parts are made from 'FsplitTRight' templates to model the branches to
the runners and three parts are made from pipe templates to accurately model the volumes
between the flowsplits. The orifices connecting the plenum to the runners have the
forward discharge coefficients set to 0.95 to model the rounded transition between the
plenum and the runners.
The runners are modeled in a straight-forward manner. However, the intake ports are
modeled differently. The wall temperature, heat transfer multiplier and friction multiplier
have been set default.

31

The material for default surface roughness of all pipes except the ports in the intake
system is smooth plastic. In addition, the wall temperatures are set to a constant 300K and
heat conduction objects are not used. This is a reasonable assumption since the
temperature of the air at the inlet is the same as the ambient air outside the system and no
heat has been added.
The Exhaust System
The exhaust ports are modeled using the recommendations for wall temperature. The
orifices that connect the exhaust ports to the runners do not allow heat to be conducted
between the pipe walls of the adjacent parts. This is necessary because the wall
temperature is solved for in the exhaust pipes.
The exhaust manifold is modeled as cast iron as it is important to account for pressure due
to surface roughness. The ambient temperature used for the heat conduction object. Note
that the surface roughness is important because of its influence on the predicted heat
transfer coefficient in the pipes. The initial state is also different from ambient conditions.
Another pipe connects to the muffler subassembly. The muffler is modeled with multiple
pipes and flow-splits created using the Muffler template that comes with GT-ISE. The
subassembly can be viewed by switching to the "Muffler" folder. The initial state in the
muffler is different than the initial state in the exhaust manifold since most of the pressure
drop is in the muffler.. The "outlet reversing" option in the EndEnvironment is used since
this is a hot outlet.
The figure of tutorial modeled four cylinder engine is given in the appendix Error!
Reference source not found.
3.9

DATA NEEDED TO BUILD AN ENGINE MODEL

A list of information that is needed to build a typical standard engine model is included
below. Not every item will be needed for all models, and sometimes additional
information will be needed, but the list is generally a good starting point. If the model is
being built at an early design stage, determining optimal values for some of the items
listed may be the purpose of the simulation. If this is the case, those particular attributes
should be defined as parameters and run for a series of cases to determine an optimal
value.
Engine Characteristics: compression ratio, firing order, inline or V configuration, Vangle (optional), 2 or 4 stroke
Cylinder Geometry: bore, stroke, connecting rod length, pin offset, piston TDC
clearance height, head bowl geometry (DI only), piston area, and head area (for heat
transfer mode)

32

Intake and Exhaust System: geometry of all components such as manifolds, runners,
ports, catalyst, tailpipe, and mufflers. Needed information includes lengths, internal
diameters, volumes, and configurations. Optional information on head loss coefficients
and/or discharge coefficients may also be used if available.
Throttles: throttle location and discharge coefficients versus throttle angle in both flow
directions. (If studies are being performed at only wide-open throttle, this information is
not needed.)
Fuel Injectors: location and number of injectors; number of nozzle holes and nozzle
diameter (DI only); injection rate (DI only); fuel to air ratio (SI only); fuel type and LHV
Intake and Exhaust Valves: valve diameter, lift profile, discharge coefficients (both
directions), valve lash, swirl coefficient (optional), tumble coefficient (optional)
Turbochargers (optional): turbine and compressor maps; turbocharger inertia (transient
simulations only); turbo performance at several engine operating points (PR, rpm, turbine
inlet temperature)
Ambient State: pressure, temperature, and humidity

Figure 12 Engine Cylinder geometric models

33

3.10 ENGINE OPERATING PARAMETER MODELS


3.10.1 Engine Friction Model:
The 'EngFrictionCF' reference object is used to model the mechanical friction in the
engine. Auxiliary losses (such as water pumps, radiator fans, etc.) can also be combined
into the 'EngFrictionCF. EngFrictionCF This object is used to specify the parameters of
the Chen-Flynn engine friction model in GT Power. The engine friction is calculated
using the attributes as follows:
FMEP= C + (PF Pmax) + (MPSF Speedmp) +(MPSSFSpeed2mp)
Where:
FMEP - Friction Mean Effective Pressure
Pmax - Maximum Cylinder pressure
Speedmp - Mean Piston Speed
C - Constant part of FMEP PF - Peak Cylinder Pressure Factor
MPSF - Mean Piston Speed Factor
MPSSF - Mean Piston Speed Squared Factor

This is an empirically derived model that states the total engine friction is a function of
peak cylinder pressure, mean piston speed, and mean piston speed squared. There are
recommended values in the Reference Manual that are suitable for approximating the
friction of a typical engine. However, if laboratory measurements of the engine friction
have been made, they can be used to improve the values specified for the Chen-Flynn
model.
There are two common methods of measuring the friction:

A motoring dynamometer test


Comparing the indicated torque (calculated from cylinder pressure) with the brake
torque.

3.10.2 Heat Transfer Model:


This object is used to calculate heat transfer from Engine cylinder and Engine crankcase
parts. There are several standard models which can be used depending on data availability
detail of modeling
But the commonly used for less advanced models and semi-predictive model is:

34

WoschniGT indicates that the in-cylinder heat transfer will be calculated by a formula
which closely emulates the classical Woschni correlation without swirl (as described in
Section 12.4.3 of "Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals" by John B. Heywood).
The most important difference lies in the treatment of heat transfer coefficients during the
period when the valves are open, where the heat transfer is increased by inflow velocities
through the intake valves and also by backflow through the exhaust valves. This option is
recommended when measured swirl data is not available.
3.10.3 Combustion Models:
The proper treatment of combustion within an engine model is critical to achieve a well
calibrated model that is appropriate for the simulation task at hand. To properly discuss
the handling of combustion in GTPOWER it is necessary to define some of the
terminology used:
Combustion: In GT-POWER, combustion refers to the transfer of a defined amount
of unburned fuel mass and air along with the associated enthalpy from an unburned
zone to a burned zone in the cylinder, the release of the chemical energy in the fuelair mixture and the calculation of species and concentrations that result.
Burn Rate: The instantaneous rate of fuel consumption within the cylinder
combustion process. In a GT-POWER simulation, this is the rate at which fuel and air
molecules are transferred to the burned zone from the unburned zone and begin to
participate in the chemical reactions (although they do not necessarily burn
completely to the final products of combustion). In GT-POWER, the combustion rate
is controlled by the burn rate. This burn rate input may either be imposed or predicted,
depending on the combustion model selected.
Predictive Combustion: A combustion model where the burn rate is predicted from
the appropriate inputs (pressure, temperature, equivalence ratio, residual fraction, etc.)
and then applied in the simulation.
Non-Predictive Combustion: A combustion model where the burn rate is directly
imposed as a simulation input. With a non-predictive combustion model, the burn rate
does not depend on variables such as residual fraction or cylinder pressure. The fuel
and air will simply burn at the prescribed rate.
Two-Zone Combustion: A combustion model with two distinct zones unburned
and burned. All combustion models in GT-POWER are two-zone except for the
predictive diesel combustion model ('EngCylCombDIJet'). The two zones are
normally modeled with a separate temperature for each zone, but can optionally be
specified to have the same temperature.

35

In GT-POWER, combustion occurs in the following manner:


1. At the start of combustion (the spark in the SI engine, or the start of injection in the
DI engine) the cylinder is divided into two zones: an unburned zone and a burned
zone. All of the contents of the cylinder at that time start in the unburned zone,
including residual gases from the previous cycle and EGR.
2. At each time step, a mixture of fuel and air istransferred from the unburned zone to
the burned zone. The amount of fuel-air mixture that is transferred to the burned zone
is defined by the burn rate. This burn rate is prescribed (or calculated by) the
combustion model.
3. Once the unburned fuel and associated air has been transferred from the unburned
zone to the burned zone in a given time step, a chemical equilibrium calculation is
carried out for the entire "lumped" burned zone.
Multi-Zone Combustion: A combustion model used only for the predictive diesel
combustion ('EngCylCombDIJet') that employs up to 500 main zones. Each of these
main zones contains three sub-zones for unburned liquid fuel, unburned air-fuel
mixture, and burned gas. The burned and unburned zones always have separate
temperatures in this model.
Equilibrium Chemistry: A method of calculating the concentrations of the species
by assuming that the concentrations of the species are equal to that which would occur
if the current pressure and temperature were held constant for long periods of time.
The engine simulation community has used for a long time this method for the
calculation of in-cylinder species. GT-POWER uses this method for the prediction of
in-cylinder species, unless the user requests a different method for a specific species.
Chemical Kinetics: A method of calculating the concentrations of the species by
taking into account the time required for the species to combine and react. This
method is required when calculating NOx and has been shown to improve the
prediction of CO.

3.10.4 Predictive vs. Non-Predictive Combustion


The following sections will provide details on the different combustion modeling
alternatives available in GT-POWER. For a given engine type (SI, diesel) there are
multiple options available so it is important to have an understanding of when each model
is appropriate. The primary decision to make in this regard is whether the combustion
model will be predictive, non-predictive, or semi-predictive. This depends primarily on
the intended use of the completed simulation model.

36

A non-predictive combustion model simply imposes a burn rate as a function of crank


angle. This prescribed burn rate will be followed regardless of the conditions in the
cylinder, assuming that there is sufficient fuel available in the cylinder to support the burn
rate. Therefore, the burn rate will not be affected by factors such as residual fraction or
injection timing. This may be appropriate as long as the intended use of the model is to
study a variable which has little effect on the burn rate. For example, a model built to
study the influence of intake manifold runner length on volumetric efficiency or a model
built to study the acoustic performance of different muffler designs would not require any
prediction of burn rate. In these cases, the variables of interest have a minimal effect on
the burn rate.
However, a non-predictive model may not be a good choice when the intended use of the
model is to study a variable that has a direct and significant effect on the burn rate. In that
case, a predictive or semi-predictive combustion model is a more appropriate choice so
the burn rate will respond appropriately to a change in the variable of interest. For
example, a model built to study the influence of injection timing and profile in a diesel
engine would require predictive capability to obtain any meaningful results, because the
burn rate itself is in reality a strong function of the injection quantities.
Spark-Ignition Wiebe Model: This object imposes the burn rate for spark-ignition
engines using a Wiebe function, which approximates a "typical" shape of an SI burn rate.
It can be used with any type of injection, except direct injection. This model provides a
convenient means of implementing a reasonable burn rate if measured cylinder pressure is
not available. An Excel file named WiebComb.xls is included in the installation directory
of GT-SUITE and is useful in determining the Wiebe constants
A semi-predictive combustion model may be a good substitute for a predictive model in
some cases. A semi-predictive combustion model is sensitive to the significant variables
that influence combustion rate, and responds appropriately to changes in those variables,
but does not use any physical models to predict that response. Instead, these models
utilize a non-predictive (Wiebe) methodology where the combustion burn rate is imposed,
but they employ lookups or other methods to calculate the proper Wiebe parameters
based on the significant input variables. These models are typically much less CPU
intensive and may be more accurate than predictive models in some cases.

