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DYNAMIC MULTIPHASE FLOW SIMULATOR

OLGA 2015
Version 2015.1

Sample cases

Table of contents

Table of contents
Copyright notice ................................................................................................. 4
Sample cases..................................................................................................... 5
Basic case .......................................................................................................... 8
Basic network case ............................................................................................ 9
Empty Case...................................................................................................... 10
Blackoil ............................................................................................................. 11
Compositional mud tracking ............................................................................. 13
Compositional tracking ..................................................................................... 15
Tracer tracking ................................................................................................. 17
MEG tracking ................................................................................................... 19
Compositional - Single-CO2 ............................................................................. 20
H2O tracking (Single component) ..................................................................... 22
Compositional - Steam/Water-HC .................................................................... 23
Drilling .............................................................................................................. 25
Advanced well .................................................................................................. 26
Corrosion.......................................................................................................... 28
Drilling fluid....................................................................................................... 30
Hydrate kinetics ................................................................................................ 32
Network ............................................................................................................ 34
Particle flow ...................................................................................................... 36
2nd-order scheme ............................................................................................. 37
Water options ................................................................................................... 40
Wax deposition ................................................................................................. 41
Backpressure IPR ............................................................................................ 42
Well Forchheimer IPR ...................................................................................... 43
Linear IPR ........................................................................................................ 44
Normalized backpressure IPR .......................................................................... 45
Quadric IPR...................................................................................................... 46
Single Forchheimer IPR ................................................................................... 47
Tabular IPR ...................................................................................................... 48
Undersaturated IPR ......................................................................................... 50
Vogels IPR ....................................................................................................... 51
Network server ................................................................................................. 52
PID-net-gainsched-normrange-server .............................................................. 53
Server demo with OPC..................................................................................... 56
Pigging ............................................................................................................. 57
Sand in water ................................................................................................... 64
OLGA Compressor control ............................................................................... 68
Compressor manual controls ........................................................................... 69
Jet pump .......................................................................................................... 70
PID controller ................................................................................................... 72
Process equipment .......................................................................................... 74
Centrifugal pump .............................................................................................. 76
Displacement pump ......................................................................................... 78
Simplified pump ................................................................................................ 80
Separator ......................................................................................................... 82
OLGA Single separator 3-phase compressor................................................... 83

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OLGA GUI user manual

Source, leak and choke .................................................................................... 85


Well ESP .......................................................................................................... 87
Well-GLV .......................................................................................................... 91
Well-pressure boost ......................................................................................... 93
Pump battery .................................................................................................... 95
Centrifugal pump .............................................................................................. 97
Displacement pump ......................................................................................... 99
Simplified pump .............................................................................................. 101
OneSubsea pump .......................................................................................... 103
OneSubsea pump - Start-up procedure ......................................................... 106
OneSubsea pump - Trip procedure ................................................................ 108
Hydrodynamic slugging .................................................................................. 109
Start-up slug ................................................................................................... 111
Submodelling ................................................................................................. 113
Fluid bundle.................................................................................................... 115
Solid bundle ................................................................................................... 117
Valve model ................................................................................................... 120
Critical two-phase valve flow .......................................................................... 122
Subcritical valve flow of a flashing liquid ........................................................ 123
Valve recovery ............................................................................................... 124
Valve slip ........................................................................................................ 125
Thermal equilibrium in valve flow ................................................................... 126
Gas lift well casingheading ............................................................................. 127
Gas well liquid loading.................................................................................... 129
Well clean-up ................................................................................................. 131
Well dry tree ................................................................................................... 133

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Table of contents

OLGA Sample cases manual


The complete program documentation includes:

OLGA Release notes

OLGA user manual


OLGA GUI user manual

OLGA Sample cases (this document)


Well editor user manual

OLGA Viewer user manual


Pipeline editor user manual

Profile generator user manaul


FEMTherm editor user manual

OLGA OPC server guide


OLGA Submodelling guide

OLGA Namespace Explorer guide


Installation guide

Rocx User manual

All documents listed above are available from the Start menu (Start - All Programs - Schlumberger - OLGA
x.x.- Documentation).
The OLGA User manual is also available from the Help menu in the GUI. User Manuals for other tools
included with the installation (e.g. FEMTherm, Rocx, OLGA Namespace Explorer, etc.) are available from
the Help menus in the tools.
Release information
Please refer to the Release notes for detailed release information.
Online help
OLGA is equipped with a context sensitive help document which can be opened directly from the user
interface. The help can be reached in several ways:

Click the Properties view and press F1 -> leads to the information on the relevant model

Select Help from the File menu


Select the Help icon in the upper right corner of the OLGA main window.

Operating system
The program is available on PCs with Microsoft Windows operating systems (Windows Vista, Windows 7,
Windows 8, Windows Server 2008 and 2012). Several versions of OLGA may be installed in parallel.
Support centre
The Support Portal provides useful information about frequently asked questions and known issues.
Please contact OLGA support if problems or missing functionality are encountered when using OLGA or
any of the related tools included in the OLGA software package.

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OLGA GUI user manual

Copyright notice
Copyright 2015 Schlumberger. All rights reserved.
This work contains the confidential and proprietary trade secrets of Schlumberger and may not be copied
or stored in an information retrieval system, transferred, used, distributed, translated or retransmitted in
any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, in whole or in part, without the express written
permission of the copyright owner.
Trademarks & Service Marks
Schlumberger, the Schlumberger logotype, and other words or symbols used to identify the products and
services described herein are either trademarks, trade names or service marks of Schlumberger and its
licensors, or are the property of their respective owners. These marks may not be copied, imitated or used,
in whole or in part, without the express prior written permission of Schlumberger. In addition, covers, page
headers, custom graphics, icons, and other design elements may be service marks, trademarks, and/or
trade dress of Schlumberger, and may not be copied, imitated, or used, in whole or in part, without the
express prior written permission of Schlumberger. Other company, product, and service names are the
properties of their respective owners.
An asterisk (*) is used throughout this document to designate a mark of Schlumberger.
Security Notice
The software described herein is configured to operate with at least the minimum specifications set out by
Schlumberger. You are advised that such minimum specifications are merely recommendations and not
intended to be limiting to configurations that may be used to operate the software. Similarly, you are
advised that the software should be operated in a secure environment whether such software is operated
across a network, on a single system and/or on a plurality of systems. It is up to you to configure and
maintain your networks and/or system(s) in a secure manner. If you have further questions as to
recommendations regarding recommended specifications or security, please feel free to contact your local
Schlumberger representative.

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Sample cases

Sample cases
The OLGA installation includes a set of sample cases. They can be accessed from the New page in the
GUI.
The sample cases are organized in projects as follows:
Basic projects
Basic case
Basic network case
Basic empty case
Compositional projects
Blackoil
Compositional tracking
Compositional mud tracking
Tracer tracking
MEG tracking
CO2 tracking (Single component)
H2O tracking (Single component)
H2O tracking (Steam/WaterHC)
Drilling projects
Drilling
FA-Models project
Advanced well
Corrosion
Drilling fluid
Hydrate kinetics
Network
Particle flow
2nd-order scheme
Water options
Wax deposition
IPR projects
Backpressure IPR
ForchheimerIPR
LinearIPR
Normalized Bakpressure IPR
Quadric IPR
SingleForchheimerIPR
Tabular IPR
Well Undersaturated IPR
Vogels IPR

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OLGA GUI user manual

OPC server projects


Network server
PID controller
Server demo with OPC
Pigging projects
Pigging (with and w/o tracking of slug and with and w/o Compositional Tracking)
Plug-in projects
Plug-in hydrate formation
Plug-in_sand in water
Process projects
Compressor control
Compressor manual control
Jet pump
PID controller
Process equipment
ESP
Separator
Single separator 3-phase compressor
Source, Leak and Choke
Well GLV
Well and Pressure Boost
Pump projects
Pump battery
Centrifugal pump
Displacement pump
Simplified pump
OneSubsea pump
OneSubsea pump: Start-up procedure
OneSubsea pump Stop procedure
OneSubsea pump: Trip procedure
Slug tracking projects
Hydrodynamic slugging (with and w/o Compositional tracking)
Start-up slug (with and w/o Compositional tracking)
Submodelling projects
Submodelling
Thermal Advanced projects
Fluid bundle
Solid bundle

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Sample cases

Valve project
Valve samples
Well project
Gas lift well casing heading
Gas well liquid loading
Well Clean-up
Well Dry Tree

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OLGA GUI user manual

Basic case
This sample case generates a complete basic case - ready for simulation. The case consists of a single
flowpath with a closed inlet node and a pressure outlet node. A source is defined in the first section of the
pipeline.

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Basic network case

Basic network case


This sample case generates a simple network case consisting of two flowpaths leading into an internal
node which again is connected to a third flowpath. There are no sources, instead the inlet nodes are
massflow nodes.

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OLGA GUI user manual

Empty Case
The OLGA Empty case sample is used to create new case with no predefined content. All information must
be given from scratch.

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Blackoil

Blackoil
The case Blackoil.opi demonstrates the Blackoil model. The case comprises of a single branch with one
ascending pipe. The pipeline is 400 meters long and has an elevation of 10 meters. The pipeline is divided
into 10 sections.

