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AUTOMATIC SPEED CONTROL SYSTEM IN 4 WHEELERS

FOR AVOIDING ACCIDENTS


1

M.Prabu , 2A.Shravan.

(FID1744MAN) , (FID6259ASH)
1

UG Student, Department of Mechatronics Engineering, Kongu Engineering College,


Erode, Tamilnadu, India. (9789143828)

UG Student, Department of Mechatronics Engineering, Kongu Engineering College,


Erode, Tamilnadu, India. (9751545009)
1

prabumannu@gmail.com ,2shravan1414@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Many accidents are at least partially
caused because of the rash driving. This
can happen due to many reasons: poor
judgment on the part of the driver, poor
driving of the driver. Once the driver has
lost control it is very difficult to drive the
vehicle.
To avoid rash driving and to prevent
loosing of valuable property we need some
safety systems in the vehicles. We can
make this true by controlling the flow of
fuel to the Engine using sensors and other
mechanical arrangements and this can
bring the vehicle to the intended course.
This simple system provides safety, and
avoids rash driving in highly populated
regions.

I. INTRODUCTION
For avoiding rash driving of the drivers
we provide safety systems within the
vehicles mainly for 4-wheelers.

In this system there is one power source


(battery) as input, one controlling element
(toroidal

coil

with

controlling

rod

arrangement), micro controller and small


modifications in the already existing
conventional design of S.I & C.I engines.
By using this simple system we can
control automatically the speed of the
vehicle.
The vehicle will move with designed speed
(low speed) of the control system even
though the driver wants to move the
vehicle with high velocities.

II. WORKING PRINCIPLE


It is the system, which mainly uses
photoelectric

sensor,

electrical

power

source and micro-controller for controlling


of the vehicle speed. The following figure
shows the arrangements of the components
used in this system.

that incremental encoders use only two


sensors

does

not

compromise

their

accuracy. One can find in the market


incremental encoders with up to 10,000
counts per revolution, or more.
There can be an optional third
output: reference, which happens once
every turn. This is used when there is the
need of an absolute reference, such as
positioning systems. The optical type is
used when higher RPMs are encountered.
Incremental encoders are used to track
motion and can be used to determine
FIG 1. Circuit diagram

III.

position and velocity.

DESCRIPTION

OF

COMPONENTS
A. ROTARY ENCODER

C. PHOTO ELECTRIC SENSOR


A photoelectric sensor is a device used to
detect the distance, absence, or presence of

A rotary encoder, also called a


shaft encoder, is an electro-mechanical

an object by using a light transmitter, often


infrared.

device that converts the angular position of

A retro-reflective arrangement places the

a shaft or axle to an analog or digital code,

transmitter and receiver at the same

making it an angle transducer.

location and uses a reflector to bounce the

B. INCREMENTAL ENCODER

light beam back from the transmitter to the

An incremental rotary encoder, also known

receiver. An object is sensed when the

as a quadrature encoder or a relative rotary

beam is interrupted by the same. Diffuse

encoder. In the optical type there are two

reflection is the reflection of light from an

gray

that

uneven or granular surface such that an

incremental encoders use only two sensors

incident ray is seemingly reflected at a

does not compromise their accuracy. One

number of angles. It is the complement to

can find in the market incremental

specular

encoders with up to 10,000 counts per

completely nonspecular, reflected light

revolution, or more. In the optical type

will be evenly spread over the hemisphere

there are two gray coded tracks. The fact

surrounding the surface.

coded

tracks.

The

fact

reflection.

If

surface

is

Microcontrollers must provide real time


(predictable, though not necessarily fast)
response to events in the embedded system
they are controlling. When certain events
occur, an interrupt system can signal the
processor to suspend

processing

the

current instruction sequence and to begin


an interrupt service routine.
In this Interrupt function the
photoelectric sensor output is connected.
Thus Microcontroller gives priority to the

Fig 2. Photo electric sensor

object detection.

D. MICROCONROLLER
A microcontroller (also
microcomputer, MCU or C) is a small
computer on a single integrated circuit
consisting internally of a relatively simple
CPU, clock, timers, I/O ports, and
memory. Program memory in the form of
ROM is also often included on chip, as
well as a typically small amount of RAM.
Microcontrollers are designed for small or

F. RELAY
A relay is an electrically operated
switch. Many relays use an electromagnet
to operate a switching mechanism. Relays
find applications where it is necessary to
control a circuit by a low-power signal, or
where several circuits must be controlled
by one signal.

IV.SOLID STATE RELAYS


Solid-state relays (SSR) control

dedicated applications.
Embedded systems are very
sophisticated;

many

have

minimal

power circuits with no moving parts,


instead using a semiconductor device

requirements for memory and program

triggered by light to perform switching.

length, with no operating system, and low

A SSR

software complexity. Typical input and

component that provides a similar function

output devices include switches, relays,

to an electromechanical relay but does not

solenoids, LEDs, small or custom LCD

have any moving components, increasing

displays, radio frequency devices, and

long-term reliability.

sensors for data such as temperature,


humidity, light level etc.
E. INTERRUPT

is

solid

state

electronic

V. TOROIDAL COIL
It is an electromagnetic coil, which is used
for pulling the controlling bar. It is

energized by the electrical energy, which is

VIII.

CONTROLLING ROD

gained from battery. It stores the energy

It is the plain metal road of some

and generates magnetic field around it.

diameter, which is used for controlling the

This attracts the controlling bar with some

fuel flow rate in S.I. engine carburetor or

force. This movement of bar is used for

C.I. fuel induction pump. It just attracted

controlling other components.

by the magnetic field in toroidal coil with


some force. This force will give a
movement to the controlling rod. This
controls the other equipment.