37

4
4.1

CHAPTER 4: BENCHMARK MODEL AND SIMULATION

INTRO TO PERFORMING BENCHMARK

When there is a need to make anything or to perform a task, specially an engineering task,
which has never been done before than there is a risk that the strategy and time consumed
may or may not produce the desired result or output. Therefore it is preferable to first
perform it on a lower scale which can satisfy the work which needs to be done and also
set a standard, a reference line, it is called Benchmark.
In this chapter of Benchmark Engine modeling following will be discussed, as part of
benchmarking work:

What is Benchmark
Foreign university project engine report
Modeling the report mentioned engine
Studying the required data
Simulating, comparing and calibrating results with Dynamo results

Benchmark is standard, or a set of standards, used as a point of reference for evaluating


performance or level of quality. Benchmark may be drawn from own experience, and
from the experience of others. The purpose of performing a benchmark is to test the
process before its actual application and to carry out faults and defects which may occur
in future.
In other words, in order to assess the relative performance of an object, normally by
running a number of standard tests and trials against it.
There are several types of benchmarking; generally all give the following main
advantages:
o
o
o
o
o
o
o

Testing performance
Accuracy of process
Deficiencies in the designed process
Capability of the process
Identify problem areas
Improvement margin
Time estimation

Generally benchmarking involves four basic steps:


Planning (What is to be benchmarked?)
Analysis (the data collected in the benchmarking study is analyzed so as to
provide a basis for comparison)
Integration (integrate objectives into the benchmarked process so that significant
performance improvements are made)
Action (How will progress be tracked?)
38

4.2

OBJECTIVES OF BENCHMARKING:

The objective of this project is to perform an engine simulation of Hydra Research Engine
(a single cylinder 4-stroke SI engine). The simulation software which is being utilized is
GT POWER. We have never learnt any engine modeling and simulation software before
and now for our project it is the basic requirement to learn the engine simulation software
and its methods, capabilities and techniques are required to fulfill our project requirement.
We have learned the GT POWER under supervision of Project Advisor and using
tutorials, documentation and different examples. Now there is a need to verify that the
engine modeling and simulation techniques which we have learned by ourselves are either
correct or wrong? And what steps we should adopt to minimize the errors.
4.3

REPORT SEARCHING

In order to perform a benchmark, past project report of any engine testing report was
required. The main source of search was internet. The report must contain the
dynamometer results as well as the entire engine data required to perform the simulation
for that particular engine.
Then after coordination with Dr. Mario (Professor at University of Malta, Europe),
contacted by email referenced from academic site with their field of interest as Engines,
the professor provided his past project data of Honda F4i 600cc, 4cylinder engine and all
dynamometer readings and engine specifications but unfortunately the manifolds data
was missing. This provided project report was of 4 cylinder engine and the engine which
requires more data than a single cylinder engine, of which we intended to perform
benchmarking modeling and simulation, another reason of performing benchmark of
known single cylinder engine project report is to get the advanced input data required to
do the modeling of single cylinder, so it would be better to search a report of single
cylinder engine to make a reference for benchmark.
After intense searching and contacting different foreign students we found a simulation
report of single cylinder KTM SF-X 450cc engine on website of Lule Universitys,
Sweden. This report contained all engine specifications and some simulated and
dynamometer results that were required to perform a benchmark.
4.4

REFERENCED REPORT FOR BENCHMARKING

A masters student of Lule University of Technology (Sweden), Department of


Engineering Sciences and Mathematics performed engine optimization on KTM engine
(KTM is manufacturer of motorbike engines) using Ricardo WAVE software.
As in report Engine Simulation Model for a Formula SAE Race Car the goal was to
optimize Monash Motorsports new engine for race by creating a computer simulation
model capable of determining the most effective design. The Monash Motorsport FSAE
team is ranked 1st in Australia and the pacific-ocean region and ranked third in the world
2010 and belongs to the department of mechanical and aerospace engineering. Monash
39

Motorsport owns two KTM SX-F engines, which were to be used for testing on the
dynamometer and one which were optimized with respect to the test results and were
installed in the race car as per the report. The simulation software that was utilized is 1-D
engine and gas dynamics simulation software Ricardo WAVE. The software can be used
throughout the entire engine design process, from early concept design to optimizing a
complete engine.
4.4.1 Data Required for GT Power Simulation:
In GT-POWER there is a list of data which is required for the engine simulation.
Fortunately almost all the data was available in the KTM engines report. Following are
the engine specification data:
INTAKE AND EXHAUST VALVE DATA:

PARAMETERS
Valve Lash (inch)
Valve Lift (mm)
Lobe Center
VO (valve open)
VC (valve close)

INTAKE
0.006
11.84
104.5
17.5BTDC
46.5ABDC

EXHAUST
0.008
10.67
105.25
42BBDC
10ATDC

Table 2 KTM Engine Valves Specs


Arranged and altered the given cam-follower profile of KTM Intake/Exhaust valves to be
input in valve component to get valve lift.
GT post generated valve displacement profile as:

Figure 13 Valve lift against crank angle of Intake/Exhaust valve of KTM


40

ENGINE TECHNICAL DATA:

Table 3 KTM Engine Technical Specs


4.5

KTM ENGINE MODELING

Information obtained from above data will be used in the modeling of the engine. The
engine modeling in GT POWER is a continuous systematic process, in which we start the
model with an inlet environment. This environment would be considered as a separate
component, similarly step by step we continue to add the components and connect them
with each other according to the engine design till the end environment or exhaust
environment.
41

Modeling of an engine or virtually creating a real life problem requires many of the
attributes, parameters, conditions, characteristics, properties, geometries. Same goes for
this model. So most of data which are fed into the model is explained in Chapter Three
and other components which have been used and there reason to use will be combined
explained with modeling of Ricardo Engine in Chapter Six.
Most of the geometrical data for this engine may not be included into report as extra
details, instead reference is made to the original report. As it may of no use for the project
concerned but some operating data or parameters used are included.
Each component is defined using the available data and their brief label and detailing.

Figure 14 Map View of KTM 450 Engine GT Power Model

The model in above picture is per the arrangement as follows:


>Intake Environment > Intake System > Intake Valve
> Cylinder and Crank Train
>Exhaust Valves > Exhaust System> Exhaust Environment
42

Following are some views of engine model which we have established using GT
POWER.

THE COMPONENT VIEW:

Figure 15 Geometric blocks KTM Engine view


This view represents the some dimensional and shape aspects of the flow components of
the modeled system. Model is same as map view just changed the parts position to
accommodate the figure

THE PIPE VIEW:

Figure 16 Flow Pipe view of KTM Engine


This view represents the flow view and their paths of the fluid in it or the flow
components as attached.

43

4.5.1 Model Description


In this part model is described on basis of how engine was tested on dynamometer and the
configuration of system and operating condition as well as environment.
As in sequential order each component as can be viewed in Map view of KTM Engine,
are explained in detail and there reason:
Environment Inlet:

This is component defines the Ambient pressure, ambient temperature and


humidity of the Inlet Environment of the engine where intake system is.
Intake Flow Components:

These are the flow components of Intake system which


simulates as the air flow pipes and duct which is now converging to the Throttle. Small
grey circle represents connection with the preceding components. The properties of these
Flow components like Surface roughness, temperature, heat conduction, discretization,
etc. is not of importance to discuss as it will be mention in Chapter 6.
Throttle:

This component is generally referred to as Connection Component modeled


as Orifice. The reason of throttle considering orifice, is that Engine testing to be on Wide
Open Throttle so orifice diameter is defined here. With discharge coefficient is calculated
automatically.
Intake Runner:

Intake Runner leading to Flow Split is also a flow pipe component with
defined material properties and attributes provided for simulation
Injector:

Modeling of Carburetor is a long model itself. As in KTM engine it is


electronic actuated carburetor, so for simplification with the available component of GT
Power. Which is regarded Injector with imposed A/F ratio. This senses Air flow from
previous defined component and injects fuel into the flow pipe which is so - called as
venture and fuel is injected near the Port.

44

Fsplit (Flow Split):


Is a type of flow component, and is used where fluid is separating into two or more ways
entering into the preceding system or components. It can also be used to model
expansion, contraction in flow pipes or boxes with two or more exit/entry channels for
objects like Plenum, Air boxes, manifolds, etc.

In this model a Fsplit Sphere component is used to separate A/F ratio mixture into
two intake ports into the engine as physically casted into the real engine in sphere type.
Intake Ports:

Same cylindrical pipes used to model iron casted material to transport A/F
mixture into Engine.
Intake Valves:

These are valveCam Connection used to model Valve assembly


representation of Camshaft and Valves. With geometrical data and valve Lift profile
entered. It also requires valve discharge co-efficient which is taken or assumed of the
same 450cc engine. The valve lift profile vs Crank profile shown in previous figure had to
be altered into against Cam angle.
Cylinder:

Cylinder is one of the important components to define, due to which most


output data is generated based on the input data or attributes like Combustion Model,
Heat transfer model, etc. In this standard SI Wiebe Combustion model, Heat Transfer
Woschini model, fluid composition was defined.
Crank Train:

Another important Component which defines the crank Train assembly


consisting of Cylinder geometry, Friction model, etc. And has huge effects on Torque and
power of the engine. Geometry is defined as per given engine specification and friction as
standard Chen-Flynn Friction Model.
Exhaust System:
Same components as intake system but in reverse and different geometrical, material
properties, and temperature values are set to simulate the exhaust system.
45

4.6

SIMULATION CASE SETUP

After the completion of engine model, the next step is to define the case setup. So to
generate desired results on specific conditions.
In Lule Universitys report they performed the Dynamometer run where they have
measured the parameters like power, torque and BSFC for following conditions:

A/F Fuel ratio: 14.7:1 (Defined in Carburetor component)


Research Gasoline (Defined in Carburetor component as Indolene)
Full Load Condition (WOT as modeled Throttle)
Against engine RPM and case setup for RPM sweep, this ranges from 1000-12000
RPM in 250rpm intervals.
Wall temperatures have been imposed which have been measured on engine test
bench, to feed into Simulation software.
Steady State Run
We have selected the same case setup so that it would be easy and manifest for us to
compare the results.
4.7

SIMULATION RESULTS:

After running simulation, the results were generated using GT POST. In the results
detail, 3 basic engine performance parameters have been plotted against RPM. The
results graphs show the comparison between the dynamometer results which were
obtained from Lule Universitys simulation report and the simulation outcome of our GT
POWER engine model.

Figure 17 Brake Power vs Engine Speed Graph Un-calibrated- KTM Engine


46

In first run of simulations, in Brake Power versus Engine Speed graph, in this graph it can
clearly be seen as simulated result line (Blue line) is highly deviated at high engine
speeds as compared to Dynamometer graph (Red line graph). Due to which model had to
be calibrated to come near the dynamometer observed values, which may will lead to
better future simulations without needing to run dynamometer for the specific engine for
any type like optimizing etc.
So the model was again calibrated and troubleshot, where it was found out that:
o There were wrong values of Chyn- Flynn Friction Model were entered. Then
model was again simulated and following Brake Power and Brake Torque graphs
were generated.
o Intake and Exhaust Port discharge Co-efficient was set to calculate automatically,
where it was needed to set it to 0 as these losses like Pressure losses are already
combine included into L/D Discharge flow co-efficient of valve components.

Figure 18 Brake Power vs Engine Speed Graph Calibrated- KTM Engine

47

Figure 19 Brake Torque vs Engine Speed Graph Calibrated- KTM Engine

Figure 20 BSFC vs Engine Speed Graph Calibrated- KTM Engine


This simulated BSFC plot shown and there is method to check measured data- for NA
Engines is the calculation of BSFC. As it is smooth usually, so any large peaks may
indicate inaccurate data points.

48

Figure 21Combined Torque/Power vs RPM difference KTM


From this combined plots with difference graphs of both torque and power and finding
out the accuracy in the percentage difference using:
Percentage Diff = [(Y1-Y2)*100/Y2]
It is found out that for both torque and power the percent difference is in 15% when
compared to real engine (dynamometer) data. It may be erroneous due to some important
attributes taken as standard and some neglected.

49

CHAPTER 5: HYDRA ENGINE TEST BENCH

The Autotest IV controlled Hydra research test bed is engine performance test bench
fulfilling the requirement for a robust and effective means of testing single cylinder
research engines representative of modern automobile and light commercial vehicle
engines. The Autotest IV control system enables application programs to be constructed
that can run the engine automatically at specific operating conditions to suit the test
requirements, log data as required and safely maintain the engine within pre-set parameter
limits. The test bed can cater for all different types of engine either gasoline or diesel.

50

5.1

INTRODUCTION

Hydra Engine Test Bench is part of our Automotive departments Engine, Combustion
and Emission lab equipment for various practical and research purposes. This test bench
will be used for our project for experimental analysis in part of verifying the Simulation
results. Simulation engine model will be of Ricardo 450cc engine installed in this test
bench.
In this chapter of Hydra Engine Test Bench, following will be discussed, as part of
experimental work:

5.2

Overview of available Engine for test bench


Intake and Exhaust system
Auxiliary systems
Dynamometer
Control panel
User given variable parameters
Measurements taken for Modeling of the Engine
RICARDOENGINES

The engine installed in the test bench is provided


consultant/manufacturer company by name of Ricardo.

by

the

big

engine

The Ricardo engine can be built in either diesel or gasoline form by changing the upper
engine components, in either case the same crankcase/crankshaft/flywheel assembly is
retained. The crankshaft, identical in the gasoline and diesel engines, is machined from
nitriding steel bar, hardened and ground. Two integral balance weights give full rotational
balance. The crankshaft bearings are of the lead bronze plated type, the main bearings are
bushes and the big-end has two half shells. The crankcase is of heavy cast iron
construction with removable side panels and incorporates 2 x 1 kW oil heaters. The
flywheel is of the forged steel disc type incorporating a drive spigot and is machined on
its perimeter to form three tracks of slots for pulse signals as follows:
a)

Speed - 100 pulses/rev.

b)

Ignition timing - I pulse - for use with the gasoline engine, 70 BEFORE TDC.

c)

Static timing marks each 1.