Case comments
CaseDefinition
OPTIONS: To activate the Blackoil model, the key COMPOSITIONAL has to be set to BLACKOIL.
INTEGRATION: The simulation end time is set to 100 seconds. The maximum and minimum time steps
are 5 s and 0.01 s, respectively.
Compositional
BLACKOILCOMPONENT: One gas component and one oil component is defined. The oil component is
defined by a specific gravity of 0.8 whereas the gas component is defined by a specific gravity of 0.7. The
gas component is given a CO2 mole fraction of 0.1, and an N2 mole fraction of 0.02.
BLACKOILFEED: The BLACKOILFEED combines the two BLACKOILCOMPONENTs. The two
components are combined to give a GOR of 200 Sm3/Sm3 at standard conditions.
FlowComponent
FLOWPATH Boundary&InitialConditions HEATTRANSFER: A constant ambient temperature of
6C and an ambient heat transfer coefficient of 6.5 W/m2K is used.
FLOWPATH Boundary&InitialConditions SOURCE: The source has a constant flow rate
throughout the simulation. The name of the fluid (feed) is given by the key FEEDNAME. The flow rate is
set to 1000 STB/d (in the FEEDSTDFLOW keyword).
FLOWPATH Output TRENDDATA: Pressure, volumetric oil holdup and volumetric water holdup are
plotted at the first and last section of the pipe. The overall content of oil, and overall content of water are
plotted. The content is given as cubic meters for the entire pipeline.
FLOWPATH Output OUTPUTDATA: Pressure, temperature, volumetric holdup, gas mass flow and
overall mass flow are written to the output file.
FLOWPATH Output SERVERDATA: Server variables are available for plotting in interactive
simulations.
NODE: There is a mass source at the inlet, the inlet node is therefore closed. There is a constant pressure
condition at the outlet. The outlet node uses the BLACKOILFEED (set in the FEEDNAME keyword).
Output
ANIMATE: 3D plot of holdup for liquid along the pipeline is plotted every 10 seconds.
OUTPUT: OLGA variables are printed to the output file every hour.

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TREND: Trend variables are plotted every 15 seconds.


PROFILE: Profile variables are plotted every 5 minutes.
PROFILEDATA: Pressure, temperature, liquid holdup, overall mass flow and gas mass flow are plotted.

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Compositional mud tracking

Compositional mud tracking


The sample case CompositionalMudTracking.opi simulates a gas kick in a well filled with oil based mud.
Activating the compositional option allows for modelling of the partial dissolution of gas in the mud.
The system consists of a 3000 m deep well and two sources near the bottom of the well. The bottom most
source S-OBM produces a stable flow of oil based mud. The other source, S-KickGas, releases a gas flow
in a given period.
Operation scenario:
The Steady state preprocessor is run with flow of mud only, and then the dynamic simulation is started with
the same stable flow of mud. In the period 3-6 minutes after start, gas is released through a separate
source to simulate a kick. The simulation continues until the gas has reached the surface. The transport of
the kick gas as partially free gas and partially dissolved gas can be seen by inspecting the PROFILE plot
variables CGG_METHANE and CGHT_METHANE, respectively.

Case comments
CaseDefinition
OPTIONS: The Steady state preprocessor is applied. In order to have a compositional description of mud
and reservoir fluids, the drilling and compositional options are activated.
FILES: A feed file, CompositionalMudTracking.mfl, generated with the Multiflash PVT package, has be
specified using the key FEEDFILE. The feed file contains information about the fluids and the components
used in the simulation.
FlowComponent
FLOWPATH Boundary&InitialConditions HEATTRANSFER: A linear temperature gradient from
50C to 4C is assumed.
FLOWPATH Boundary&InitialConditions SOURCE: The source S-OBM produces a steady flow of
oil based mud (no gas) at 1891.43 Sm3/d.
FLOWPATH Boundary&InitialConditions SOURCE: The source S-KickGas ramps up a flow of gas
(methane) from zero to 5.14 in the period from 3-4 minutes. The rate is kept until 5 min, and is then
ramped down to zero flow again at 6 min.

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OLGA GUI user manual

FLOWPATH Piping: The well consists of a 3000 m vertical pipe with inner diameter 0.12 m.
FLOWPATH Output PROFILEDATA: Component mass flow rates in gas and oil phases are plotted
NODE: The inlet node is closed, while the outlet node is defined with a pressure of 1 atm.
Output
TREND: Trend variables are plotted every 10 seconds.
PROFILE: Profile variables are plotted every minute.

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Compositional tracking

Compositional tracking
The sample case CompTrack.opi comprises one branch with ascending and descending pipes. Initially
the pipeline is filled with live crude and the fluid is under-saturated throughout the pipeline.
After 20 hours, the system is shut-in and cooled down due to a low ambient temperature. Then, gas
pockets are generated at the highest points of the pipeline. After 50 hours, oil is injected at the inlet. This
fluid is the same as the one the pipeline was filled with initially. The gas is dissolved in the under-saturated
oil. After 51 hours all the gas has disappeared and the system returns to the original steady state.

Schematic view of the pipeline geometry.

Case comments
CaseDefinition
OPTIONS: To activate Compositional Tracking, the key COMPOSITIONAL has to be set to ON.
FILES: A feed file generated with Multiflash has be specified using the key FEEDFILE. The feed file
contains information about the fluids and the components used in the simulation.
INTEGRATION: The simulation end time is set to 70 hours. The maximum and minimum time steps are
20 s and 0.01 s, respectively.

FlowComponent
FLOWPATH Boundary&InitialConditions SOURCE: The source produces the same fluid
throughout the simulation, but the source flow rate and temperature changes. The name of the fluid (feed)
is given by the key FEEDNAME. The flow rate is specified in FEEDMASSFLOW. After 20 hours, the
production is shut-in and the pipeline is closed. After 50 hours the source is restarted.
FLOWPATH Output PROFILEDATA: Standard variables are plotted. Mole fractions in the gas
phase, liquid phase and overall are plotted.
FLOWPATH Output TRENDDATA: Mass fractions in the gas and liquid phases are plotted at the
inlet and outlet. The overall mole fraction is also plotted at these positions.

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OLGA GUI user manual

FLOWPATH Output SERVERDATA: Server variables are available for plotting in interactive
simulations.
NODE: The inlet node is closed since there is a mass source at the inlet producing at varying flow rate. At
the outlet, a constant pressure condition is applied. The same fluid is used at both nodes (given by the key
FEEDNAME).

Output
ANIMATE: 3D plot of holdup for liquid along the pipeline is plotted every 10 seconds.
OUTPUT: OLGA variables are printed to the output file every hour.
TREND: Trend variables are plotted every three minutes.
PROFILE: Profile variables are plotted every hour.

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Tracer tracking

Tracer tracking
The sample case KHI-TracerTracking.opi demonstrates how OLGA can be used to model an inhibitor
tracer tracking case.
The system consists of a well tubing pipeline with a 1875 m true vertical depth (TVD) and a 2725 m
measured depth (MD), a 150 m long wellhead pipe, a 3150 m pipeline leading up to a 391.2 m vertical
riser and a 100 m long horizontal topside pipe. The KHI inhibitor is injected into the first section of the
wellhead pipe. A wellhead choke and a check vale are placed at the wellhead pipeline downstream of the
KHI injection position. The total production is controlled by the wellhead choke. A sketch of the model is
shown below.
Operation scenario
The well is a gas well. The fluid temperature may be below the hydrate temperature in the flow line.
Therefore, a KHI tracer is injected at the wellhead to prevent hydrate formation. The KHI flow rate and
mass fraction in the water phase can be checked for different KHI age groups along the pipeline.

Case comments
Library
HYDRATECURVE - Definition of hydrate curve used by HYDRATECHECK.
TRACERFEED - Definition of the tracer feed TR-KHI.
CaseDefinition
OPTIONS - Temperature calculations use heat transfer on the inside and outside of pipe walls as well as
heat conduction, but no heat storage is accounted for. The steady state pre-processor is turned off.

FlowComponent
FLOWPATH Boundary&InitialConditions INITIALCONDITIONS - Since the steady state preprocessor is not used, the initial conditions have to be given.
FLOWPATH Boundary&InitialConditions HEATTRANSFER --The inlet ambient temperature of the
well is 50C and outlet ambient temperature is 4. The code will do a vertical interpolation on ambient

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OLGA GUI user manual

temperature along the tubing. In the flow line and riser, the ambient temperature is 4C. The heat transfer
coefficient on outer wall is set to 500 W/m2K. The minimum heat transfer coefficient on inner wall is set to
10 W/m2K.
FLOWPATH Boundary&InitialConditions WELL --The reservoir pressure is 200 bara and reservoir
temperature 50C. Production and injection type is LINEAR. AINJ=APROD=0, BINJ=10 -7 kg/s/Pa and
BPROD=2.510-6 kg/s/Pa.
FLOWPATH Boundary&InitialConditions SOURCE - The tracer source injects tracer at a rate of
1 kg/s.
FLOWPATH FA-models HYDRATECHECK - Hydrate checking is activated in all flowpaths.
FLOWPATH Output TRENDDATA - Tracer variables are plotted.
FLOWPATH Output PROFILEDATA -Tracer variables are plotted.
FLOWPATH Output SERVERDATA - Server variables are available for plotting in interactive
simulations.
NODE - The outlet pressure held constant at 30 bara and the temperature is 20C.
Output
ANIMATE - 3D plot of holdup for liquid along the pipeline is plotted every 10 seconds.
OUTPUT - OLGA variables are printed to the output file every 10 hours.
TREND - Trend variables are plotted every 10 seconds.
PROFILE - Profile variables are plotted every hour.

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MEG tracking

MEG tracking
The sample case Meg-Tracking.opi demonstrates the features of the Inhibitor tracking module. A
horizontal pipeline with a source at the inlet is used to show that the concentration of MEG can be
changed during the simulation and how this can be tracked through the pipeline.

Case comments
FA-models
WATEROPTIONS: Water flash and water slip are turned on.
CaseDefinition
OPTIONS: To activate MEG tracking, the key COMPOSITIONAL has to be set to MEG.
FlowComponent
FLOWPATH Boundary&InitialConditions SOURCE: A mass source with constant mass flow is
placed at the inlet. The MEG concentration in the aqueous phase changes from 60% to 30% after
1.5 hours.
FLOWPATH Piping: The branch consists of 11 pipes.
FLOWPATH Output TRENDDATA: The mole fractions of all three components in the gas and water
phases are plotted.
FLOWPATH Output PROFILEDATA: The mole fraction of MEG in the water phase is plotted.
FLOWPATH Output SERVERDATA: Server variables are available for plotting in interactive
simulations.
NODE: A closed node is placed at the pipe inlet. A constant pressure is applied at the outlet.
Output
ANIMATE: 3D plot of holdup for liquid along the pipeline is plotted every 10 seconds.
OUTPUT: OLGA variables are printed to the output file every 2 hours.
TREND: Trend variables are plotted every 6 minutes.
PROFILE: Profile variables are plotted every 15 minutes.

