Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 2

Technological Institute of the Philippines Manila

Unit Operations Laboratory II, 1st Semester 2016-2017

DIFFUSION OF LIQUIDS THROUGH


STAGNANT NON-DIFFUSING AIR
Abstract This experiment gives an insight on
whats happening during diffusion. Factors
affecting the separation were determined for
the students to understand its principles. Using
methanol, ethanol and ethyl acetate, the DAB or
diffusivity coefficient were determined at
different temperatures.

Diffusion plays an important role in mass transport


processes.
Applications of diffusion are in osmosis and dialysis.
Osmosis and dialysis are of prime importance in living
organisms, where they influence the distribution of
nutrients and the release of metabolic waste products.
Living cells of both plants and animals are enclosed by a
semipermeable membrane called the cell membrane, which
regulates the flow of liquids and of dissolved solids and
gases into and out of the cell. In plants osmosis is at least
partially responsible for the absorption of soil water by root
hairs and for the elevation of the liquid to the leaves of the
plant. However, plants wilt when watered with saltwater or
treated with too much fertilizer, since the soil around their
roots then becomes hypertonic.

Index Terms Diffusivity, Diffusivity Coefficient, Capillary


tube method

1. INTRODUCTION
The experiment is entitled Diffusion of Liquids Through
Stagnant Non-Diffusing Air. For this experiment the mass
diffusivities of volatile organic liquids in air at different
temperature using the capillary tube method. A number of
different experimental methods have been used to
determine the molecular diffusivity for binary gas mixtures.
One method is through the capillary tube method. It is to
evaporate a pure liquid in a narrow tube with a gas passed
over the top. The fall in liquid level is measure with time.
The three chemicals, ethanol, ethyl acetate, and methanol
were evaporated in a water bath set up. Diffusion is the
movement under the influence of physical stimulus of an
individual component through a mixture. The most
common cause of diffusion is concentration gradient of the
diffusing components. For predicting the diffusivity of
binary gas pair of A and B molecules we use this equation:
7

1.8583 x 10 x T
DAB =
P 2AB AB

1.5

1
1
+
M A MB

2.

EQUIPMENTS AND APPARATUS

Apparatus:

Materials:

Water bath

Ethanol

Capillary tubes

Ethyl Acetate

Small Electric fan

Methanol

Barometer
Receptacles for Capillary tubes
Vernier Caliper
Timer

0.5

Thermometer
Zeny N. Naranjo, Chemical Engineering Department, Technological
Institute of the Philippines/ College of Engineering and Architecture,
Manila, Philippines, 09351947136 (e-mail: chinnaranjo@gmail.com).

Where:
DAB =diffusivity
T= temperature
MA and MB = molecular weight of A and B
P= absolute pressure

AB = collision integral
2AB = average collision

Experiment No. 1
Diffusion of Liquids through Stagnant Non-Diffusing Air
3.

METHODOLOGY

6.
1.

2.

4.

TRIA
LS
1
(50
C)
2
(60

RESULT AND DISCUSSION

ETHANOL

ETHYL
ACETATE
DAB = 3.49

METHANO
L
DAB =
0.935

DAB = 1.27

DAB =
3.407

DAB =
0.942

DAB = 1.31

DAB = 3.62

DAB =
0.83

DAB = 1.23

3.

C)

3
(70
C)

4.

5.

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

For this experiment the different mass diffusivities of the


three volatile liquids used are determined using the
Chapman and Enskog Equation at different temperatures.
At temperatures 50-70 C the range of the diffusivity of
ethanol is 1.2-1.3 m3/s. For ethyl acetate is 3.4-3.6 m3/s
while for methanol it is from 0.8-1 m3/s.

ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS

Discuss the following:


a. Ficks Law of Diffusion
The net diffusion rate of a gas across a
fluid membrane is proportional to the
difference in partial pressure,
proportional to the area of the membrane
and inversely proportional to the
thickness of the membrane.
b. Equimolal Counter Diffusion
In equimolar counter-diffusion, the molar
fluxes or A and B are equal, but opposite
in direction, and the total pressure is
constant throughout.
c. Unicomponent Diffusion
In unicomponent diffusion, the molar
flux of B is zero (0).
A gas CH4 and He is contained in a tube at 101.3kPa
pressure and 298K. At one point the partial pressure of
methane is PA1=60.79kPa, and at a point 0.02m
distance away, PA2=20.26kPa. If the total pressure is
constant throughout the tube, calculate the flux of
methane at steady state for equimolar counter
diffusion.
Ammonia gas is diffusing through N2 under steadystate conditions with N2 nondiffusing since it is
insoluble in one boundary. The total pressure of NH3 at
one point is 1.333x104 Pa, and at the other point 20
mm away it is 6.666x103 Pa. The DAB for the mixture
at 1.013x105 Pa and 298K is 2.30x10-5m2/s.
a. Calculate the flux of NH3 in kgmol/s
b. Do the same as (a) but assume that N2
also diffuses; this is, both boundaries to
both gases and flux is equimolar counter
diffusion. In which case is the flux
greater?
Mass transfer is occurring from a sphere of
naphthalene having a radius of 10mm. The sphere is in
a large volume of air at 52.60C and 1 atm abs pressure.
The vapor pressure of naphthalene at 52.60C and 1 atm
abs pressure. The vapor pressure of naphthalene at
52.60C is 1.0mmHg. The diffusivity of naphthalene in
air at 00C is 5.16x10-6m2/s. Calculate the rate of
evaporation of naphthalene from the surface in
kgmol/s-m2.

Похожие интересы