5.2.1 Standard Gasoline Engine


The Ricardo Standard Hydra gasoline engine employs a bath-tub combustion chamber
with vertical valves operated by an overhead camshaft housed in an aluminum alloy
cylinder head. The valves are operated through inverted bucket-type tappets with pallets
between the valve and tappet to set the tappet clearance. The camshaft is driven from the
crankshaft by a two-point belt drive with an adjustable jockey tensioner. Camshaft timing
is adjusted by using slotted holes provided in the camshaft pulley wheel. The piston has a
51

solid skirt, two compression rings and one oil control ring. The piston pin is of fully
floating design. The cylinder is a cast iron barrel with centrifugal cast iron wet liner.
The Air Inlet System:
The standard gasoline inlet system consists of throttle body assembly with servo motor
controlled throttle, plenum chamber, and inlet manifold with fuel injector. The position of
the throttle butterfly is remotely controlled by Autotest IV via the servo module in the
instrumentation rack. The thermocouple signal for Air temperature is passed to Autotest
IV via the isothermal plane. A pressure tapping in the plenum chamber is connected to a
pressure transducer in the instrument boom
The Ignition System:
The gasoline engine ignition system is a conventional coil and spark plug arrangement
with the primary coil circuit operated by a "Lumenition" electronic ignition unit. Signals
from the flywheel pick-ups are processed by the electronic system which enables Autotest
IV control of the ignition timing or from the control console under manual status and
provides the ignition trigger signal at the appropriate time.
The Fuel Injection System:
The fuel conditioning module supplies fuel to the engine via pipework incorporating
temperature and pressure measurement tapings. In this system the fuel conditioning
module feeds fuel in a loop circuit to the solenoid operated injector. Excess fuel returns to
the fuel conditioning module which controls the fuel pressure at the injector to 2 bars. The
injector opening point is sensed from the camshaft. The fuel quantity delivered per engine
cycle is determined by the opening period of the injector.
5.2.2 Standard Diesel Engine
The Ricardo Standard Hydra diesel engines have an overhead camshaft in an aluminum
alloy cambox, operating vertical valves housed in a cast iron cylinder head. The engines
utilize a Comet Mk V pre-chamber for the IDI engine, and a toroidal bowl in the piston
for the DI engine. The valves are operated through inverted bucket type tappets with
pallets between the valve and tappet to set the tappet clearance. The camshaft is driven
from the crankshaft by a two-point belt drive with an adjustable jockey tensioner, (i.e. in
the same way as on the gasoline engine). The Bosch VE rotary fuel injection pump is
flange mounted with the facility to vary the timing of the injection whilst the engine is
running. The piston has a solid skirt, two compression rings, and one oil control ring, and
is cooled from below by an oil jet supplied from the lubrication system. The piston pin is
of fully floating design. The cylinder is a cast iron barrel with centrifugal cast iron wet
liner.

52

The Inlet System:


The standard diesel inlet system consists of a cast aluminum alloy inlet manifold with
temperature and pressure tapings. The temperature signal is provided by a thermocouple
and fed to Autotest. The pressure tapping is connected to a pressure transducer on the
instrument boom.
Fuel Injection System:
The fuel conditioning system provides fuel to the Bosch VE fuel injection pump. Recirculation from the injection pump is returned to the fuel conditioning system along with
the injector leak off. The fuel temperature at the injection pump inlet is monitored. The
quantity of fuel injected during each engine cycle is controlled by the position of the
fueling lever on the injection pump.
5.3

THE AUXILIARY SYSTEMS

5.3.1 Base Frame Assembly


The engine is mounted on a 450 Kg flexibly supported cast iron block which effectively
reduces the amplitude of engine excited vertically vibratory forces and helps to counteract
torque reaction. This mounting block is attached to a rigid welded base frame by four
rubber mountings which minimize transmitted disturbance to the base frame. The cooling
module and lubricating oil system is bolted on to the base frame to the rear of the engine
mounting block. The remaining part of the base frame is occupied by the dynamometer
assembly.
5.3.2 The Coolant System
The lubricating oil and coolant circulation pumps are mounted inside the base frame, a
grill at each side providing ventilation to the motors. The coolant is drawn from the
bottom of the header tank and pumped through the heat exchanger before passing out to
the engine block and cylinder head. The outlet pipe leading to the engine passes through
an electrical heater to maintain coolant temperature during motoring tests. A
thermocouple is provided in this line to monitor engine inlet temperatures.
The cooling module is an assembly consisting of:

Lubricating oil and coolant circulating pumps.


Cooler assembly with integral oil filter and oil and coolant heat exchangers.
Pressurized header tank for the coolant.
Oil and coolant temperature control sensors and associated motorized valves.

53

5.3.3 The Oil System


The lubricating oil is contained in the engine sump. The engine crankcase
incorporates the filler/level dipstick and the sump drain in the form of a self-sealing
coupling. The mating half of the coupling is supplied loose for attachment to a suitable
hose so that the oil can be drained into a container. The oil is drawn from the sump and
pumped through the heat exchanger, oil filter, and temperature sensor pocket, before
returning to the main oil gallery in the crankcase.
The oil is pressure fed to the crankshaft and big end bearings, and camshaft bearings. A
pressure switch on the engine provides a signal to Autotest and a warning lamp on the
control console if the oil pressure fails. A thermocouple provides the oil temperature
signal to Autotest via the isothermal plane.
5.3.4 Fuel System
A pressurized customer fuel supply is fed into the service module to an isolation valve
accessed at the back of the service module. From there it passes through a strainer to a
fuel measurement system. Fuel feed and return are circulated around the engine via the
Fuel Conditioning Module, fixed to the side of the service module. This unit houses a
pump which draws fuel from the vapor separator container and pumps it to the engine via
a fine filter and Temperature control system.

Figure 22 Hydra Fuel Conditioning system


In figure Fuel pump, Fuel lines, conditioner, separator, pressure regulator can be seen

54

5.3.5 Manual Control Station


This unit houses the controls and cables necessary for manual control operation and
allows the operator to manually control key test bed or engine parameters and monitor the
same by means of analogue and digital displays. The displayed parameters are as
follows:TORQUE

0 - 100 Nm

SPEED

0 - 10000 rpm

THROTTLE/RACK 0 - 100% representing opening


IGNITION ANGLE 0 to 100 ignition advance
INJECTION PERIOD 0 - 20 ms Fuel injector power pulse width
In these last four of these can be manually controlled or varied.
5.4

DYNAMOMETER

A dynamometer is an apparatus that measures mechanical force, speed, or power/Torque.


In a typical dynamometer test cell testing an engine, motor or transmission is coupled to
the dynamometer via couplings and a drive shaft. When the device under test is running,
the dynamometer can exert a braking force on it. Sensors attached on the dynamometer
measure engine (or other device) speed and torque. Knowing these values, the
dynamometer can be used to calculate engine-power output. Dynamometers allow us to
reproduce a desired speed or torque for a test under controlled conditions.
These are broadly: Engine dynos and Chassis dynos.
With engine dynos the engine is attached directly to the dynamometer. Chassis dynos
measure the engine output at the wheel. There are basically two types of dynos.

Steady-state (brake) dynamometers


Inertial dynamometers.

5.4.1 Inertial Dynamometers


Inertia dynos are quickly becoming the preferred method for obtaining the most accurate
"real world" results in dyno testing for racing applications. Inertia dynos more closely
simulate the dynamic conditions created when accelerating an engine under load,
therefore giving more accurate and repeatable results time after time.
5.4.2 Steady State dynamometers
A steady state dyno has the advantage that an engine can be loaded up and held at a
constant speed. This can be used to find a miss at a certain speed or tune the engine for
maximum power at a certain speed etc. The disadvantage of these types of dynamometers
55

is that they are expensive (compared to inertial type) and they are more complex. These
dynos also need regular calibration of a load cell if they actually use one.
5.4.3 Types of Dynamometers based on Working
Eddy current or electromagnetic brake
Magnetic powder brake
Electric motor/generator
Fan brake
Hydraulic brake
Mechanical friction brake
Water brake
Features of the listed dynamometers are mentioned here:

Features

Water Brake

Eddy
Current

Motoring Ability

No

No

Yes

Yes

Excellent

DC

AC

Control Stability

Low

Good

Very
Good

Speed Capability

High

High

Moderate

High

Power Line Regeneration

No

No

Yes

Yes

Control Response

Slow

Moderate Fast

Fastest

Cooling Requirements

High

High

Low

Low

Electrical Requirements

None

Low

High

High

Technology

Old

Old

Old

New

Power Range

High

High

Moderate

Moderate

Table 4 Features of different Dynamometers


Dynamometer installed in Hydra Engine test bench is a type of Steady-State Electric
motor/generator dynamometer used for engine data measurement. So it is discussed here:
56

5.4.4 Electric Motor/Generator Dynamometer


Electric motor/generator dynamometers are a specialized type of adjustable-speed drive.
The absorption/driver unit of dynamometer can be either an alternating current (AC)
motor or a direct current (DC) motor. Either an AC motor or a DC motor can operate as a
generator that is driven by the unit under test or a motor that drives the unit under test.
When equipped with appropriate control units, electric motor/generator dynamometers
can be configured as universal dynamometers. The control unit for an AC motor is
a variable-frequency drive, while the control unit for a DC motor is a DC drive. In both
cases, regenerative control units can transfer power from the unit under test to the electric
utility.
In engine testing, universal dynamometers can not only absorb the power of the engine,
but can also drive the engine for measuring friction, pumping losses, and other factors.
Electric motor/generator dynamometers are generally more costly and complex than other
types of dynamometers.
5.4.5 Hydra Dynamometer
The dynamometer is a DC machine rated at 400V, 93A, 37 kW. The unit is force
ventilated by an electrically driven fan mounted on the base frame adjacent to the
dynamometer. The dynamometer carries two torque arms each of which has a weight
which can be adjusted in its slotted mounting hole to achieve static balance. The right
hand torque arm (viewed from the engine) is connected through a load limiting device, to
a 20 Kg load cell mounted on a stand from the base plate, the electrical signal from the
load cell providing a torque (Nm) signal to Autotest. Since the dynamometer can both
load and motor the engine, a weight hanger is provided on each torque arm so that the
load cell can be calibrated for both clockwise and anti-clockwise torque reaction.
It can act as a DC motor to drive the engine during starting and motoring operations, or as
a DC generator when loading the engine. During loading the DC power from the
dynamometer is converted to 3 phase AC by the converter unit and fed back into the
mains supply. A tacho-generator mounted on the dynamometer shaft provides a speed
signal.
5.4.6 Dynamometer Usage
Dynamometers are useful in the development and refinement of modern engine
technology. The concept is to use a dyno to measure and compare power transfer at
different points on a vehicle, thus allowing the engine or drive-train to be modified to get
more efficient power transfer. For example, if an engine dyno shows that a particular
engine achieves 400 Nm of torque, and a chassis dynamo shows only 350 Nm one
would know to look to the drive-train for the major improvements.

57

5.4.7 Types of Dynamometer Test Procedures


There are essentially 3 types of dynamometer test procedures:
Steady state: where the engine is held at a specified RPM (or series of usually
sequential RPMs) for a desired amount of time by the variable brake loading as
provided by the PAU (power absorber unit). These are performed with brake
dynamometers.
Sweep test: the engine is tested under a load (i.e. inertia or brake loading), but
allowed to "sweep" up in RPM, in a continuous fashion, from a specified lower
"starting" RPM to a specified "end" RPM. These tests can be done with inertia or
brake dynamometers.
Example chart generated while modeling a simple engine model in GT Power

Figure 23 Steady state Power Rpm sweep test


Transient test: usually done with AC or DC dynamometers, the engine power
and speed are varied throughout the test cycle. Different test cycles are used in
different jurisdictions.

Figure 24 Transient sample test for Torque


58

5.5

VARIALBE HYDRA PARAMETERS AND CONTROL PANEL

A computer controlled system is provided with the test bench to control several inlets,
exhaust, engine, cooling system, and other auxiliary systems attributes, conditions on
demand. Computer system is interfaced with Hydra systems hardware using aid of
software provided by name of AutoTest.

Figure 25 Digital AutoTest input window


As several sensors, pumps, heaters, mechanical actuators are installed which can be used
to change to our desired limitations or conditions when required from following
5.5.1 Variable Parameters:
Dyno Speed = 0 ~ 5500 rev/min
Inlet Air heater control
Fuel cooling
Fuel Heating
Ignition Timing Control
Injection Period = 0 ~ 20ms
Throttle Position Control = 0 ~ 100 %
Static Injection timing (For Diesel)
59

5.6

ENGINE MEASURED AND ACQUIRED DATA

To model an engine of engine simulation software it requires huge amount of data which
needs to be fed into it for accurate results and make a fine model. The majority of data
have been manually measured or few of it provided by technical manual by source of
long correspondence from Ricardo the manufacturer of engine, which is installed in
Hydra Test bench setup.
For modeling purpose their needs three types of data:

Geometric Data
Operating Data
And Environment data

For Geometric data of engine, inlet and exhaust system, which were not provided and had
to be found and how it was measured is described here.
5.6.1 Inlet/Exhaust System Measurement
Geometric data such as Inner Dia, outer dia, length, shape, material of following:
Air Filter, Air box, Air heater runners, plenum runner, Exhaust pipes
Using Vernier caliper, measuring tape and scale. Figures of dis-assembled components
are mentioned below:

Figure 26 Air filter and Air box


Shape of inside orifices, hole diameters, and thickness was also considered.