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OLGA GUI user manual

Compositional - Single-CO2
Case: Single-CO2.opi
Purpose: "Walk around" the critical point.
Fluid: 100% CO2
The transient starts in the gas region, T=5C and P=30 bar. After 60 seconds, the inlet temperature is
increased and reaches 50C after 120 seconds. A corresponding increase in outlet temperature follows. A
temporary small increase in outlet flow rate occurs due to the lower density of gas at the increased
temperature. The lower gas density leads to an increase in volumetric flow rate.
After 10 minutes, the outlet pressure is increased to 80 bar, thereby moving into the dense phase region
on the gas side. A temporary increase in outlet temperature occurs due to compression of the gas and a
temporary reduction in outlet flow rate can also be seen.
After 20 minutes, the inlet temperature is reduced to 5C, thereby moving into the liquid side of the dense
phase region. This leads to condensation of gas which slows down the reduction in outlet temperature
(release of heat due to condensation). The outlet flow rate of gas shows an oscillatory behavior and finally
goes to zero when all the vapor is either condensed or has left the pipe.
After half an hour, the outlet pressure is reduced to 30 bar, thereby crossing the saturation line from the
liquid side to the gas side. A temporary drop in outlet temperature down to about saturation temperature
occurs due to the evaporation of water. There is also an overshoot in gas flow rate due to the volume
increase.

Case comments
CaseDefinition
OPTIONS: The Single component module is activated by setting COMPOSITIONAL=SINGLE.
TEMPERATURE=ADIABATIC (no heat exchange with walls)
Compositional
SINGLEOPTIONS: CO2 is activated by setting COMPONENT=CO2. Time constants are set:
TCONDENSATION=1.0, TBOILING=1.0.
FlowComponent:
FLOWPATH Boundary&InitialConditions SOURCE: Liquid source delivering 2 kg/s. Temperature
and pressure varies with time.
FLOWPATH Piping: 100 m horizontal pipe, diameter=0.12 m, 20 sections
FLOWPATH Output SERVERDATA: Server variables are available for plotting in interactive
simulations.
NODE: A closed node is placed at the pipe inlet. The outlet is a pressure boundary.

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Compositional - Single-CO2

Output
ANIMATE: 3D plot of holdup for liquid along the pipeline is plotted every 10 seconds.
OUTPUT: OLGA variables are printed to the output file every 600 seconds.
TREND: Trend variables are plotted every second.
PROFILE: Profile variables are plotted every 5 minutes.
PROFILEDATA: Pressure, temperature, liquid holdup, overall mass flow and gas mass flow are plotted.

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OLGA GUI user manual

H2O tracking (Single component)


Case: Single-H2O.opi
Purpose: "Walk around" the critical point.
Fluid: 100% H2O
The transient starts in the gas region, T=360C and P=150 bar. After 60 seconds the inlet temperature is
increased and reaches 450C after 120 seconds. A corresponding increase in outlet temperature follows.
A temporary small increase in outlet flow rate occurs due to the lower density of gas at the increased
temperature.
After 10 minutes, the outlet pressure is increased to 227 bar, thereby moving into the dense phase region
on the gas side. A temporary increase in outlet temperature occurs due to compression of the gas and a
minor reduction in outlet flow rate can also be seen.
After 20 minutes, the inlet temperature is reduced to 360C, thereby moving into the liquid side of the
dense phase region. This leads to condensation of gas which slows down the reduction in outlet
temperature. The outlet flow rate of gas shows an oscillatory behavior and finally goes to zero when all the
vapor is either condensed or has left the pipe. During the oscillations in outlet flow of vapor negative values
can be seen, which is due to the oscillations being of numerical nature. The conditions are quite close to
the critical point where the behavior of the fluid properties is highly nonlinear.
After half an hour, the outlet pressure is reduced to 150 bar, thereby crossing the saturation line from the
liquid side to the gas side. A temporary drop in outlet temperature down to about saturation temperature
occurs due to the evaporation of water. There is also an overshoot in gas flow rate due to the volume
increase.

Case comments
CaseDefinition
OPTIONS: The Single component module is activated by setting COMPOSITIONAL=SINGLE.
TEMPERATURE=ADIABATIC (no heat exchange with walls)
Compositional
SINGLEOPTIONS: H2O is activated by setting COMPONENT=H20. Time constants are set:
TCONDENSATION=1.0, TBOILING=1.0, TVAPORIZATION=1.0
FlowComponent:
FLOWPATH Boundary&InitialConditions SOURCE: Water source delivering 2 kg/s. Temperature
and pressure varies with time.
FLOWPATH Piping: 100 m horizontal pipe, diameter=0.12 m, 20 sections.
FLOWPATH Output SERVERDATA: Server variables are available for plotting in interactive
simulations.
NODE: A closed node is placed at the pipe inlet. The outlet is a pressure boundary.

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Compositional - Steam/Water-HC

Compositional - Steam/Water-HC
Case: SteamWater-HC.opi
Purpose: "Walk around" the critical point.
Fluid: 100% H2O
The transient starts in the gas region, T=360C and P=150 bar. After 60 seconds the inlet temperature is
increased and reaches 450C after 120 seconds. A corresponding increase in outlet temperature follows.
A temporary small increase in outlet flow rate occurs due to the lower density of gas at the increased
temperature.
After 10 minutes, the outlet pressure is increased to 227 bar, thereby moving into the dense phase region
on the gas side. A temporary increase in outlet temperature occurs due to compression of the gas and a
minor reduction in outlet flow rate can also be seen.
After 20 minutes, the inlet temperature is reduced to 360C, thereby moving into the liquid side of the
dense phase region. This leads to condensation of gas which slows down the reduction in outlet
temperature. The outlet flow rate of gas shows an oscillatory behavior and finally goes to zero when all the
vapor is either condensed or has left the pipe. During the oscillations in outlet flow of vapor negative values
can be seen, which is due to the oscillations being of numerical nature. The conditions are quite close to
the critical point where the behavior of the fluid properties is highly nonlinear.
After half an hour, the outlet pressure is reduced to 150 bar, thereby crossing the saturation line from the
liquid side to the gas side. A temporary drop in outlet temperature down to about saturation temperature
occurs due to the evaporation of water. There is also an overshoot in gas flow rate due to the volume
increase.

Case comments
CaseDefinition
OPTIONS - The Steam\waterHC module is activated by setting COMPOSITIONAL=STEAMWATER-HC.
TEMPERATURE=ADIABATIC (no heat exchange with walls)
Compositional
COMPOPTIONS - Time constants are set: TCONDENSATION=1.0, TBOILING=1.0,
TVAPORIZATION=1.0

FlowComponent
FLOWPATH Boundary&InitialConditions SOURCE - Liquid source delivering 2 kg/s. Temperature
and pressure varies with time.
FLOWPATH Piping -100 m horizontal pipe, diameter=0.12 m, 20 sections.
FLOWPATH Output SERVERDATA - Server variables are available for plotting in interactive
simulations.

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OLGA GUI user manual

NODE - A closed node is placed at the pipe inlet. The outlet is a pressure boundary.
Output
ANIMATE - 3D plot of holdup for liquid along the pipeline is plotted every 10 seconds.
OUTPUT - OLGA variables are printed to the output file every 600 seconds.
TREND - Trend variables are plotted every seconds.
PROFILE - Profile variables are plotted every 5 minutes.

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Drilling

Drilling
The sample case Drilling.opi gives an example of a simple drilling case. The configuration includes the
minimum configuration (three flowpaths) as described in the Drilling fluid - How to use section in the OLGA
user manual. In this case, we have also included an internal node to connect the annulus to a return line.

The case is configured to start drilling from the top. After it reaches the bottom, the drill string is pulled up
again. An oil-based mud is injected from the top, while the two wells at the bottom start producing as the
corresponding sections are activated.

Case comments
In order to couple the STANDNODE to the drill string, DRILLSTRING = DrillString1 is set under the
STANDNODE keyword.
Two ANNULUS components are defined for this case: one going from the top to the middle of the drill
string geometry (ANNULUS_1), and another one going from the middle to the bottom (ANNULUS_2). It is
worth remembering that Annulus1 and DrillString1 have equivalent geometries, and that the corresponding
positions in Annulus1 have been used to define the ANNULUS components.
Under the BITNODE keyword, we specify the drilling path by listing the mentioned ANNULUS components:
ANNULUSLIST = (ANNULUS_2, ANNULUS_1).
We start the case with an initial drilled depth of one meter (INITDRILLEDMD = 1 m), and we place the
BITNODE at the bottom of the drilled part (INITBITMD = 1 m). The rate of penetration is defined so that
after 200s the bit drills at a rate of 0.1 m/s, and then after 2000s the bit is moved up at a rate of 0.1 m/s.
For this we use a time series: TIME = (0, 200, 2000) s, ROP = (0, 0.1, -0.2) m/s.

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OLGA GUI user manual

Advanced well
The sample case AdvancedWell.opi demonstrates some of the features in the advanced well
functionality. A 3500 m vertical well is producing from a gas reservoir through a 5.5" ID tubing. The
formation has a permeability of 500 mD and the Forchheimer inflow correlation is applied. This is a typical
inflow correlation for a gas reservoir where the non-linear behavior between the produced gas rate and
flowing bottom hole pressure is important.
A wellhead choke is placed at the last section boundary of the branch.