IX.

MODIFICATIONS

IN

FUEL SUPPLY SYSTEM


We are giving small modifications to the
all ready existing fuel supply system in S.I.
engine and also in C.I. engine. But these
FI

modifications are very small.

A. IN S.I. ENGINE

G 3.Toroidal coil
The stored energy will be

In this fuel supply system I am just using

consumed by a lamp, which is connected

the control rod movement to force a

to this toroidal coil which is in circular

metering rod element in to the main jet

shape, which will generate magnetic field

pipe that will restrict the flow area. So for

in circular manner, which is easy to pull

given pressure depression in the carburetor

the controlling rod.

the flow area decreased means, the amount

VI.

LAMP

AND

ALARM

SYSTEM
It is used for giving indication to the
driver. It acts as a freewheeling path for
the discharge of energy stored in the coil.

VII.

BATTERY

It is the main power source, which will


give the required power supply to the
toroidal coil for activating it and also to the
sensor system.

of fuel entering also decreases. Which


eventually reduce the speed of the vehicle.

us

to

rotate

this

circular

ring.

FIG 4. SI Engine
To achieve this we are providing a needle
through a hole in to the main jet pipe for
this we have to make a hole in the main jet
pipe and we have to provide sealing
arrangements.
B. IN C.I. ENGINE

FIG 5.CI Engine


In this circular ring a hole is

We know that how helical groove

provided which will act as same as spill

will help in fuel induction pump. Just

port by rotating this ring the position at

using the same helical groove with another

which the helical groove will open will be

circular ring with a hole. This ring is

varied and at the same time the amount of

provided on the upper side of the spill port.

fuel injected also varied.

This ring is connected to the controlling

X. WORKING

rod. Controlling rod movement will help

The system will start working only when


the rotary encoder gives signal that the
vehicle crossed 30km/hr speed. Then, if
the photoelectric sensor senses any vehicle
or any object then it gives signal to the
relay. The relay is energized and closes the
circuit and battery will start conducting the
charge, to the toroidal coil. This charge
will create magnetic field around the coil
that will pull the controlling rod. This
controlling rod movement will be used for
controlling the fuel supply system for
varying the fuel rate entered into the
combustion

chambers.

In case of S.I. engine the controlling rod


will force or move another needle, which
will obstruct the flow area in main fuel
nozzle so with this effect the quantity of
fuel entered will be decreased.It cannot
affect the airflow rate or any other thing it
only reduces the quantity of fuel entered.
In case of C.I. engine the controlling rod
movement will be used for rotating the

circular ring on fuel induction pump,

disconnected with the battery. During this

which will control the opening of hole

energy that is stored in the toroidal coil

through the port, when the hole is opened

will be discharged through the alarm and

the fuel will be spilled out.

the lamp and variable resistors for few

Due to opening of spill port in circular ring

minutes. So there is no power or energy

before the actual spill port (due to helical

input to the toroidal coil. To discharge the

groove arrangement) the quantity of fuel

all the energy stored with in the Coil will

injected will be varied. It will rotate in

take some time due to higher resistance in

opposite direction to that of plunger

the path. During this period the system

rotation. If the controlling rod is moved to

will continuously control the fuel flow.

a full extent then the quantity of fuel

This time period we can vary by varying

injected will be very small irrespective of

the resistance value of the resistor.

the actual spill port position.

The

Due to crossing of object or cars from the

consuming device and also for providing

range of the sensor the circuit will be

indicating signal for driver that he is nearer

to another vehicle, so he has to move

also

slowly. So after some time the vehicle will


be came to its normal state due to
discharging of the stored power in toroidal
coil. It will run as in normal way. As said
early the system starts working when the
vehicle crosses 30km/ hr only, so in heavy

lamp

will

be

used

as

power

used for giving indication

for the driver.


4. The modifications

given

for

the

conventional carburetor or fuel injection


pump are very small and simple.
5. The costs of the system will of very less
vary in between Rs. 1000/- to Rs. 3000/only.

traffic there is no need of worrying about


system.

XI.

ADVANTAGES

XII.

CONCLUSION

1. Since the low voltage battery which is safe

Finally we can use this system for S.I.

to operate and easy to charging.


Controlling of force acting on the

engines, C.I. engines and also for gas

controlling rod is very easy. It is simply by

rsistance as per our requirements. For

varying
the variable resistor.
3. Energy consuming device which we are

busses and Govt. vehicles we will place

2.

used i.e. a lamp is a less costly and it is

engines. We can vary the value of variable

this resistance of having low value. So for


these vehicles the time for, which the

system is in active condition, is very small.

B.P.Singh,

Microprocessor

So the time forwhich the vehicle will move

Microcontrollers,

slowly will also very small. But for Lorries

publications

and autos we can use higher values of

Delhi,1997.

variable resistance. So it will take more

time to consume the charged energy. These


vehicles need more time to come back the
system to its normal state.

Ltd,

Galcotia
Firstedition,New

Yoremkoren,Robotics

for

Engineers,McGraw-Hill,USA, 1987.

Discover

circuit

website-

So by using this system we can reduce rash

circuits

driving and accidents up to 35% and we

http://www.discovercircuit.com

can save many lives and many valuable

properties. We can reduce the rash driving

Discover

circuit

Microcontroller

with in cities, with in the regions of school

-http://www.atmel.com

zones, villages that are near to the high


ways and beside the high ways.

XIII.

REFERENCES
KennathJ.Ayala

The

microcontroller
programming
Penram

and

International

www.Springerlink.com

www.sciencedirect.com

www.miniscience.com

8051

architecture,
applications
Publishing

(India), second edition, Mumbai.

and

Sensor

website