60

Whole shape, inside diameter, length, material of Air Heater box, Plenum, throttle
diameter, thickness is also measured for the purpose of developing an accurate model
which accounts for fluid motion in these flow components.

Figure 27 Cylindrical Plenum and Air heater box


The length, shape, angle of bend, material, inside dia of Exhaust/Intake Runners, position
of injectors.

Figure 28 Intake/Exhaust Runners

61

Another important geometry is of the Flow splits, intake and exhaust ports their length,
inner diameters, angle of separation and shape.

Figure 29 Geometric measurement of port geometry


More about Flow Splits will be discussed while modeling of Ricardo Engine.
5.6.2 Engine Head Measurement
In this part Cam lobe profile, Valve train mechanism, follower diameter, angle, valve lash
were measured as most of it was not provided by Ricardo as only Engine cylinder
specifications was available.
Cam lobe profile was measured using dial gauge capable of measuring in millimeters
with least count of 0.01mm

Figure 30 Cam lobe profile measurement

62

Operating condition values and there reason will be defined while in modeling chapter.
Some of the values in table below were provided and some were verified or measured
which were required to make the engine model.
Some important Engine specification and attributes compiled by us into Table is given
below:
Engine Manufacturer
Build
Cams shaft
Compression Ratio
Combustion Chamber
Swept volume
Max Speed
Bore
Stroke
Clearance Volume
Bore Area
Connecting Rod length
TDC clearance height
Wrist Pin to crank offset
Inlet Valve Opening (IVO)
Inlet Valve Closing (IVC)
Inlet Peak
Peak valve lift (mm) In
Valve lash or Tappet Clearance
Valves Head Diameter (mm)
Exhaust Valve Opening (EVO)
Exhaust Valve Closing (EVC)
Exhaust Peak
Peak valve lift (mm) Ex
Valve lash or Tappet Clearance
Valves Head Diameter (mm)
Throttle Diameter
Throttle Pin Thickness

Ricardo
4 valve Gasoline Engine
DOHC
9:1
Cross Flow, Bath Tub
0.44976 L
6000 RPM
80.26mm
88.90mm
56.22 cc
5059.27mm2
158mm
1.2mm
0mm
10 BTDC
48 ABDC
109.25 ATDC
9.56mm (Including lash)
0.45mm
31.45mm + 0.2mm
48 BBDC
10 ATDC
109 BTDC
9.56mm (Including lash)
0.45mm
26.45m + 0.2mm
40mm
7mm

Table 5 Ricardo Engine specifications and attribute chart

The Ricardo engine manual chart, geometric dimensions of its system and geometries,
profile tabular data are given in appendices.

63

6
6.1

CHAPTER 6: FUEL FLOW CALCULATIONS, MEASUREMENT


AND HARDWARE DEVELOPMENT
OUTLINES AND INITIALS

Fuel is the basic energy source of the engine and the combination of fuel with air in the
engines combustion chamber plays a vital role in driving the engines. The air fuel
combination or air fuel ratio affects the engine performance as well as the
emissions/exhaust gases. In case of internal combustion engines, gasoline and diesel are
used, which are blends of different hydrocarbon compounds. Measuring fuel flow into the
engine cylinder is an important factor for performance testing.
For the practical testing of Hydra engine test bench, fuel flow measurement is required
for performance curves calculations as its own meter is malfunctioning. This task is
considered as the preparation and setting up the test bench for engine testing.
In this chapter of Fuel flow meter development following will be discussed for the fuel
flow development, calculations for testing purposes.
A/F mixture combustion
Fuel flow theoretical calculations for specified test cases
Fuel flow meter consideration and selection
Fluid flow level measurement technique
Hardware calculations and development
Working
6.2

STOICHIOMETRIC COMBUSTION

All internal combustion engines depend on combustion of a chemical fuel, typically with
oxygen from the air. The combustion process typically results in the production of a great
quantity of heat, as well as the production of steam and carbon dioxide and other
chemicals at very high temperature. Most common modern fuels are made up of
hydrocarbons and are derived mostly from fossil fuels (petroleum). Internal combustion
engines require ignition of the mixture, either by spark ignition (SI) or compression
ignition (CI).
Stoichiometric or Theoretical Combustion is the ideal combustion process where fuel is
burned completely. The stoichiometric ratio is the perfect ideal air fuel ratio where the
chemical mixing proportion is correct. When all fuel and air burned is consumed without
any excess left over. If an insufficient amount of air is supplied to the engine, unburned
fuel, smoke, and carbon monoxide exhausts from the engine, resulting in heat transfer
surface fouling, pollution, lower combustion efficiency, flame instability and a low
engine power. Hence it is necessary to run an engine at stoichiometric air fuel ratio for the
better performance.
64

6.3

TEST CASES AND FUEL FLOW CALCULATIONS:

For comparing practical testing results with simulations following test cases were made:
WOT, Steady State, Rpm ranges: 1200 to 6000 for 9.0 Compression ratio Engine.
Since maximum power and maximum torque can be obtained at stoichiometric A/F
mixture therefore A/F ratio of 14.7(stoichiometric) was taken.
According to the case setup, the theoretical calculations were made for selecting the
suitable fuel flow meter and determining the minimum fuel mass flow at lowest rpm i.e.
1200rpm and highest 6000rpm. Following are the calculations for the minimum and
maximum fuel flow
Minimum Fuel Flow
Data:
Engine Volume = 0.44976 L = 0.00044976m3
Air Fuel Ratio = 16:1 (Taking Lean for less fuel flow per
second)
Lowest RPM of Hydra Runs = 1200 RPM
The density of petrol ranges from = 0.710.77 kg/l
(719.7 kg/m3)

Temperature
(T) in C

Density of
air() in
kgm3

+35

1.1455

+30

1.1644

+25

1.1839

Calculation:
= 20 RPS
For Four Stroke Cycle =

= 10 Cycles/s

Volumetric Efficiency @1200rpm


=

= 0.7(approx.)

>10 * 0.00044976*0.7 = 0.00314832 m3 /s


>Mass of Air flow per second = 0.00314832 * 1.1455 (@35 Degree)
= 0.003606 kg/s = 3.606 g/s
>Mass of Fuel Flow =

> Fuel Flow in volume =

= 0.2254 g/s

= 0.0002926 L/s

=0.2926 mL/s=17.56 ml/min=1.0537 l/hr.=0.01756 l/min


65

Maximum Fuel Flow


Air Fuel Ratio = 11:1 (Taking Rich for more fuel flow per second)
Max RPM of Hydra Runs = 6000 RPM
Taking Air @25 Degree = 1.1839 kg.m-3
Fuel Density = 0.71 kg/l (taking lowest for max possible fuel flow range)
Calculation:
= 100 RPS
For Four Stroke Cycle =

= 50 Cycles/s

Volumetric Efficiency @6000rpm


=

= 0.85 (approx)

>50 * 0.00044976 *0.85= 0.01911 m3 /s


>Mass of Air flow per second = 0.01911 * 1.1839
= 0.0266235 kg/s = 26.623 g/s
>Mass of Fuel Flow =
>Fuel Flow in volume =

= 2.42 g/s
= 0.003408 L/s

= 3.408 mL/s = 204.48 ml/min=12.26 l/hr = 0.2044l/min


At the lowest rpm the fuel flow was found to be 0.2254 g/s. Similarly for the highest rpm
(6000rpm) the fuel mass flow rate was found to be 2.42 g/s.

6.4

FUEL FLOW METER WORK STUDY AND DETAILS

The fuel flow meter of hydra test bed engine was not functioning and it was a difficult
task to take fuel flow readings while taking the dynamometer readings. Therefore it was
also difficult to maintain the stoichiometric air fuel ratio while running the hydra engine.
Only air mass flow rate was available, but fuel mass flow rate was also needed in order to
set the stoichiometric air fuel ratio.
6.4.1 Alternate Methods of Fuel flow Measurements
After coordination with Cussons Technology via email, a quotation of 9000 Euro had
been provided for the installation of new fuel flow meter. The amount is quite large which
is not feasible for the department to spend on at the moment. Therefore the search for the
alternate way had to be done.
66

After a thorough search the following three options have come under consideration:
1) Using another low cost fuel flow meter.
2) Using electronic balance for fuel mass flow rate.
3) Develop another low cost measuring method for fuel flow measurement.
Search for another fuel flow meter came in to an end without any success. The reasons
were:
The fuel flow meters which had come under the financial range, were not fulfilled
the requirement of minimum fuel flow measurement of the specified range as in
calculations. Like rotor meters, turbine flow, etc.
The fuel flow meters which were sensitive enough to measure the minimum fuel
flow were too expensive like ultrasonic, thermal based as on net.
Previously some students had used the electronic balance to measure the fuel mass flow
rate. The idea was quite good but the problem was that the least count of the electronic
balance was 1gram and according to the calculations made, the fuel mass flow rate was
0.2254 g/s although for steady state testing the average calculation could done over the
time period but there results of fuel flow (experimental tests done by those) were not
satisfying. These will be pointed out in Practical testing chapter.
As there are lot available pressure sensors in market, using one to directly measure
gasoline pressure in burette was inceptive through a level sensing sensor but thoroughly
reading the data sheet it was found that these sensors work on Air. So another method
uncommonly used is using a dip tube method working on hydrostatic pressure with
keeping in view the low cost.
Using the formula: P =

Where, = Density, g = gravity, h = height of liquid column


6.4.2 Fuel Flow Metering using Pressure Sensor with Dip Tube level Measurement
The concept behind measuring the fuel flow rate by using the pressure sensor was that, a
pressure sensor can be used to measure the pressure change of fuel. As the fuel starts
consuming, the level of fuel starts decreasing, hence lowering down the pressure and the
fuel will be exerting pressure on air and so on pressure sensor. By calibrating pressure
change against fuel level change, the fuel flow rate can be measured.
Installing the pressure sensor in the fuel tank was to be the useless approach, because the
level of fuel in the fuel tank is not as high as the fuel can exert much pressure which the
sensor can sense. In other words the fuel level change occurs very slowly in the fuel tank
as it has low height and wide area. Therefore a burette was used, as it has an appreciable
height and an appropriate fuel pressure can also be obtained.
67

The dip tube system uses a small tube inserted from the top of the tank that reaches
almost to the bottom of the tank. The dip tube is connected to the pressure sensor or
indicating gauge. The pressures involved are very low, being in the order of a few Pascal.
Dip tubes are used in all sorts of industrial and commercial applications where the liquid
level in some sort of a tank has to be read out in a remote location.
It uses a small amount of compressed air to pressurize the "dip tube", which has been
previously inserted into the tank to near the bottom of the tank. The air pressure is used to
expel the tank liquid in the dip tube. The amount of air pressure developed within the dip
tube is proportional to the level of the liquid in the tank at the bottom end of the dip tube.
By measuring the air pressure in the dip tube with pressure sensor or pressure gauge, the
level of the liquid in the tank can be measured and indicated at a nearby, or a remote
location. It takes more air pressure to blow bubbles out of the end of the dip tube when
the tank is full as compared to when the tank is nearly empty. It is just like blowing
through a soda straw. The more soda in the cup, the harder you have to blow to make the
bubbles come out the end of the straw.
For a fuel tank, be it diesel, or gasoline, air is satisfactory.

Figure 31 Fuel flow measurement initial drawn figure

68

At industrial level, the fuel tanks are very large and have great heights, hence the pressure
in the tanks is also huge therefore a pressure gauge (dial pressure gauge) can be directly
used. But in case of small fuel tanks and containers, pressure is very low and pressure
gauge cant sense those pressures. Therefore pressure sensors with microcontrollers and
digital displays are used to measure these small pressures instead of pressure gauges.
Regardless of the type of air pressure sensor used, it is important that the sensor
calibration be compatible with the pressure range for the level in the tank/burette. As
previously from fuel consumption calculations 50ml burette would be sufficient for
steady state time duration and being the only available in suitable height. Burette had to
be customized and fabricated accordingly as shown in figure with inclined discharge
nozzle customized above the zero height to avoid any velocity pressure effects on
trapped air in dip tube.