Case comments
CaseDefinition
OPTIONS: The steady state pre-processor is deactivated. The heat transfer number outside the wall have
to be given.
INTEGRATION: The case is simulated form 0 to 5 hours with a maximum time step of 2 seconds. The
minimum time step is set to 0.001 seconds.
FlowComponent:
FLOWPATH Boundary&InitialConditions HEATTRANSFER: A linear ambient temperature profile
is used for the well. An overall heat transfer coefficient of 10 W/m2K has been used.
FLOWPATH Boundary&InitialConditions INITIALCONDITIONS: The pipeline is initialized with gas
at 30C. The mass flow is set to zero throughout the pipeline. The pressure is set to 400 bar at the inlet,
300 bar at the outlet, and is interpolated vertically in between.
FLOWPATH Boundary&InitialConditions WELL: A gas well with reservoir pressure of 412 bara
and reservoir temperature of 43.5C is placed at the branch inlet. The well production is calculated using
the Forchheimer model and the linear model is used for injection. The reservoir permeability is 500 mD
and the net pay from the zone is 14 m. The mechanical skin is 3, and a turbulent non-Darcy skin of
0.01 1/mmscf/d is used.
FLOWPATH ProcessEquipment VALVE: A wellhead choke with 10% opening is placed at the
outlet.
NODE: The inlet node is closed and the inlet flow is specified with a productivity correlation based on
physical reservoir properties (see WELL). The outlet node is of type pressure. The boundary conditions are
constant through the simulation.
FLOWPATH Piping: The 3500 m long vertical well is described by 9 pipes.
FLOWPATH Output SERVERDATA: Server variables are available for plotting in interactive
simulations.

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Advanced well

Output
ANIMATE: 3D plot of holdup for liquid along the pipeline is plotted every 10 seconds.
OUTPUT: OLGA variables are printed to the output file every 10000 seconds.
TREND: Trend variables are plotted every 100 seconds.
PROFILE: Profile variables are plotted every 6000 seconds.

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OLGA GUI user manual

Corrosion
The sample case Corrosion.opi is an example illustrating the use of the corrosion model. The main
pipeline starts with a 3.3 km long horizontal pipe ending in a 90 m riser followed by a short horizontal pipe.
The inner diameter of the pipe is 0.41 m. Heat transfer through pipe walls is calculated. The fluid
composition is of a gas condensate type. The water cut is about 80%.

Case comments
Library
WALL: The pipe walls consist of steel (two layers) covered by one layer of insulation.
CaseDefinition
OPTIONS: The full heat transfer calculation option with heat transfer through pipe walls is used.
INTEGRATION: The simulation runs for five hours using a minimum time step of 0.01 s and a maximum
one of 10 s. The initial time step is set equal to the minimum one.
FA-models:
WATEROPTIONS: Water flash and water slip are turned on.
FlowComponent
FLOWPATH Boundary&InitialConditions SOURCE: The inlet boundary condition is a constant
mass source with mass flow of 34.181 kg/s and temperature of 60C. The mass fraction of free water is set
to 0.3. Since water flash is active, see WATEROPTIONS keyword, there is additional water in the vapor
phase given by the water vapor mass fraction in the PVT table. By default, the equilibrium is used to
determine the gas source at the inlet.
FLOWPATH FA-models CORROSION: Both Model1 (NORSOK) and Model3 (de Waard 95) are
activated on flow path B-INLET. The CO2 fraction, i.e., the ratio of CO2 partial pressure to total pressure in
the gas, is set to 5%. The fraction of glycol in the glycol/water mixture is set to 50% and the inhibitor
efficiency is set to 90%. The presence of glycol yields a reduction factor of the corrosion rate. The effect of
a second inhibitor is given directly though the key INHIBITOREFFICIENCY. For the NORSOK model, only
the largest of these two factors is multiplied with the corrosion rate while for the de Waard 95 model, both
factors are multiplied with the corrosion rate.
FLOWPATH Piping: The pipeline is 3.3 km long. The total number of pipes, including topside, is 9. The
pipes are divided into 58 sections. The pipe walls consist of steel (two layers) covered with a layer of
insulation.
FLOWPATH Output PROFILEDATA: Pressure, temperature, overall mass flow, gas velocity, and oil
and water hold-up and velocities are profile plotted for all pipelines.
FLOWPATH Output SERVERDATA: Server variables are available for plotting in interactive
simulations.

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Corrosion

NODE: The inlet node is closed. The outlet boundary condition is to a constant pressure of 24 bara and a
temperature of 26C.
Output
ANIMATE: 3D plot of holdup for liquid along the pipeline is plotted every 10 seconds.
OUTPUT: OLGA variables are printed to the output file at the start and end of the simulation.
TREND: Trend variables are plotted every 10 seconds.
PROFILE: Profile variables are plotted every 50 seconds.

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OLGA GUI user manual

Drilling fluid
The sample case DrillingFluid.opi demonstrates how OLGA models drilling fluid in a well clean-up case.
The system consists of a well tubing pipeline with 1875 m TVD and 2725 m MD and a 150 m long
wellhead pipe. A source injects water based drilling mud from the well bottom hole to fill-in the well tubing.
The well production will push the drilling mud out of the tubing and start normal production. A sketch of the
model is shown below.
Operation scenario:
Water based drilling mud is injected from the well bottom hole during the first hour in order to fill-in the well
tubing. The mud is then reduced to zero over half an hour. The well production will push the drilling mud
out of the tubing and start normal production.
Trend plots of the total mass flow rate at topside (GT), the total well flow rate (GTWELL), and mud source
mass flow rate (GTSOUR) show the flow rate changing. Profile plots of the mass fraction of mud
(MFAMUD), liquid density (ROL) and hold-up show changes in the amount of mud and liquid in the
pipeline.

Case comments
Library
DRILLINGFLUID: The drilling fluid, DRFL_LIQ_1, is defined with TYPE=WATER,
MINDENSITY=600 kg/m3, MAXDENSITY=2400 kg/m3, MINVISCOSITY=10-4 Ns/m2 and
MAXVISCOSITY=1 Ns/m2
CaseDefinition
OPTIONS: The full heat transfer calculation option with heat transfer through the pipe walls is used. The
steady state pre-processor is used to generate initial conditions.

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Drilling fluid

FlowComponent:
FLOWPATH Boundary&InitialConditions HEATTRANSFER: The ambient temperature is vertically
interpolated from 80C at the bottom of the borehole to 20C at the wellhead. The heat transfer coefficient
on outer walls is set to 500 W/m2K. The minimum heat transfer coefficient on inner walls is set to
10 W/m2K.
FLOWPATH Boundary&InitialConditions SOURCE: The mass source injects water based mud at
the well bottom hole at a rate of 60 kg/s over the first hours. Over the next half an hour, the rate is reduced
to zero.
FLOWPATH Boundary&InitialConditions WELL: The reservoir pressure is 200 bara and reservoir
temperature 80C. Production and injection type is LINEAR. AINJ=APROD=0, BINJ=10 -8 kg/s/Pa and
BPROD=3.510-6 kg/s/Pa.
FLOWPATH Output TRENDDATA: The mass fraction of mud is plotted.
FLOWPATH Output SERVERDATA: Server variables are available for plotting in interactive
simulations.
NODE: The outlet pressure held constant at 30 bara and the temperature is 4C.
Output
ANIMATE: 3D plot of holdup for liquid along the pipeline is plotted every 10 seconds.
OUTPUT: OLGA variables are printed to the output file every 10 hours.
TREND: Trend variables are plotted every 10^#160;seconds.
PROFILE: Profile variables are plotted every 6 minutes.

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OLGA GUI user manual

Hydrate kinetics
The sample case HydrateKinetics.opi demonstrates how the hydrate kinetics model can be used in an
OLGA simulation. The hydrate kinetics model enables approximate predictions of where hydrate plugs
might form in oil and gas pipelines.
The system consists of a well tubing pipeline with a 1875 m true vertical depth (TVD) and a 2725 m
measured depth (MD), a 150 m long wellhead pipe, a 3150 m pipeline leading up to a 391.2 m vertical
riser and a 100 m long horizontal topside pipe. The total production is controlled by the wellhead choke. A
sketch of the model is shown below.
Operation scenario:
The well is a gas well. The fluid temperature may be below the hydrate temperature in the flow line. In
order to avoid hydrate plugs, regions where the conditions might cause hydrate plugs to form can be
detected.

Case comments
Library
HYDRATECURVE: Definition of hydrate curve used by HYDRATECHECK.

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Hydrate kinetics

CaseDefinition
OPTIONS: Temperature calculations use heat transfer on the inside and outside of pipe walls as well as
heat conduction, but no heat storage is accounted for. The initial conditions are generated by the steady
state pre-processor.
FlowComponent:
FLOWPATH Boundary&InitialConditions HEATTRANSFER: The inlet ambient temperature of the
well is 50C and outlet ambient temperature is 4. The code will do a vertical interpolation on ambient
temperature along the tubing. In the flow line and riser, the ambient temperature is 4C. The heat transfer
coefficient on outer wall is set to 500 W/m2K. The minimum heat transfer coefficient on inner wall is set to
10 W/m2K.
FLOWPATH Boundary&InitialConditions WELL: The reservoir pressure is 200 bara and reservoir
temperature 50C. Production and injection type is LINEAR. AINJ=APROD=0, BINJ=10 -7 kg/s/Pa and
BPROD=2.510-6 kg/s/Pa.
FLOWPATH FA-models HYDRATECHECK: Hydrate checking is activated in all flowpaths.
FLOWPATH FA-models HYDRATEKINETICS: The hydrate kinetics model is applied for all
flowpaths.
FLOWPATH Output TRENDDATA: Hydrate variables are plotted.
FLOWPATH Output PROFILEDATA: Hydrate variables are plotted.
FLOWPATH Output SERVERDATA: Server variables are available for plotting in interactive
simulations.
NODE: The outlet pressure held constant at 50 bara and the temperature is 20C.
Output
ANIMATE: 3D plot of holdup for liquid along the pipeline is plotted every 10 seconds.
OUTPUT: OLGA variables are printed to the output file every 10 hours.
TREND: Trend variables are plotted every 10 seconds.
PROFILE: Profile variables are plotted every hour.

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OLGA GUI user manual

Network
The sample case Network.opi is a network case. Five wells merge into two different wellheads. The fluid
is transported through two pipelines, one from each wellhead, to a processing platform. Here, the flow
merge into a common header and then flows through some horizontal piping before reaching the outlet.
Two wells merge at the first wellhead and the other three wells at the second one.
Two slightly different geometries are used for the wells. The boundary conditions vary between given
pressure, given mass flow, and well productivity index.
The two pipelines have identical geometries.