Now for the appropriate range of pressure sensor was to be sort out for the given
conditions.
6.4.3 Pressure Sensor Selection Calculations
According to the minimum and maximum fuel flow rate, there was a need to calculate the
minimum and maximum pressure so that a pressure sensor would be used which fulfill
the required minimum and maximum pressure range for the 50ml burette.
Following calculations had been made for the minimum and maximum pressure against
minimum and maximum fuel flow rate.
Calculations
If taken Burette of 50ml
It has height of approx. 52.5cm from 0 to 50ml
Taking full height from bottom Nozzle to top its 65cm = 0.65m
So max pressure at the bottom will be:
Fuel density = 750kg/m3
g = 9.82 m/s2
P=

* g *h

= 9.82 * 750* 0.65 = 4788Pa

(Due to temperature difference in Lab, Density difference, height of burette it may exceed
5Kpa)
69

Gravity(m/s2) Density(Kg/m3) Height Column(m)


9.82
9.82
9.82
9.82
9.82
9.82
9.82
9.82
9.82
9.82

750
750
750
750
750
750
750
750
750
750

Pressure(Pa)
0.65
0.6
0.55
0.5
0.45
0.4
0.35
0.3
0.25
0.2

4787.25
4419
4050.75
3682.5
3314.25
2946
2577.75
2209.5
1841.25
1473

368.25
368.25
368.25
368.25
368.25
368.25
368.25
368.25
368.25

Table 6 Pressure vs change in height chart

Figure 32 Pressure vs change in height column chart

From the chart it can be seen pressure varies linearly with change in height Column.
So for minimum pressure sensors sensitivity calculations, considering the available
market sensor and its specifications as known characteristics, calculations are down as
following:

70

Sensor Selection:
Calculation
Taking Pressure sensor = 0 10Kpa (max pressure in burette may exceed 5kpa)
Analog sensors are capable of producing least output voltage. The micro-controller has
10-bit Analog-to-Digital converter, meaning that it can represent 0-5v on its input on
scale. So 210 = 1024 > 0 1023 steps.
Voltage output from ADC represents pressure. 5v/1024 = 4.88mV/step. It is least
voltage count. Against voltage least pressure will be fed into microcontroller.
10,000/1024 = 9.765 ~ 9.8 Pa/step or 9.8Pa/4.88mV
microcontroller can count)
P= * g * h => 750 kg/m3 * 9.82 * h = 9.8Pa
h= 0.1331cm

(Minimum reading

If Taken burette of 50ml, then 0-50ml height in burette= 52.5cm


=> 50/52.5 = 0.9524ml/cm (in 1cm height)
0.9524 * 0.1331 = 0.12676ml (least ml reading it can measure in 50ml burette of
52.5cm height)

For Engine Lowest RPM(1200)


Fuel consumption is = 0.293ml/s (Taken from previous calculation)
Means in 50ml Burette with height of 52.5cm from 0-50ml
= >1.05cm/ml * 0.293ml/s = 0.31cm/s
But Sensor accuracy is 0.1331cm <0.31cm.
So 0-10Kpa sensor may work and could take reading at every second.

The height of the burette which is being used is approximately 52.5cm from 0ml mark to
50ml mark.
Then according to the above calculations, pressure sensor can be calibrated to the least
count of 9.8 Pascal per 0.12676ml of liquid in burette. Means if there will be a change
in volume of 0.1267ml occurs in the burette then the pressure sensor will sense 9.8 Pascal
against it.

71

The change in pressure against fuel column height divided into flow of volume least
count computed is programmed into microcontroller to measure, acquisition the pressure
readings and send output signals to LED display.
For the required pressure range pressure sensor, there various used sensors are available
like gauge, differential sensors. Filtering and narrowing down the search with the known
required specification like Differential, high voltage output and 0-10kPa range. Going
through various data sheet and market survey available pressure sensor with these
configurations were of model:
1) MPX 5010

2) MPX 2010

In second electronic market survey MPX5010 was not available anymore. Which was a
better sensitive model with high output voltage range i.e 0-5V. As in the case of
MPX2010 it has low full scale output range of 0-25mV. So use of voltage amplifier was
required for increasing least count range.

The MPX2010 series silicon piezo-resistive strain gauge pressure


sensors provide a very accurate and linear voltage output directly
proportional to the applied pressure in range of 0-10kPa.

Characteristic
Pressure Range
Supply Voltage
Supply Current
Full Scale Span

Symbol
P
VS
IO
VFSS

Typical
0-10
10
6
25

Units
kPa
Vdc
mAdc
mV

Table 7 Differential pressure sensor characteristics and figure


These are typical meaningful values of sensor, which are of interest, the full Sensor data
sheet catalogue can be found on net with name Freescale Semiconductor MPX2010.
Besides data sheet is also provided in soft copy.
The nozzle dimension for the dip tube to be attached is obtained from data sheet which is
found to be 4.2mm outer Diameter.
The sensor will be attached in the same position as shown in the concept figure with the
electronic hardware to be attached.
Besides bringing required hardware components, calculations, developing fuel flow
idea, burette, equipment, usage of pressure sensor, flow rate calculations, working of
this meter. Programming and electronic hardware had to be done with aid of external
concerned field engineer.
72

6.4.4 Sensor Electronic Hardware:


Although schematic layout is defined for general idea of electronic hardware working, as
fuel flow equipment working is already defined before. And also the brief details of the
electronic components used.

Power Supply

Regulator

Pressure
Sensor

Microcontroller

Voltage
Amplifier

ADC

CPU

Ports

Seven
Segment
Display

Figure 33 Sensor electronic hardware schematic

Pressure Sensor (MPX2010) has been defined before.

Voltage amplifier (OP-amp LM234) as explained is used to 25mV output of senor


to 5V for better voltage per pressure divisions

Microcontroller (PIC16F877a) takes voltage amplifier as input and with defined


readings in microcontroller programming compute the pressure reading and then
into flow reading and then signals to LED display. *In the current hardware only
output in terms of 0 1023 digits (each amplifier voltage input is divided into
1024 steps) and is being shown instead of these steps against pressure or volume
of liquid, as pressure against fuel height is not included due to time required for
hardware.
In programming as mentioned, the pressure and volume against the voltage steps
has not be defined due to time required for fuel pressure calibration with testings
in burette. But this has been defined to continuously show the varying height
(decreasing) and in other microcontroller the pressure (steps) difference from P1
to P2 change after some time i.e taken 5 seconds for better accurate results. As
from previous calculation sensor can pick up approximately 3 readings in a
second.

LED Display is seven segments Four block LED Display for up to four digits
values.

Regulator is used to control current in power supply.


73

Power supply is DC source from 12v adaptor supplying to microcontroller,


Sensor, voltage amplifier and LED display as shown in the schematic.

Circuit is made with external person guidance, thats why not included in chapter but
included in reference, appendices and description is in this chapter.
6.5

FUEL FLOW METER

Figure 34 Fuel flow meter hardware


These hardware shows burete, sensor, electronic hardware and the last pic with random
reading with pressure applied on the sensor nozzle.
Hardware development process, calculations, problems has been discussed with all the
charactersitcs defined. Only little more work of calibrating and feeding calibrated values
into microcontroller is required to meet the range of specific conditions fuel flow data
acquistion while performing any test cases. Total cost incurred was approximately Rs.
3800. And which as compared with digital sensitive weight machine or any
rotor/mechanical device which were too expensive for liquid flow calculations as per the
tests requirements.
Referencing material such as data sheet of sensor is provided in soft copy and other links
in Bibliograph section. And for electronic hardware, circuit diagram is provided in the
Appendices for referecing and studying.

74

7
7.1

CHAPTER 7: HYDRA ENGINE MODELING

OUTLINES AND INITIALS

One of the goals of this project is not only to create a working engine model for
validation but also to document the process of constructing an engine model for future
use. Only a single cylinder model will be discussed throughout, however much of this
information is still applicable to a multi-cylinder engine model.
Although, the modeling and validation have been already perform in Benchmarking but
most of the data was provided. For self-study of methods to perform, modeling hurdles,
theoretical knowledge and its process which needs to be done for advanced learning
regarding computational simulation, and its working and also to provide the working
computational model of it of the departments lab engine test bench for further use for
research and learning purposes.
For developing the Hydra Engine single cylinder model (Actually will be referred to as
Ricardo Engine).
In this chapter of Hydra Engine modeling following will be discussed, as the important
part of the project:
Intro to Ricardo Engine, specification and measured data
Data arrangement and sorting
GT Power model creation
Mapping of components, graphic modeling
Studying the required advanced input data
Setting attributes, setting conditions and scientific reasoning
A model in GT Power is basically made up of:
Components, Connection, and References
Components could be types of pipes, Cylinders, etc. Connections are as by word objects
which are used between the actual components like between pipes for connecting like
Orifices, throttle. etc. References mostly define the Advance input of the material, fluid,
being analyzed and its properties and characteristics. As in engine model the working
fluid is compressible gas or Air/Fuel mixture being analyzed. These three components are
separately available for Flow library tree, Mechanical tree, Control tree, etc. and other
system trees.
As in modeling of the Ricardo engine there are many flow components being used, so
in general the specific components will be defined separately all together and their
attributes which applies to all similar ones. Then later will be briefly defined the reason
to use and any other changes and will be sequentially described leading to the full
model creation.
75

7.2

INTRO TO RICARDO ENGINE

Although the available Ricardo 450cc engine in Hydra engine test bench is already
documented in chapter five. Here the currently installed engine will be discuss for easy
referencing while explaining the model.
The current installed engine major specs are listed in table below:
Engine Manufacturer
Ricardo
Build
4 valve Gasoline Engine
Cams shaft
DOHC
Compression Ratio
9:1
Combustion Chamber
Cross Flow, Bath Tub
Swept volume
0.44976 L
Bore
80.26mm
Stroke
88.90mm
Table 8 Ricardo Engine specifications installed in hydra
Valve timing diagram made using available Intake/Exhaust valve data

Figure 35 Ricardo Engine Valve timing diagram and Engine Picture

It is an electronic fuel injected with manual variable fuel injection duration; engine is
directly coupled with dynamometer. And its lubrication is done using oil and cooling
using water which is supplied by external power. Valve timing diagram made and shown
above shows the intake and exhaust valve opening and closing time with respect to piston
TDC and BDC position.
Some or little data regarding engine was obtained through extensive correspondence with
the manufacturer while other was measured and compiled.
76

7.3

MODEL SETUP

The engine model is setup by defining some relatively basic inputs and then some more
advanced inputs that require some engine testing. The basic inputs are composed of
engine geometry and boundary conditions. Therefore, all dimensions from the intake and
exhaust ducting, flow components, restrictors, flow controllers must be recorded and fed.
Likewise, manufacturer specifications for internal engine geometry such as bore, stroke,
connector rod length, wrist-pin offset and compression ratio must be input. Initial
conditions such as exhaust temperatures, intake temperatures, and wall temperatures need
to be input as reasonable values. These can be modified to higher accuracy once actual
engine measurements become available.

Figure 36 Modeling process chart


As explained in chapter three for GT Power model creation and description, same way it
will be discussed for every component and combined for same flow components, etc.
Additionally boundary conditions, material properties, defining the components attributes
will also be reasoned here in this chapter. This basically comes under the Pre-Processing
part of engineering problem analysis.
Proceeding pages are all about the modeling of Ricardo engine with all possible detailing.
77

While modeling all the gathered data such as geometrical data measured is documented in
Appendices, as table and engine data compiled into table in chapter five will be used. And
some of other advanced input will be mentioned here which were assumed, calculated,
taken standard values or referenced from other literature.
As the components from intake > engine > exhaust has to be modeled in flow direction
which are technically referred as from Upstream flow and down stream flow. And parts
geometric data which were quite much amount of data, so for easy 1D modeling in GT
the Uni-graphics NX CAD dimensioned model was created as in picture

Figure 37 Labeled Ricardo Intake/Exhaust CAD


78

7.4

FLOW OBJECTS DESCRIPTION AND USAGE IN MODEL

For Intake And Exhaust System:


Pipe component is extensively used to model some parts of intake and exhaust
geometry. Pipe object model flow through tubes with either constant or tapered
diameter. Several pipe templates are available in GT power to accommodate a variety of
cross sectional geometries. Most of the used are circular cross section pipe.
Data entered into flow components are used to determine to automatically calculate the
pressure loss coefficients that account for the associated head losses.

Figure 38 Pipe Circular Object template


The figure of Circular object template and screen shot of Air Intake Runner component of
Ricardo engine model, shows several attributes available to fill and important ones to
calculate pressure losses, or for thermal analysis in these flow components are available.
The Pipe templates are set up with three folders: the Main folder contains attributes the
user must enter for each pipe object like its geometrical values, temperature, material
property and fluid to be pass, the Bend folder used to optionally model a bent pipe, and an
Options folder contains advanced input capability for user defining or imposing fluid and
thermal coefficients values.
As in template screen shot, Diameter of pipe for inlet and outlet of the pipe and length
describes geometrical input.
*Inlet and Outlet of pipe refers to the Fluid entering into and leaving respectively.
79

7.4.1 Discretization Length


Discretization length is like Finite Element Method for calculation of the specific flow
result in the pipe and considering it boundary value problems. Discretization is the
splitting of large parts into smaller sections to improve a models accuracy. There are two
ways in which a fluid system is discretized. The first is to break the system up into several
different components such as several pipes and/or flow-splits. The second is by
discretizing a Pipe part in to multiple sub-volumes, each performing their own
calculations as explained in section 3.2.
Larger discretization lengths will normally result in faster simulation time, but sometimes
this is at the expense of accuracy. Finer discretization may result in better accuracy and
resolution, but with longer computational times. There is a limit at which decreasing the
discretization length provides little or no increase in accuracy, and only adds
computational time.
There are some general recommendations provided by most of the engine simulation
softwares for selecting a discretization length. Typical values depend on the application,
as discussed below:
A discretization length of approximately 0.4 times the cylinder bore diameter is
recommended for the intake system and 0.55 times the bore is recommended for
the exhaust system. The difference in the recommendation for intake and exhaust
discretization is the result of differences in the speed of sound due to the
temperature. The discretization length should be decreased for any simulations
that will require higher frequency analysis such as acoustics or engine
performance above 6000 RPM.
As in the Air runner Pipe object of intake system in figure:
Ricardo Cylinder bore dia = 80.26mm
Discretization length = 0.4 * 80.26 = 32mm
Means the pipe length of 174.75mm will be divided into 5.5 parts
*If any pipe is shorter than the discretization length then it should be merged with the
preceding flow component or discretization length be set as zero.
For Exhaust System Port Pipe named ExPort this can be seen in Engine map of Ricardo
later in following pages:
Ricardo Cylinder bore dia = 80.26mm
Discretization length = 0.55 * 80.26 = 44mm
Means the Port pipe length of 90mm will be divided into 2 parts. Same method of
calculating discretization length is used in all other flow components.
80

7.4.2 Surface Roughness


It is the parts material property to account for pressure losses due to friction caused by
the materials roughness. This attribute gives choices of materials that may be used to
specify the surface roughness. This value will influence the pressure drop through the
flow components, but in many situations it has a more significant effect on the heat
transfer coefficient, and therefore the fluid temperature. Following is the chart of some
material corresponding surface roughness data provided:

Table 9 Surface roughness data chart


As in the Air runner Pipe object of intake system in figure:
It is made of Steel in intake system of Ricardo engine which corresponds to value of
0.046.
Surface Roughness has been defined in every flow component be it Pipes of any cross
section, flow-splits, bends.
*As in Appendixes table of Measured Intake/Exhaust System geometries chart every
parts geometry and material is defined so surface roughness shape wouldnt be discussed
here separately for each intake and exhaust component
Following materials in software are defined representing components material roughness:

Steel =

Drawn

For initial intake parts as given in manual of Ricardo


Metal

Equivalent

to

Aluminum

Roughness

(as

on

For Plenum, Heater box, Runners, Intake runner

Cast iron =

Light Rust steel = For exhaust Runner

For Intake and Exhaust Ports, Flow splits, Exhaust pipes

81

net)

7.4.3 Initial State Name


It requires the name of the fluid reference object describing the initial conditions inside
the pipe or the fluid flow from the previous object.
The fluid reference object specifies the initial conditions in flow components:
Pressure: Absolute pressure at the start of the simulation.
Temperature: Fluid temperature at the start of the simulation.
Composition: Name of a 'Fluid' reference object that defines the composition at the start
of the simulation.

Figure 39 Fluid flow schematic in Engine


The figure shows the fluid object which will be defined in the respective system, with
specified properties like composition, pressure, temperature.

7.4.4 Orifice Connections

Most flow components are linked with an OrificeConn connection with an icon
An orifice can be used to specify a flow restriction by setting the orifice diameter to be
smaller than the diameter of the two mating components. If there is no diameter
restriction, default may appear when linking two parts and the code will use the smaller
diameter of the two mating components as the orifice diameter.
Discharge co-efficient can be calculated by default in the software. Orifice can be used
for different purposes or representation as for modeling of the engine and details below.
Air Filter: Most engine systems include an air box / filter assembly in the intake system.
The pressure drop across the filter is usually small relative to the expansion/contraction
pressure losses in pipes and boxes. The influence is low on pressure drop so it can be
model as default orifice connection:

82

Perforated Orifice: As in Ricardo Intake there is perforated orifice installed at B labeled


diagram in CAD picture, for air mass flow rate sensing. So in model it also needs to be
added to account the losses. Using same orifice as an air filter but with defining thickness,
holes and diameter of each hole with the aid of 3D CAD.

Throttle: Throttle in automotive applications is to control the air flow rate by varying the
diameter in pipe using electronic or manually wire actuated butterfly (Plate). The angle of
plate could be from zero degree (fully closed) to 90degree (fully open) also known as
Wide Open throttle (WOT).
For varying angle test conditions it requires discharge coefficient which is often not
available. Therefore, one must consider alternative ways to model the throttle since it is
indeed a relevant component of a typical engine.
As the test is to be conducted on WOT, there is one approach is to use orifice connection.
Set the orifice diameter so that its area equals the area of the wide-open throttle, and set
the discharge coefficients to 1. The equivalent orifice diameter can be found by the
following equation:

Dequivalent = Equivalent diameter of the wide-open throttle


Dthrottle = Diameter of the throttle body
T = Thickness of the wide-open throttle vane and pin

Dequivalent =
= 35.26mm Orifice Diameter

We have set WOT in model as we will be only testing on this full load
condition for validation of Hydra engine model.

83

7.4.5 Different Inlet/Outlet Cross Section Pipe


For intake Runner and Exhaust runner there inlet and outlet shapes are Slot and circular
respectively. As there are no available templates for these so they were modeled using
one the module of GT Suite called GEM 3D. This can be used to make CAD model and
convert it into 1D object oriented model for GT Power with effective area of cross
sections and other attributes defined.

Figure 40 GEM3D Intake Runner

Figure 41 GEM3D Exhaust system


These models were converted into object based 1D model to be imported into GT Power.

84

But flow splits from this exported 1D model were removed as the Y-split shaped template
was already available in GT Power. Use of flow splits are defined further in next section.
7.4.6 FlowSplits
As from the name this object is used to describe a flowsplit volume connected to one or
more flow components. The solution of the flowsplit is similar to the pipe but used to
calculate solution on the splitting fluid to different connecting components.
These can be used to model expansion and contraction in flow components to accurately
represent fluid motion in boxes, cylinders, manifolds, etc. with two or more channels of
entry and exit.
There are several types of Flow splits which can be learned from the softwares manual.
Here flow splits have been used are:
FSplit General
FSplit Y
FSplit Sphere (Used in Benchmarking model)
Fsplit General is the most adaptable flowsplit, but it also requires more user input to
define. It is suited for the description of irregular domains for which the predefined
flowsplit geometries are not sufficient. The geometry of the flowsplit general is defined
by the following attributes using the example of Plenum component used in Engine
model. Referencing from the CAD picture the labeled E component Plenum is modeled
with following attributes:
Only added attribute while comparing to pipe component is Volume. This is the volume
of the flowsplit, which could be a cylinder, sphere, or any irregular volume which in case
of plenum of cylindrical shape is 0.0015773018m3. And the other added option is
Boundary data. This is used to model inlet and outlet number of ports with defined angle.

Figure 42 Plenum FSplit Template


85

Link I.D are defining number of ports.


Angles w.r.t X, Y, Z defines port angles
Expansion Diameter This defines the maximum diameter that the flow may expand to
after entering a port (or contract from when leaving a port). Note that it is a function of
the shape inside the flowsplit and is independent of the attached pipe or orifice. The
expansion diameter is used to determine several things:
o The pressure loss due to contraction and expansion
o The kinetic energy loss due to expansion for determining pressure recovery
The basic concept to understand about the expansion diameter is that it is used to model
the contraction and expansion losses. In some cases, the expansion diameter is fairly
obvious, such as in Plenum fluid entering from port 1 to Volume the expansion diameter
will be equivalent to plenum cylindrical diameter = 137mm.

Characteristic Length This is the length that the fluid entering a flowsplit may travel
before its path is impeded either by a wall or by the flow boundary at another port. This
length represents the distance traveled by flow and pressure waves across the flow
domain. The characteristic length is typically defined as the user-chosen length of the
flowsplit, ideally the discretization length.

Figure 43 Plenum FSplit 3D perspective view


86

FSplit Y represents a typical Y-shaped junction of three pipes in the same plane. A
common application for this object is to model multi-valve engine intake and exhaust
ports.

Figure 44 FSplit Y sketch


This type of component is used in modeling Y shaped Flow split of intak and exhaust
ports.
The volume of this flowsplit is automatically calculated as a cylinder with diameter D and
length L. The angle is the half angle of the Y relative to the centerline of port 1. As flow
for intake port flowsplit the A/F mixture enters from port 1 and splits into port 2 and port
3 the contraction will be calculated automatically. And for exhaust flowsplit the burned
gas from cylinder enters from port 3 and 2 and joins into port 1 the expansion diameter
will be half the port 1 diameter occupied.
This flow is called In-Phase flow. The exhaust flow split representation is below:

Figure 45 Exhaust Y - FSplit 3D perspective view

87

7.5

FUEL INJECTION

Ricardo engine has an electronically actuated port injection fuel system, with fuel injector
inserted in intake runner. Fuel (or any other fluid) may be injected into flow components
by linking one of the fuel injector components. We will be using the sequential pulse fuel
injector named InjAFSeqConn.
This injector can be used for all engine simulations for which the fuel is pulse injected
with an imposed air-to-fuel ratio. The user imposes the fuel-to-air ratio, and the resultant
injection pulse depends on opening duration of injector for the injection event.

Figure 46 Fuel injector templates


Some attributes which were defined for injector installed in intake system:
Injector delivery rate was unknown so, it was estimated using:

where:
mDelivery = Injector Delivery Rate (g/s) , V = volumetric efficiency (fractional)
ref = reference density used to calculate volumetric efficiency (kg/m3)
NRPM = engine speed (RPM), VD = engine displacement (liters)
F/A = engine fuel-to-air ratio, #CYL = number of cylinders
PulseWidth = injection duration (crank degrees)
Hydra engine test bench was run to get required parameters
88

Inputs
volumetric efficiency
reference density for volef
engine speed
engine displacement
engine fuel-to-air ratio
number of cylinders
injection duration

Units

Values
fraction
kg/m^3
RPM
liters
ratio
n
crank degrees

0.9
1.2
3500
0.449
0.0689
1
238

Max mass flow rate capability = 3 g/s


Fuel Ratio: Can be set to A/F or F/A and also able to define the ratio or array of varying
ratio. In our case stoichiometric will be used which is near 14.7 A/F ratio
Air Mass flow rate: is like a software sensor to define position from where the air flow
rate will be measured which is likely to be an orifice component in intake system.
Injection timing angle: As injector here is port injected and intake valve starts opening
at 10BTDC so 350 degree is input to start injecting the fuel with air.
Injector location: 0.7 length of the intake runner is where injector is positioned
Injecting fluid temperature: This is entered as a parameter so it will be easier to enter
fuel temperature value while preparing the test run of simulation and of the actual
temperature of fuel in lab.
Fluid object: Here fluid object is gasoline as the practical test bench will take place on
gasoline.
Fuel which is used in Simulation is Indolene. Indolene is a form of gasoline used in
testing because it is standardized and has no additives. And it is used mainly for research
and testing purposes. One source cites an indolene with a pump octane rating of 91.5.
However in practical testing, the available gasoline is of normally 88-89 octane rating,
but the indolene with higher octane rating doesnt effect on power output as mostly
energy density is same and it is more considered for emissions and knock resistant. Fixed
compression ratio is being tested here so knock resistance is also out of consideration
here.
Vaporized Fuel Fraction
It is defined as mass fraction of the injected liquid that will vaporize immediately after
injection. For a typical port-injected gasoline engine, a normal value is 0.3.

89

7.6

IN/EX VALVES TRAIN

The Ricardo engine has Double Over Head Camshaft (DOHC) valve train layout (also
known as 'dual overhead camshaft') is characterized by two camshafts located within
the cylinder head, one operating the intake valves and one operating the exhaust valves
with direct-acting mechanical bucket valve train mechanism. The single cylinder engine
consists of two intake valves operated by one camshaft and two exhaust valves operated
by the other.
Taking reference from the measured geometries of port and cam lobe profile from chapter
five and also from the valve timing diagram with the following valves specification we
can compute the required valves lift or displacement against crank/Cam angle.
Valve opening
Valve closing
Peak lift Angle
Peak lift (mm)
Valve lash (mm)
Valve head diameter (mm)

Intake Valves
10 BTDC
48 ABDC
109 ATDC
9.55
0.45
31.45

Exhaust Valves
48 BBDC
10 ATDC
109 BTDC
9.55
0.45
26.45

Table 10 Ricardo Valves specifications


Angles and diameters were provided, but the valve lash which was measured using feeler
gauge and cam lobe profile using dial gauge.

Figure 47 Valves connection template


This object defines the characteristics of a cam-driven valve including its geometry, lift
profile, and flow characteristics.
Valve Reference Diameter: Intake valve head diameter is inserted
Valve Lash: Although lash in real engine is 0.45mm but here zero is shown because it is
already considered in VT design tool which is discussed in following pages.