Schematic view of the network.

Case comments
CaseDefinition
OPTION: Temperature option "ADIABATIC" has been chosen. No heat transfer through the pipe walls is
assumed.
INTEGRATION: The simulation end time is set to 3 hours. The maximum and minimum time steps are
10 seconds and 0.01 seconds, respectively.
FlowComponent
FLOWPATH Boundary&InitialConditions SOURCE: Branches 1 and 5 use constant mass
sources. N.B., for Branch 1, the mass flow is specified in terms of volumetric flow rate of liquid at standard
conditions.
FLOWPATH Boundary&InitialConditions WELL: The reservoir pressure and temperature are
given together with a linear productivity index for gas and liquid flow at the midpoint of the first section in
branch 3.

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Network

FLOWPATH ProcessEquipment VALVE: The wellhead choke in Branch 3 is fully open during the
entire simulation.
FLOWPATH Piping: The number of pipes and their coordinates are defined for each branch, x and z
represent horizontal coordinates whereas y is the vertical axis. As a verification of the input, the user may
note the length and inclination of each pipe section as printed to the output file at the end of the
initialization. Toward the end of the flow lines, the section lengths are gradually reduced to the values in
the riser.
FLOWPATH Output SERVERDATA: Server variables are available for plotting in interactive
simulations.
NODE: Branches 1, 3 and 5 have closed nodes at the inlets. Branches 2 and 6 have constant pressure
nodes at the inlets. Branches 4 and 7 are connected to internal nodes and have no terminal nodes.
Branch 8 has a constant pressure node at the outlet.
Output
ANIMATE: 3D plot of holdup for liquid along the pipeline is plotted every 10 seconds.
OUTPUT: OLGA variables are printed to the output file at the end of the simulation.
TREND: Trend variables are plotted every 30 seconds.
PROFILE: Profile variables are plotted every 15 minutes.

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OLGA GUI user manual

Particle flow
The sample case ParticleFlow.opi demonstrates how OLGA simulates particle deposition and
entrainment in a horizontal pipeline.
The case consists of a horizontal pipeline with a fixed outlet pressure. A source injects water, oil, gas and
particles at the inlet. The mass flow is initially reduced. Consequently, a bed is formed. After some time,
the mass flow is increased again, entraining the particles from the bed and making the latter disappear.

Case comments
Library
PARTICLES:
Default values are used for the properties of the particle phase.
CaseDefinition
OPTIONS: We set PARTICLEFLOW=ADVANCED to enable bed formation.
FA-models
PARTICLEOPTIONS: We set BEDPOROSITY=0.3 and leave the default value for the rest.
FlowComponent:
FLOWPATH Boundary&InitialConditions SOURCE: The mass source injects oil, water, gas and
particles. The mass flow rate is reduced linearly from 18 kg/s to 2 kg/s in 800s and then increased again to
18kg/s with the same slope. The mass fraction of particles being injected is kept constant at one percent.
NODE: The outlet pressure held constant at 50 bara and the temperature is 22C.
Output
OUTPUT: OLGA variables are printed to the output file every 1 hour.
TREND: Trend variables are plotted every 15 seconds.
PROFILE: Profile variables are plotted every 5 minutes.

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2nd-order scheme

2nd-order scheme
The sample case Second-order-MEGsteps.opi illustrates the improved accuracy that can be achieved by
applying a 2nd-order scheme when solving the mass equations.
The pipeline is 100 m long with a 50 m gain in elevation. Initially, the first 100 m of the pipe is filled with oil
whereas the rest of the pipe is filled with water. Within the water, there are three regions with various
amounts of MEG, see See " Initial MEG fractions." on page 37. As the simulation starts, oil is injected at
the inlet, pushing the water out of the pipeline. What should be noted are the differences in results when
running the case using a 2nd-order scheme for the mass equations as compared to a 1st-order scheme.
While numerical diffusion rapidly smears out the MEG using the 1st-order scheme, pronounced peaks are
preserved throughout the simulation using the 2nd-order scheme, see See " MEG fractions 85 s into the
simulation. The black curve is using a 1st-order scheme for the mass equations whereas the red curve
illustrates the use of a 2nd-order scheme." on page 38.

Initial MEG fractions.

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OLGA GUI user manual

MEG fractions 85 s into the simulation. The black curve is using a 1st-order scheme for the mass
equations whereas the red curve illustrates the use of a 2nd-order scheme.

Case comments
CaseDefinition
OPTIONS: The discretization scheme applied when solving the mass equations is determined by the key
MASSEQSCHEME.
FlowComponent:
FLOWPATH Boundary&InitialConditions INITIALCONDITIONS: The first 100 m of the pipe is
filled with oil whereas the rest of the pipe contains only water. Within the water, three regions containing
different amounts of MEG are set up.
FLOWPATH Boundary&InitialConditions SOURCE: The mass source is ramped up to a steady
mass flow of 53.34 kg/s over the first 8.5 seconds of the simulation. The source temperature is 30C.
FLOWPATH Piping: The branch is a single pipe, 1 km long with an elevation of 50 m.
FLOWPATH Output PROFILEDATA: Variables of interest are hold-ups and inhibitor fractions.
FLOWPATH Output SERVERDATA: Server variables are available for plotting in interactive
simulations.
NODE: The inlet node is closed. The outlet boundary condition is set to a constant pressure of 4.5 MPa
and a temperature of 30C.

Output:
ANIMATE: 3D plot of holdup for liquid along the pipeline is plotted every 10 seconds.

- 38 -

2nd-order scheme

OUTPUT: OLGA variables are printed to the output file every 100 seconds.
TREND: Trend variables are plotted every 0.1 seconds.
PROFILE: Profile variables are plotted every 5 seconds.

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OLGA GUI user manual

Water options
The sample case WaterOptions.opi is an example of a three phase simulation using WATEROPTIONS.
The main pipeline starts with a 3.3 km long horizontal pipe ending in a 90 m riser followed by a short
horizontal pipe. The inner diameter of the pipe is 0.41 m. Heat transfer through pipe walls is calculated.

Case comments
Library
WALL: - The pipe walls consist of steel (two layers) covered by one layer of insulation.
CaseDefinition
OPTIONS -The full heat transfer calculation option with heat transfer through pipe walls is used.
INTEGRATION - The simulation runs for five hours using a minimum time step of 0.01 s and a maximum
one of 10 s. The initial time step is set equal to the minimum one.
FA-models
WATEROPTIONS - Water flash and water slip are turned on.
FlowComponent
FLOWPATH Boundary&InitialConditions SOURCE - The inlet boundary condition is a constant
mass source with mass flow of 34.181 kg/s and temperature of 60C. The mass fraction of free water is set
to 0.3. Since water flash is active, see WATEROPTIONS keyword, there is additional water in the vapor
phase given by the water vapor mass fraction in the PVT table. By default, the equilibrium is used to
determine the gas source at the inlet.
FLOWPATH Piping - The pipeline is 3.3 km long. The total number of pipes, including topside, is 9.
The pipes are divided into 58 sections. The pipe walls consist of steel (two layers) covered with a layer of
insulation.
FLOWPATH Output SERVERDATA - Server variables are available for plotting in interactive
simulations.
NODE - The inlet node is closed. The outlet boundary condition is to a constant pressure of 24 bara and a
temperature of 26C.
Output
ANIMATE - 3D plot of holdup for liquid along the pipeline is plotted every 10 seconds.
OUTPUT - OLGA variables are printed to the output file at the start and end of the simulation.
TREND - Trend variables are plotted every 10 seconds.
PROFILE - Profile variables are plotted every 50 seconds.

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Wax deposition

Wax deposition
The sample case WaxDeposition.opi demonstrates a simulation of wax deposition. The pipeline consists
of an 8 km long horizontal pipe, a 110 m vertical riser, and 60 m long horizontal topside pipe. The inner
diameter is 0.17 m throughout the pipeline.
The fluid enters the pipeline with a temperature of 70C, which is above the wax appearance temperature.
On its way through the pipeline, the fluid is cooled and wax precipitation and deposition starts once the
temperature is low enough. This happens about 2 km from the inlet. Due to the thermal insulation effect of
the wax layer, the fluid temperature increases in the parts of the pipeline where wax is deposited.
Furthermore, the wax layer makes the effective area of the pipe decreases, resulting in an increasing inlet
pressure in order to maintain a constant flow rate.

Case comments
Library
WALL: The pipe wall consists of steel, concrete, and an insulating polypropylene layer.
CaseDefinition
FILES: The wax properties are defined in the file wax_tab-1.wax.
OPTION: The steady state pre-processor is activated to generate the initial conditions. N.B., wax is not
accounted for in the pre-processor. Full temperature calculation (TEMPERATURE=WALL) is required
when simulating wax deposition.
INTEGRATION: Since wax deposition is a slow process, the simulation time is set to 10 days. This is
sufficient for a wax layer to start appearing.
FlowComponent
FLOWPATH Boundary&InitialConditions SOURCE: The flow rate at the inlet is set to 17.51 kg/s
with a temperature of 70C.
FLOWPATH FA-models WAXDEPOSITION: Deposition of wax is allowed in the entire pipeline. The
wax porosity is set to 0.6 and the built in routine for calculating the viscosity of oil with precipitated wax is
used. Wax properties are taken from the table WAXTAB in the file wax_tab-1.wax. Contribution to the wall
roughness from deposited wax is not considered (WAXROUGHNESS=0 by default).
FLOWPATH Output PROFILEDATA: Variables of interest are pressure and temperature in addition
to wax related variables, such as wax layer thickness (DXWX), mass of wax dispersed and dissolved in oil
(MWXDIP and MWXDIS, respectively) and the wax appearance temperature (WAXAP), which is pressure
dependent.
FLOWPATH Output SERVERDATA: Server variables are available for plotting in interactive
simulations.
FLOWPATH Piping: For the horizontal part of the pipeline, sections of length 250 m are used. If higher
accuracy of the position where the wax starts depositing is needed, shorter sections should be used.
NODE: The inlet node is closed. A constant outlet pressure of 20 bara is applied.
Output
ANIMATE: 3D plot of holdup for liquid along the pipeline is plotted every 10 seconds.
OUTPUT: Pressure and temperature in all sections are written every 10 days. Four columns of results are
printed on each page.
TREND: Trend variables are plotted every hour.
PROFILE: Profile variables are plotted every day.