90

The last three attributes relates to the Cam angle Timing and Lift Array. This value is
used to phase the lift array properly within the engine cycle with valve timings.
Advanced and Scalars: Are used to imposed user conditions and any multipliers.
Lift Array: Its attribute consist of valve lift array and cam timing angle array, which
were computed by following method:
As the GT-Power model requires valve lift/displacement against cam angle to be input in
valve connection component, we used GT suite module of VT Design for getting the
valves follower lift using cam lobe profile and other measurements.

Figure 48 Valves train kinematic analysis


In valvetrain kinematic analysis, usually the motion of the (poppet) valve, i.e. valve lift, is
specified as a function of cam angle, and all other motions are solved for.
The screenshot is of Ricardo valve train, with defined geometry inputs and cam lobe
profile (in Appendices Cam lobe profile versus Cam angle) which were measured using
Vernier scale, Feeler gauge, and dial gauge. Then it was simulated to obtain the
followers motion. But due to little bumps in lift graph, smoothing function was applied
on the data.

91

Figure 49 VT Design follower smoothed lift


Then it was imported to GT Power which after valve model simulation the valve lift was
generated against engine cycle. (Exhaust valve and intake valves has same lift profile as
measured)

Figure 50 In/Ex valve lift of Ricardo


Near 360 TDC it shows the over lapping of intake and exhausts valves. Max valves peak
lift is at 9.55mm.

92

Flow Arrays: Is also important attribute in valves, which defines the discharge
coefficient for the A/F mixture at certain valves lift. As for this values there needs to be
require Flow Bench test equipment, from it pressure and mass flow rate is measured at
different lifts then these values are used to calculate discharge coefficient using complex
fluid equation. So a report was found with similar valves configuration and their
experimental data was inputted in the flow array. Data was interpolated from the
following graph extracted from the report.

Figure 51 Flow coefficient chart for valves


L/D defines the lift of valve over the valve head diameter.
7.7

CYLINDER

Cylinder component represents the flow modeling in the cylinder of engine. This object is
used to specify the attributes of engine cylinder which is also an important component of
the model and defines the most of the advanced inputs required like the way of
Combustion, Heat transfer model and fluid composition.

Figure 52 Cylinder template Ricardo Model


93

Figure 53 Wiebe, HT and Cylinder temperature values


Use of combustion model, which is normally derived through advanced cylinder pressure
analysis, so standard model SI Wiebe is used and its already described in chapter three.
As well as Heat transfer model of cylinder which is used to calculate heat transferred/lost
from cylinder.
The heat transfer object which is used by heat transfer model to specify the in-cylinder
chamber's surface temperatures for heat transfer calculations. The values fed are typically
for Full-Load conditions.
7.8

CRANK TRAIN

A mechanical system and last part to place in model which defines the Engine cylinder
Geometry, engine cycle type, engine speed to run, Frictions in the system and the
ignition(firing order) in the cylinder.

Figure 54 CrankTrain attributes of Ricardo Model


CrankTrain object, Main template and Friction model template.

94

Main: It basic functions and attributes values are:


Engine Cycles
Engine is Four Stroke or Two Stroke
Engine Speed
Speed can be imposed, but in this model a variable parameter is fed to run several RPM
while testing different case setups.
Friction Model
Defining of Friction model for the whole CrankTrain assembly. Friction model also
effects huge changes on performance output as studied in Benchmark testing. Here
Chynn-Flynn Friction model is defined.
This is a standard composition of all types of frictions is considered in the cylinder like
sliding friction, crank shaft assembly, cylinder wall, pumping losses. As it is difficult to
measure these frictions, standard is used as provided in software manual and it is briefly
defined in chapter three.
Cylinder Geometry
Such as Bore, Stroke, Connecting Rod Length, TDC Clearance height, Compression ratio
is fed here. For Ricardo engine these specs are documented as table shown in chapter
five.
Firing Order
By term it means the ignition timing angle in cylinder, if multiple cylinders then firing
interval is defined for each cylinder. But here model is only single cylinder so firing will
occur every two cycles so the value will be 1.
7.9

MODEL MAP SETUP AND ENGINE MODELS

Finally parts are placed on map as in order of components, rechecked the values, data,
attributes. Parts are linked accordingly keeping in check of connection numbers. Flow
components are arranged to avoid any misplacement. Model as made and linked as the
real engine systems are connected to each other.
It can be seen in model pictures the parts linked, arranged in order and the flow
components path in another picture.
Intake System > Engine > Exhaust System
In the next chapter model case setup will be made as in the practical testing and also for
simulations. What outputs are required, defining the steady state testing, etc. will also be
described in the next chapter.
95

Figure 55 Ricardo Engine Model Map View


96

Figure 56 Ricardo Engine Pipe flow Model View


97

8
8.1

CHAPTER 8: MODEL SIMULATION AND PRACTICAL


TESTINGS

OUTLINES AND INITIALS

Hydra engine model has been done, as well as validation of software in benchmark
testing and the setting up and preparation of Hydra engine test bench. In this chapter, the
model will be simulated which was created with the compiled data for observational
purpose of performance output and comparing it with real time practical testing on engine
test bench. The test case setup is also prepared and manual calculations are done to check
the simulated output. Previous experiments and fuel performance articles by different
foreign universities are also taken in consideration in this chapter.
In this chapter of Model Simulation and Practical testing following will be discussed as
important part and outcome of the project which includes
Test cases
Model simulation
Practical experiments
Comparison
Model, experimental and past experiments review
Performance result troubleshoot
Manual calculations
8.2

TEST CASES PREPARATION

Test cases to run on model in software as well as for practical testing has to be made for
performance result observation mostly for some part validation, some manual calculations
and results study. Several types of operating conditions can be run on the software but
matching it with the practical results is difficult due to certain constraints regarding
experimental runs of the test bench.
So limited case setup has been made for fulfilling the purpose of the project and also
leading to future improvements or further study/research purpose use it as a reference for
the real engine therefore corresponds to how the real engine was being tested on the
dynamometer and in-component analysis
There are numerous parameters that can be used to validate an engine model. Parameters
such as torque output, volumetric efficiency, and air mass flow can all be used to evaluate
overall engine operation. As mentioned, torque and power output was chosen as the
parameter to use for validation due to test equipment limitations.
The following test cases have been made in for software simulation:

98

A/F Fuel ratio: 14.7:1


Gasoline (Indolene)
Full Load Condition (WOT as modeled in Throttle)
RPM sweep range: 750 ~ 7000 (in 250 increment steps)
Lab pressure: 1 Bar
Lab Temp: 34.5 Degree Celsius
Specific Humidity Ratio: 0.032, RH: 88%
Wall temperatures have been imposed which have been measured on test bench
Steady State Run

Figure 57 Software Case setup of Hydra model

Figure 58 Software simulation run setup


99

Simulation run setup defines for how much time the simulation is run and automatic stops
when reach steady state to in minimum time. This setup is Semi-Predictive combustion
model based simulation.
8.3

MODEL SIMULATIONS:

After running simulation and encountering few errors, which had to be fixed by again
simulating several results in the form of graph or tabular data are generated this can be
viewed by GT Post.

Figure 59 Power/torque against engine speed Hydra model

In the graph it can be seen the power band of the engine is from 1500rpm to 5500rpm in
the simulation output. Further BSFC graph is shown in next figure graph with economic
operating range of the engine in speed range of 1000rpm to 4000rpm.

100

Figure 60 Power/BSFC curves against Engine speed Hydra model


8.4

PRACTICAL EXPERIMENT

To obtain the required experimental results on hydra engine test bench, an experimental
test set up is required to be defined as done in software. It includes all the arrangements
and alterations which have been made in the standard bench. It also includes the operating
conditions and the properties of working elements.
8.4.1 Faults to be considered and Removed
There were several damages and faults present in Hydra Engine test bed, which were
affecting the performance of the Engine in one way or other. Some damages or faults
include:

fuel pump improper functioning (Fuel pump pressure variation),

leakage in exhaust pipe,

cooling compressor fins were damaged,

side cam cover was rubbing against pulley, and

Error in load cell calibration.

101

Alterations:
The side cam cover problem was resolved easily by temporary removing it and to stop the
leakage of exhaust gases from exhaust pipes; the leakage portion was sealed by covering
it with RTV silicon solution (but really less effective).
Load cell was not regulated due to lack of calibration, so had to be taken it as backlash
error.

Figure 61 Sealed exhaust pipe


8.4.2 Fuel Measurement and Observations
Since the fuel flow meter was not functioning therefore for the observation of fuel
consumption, a 50ml burette was mounted just below the fuel tank with opening and
closing valves. When the engine started, the fuel level went down and the readings were
observed in accordance with average time method.
Fuel being used and Properties:
As standard gasoline was being used from the petrol pump so had to measure density and
following useful properties are mentioned:
Chemical Formula
Stoichiometric Ratio
Density
Octane Rating
Calorific Value
Flash point
Auto-ignition Temp

C8H18
14.7 (Actual engine A/F ratio)
0.72Kg/l ~ 0.77Kg/l
87-97 (commonly used)
44,400 KJ/Kg
-43C
280C

Table 11 Gasoline fuel properties

102

Normally the density of gasoline is ranged from 0.71-0.77 kg/l. The environmental
conditions such as temperature and atmospheric pressure have great influence on the
density of fluids. The density measurement was carried out by using electronic balance
and measuring burette. The measured density was found to be 0.728 kg/l for the petrol
being used.

Figure 62 Fuel density measurement


8.4.3 Experiment Test Run
These are the possible test conditions for best possible performance results but in
constrained way due to several problems as mentioned before
1) Full load (100% throttle)
2) RPM range = 1250 3250 (with increment of 250rpm steps)
3) Air/Fuel ratio= 14.7:1 (target, but varying in actual)
4) Ignition timing = 14 BTDC
5) Steady state
6) Lab temperature = 34.5C
7) Fuel temperature=33C
Performance results of Power, Torque, BSFC will be shown on graph while comparing it
with simulation results and tabular data presented in Appendices. While other
characteristics of engine efficiency, thermal, volumetric is shown in manual calculations.

103

8.5

COMPARISION, PAST EXPERIMENTS REVIEWS AND DIFFERENCES


HIGHLITING

All data needed to properly define the engine model should be acquired. Once the model
is validated, the resulting accuracy of the model and the source of error should be
documented which is done here.
Two experimental runs were conducted of Engine test bench, but un-fortunately due to
several problems and lack of time one didnt go well but its documented here.

Figure 63 Simulation, Exp1 and 2 BP graph-Hydra


Brake Power Graph: In this graph Brake power of model, 1st practical experiment, and 2nd
experiment curves are shown. With max Brake power on model curve 17.831@5000Rpm
and Dotted line is showing Rated power of 18KW@5500Rpm (Taken from Ricardo
Engine Catalogue). This satisfies that model curves are generated better.
Brake Torque Graph: In this graph Brake Torque of model, 1st practical experiment, and
2nd experiment curves are shown. With max Brake Torque on model curve near 4000Rpm
and Dotted line is showing Rated Torque of 39N-m@3000Rpm (Taken from Ricardo
Engine Catalogue). Peaks and valleys are satisfying results in the figure and are
explained in next paragraph after figure.