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OLGA GUI user manual

Backpressure IPR
The sample case Well-BackpressureIPR.opi is constructed to show how to model well production using
backpressure reservoir inflow option. The well geometry and components are shown in the figure below.

The system consists of a 1000 m vertical well with a well module located at the bottom. The reservoir
pressure and temperature are 80 bara and 62C respectively. The PRODOPTION and INJOPTION are
chosen as BACKPRESSURE with positive production and negative injection coefficient C =100 scf/d/psi2.
The exponent constant n=1.
Library
WALL: The simple tubing wall consists of two material layers.
CaseDefinition
OPTIONS: The STEADYSTATE preprocessor is ON.
INTEGRATION: The simulation runs for 100 seconds using a minimum time step of 0.01 s and a maximum
one of 5 s. The initial time step is set equal to the minimum time step.
Flow Component:
FLOWPATH(s): The well consists of one flowpath: Well
OUTPUT: Multiple variables have been set up for output such as trend variables and profile variables.
NODE: The bottom of the wellbore is a closed node. The tubing outlet boundary condition is set to a
constant pressure of 50 bara, temperature of 22C.
Output:
ANIMATE: 3D plot of holdup for liquid along the pipeline is plotted every 10 seconds.
OUTPUT: OLGA variables are printed to the output file at the start and end of the simulation.
TREND: Trend variables are plotted every 15 seconds.
PROFILE: Profile variables are plotted every 5 minutes.

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Well Forchheimer IPR

Well Forchheimer IPR


The sample case Well-ForchheimerIPR.opi is constructed to show how to model a well production using
Forchheimer reservoir inflow option. The well geometry and components are shown in the figure below.

The system consists of a 1000 m vertical well with a well module located at the bottom. The reservoir
pressure and temperature are 80 bara and 62C respectively. The PRODOPTION and INJOPTION are
chosen as Forchheimer with positive production and negative injection coefficients B=1 e-6 Psi2 d/scf
and C =1e-10 Psi2 d2/scf2.
Library
WALL: The simple tubing wall consists of two material layers.
CaseDefinition
OPTIONS: The STEADYSTATE preprocessor is ON.
INTEGRATION: The simulation runs for 100 seconds using a minimum time step of 0.01 s and a maximum
one of 5 s. The initial time step is set equal to the minimum time step.
Flow Component
FLOWPATH(s): The well consists of one flowpath: Well
OUTPUT: Multiple variables have been set up for output such as trend variables and profile variables.
NODE: The bottom of the wellbore is a closed node. The tubing outlet boundary condition is set to a
constant pressure of 50 bara, temperature of 22C.
Output
ANIMATE: 3D plot of holdup for liquid along the pipeline is plotted every 10 seconds.
OUTPUT: OLGA variables are printed to the output file at the start and end of the simulation.
TREND: Trend variables are plotted every 15 seconds.
PROFILE: Profile variables are plotted every 5 minutes.

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OLGA GUI user manual

Linear IPR
The sample case Well-LinearIPR.opi is constructed to show how to model a well production using the
linear reservoir inflow option. The well geometry and components are shown in the figure below.

The system consists of a 1000 m vertical well with a well module located at the bottom. The reservoir
pressure and temperature are 85 bara and 62C respectively. The PRODOPTION and INJOPTION are
chosen as linear with positive production and negative injection coefficient B=1 e-6 kg/s/Pa.
Library
WALL: The simple tubing wall consists of two material layers.
CaseDefinition
OPTIONS: The STEADYSTATE preprocessor is ON.
INTEGRATION: The simulation runs for 100 seconds using a minimum time step of 0.01 s and a maximum
one of 5 s. The initial time step is set equal to the minimum time step.
Flow Component
FLOWPATH(s): The well consists of one flowpath: Well
OUTPUT: Multiple variables have been set up for output such as trend variables and profile variables.
NODE: The bottom of the wellbore is a closed node. The tubing outlet boundary condition is set to a
constant pressure of 50 bara, temperature of 22C.
Output
ANIMATE: 3D plot of holdup for liquid along the pipeline is plotted every 10 seconds.
OUTPUT: OLGA variables are printed to the output file at the start and end of the simulation.
TREND: Trend variables are plotted every 15 seconds.
PROFILE: Profile variables are plotted every 5 minutes.

- 44 -

Normalized backpressure IPR

Normalized backpressure IPR


The sample case Well-NormalizedBackpressureIPR.opi is constructed to show how to model a well
production using normalized backpressure reservoir inflow option. The well geometry and components are
shown in the figure below.

The system consists of a 1000 m vertical well with a well module located at the bottom. The reservoir
pressure and temperature are 80 bara and 62C respectively. The PRODOPTION and INJOPTION are
chosen as NORMALIZEDBACKPRESSURE with exponent constant=1, QMAX=50000 STB/d and
PHASE=OIL
Library
WALL: The simple tubing wall consists of two material layers.
CaseDefinition
OPTIONS: The STEADYSTATE preprocessor is ON.
INTEGRATION: The simulation runs for 100 seconds using a minimum time step of 0.01 s and a maximum
one of 5 s. The initial time step is set equal to the minimum time step.
Flow Component
FLOWPATH(s): The well consists of one flowpath: Well
OUTPUT: Multiple variables have been set up for output such as trend variables and profile variables.
NODE: The bottom of the wellbore is a closed node. The tubing outlet boundary condition is set to a
constant pressure of 50 bara, temperature of 22C.
Output
ANIMATE: 3D plot of holdup for liquid along the pipeline is plotted every 10 seconds.
OUTPUT: OLGA variables are printed to the output file at the start and end of the simulation.
TREND: Trend variables are plotted every 15 seconds.
PROFILE: Profile variables are plotted every 5 minutes.

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OLGA GUI user manual

Quadric IPR
The sample case Well-QaudraticIPR.opi is constructed to show how to model a well production using
Qaudratic reservoir inflow option. The well geometry and components are shown in the figure below.

The system consists of a 1000 m vertical well with a well module located at the bottom. The reservoir
pressure and temperature are 80 bara and 62C respectively. The PRODOPTION and INJOPTION are
chosen as QUADRATIC with AINJ=APROD=0 Pa2 and BINJ=BPROD=0 Pa2s/kg and
CINJ=CPROD=50000000 Pa2s2/Kg2.
Library
WALL: The simple tubing wall consists of two material layers.
CaseDefinition
OPTIONS: The STEADYSTATE preprocessor is ON.
INTEGRATION: The simulation runs for 100 seconds using a minimum time step of 0.01 s and a maximum
one of 5 s. The initial time step is set equal to the minimum time step.
Flow Component
FLOWPATH(s): The well consists of one flowpath: Well
OUTPUT: Multiple variables have been set up for output such as trend variables and profile variables.
NODE: The bottom of the wellbore is a closed node. The tubing outlet boundary condition is set to a
constant pressure of 50 bara, temperature of 22C.
Output
ANIMATE: 3D plot of holdup for liquid along the pipeline is plotted every 10 seconds.
OUTPUT: OLGA variables are printed to the output file at the start and end of the simulation.
TREND: Trend variables are plotted every 15 seconds.
PROFILE: Profile variables are plotted every 5 minutes.

- 46 -

Single Forchheimer IPR

Single Forchheimer IPR


The sample case Well-SingleForchheimerIPR.opi is constructed to show how to model a well production
using Single Forchheimer reservoir inflow option. The well geometry and components are shown in the
figure below.

The system consists of a 1000 m vertical well with a well module located at the bottom. The reservoir
pressure and temperature are 80.5 bara and 62 C respectively. The PRODOPTION and INJOPTION are
chosen as SINGLEFORCHHEIMER with BINJ=BPROD=1e-6 psi-d/scf and CINJ=CPROD=1e-11 psid2/scf.
Library
WALL: The simple tubing wall consists of two material layers.
CaseDefinition
OPTIONS: The STEADYSTATE preprocessor is ON.
INTEGRATION: The simulation runs for 100 seconds using a minimum time step of 0.01 s and a maximum
one of 5 s. The initial time step is set equal to the minimum time step.
Flow Component
FLOWPATH(s): The well consists of one flowpath: Well
OUTPUT: Multiple variables have been set up for output such as trend variables and profile variables.
NODE: The bottom of the wellbore is a closed node. The tubing outlet boundary condition is set to a
constant pressure of 50 bara, temperature of 22C.
Output
ANIMATE: 3D plot of holdup for liquid along the pipeline is plotted every 10 seconds.
OUTPUT: OLGA variables are printed to the output file at the start and end of the simulation.
TREND: Trend variables are plotted every 15 seconds.
PROFILE: Profile variables are plotted every 5 minutes.

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OLGA GUI user manual

Tabular IPR
The sample case Well-TabularIPR.opi is constructed to show how to model a well production using Single
tabular inflow option. The well geometry and components are shown in the figure below.

The system consists of a 1000 m vertical well with a well module located at the bottom. The reservoir
pressure and temperature are 80 bara and 62 C respectively. The PRODOPTION and INJOPTION are
chosen as TABULAR. The production table given at three DELTAP (PR- Pwf) (bar) provides the
production mass flow (kg/s) from the reservoir. The table is shown in See " Production table" on page 48.

Production table
Library
WALL: The simple tubing wall consists of two material layers.
CaseDefinition
OPTIONS: The STEADYSTATE preprocessor is ON.