104

Figure 64 Simulation, Exp1 and 2 BT graph- Hydra


When using the torque output validation method, certain trends in the predicted torque
curve can be validated without too much trouble. The engine testing results will show
torque peaks and valleys that correspond to either intake or exhaust geometry.
Those peaks and valleys should occur at the same engine speeds that the simulation
predicts. Because these pressure-wave-induced torque peaks result strictly from intake /
exhaust geometry and the intake / exhaust valve lift profiles, it is important that these
trends can be validated. If the predicted peaks and valleys are not occurring at the correct
engine speeds, geometry and valve lift profiles should be investigated and modified for
accuracy.
So in the graph it can be, @ 1000, 1500, 1800, 2500 peaks and trough can seen in both
graph. It may be not useful graph for engine study purpose, but for software study.
However these types of errors have occurred before in other reports. Shown in 1st figure
and 2nd figure of several simulations with reference to near engine graph.
Examples of graph are given in Appendices by Dyno against Software of Foreign
reports. And tabulated data is also provided in Appendices.
BSFC curve an important parameter was not useful due to some uneven readings, but
model curve is shown in previous pages. Although in manual calculations is taken in
consideration for understanding the fuel consumption part.
105

Figure 65 Power, Torque, BSFC 450cc engines experiment comparisons


This combo graphs shows brake power, brake torque and BSFC of Hydra experiments,
Model simulation and KTM engine. All are 450cc engine with same build and
configuration shown to get an idea which is low end torque and high end torque engine
what differences it has. Further highlighting of flaws in beforehand experiment for
research purpose by seniors, ours and model is highlighted in Calculations.
106

8.6

MANUAL CALCULATIONS/FORMULATION

These calculations are done for self-manual verification purpose as well as use of what
formulations are used in software for deducing the output of simulation results in flow
components, power, etc. It is also shown actual engine energy and efficiency
calculations for estimating if useable data or garbage data acquired over the
dynamometer test run.
Positive Pressure drop across Flow component:
Taking AirRunner1horizontal cylinder component:

Q = A*V (Volume Flow Rate = Area * Velocity)


0.01546m3/s = /4 * (0.09172) * V
Re =

> V= 2.341m/s

; Density = 1.224Kg/m3 , Dynamic Viscosity = 1.86e-5 Pa.s

Re = 14108.18
= Surface roughness/Dia = 0.046e-3/0.0917
= 5.016e-4 (Surface roughness for steel)
Using Friction Factor formula (also called expanded Colebrook equation):

.> f = 0.02896
Using in Pressure drop equation (known as DarcyWeisbach equation):

Pressure drop across pipe = 1.8e-6 bar


(with errors due to least count and in software it as calculated by discretizing the pipe)
In simulation results its = 1.36 e -6 bar.
107

From Torque to Power Conversion:


Power = 2* *N*T/60 is used for all conversions, Where, N = Rpm, T = Torque

Figure 66 Volumetric efficiency of Hydra


It is in software calculated using:

+ Correction Factor (Correction factor can be referenced from Heywood)

Where ma = Air mass flow rate, rho = density, Vd = Volume displaced, N= Rps
BMEP (Brake Mean Effective Pressure):
The max BMEP of good engine designs is well established and is essentially constant
over a wide range of engine sizes. Thus it can be compared with others in terms of BMEP
with respect to engine size (Vd) and power generating effectiveness. For NA SI engines
typically 850 ~ 1050 KPa near max power.
For Hydra: BMEP =

Where, nr =2 (Four stroke), N=Rps

BMEP obtained = 939.7KPa (and is in the range)


Thermal Efficiency of an engine:
Calculating using:

where, mf = mass of fuel flow,

LHV = Lower heating Value of fuel (Calorific value) [Petrol = 44,400 KJ/Kg]
Our Experiment: it is found to be @1500Rpm, P =2.6KW, mf=0.23g/s
= 25.46% (and Avg ranging from 19% ~ 35% due to bad values)
In seniors experiment = 41.9% (@1500rpm) ~ 40.1% (@2800rpm) it may be due to faulty
experiments or equipment.
108

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

To summarize the results of simulation, modeling and experiments presented in


previous chapters it is proven that it is important to validate simulation results with
performance outputs of actual engine. The modeling maybe done on solely based on
crude measurements and estimations like of muffler interior design using template but it
predicts still very good results. Benchmark modeling has proved in +- 15% accuracy of
simulation software. This report also shows and gives considerable idea that how much
preparation has to do, cost and time requires doing practical experiments.
A recurring scenario throughout the project has been regarding the three options to get
hold of data as input. Either using recommended values from GT, measuring manually or
receiving data from the engine manufacture. Some of the measurement is extremely hard
to measure without proper equipment. Smallest error in measurement can have a great
impact on the output lowering the standard of the simulation and therefore in need to be
veried. Which of the three options to get hold of required data have to be picked should
be with respect of area of use. The most complicated data have therefore been determined
as too hard to collect manually. Recommended value from software manual have as the
best available option been applied
Conclusively these engine simulation softwares can do or simulate or maybe used for
designing engines but has to be tested in actual after modifications. In report only little
part of modeling is shown with basic performance output and calculations other part of
combustion modeling, flow modeling, mechanics and chemistry of emissions is whole
other field which has broader scope in terms of quantity and quality purpose.
If this model is then validated by another set of data, then the model can also be used to
accurately explore a broad range of engine conditions or fuel used. Engine simulations
based on an engine model take a considerably shorter amount of time compared to
dynamometer test cells. In addition an engine simulation can run in regions where an
engine on a test cell cannot normally go. Overall, engine modeling is a cost effect way to
rapidly optimize the controllable parameters of an internal combustion engine.

9.1

RECOMMENDATION/FUTURE POSSIBLE WORK

As for the industrial or research purpose, the model is still in a form that could introduced
for engine designing and research as well as modifications. With the availability of the
model, more people would have access to the model and research advancements would be
able to be integrated into the model as they occurred.

109

The current engine models are still not entirely accurate, but that does not outweigh the
benefits that they do provide with increased use and understanding the model will
continue to evolve in capabilities and accuracy.

1. One of the areas in need of improvement is in the general knowledge and


capabilities of the dynamometer and its accessories. Possibility of test for several
different engine properties, ranging from fuel consumption and emissions to
electronic throttle control servos.
2. Using equipment of flow bench testing for air or liquid flow analysis of
components
3. Improvement and studying the combustion modeling using available cylinder
pressure sensor of Hydra engine head
4. Different modules of software usage and integrating it this engine model such as
mechanics, or whole vehicle modeling on this software is possible entirely
5. Engine performances study, effects using different fuels.
6. Model emissions results comparing it with actual emissions as combustion
chemistry whole broad range.
7. Fuel flow sensor improvements and integrating in the available dynamometer
8. Friction model of the engine and losses in engine using dynamometer
9. Flow study in intake/exhaust manifolds and pressure losses in branches, orifices.

110

APPENDICES
A. FOUR CYLINDER ENGINE MODEL

111

B. MEASURED INTAKE/EXHAUST GEOMETRIES CHART


Chart of measured dimensions of Ricardo Intake/Exhaust system as in chap 5
Compone
nt
Idi
Air Filter
Air Box1
Perf
Orifice
Air Box2
Heater
runn In
Air Heater
Box
Heater
runn out
Throttle
Plenum In
Plenum
Intake
Runner

Injector
Intak Flow
Split
Intak Ports
(2)
Engine
Exhaust
Ports(2)
Exh
FlowSplit
Exh
Runner

Ex Muffler
pipe
Muffler
ExOut

Odi
74
74
74
74
Holes
Dia=74
=142
91.7 91.7
72.5
Dia=190

Ido
_
_

Mat
eria
l
_
Al

Angle
_
_

2.25 Circular
174.75 _
Cylinder

_
Al

_
_

145 _
Cylinder
Pressure
340 Cylinder box

Al

Al

_
Circular
Cylinder
Cylinder
box

_
_
Al

_
_
_

Al

Pipe

Al

120 deg

_
Cast
iron
Cast
iron

_
Branch
20

Thick
ness
Shape
91.2
19.5 Cylinder
61.8 _
Cylinder

_
_

72.5 _
Volume=0.
0096m3

40 _
_
Dia=40
_
_
40
40 _
Volume=0.
Dia=137 00158m3

60 _
Pin Thickness=7
25 _
107 _

Inlet Dia=32.3 (Circle)


290 _
Outlet (Slot) =height=24.4, Width=43, edge
radius=12.2
Near
port
Inlet shape (Slot)
dimensions
length till split=35.5
25.4 31.45
84.4 _
Major specifications in Table of
Chapter 5
_
26.45

23

91 _
Length frm split to
outlet=48.5

Inlet shape (Slot)


dimensions
Outlet(Circl
e) dia=34
34

50

50

50

330 _

YBranch
Cylinder

_
Cylinder
YBranch

Cast
iron
Cast
iron

_
Branch
14

Pipe

iron

90 deg

_
800 _
770 _
500 _

_
Pipe
Cylinder

iron
_
iron

90 deg
_
_

*Dia = Diameter, Ex=Exhaust, Idi = Flow Inlet Dia inner, Odi=Flow Outlet Dia inner
L= Length, Ido = Flow inlet dia outer
**All values are in mm except mentioned *** Chart is in order of flow components
112

C. CAM LOBE PROFILE VERSUS CAM ANGLE


Cam
Angle
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39

Lobe Cam
Ramp Angle
0.015
40
0.035
41
0.058
42
43
0.08
0.1
44
0.12
45
0.14
46
0.17
47
0.185
48
0.209
49
0.23
50
0.248
51
0.265
52
0.28
53
0.3
54
0.315
55
0.33
56
0.35
57
0.375
58
0.395
59
0.41
60
0.435
61
0.455
62
0.48
63
0.5
64
0.52
65
0.545
66
0.572
67
0.61
68
0.65
69
0.69
70
0.75
71
0.81
72
0.86
73
0.93
74
0.99
75
1.08
76
1.14
77
1.23
78
1.32
79

Lobe Cam
Ramp Angle
1.41
80
1.54
81
1.63
82
1.745
83
1.865
84
1.98
85
2.09
86
2.24
87
2.39
88
2.51
89
2.69
90
2.85
91
3.03
92
3.2
93
3.39
94
3.59
95
3.79
96
4.035
97
4.34
98
4.7
99
5.01
100
5.34
101
5.645
102
5.95
103
6.27
104
6.78
105
7.84
106
8.28
107
8.6
108
8.95
109
9.26
110
9.5
111
9.72
112
9.87
113
9.95
114
10
115
10.01
116
9.99
117
9.93
118
9.8
119

Lobe Cam
Ramp Angle
9.65
120
9.46
121
9.14
122
8.9
123
8.54
124
8.24
125
7.86
126
7.48
127
7.19
128
6.8
129
6.46
130
6.15
131
5.85
132
5.5
133
5.25
134
4.93
135
4.67
136
4.38
137
4.12
138
3.9
139
3.66
140
3.43
141
3.2
142
2.92
143
2.75
144
2.55
145
2.37
146
2.23
147
2.08
148
1.94
149
1.79
150
1.65
151
1.56
152
1.44
153
1.34
154
1.25
1.16
1.05
0.975
0.9

Lobe
Ramp
0.83
0.77
0.72
0.67
0.63
0.59
0.55
0.53
0.5
0.49
0.46
0.45
0.43
0.41
0.39
0.37
0.35
0.33
0.31
0.29
0.27
0.25
0.23
0.21
0.18
0.17
0.14
0.12
0.11
0.09
0.07
0.04
0.03
0.01
0

Lobe displacement measured and started from base circle of Cam lobe w.r.t Cam angle
change, of Hydra Ricardo Engine
113

D. CIRCUIT DIAGRAM OF FUEL FLOW HARDWARE

Power Supply

Microcontroller and LED

Voltage amplifier

Fuel flow circuit hardware design

114

E. TABULAR RESULTS OF HYDRA SIMULATION AND EXPERIMENTS


Engine
Speed
[RPM]

Brake
Torque
[N-m]

7000

20.9

6750

21.3

6500

21.9

6250

23.6

6000

26.2

5750

28.4

5500

30.3

5250

32.1

5000

33.7

4750

35.1

4500

36.3

4250

37.5

4000

38.4

3750

37.3

3500

35.7

3250

32.8

3000

31.4

2750

30.8

2500

33.2

2250

33.5

2000

35.1

1750

37.8

1500

33.8

1250

27.5

1000

34.6

Model results and Exp results are shown. Intake and Exhaust pressure on test bench were
also measured and found to be 101.32 KPa and 101 KPa respectively
115

F. DYNO AGAINST SOFTWARE OF FOREGIN REPORTS

Ref Report: National Institute for Advanced Transportation Technology University of


Idaho

Ref Report: Lule University of Technology, Engine Simulation Model for a Formula
Another graph is comparing it with Reference (Engine Dyno) with lots of simulation
output to get near the reference line when we have better engine tested data

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BIBILIOGRAPHY

[1]. Internal combustion engine fundamentals, 2ed, John B Heywood, McGraw Hill Book
company, 1988
[2]. Engine Simulation Model for a Formula SAE race car, Masters Thesis 2012, Ramin
Gilani, Lulea University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and
Mathematics.
[3]. Hydra Research Engine Test Bed Hydra Research Engine Test Bed P8802, Operation
Manual.(Department Catalogue)
[4]. P8802, Ricardo Standard Single Cylinder Hydra Gasoline Engine Data Sheet
(acquired by the correspondence with Ricardo)
[5]. Internal combustion engine handbook, edited by Richard van Basshuysen and Fred
Schafer (e-book)
[6]. One-Dimensional Engine Modeling and Validation Using Ricardo Wave, final report
Sep 2007, National Institute for Advanced Transportation Technology University of
Idaho. Dan Cordon, Charles Dean, Judith Steciak and Steven Beyerlein.
[7]. Simulation Investigation Of In-Cylinder Pressure Characteristic Of Port Injection
Compressed Natural Gas Engine Model. S. SEMIN Department of Marine
Engineering, Institute of Technology Sepuluh Nopember, Surabaya, Indonesia (URL:
http://www.its.ac.id)
[8]. Combustion Data Acquisition and Analysis, 00TTD010: Final Year Project M.Eng.
Automotive Engineering,Benjamin Robert Brown, Lough Borough University
[9]. GT Power Engine simulation manuals (GT POWER Documentations)

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