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Tabular IPR

INTEGRATION: The simulation runs for 100 seconds using a minimum time step of 0.01 s and a maximum
one of 5 s. The initial time step is set equal to the minimum time step.
Flow Component
FLOWPATH(s): The well consists of one flowpath: Well
OUTPUT: Multiple variables have been set up for output such as trend variables and profile variables.
NODE: The bottom of the wellbore is a closed node. The tubing outlet boundary condition is set to a
constant pressure of 50 bara, temperature of 22C.
Output
ANIMATE: 3D plot of holdup for liquid along the pipeline is plotted every 10 seconds.
OUTPUT: OLGA variables are printed to the output file at the start and end of the simulation.
TREND: Trend variables are plotted every 15 seconds.
PROFILE: Profile variables are plotted every 5 minutes.

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OLGA GUI user manual

Undersaturated IPR
The sample case Well-UndersaturatedIPR.opi is constructed to show how to model a well production
using Undersaturated reservoir inflow option. The well geometry and components are shown in the figure
below.

The system consists of a 1000 m vertical well with a well module located at the bottom. The reservoir
pressure and temperature are 80 bara and 62C respectively. The bubble point pressure is set as 79 bara
while INJECTIVY= 0 scf/d/psi and PRODI= 42 scf/d/psi.
Library
WALL: The simple tubing wall consists of two material layers.
CaseDefinition
OPTIONS: The STEADYSTATE preprocessor is ON.
INTEGRATION: The simulation runs for 100 seconds using a minimum time step of 0.01 s and a maximum
one of 5 s. The initial time step is set equal to the minimum time step.
Flow Component
FLOWPATH(s): The well consists of one flowpath: Well
OUTPUT: Multiple variables have been set up for output such as trend variables and profile variables.
NODE: The bottom of the wellbore is a closed node. The tubing outlet boundary condition is set to a
constant pressure of 50 bara, temperature of 22C.
Output
ANIMATE: 3D plot of holdup for liquid along the pipeline is plotted every 10 seconds.
OUTPUT: OLGA variables are printed to the output file at the start and end of the simulation.
TREND: Trend variables are plotted every 15 seconds.
PROFILE: Profile variables are plotted every 5 minutes.

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Vogels IPR

Vogels IPR
The sample case Well-VogelsIPR.opi is constructed to show how to model a well production using Vogels
reservoir inflow option. The well geometry and components are shown in the figure below.

The system consists of a 1000 m vertical well with a well module located at the bottom. The reservoir
pressure and temperature are 80 bara and 62C respectively. QMAX in Vogels equation is set to 50000
STB/D.
Library
WALL: The simple tubing wall consists of two material layers.
CaseDefinition
OPTIONS: The STEADYSTATE preprocessor is ON.
INTEGRATION: The simulation runs for 100 seconds using a minimum time step of 0.01 s and a maximum
one of 5 s. The initial time step is set equal to the minimum time step.
Flow Component
FLOWPATH(s): The well consists of one flowpath: Well
OUTPUT: Multiple variables have been set up for output such as trend variables and profile variables.
NODE: The bottom of the wellbore is a closed node. The tubing outlet boundary condition is set to a
constant pressure of 50 bara, temperature of 22C.
Output
ANIMATE: 3D plot of holdup for liquid along the pipeline is plotted every 10 seconds.
OUTPUT: OLGA variables are printed to the output file at the start and end of the simulation.
TREND: Trend variables are plotted every 15 seconds.
PROFILE: Profile variables are plotted every 5 minutes.

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OLGA GUI user manual

Network server
The case Network-server.opi is an OPC server version of the demo case Network.opi.

Case comments
Only server specific items are commented here. For other comments see the Network.opi sample which
apart from server specific items is identical, except for the ANIMATE keyword which is turned off in the
OPC server version of the case.
CaseDefinition:
SERVEROPTIONS : A model name NetworkDemo is specified. Defining this keyword is all that is
needed to start the built-in OPC server in OLGA.
INTEGRATION: SIMULATIONSPEED is set to 15, indicating the model is requested to simulate at 15
times real-time speed. Further, SIMULATIONSPEED and MINDT are selected in the EXPOSE key, which
gives the possibility to change these input values using a connected OPC client.
FlowComponent:
FLOWPATH : BRAN-3-ProcessEquipment-VALVE: The valve OPENING is selected in the EXPOSE key.
Thus, the valve opening can be set from a connected OPC client.
NODE: NODE-2: The node PRESSURE is exposed.
FLOWPATH : BRAN-1-Boundary&InitialConditions-SOURCE: SOUR-1-1: All possible keys are selected
as exposed. OLGA will automatically filter out any keys that cannot be exposed and issue a harmless
warning when the case starts. In this case the keys STDFLOWRATE, TEMPERATURE and WATERCUT
are ultimately exposed on the OPC server.
FLOWPATH : BRAN-5-Boundary&InitialConditions-SOURCE: SOUR-2-1: MASSFLOW is exposed.
FLOWPATH Output SERVERDATA: VALVOP is selected for the valve. HOL and PT profile is selected
for BRAN-8. GT trend is selected for position TOPSIDE-OUT in BRAN-8.
Output:
SERVERDATA: SIMTIME, TIME, HT, SPEED, LAGFACT, LAGIND is set. These will be visible on the
OPC server.

OPC Interactivity:
Fiddling with the exposed input parameters, the running case can be manipulated. For instance, lowering
Toolkit.NetworkDemo.NODE-2.PRESSURE from 243 to 40 will cause the holdup in BRAN-8 to drop,
setting the pressure back to 243 causes the same holdup to rise again.

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PID-net-gainsched-normrange-server

PID-net-gainsched-normrange-server
PID-net-gainsched-normrange-server.opi is a simple case with one flowpath modeling a pipeline riser
system. At the bottom of the riser a valve labeled CHOKE-1-1 is included. Upstream the valve a pressure
transmitter is included. A controller C-1 acts on the valve CHOKE-1-1 to control the pressure upstream the
valve.
The purpose with this sample case is to demonstrate the possibilities to interact with a PID controller
through the OLGA OPC Server and exemplify how vectors can be addressed through the OLGA OPC
Server.

Case comments
CaseDefinition
SERVEROPTIONS : The model name sub-key is set to TEST and the server name is set to
OLGAOPCServer
INTEGRATION: SIMULATIONSPEED is set to 10, indicating the model is requested to simulate at 10
times real-time speed. Further, SIMULATIONSPEED is set in the EXPOSE key, which gives the possibility
to change the requested simulation speed through the OPC server.
Controller:
PIDCONTROLLER C-1: Controller C-1 is used to control the pressure at riser base (upstream the valve
CHOKE-1-1) by adjusting the opening. The set-point to the controller is 75e5. The controller measures the
pressure in unit Pa. Note the use of controller sub-key NORMRANGE which is set to 1e5. The controller C1 is a scheduling controller. It uses a table of amplification factors, integral constants and derivative
constants rather than one value for each. For further description of PID controller with scheduling
functionality refer to the OLGA PID controller documentation.
The EXPOSE key of controller C-1 is set to ALL. The OPC Server will then expose all input keys that are
explicitly set in the controller. In this case the following keys are exposed as input items on the OPC
Server:
MAXSIGNAL, MINSIGNAL, AMPLIFICATION, BIAS, DERIVATIVECONST, ERROR, INTEGRALCONST,
NORMRANGE, SETPOINT, MODE, MANUALOUTPUT, OPENINGTIME, CLOSINGTIME
For further information of these keys see the description of PID controller.
Note that the keys: AMPLIFICATION, ERROR, INTEGRALCONST and DERIVATIVE CONST are vectors
of size four in the definition of controller C-1.

FlowComponent
FLOWPATH P1: One horizontal pipe followed by two downwards inclined pipes and a vertical riser, see
figure below.
CHOKE-1-1: controller C-1 manipulates the CHOKE-1-1 and the initial output of the controller is 0.5
PTSIG: Measures the pressure upstream CHOKE-1-1. PTSIG is connected to the MEASRD terminal of
controller C-1. The signal is pressure in unit Pa.

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OLGA GUI user manual

Output
Global SERVERDATA keyword: Variables VOLGBL, HT, TIME, SPEED and SIMTIME are defined to be
updated on the OPC server with DTPLOT set to 10 seconds.
SERVERDATA keyword defined on controller C-1: Variables CONTR, MEASVAR, SETPVAR, ERRVAR
are defined to be updated on the OPC server with DTPLOT set to 10 seconds.

OPC Interactivity:
Manipulation of input items
Start simulating the OLGA case by pressing one of the run buttons in the OLGA GUI. Then launch
MatrikonOPC Explorer, connect to SPT.OLGAOPCServer.1, add a group and add all items to the provided
by the OLGA OPC server to the group. Then one will obtain a display similar to the one below.

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PID-net-gainsched-normrange-server

Note that the values on the exposed keys automatically comes up with the values set in the model.
Manipulation of server inputs
The engineer has the possibility to change the values of all the exposed keys. For instance decreasing the
set-point of controller C-1 to 74e5 causes the controller to open the valve from 5.8% to 6.6%. By further
reduction in the set-point to 73e5 causes the controller to open the valve to 8.1%, etc.
Through the OPC Server the maximum, minimum constraint on the controller output can be changed
through the MAXSIGNAL and MINSIGNAL keys. The rate of change constraints on the output can be
changed through OPENINGTIME and CLOSINGTIME.
The engineer can detune the controller either by reducing the amplification factors or increasing the
integral constants. The amplification factor is scaled by dividing by the NORMRANGE. By increasing the
NORMRANGE the controller is thus detuned for all ERROR ranges. If the engineer wants to detune the
controller for a specific error range one need to adjust the corresponding element in the array of
amplification factors or integral constants. By changing the elements in the array exposed as ERROR the
engineer can change the error ranges.

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OLGA GUI user manual

Server demo with OPC


Server-demo-with-opc.opi is a simple case with one horizontal flowpath, an ESD controller and a valve.
There is a 50 bara pressure difference between the boundary nodes driving the fluid towards the outlet.
The ESD controller is set to close the valve whenever the upstream holdup goes above 0.8. Without user
interaction the holdup stays around 0.65, leaving the valve completely open.

Case comments
CaseDefinition
SERVEROPTIONS : A model name ServerDemo is specified. Defining this keyword is all that is needed
to start the built in OPC server in OLGA.
INTEGRATION: SIMULATIONSPEED is set to 100, indicating the model is requested to simulate at 100
times real-time speed. Further, SIMULATIONSPEED is selected in the EXPOSE key, which gives the
possibility to change the requested simulation speed using a connected OPC client.
Controller:
ESDCONTROLLER: An emergency shutdown controller is used to close the valve whenever the holdup
upstream goes above the controller setpoint, which is set to 0.8. The set point of the controller is selected
in the EXPOSE key, meaning that it is possible to dynamically change the setpoint using an OPC client
connected to the OLGA OPC server.
FlowComponent:
FLOWPATH ProcessEquipment-VALVE: The valve is initially fully open and is regulated by the ESD
controller.
Output:
SERVERDATA: SIMTIME, TIME, HT, SPEED is set. These will be visible on the OPC server.
OPC Interactivity
Manipulation of input items:
Using a standard OPC client, the setpoint for the controller is changed to 0.5. This causes the valve to
close.
Manipulation of server commands:
Saving a snap file: Specify a filename in the OPC item Toolkit.ServerDemo.SaveSnap.File, for instance
snap.rsw. Then toggle the command item Toolkit.ServerDemo.SaveSnap to true. This causes a snapfile (a.k.a. restart file) to be saved to disk.
Loading a snap file into the running server: Specify the same filename as in the save-snap command
argument, e.g. set Toolkit.ServerDemo.LoadSnap.File to snap.rsw and toggle
Toolkit.ServerDemo.LoadSnap to true. The snap-file is then loaded and the simulator state from the snap
file is restored.
Toggeling Toolkit.ServerDemo.Stop to true causes the simulation to shut down.

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Pigging

Pigging
The following cases illustrate the following pigging scenarios:
Pig-noSlug-pvt.opi
Pigging of a pipeline using standard OLGA without tracking the liquid slug in front
Pig-TrackSlug-

of the pig.
Pigging of a pipeline using standard OLGA tracking the liquid slug in front of the

pvt.opi
Pig-noSlug-comp.opi

pig.
Pigging of a pipeline using Compositional Tracking without tracking the liquid

Pig-TrackSlug-

slug in front of the pig.


Pigging of a pipeline using Compositional Tracking, also tracking the liquid slug

comp.opi

in front of the pig.

The pipeline has pressure nodes both on the inlet and outlet. At the inlet, the pressure is 117 bara and the
temperature is 10C. The temperature at the outlet is the same, but the pressure is 100 bara. The pig is
launched 1500m into the pipeline and it is trapped at 75 m into the topside pipe. The geometry is shown
in See " Illustration of the pipe geometry. The launch and trap positions are indicated." on page 57

Illustration of the pipe geometry. The launch and trap positions are indicated.

Case comments
CaseDefinition
OPTIONS: The two cases run with COMPOSITIONAL=OFF/ON, respectively. Temperature exchange with
the walls are not accounted for, adiabatic flow is assumed.
FILES: The fluid is described by either a pvt-file or an equivalent feed-file depending on the type of
simulation.

Controller-models
PIDCONTROLLER: A PID controller regulates the opening of the outlet valve based on the gas mass flow.

FlowComponent
FLOWPATH FA-models PIG: A pig is launched after 300 s. Whether the liquid slug in front of the
pig is tracked or not is determined by the key TRACKSLUG.
FLOWPATH ProcessEquipment TRANSMITTER: A transmitter is located in the second last
boundary on topside, providing the PID controller with its input signal.
FLOWPATH ProcessEquipment VALVE: An outlet valve controlled by the PID controller is situated
at the end of the topside pipe.

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OLGA GUI user manual

FLOWPATH Piping: The branch is split into three pipes. A 10 km long horizontal pipe leads up to a
500 m riser. At topside, there is a 100 m horizontal pipe, in which the trap position is located.
FLOWPATH Output TRENDDATA: In cases where the slug in front of the pig is tracked, its length is
plotted.
FLOWPATH Output SERVERDATA: Server variables are available for plotting in interactive
simulations.
NODE: Both the inlet and outlet nodes are pressure nodes. The inlet pressure is 117 bara and the outlet
pressure is 100 bara. Both nodes have a temperature of 10C.
Output
ANIMATE: 3D plot of holdup for liquid along the pipeline is plotted every 10 seconds.
OUTPUT: OLGA variables are printed to the output file every 2 hours.
TREND: Trend variables are plotted every 3 seconds.
PROFILE: Profile variables are plotted every 30 seconds.
TRENDDATA: The velocity of the pig and its trend data are plotted.

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Pigging

Hydrate formation
Hydrate model TESTCASE
This is an example case for a pre-defined plug-in dll with a hydrate formation model.
The case consists of a single 500 m horizontal pipe. The pipe diameter is 0.11 m.
A hydrate phase has been added to calculate the following effects:

Tracking the hydrate particles forming and following the flow

Calculating the effects of hydrates on the viscosity of the water film

Case description
The physical models needed to handle the tasks listed above are included in the plug-in DLL
OlgaPlugInHydrateTutorialStructDat.dll which is included in the executable folder for the OLGA X.x
installation package.
1. The case name is HydrateTutorial.opi.
2. The DLL to use in this case is specified as follows:
In the GUI, under CaseDefinition, UDOPTIONS has been added. The dll name
OlgaPlugInHydrateTutorialStructDat.dll has been entered in the PLUGINDLL field. The dll is located in
the same folder as the OLGA X.x engine executable, and it is thus not necessary to include path in this
case.
3. The hydrate phase which is recognized by the DLL has been defined as follows:
The case uses internal models from the plug-in for hydrate heat capacity, enthalpy, density, thermal
conductivity, and viscosity. Therefore we dont need to give values for heat capacity in the UDPHASE field.
We do, however, need to set a dummy value for the hydrate particle density to bypass the input error
check. The value is overridden by the density model in the plug-in DLL. The dummy hydrate density is
set to 940 kg/m3. The hydrate particle diameter is 0.001 m. See section 1.2.4 for further info about the
plug-in DLL PVT-property models.
Under Library, UDPHASE has been added. LABEL has been set to HYDRATE, TYPE=PARTICLE,
PARTDIAMETER = 0.001 m and PARTDENSITY = 940 kg/m3.
4. The case is set up to use INITIALCONDITIONS. Initially the pipe is filled with gas, oil and water, and no
hydrates. Thus, it is not necessary to specify any initial conditions for hydrates in this case.
However, in order to illustrate the use of initial conditions, the model has explicitly been set to start with
zero hydrates at time = 0.
At case level, UserDefined/UDGROUP has been added. UDGROUP label = HYDRATE -INIT
Under UDPhasesAndDispersions, UDFRACTION has been added:
LAYER=WALL, PHASE=HYDRATE, MASSFRACTION=0.0

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OLGA GUI user manual

Under FLOWPATH:BRAN-1/Boundary&InitialConditions/INITIALCONDITIONS[1]/User Defined,


UDGROUP= HYDRATE-INIT has been chosen.
5. There is no inflow of hydrates in this case. Only hydrate formation within the pipeline. It is thus not
necessary to specify hydrate inflow for the source. However, In order to illustrate how to enter hydrates
from a source, the hydrate inflow has explicitly been defined to zero for the source in the first pipe section,
by using a zero hydrate fraction for all layers.
At case level, UserDefined/UDGROUP has been added. UDGROUP label = HYDRATE-SOURCE
Under UDPhasesAndDispersions/UDFRACTION[1], TIME = 0, MASSFRACTION = 0 has been set.
LAYER = GAS has been chosen. For PHASE, HYDRATE has been chosen.
Under UDPhasesAndDispersions, UDFRACTION[2 ] has been added, TIME = 0, MASSFRACTION = 0.
LAYER = OIL has been chosen. For PHASE, HYDRATE has been chosen.
Under UDPhasesAndDispersions, UDFRACTION[3 ] has been added, TIME = 0, MASSFRACTION = 0.
LAYER = WATER has been chosen. PHASE = HYDRATE.
Source entry: At FLOWPATH: BRAN-1/Boundary&InitialConditions/SOURCE:SOURCE-1-1, UDGROUP=
HYDRATE -SOURCE has been chosen.
6. The hydrate curve information is provided through a table file which is read by the plug-in DLL. The
format of the table file is dictated by the plug-in DLL. The hydrate curve is given through the OLGA input in
the FILES UDPVTFILE field. FILES UDPVTFILE is a string vector, so it is possible to give multiple input
files in a simulation. BRANCH and NODE both have a key named UDPVTFILE where the user can select
which file is used. It is therefore possible to use different hydrate curves in different branches of a network
simulation.
Under CaseDefinition/FILES, HydrateTutorial.tab has been chosen through the UDPVTFILE file browser.
7. In order to refer to the hydrate curve for the fluid in a given branch, it is necessary to refer to the table
file used by the plug-in DLL which is applied for the specific branch.
Under FlowComponent/FLOWPATH:BRAN-1/Piping/BRANCH, UDPVTFILE= HydrateTutorial.tab has
been chosen.
8. Plotting of results:
The variables P-G, P-HOL, P-M, P-Q, P-U, P-US have been specified for FLOWPATH: BRAN-1/Output,
PROFILEDATA. PHASE = HYDRATE. As we are going to inspect the oil layer, FLOWLAYER = OIL has
been specified in this case.
The hydrate formation and propagation through the pipeline can be inspected by plotting e.g. the following
profile variable: P-HOL_HydrateInOil. The variable name is a composite name based on the generic PHOL (holdup for UD dispersed phase), the UD dispersion phase name (Hydrate) and the layer where it is
located (InOil). The other P- variables have the same composite structure.

The effect of hydrate particles on oil viscosity can be seen by plotting the following profile variables in the
same plot: VISHLEFF and VISHL.

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Pigging

Physical effects modelled


The hydrate reaction:
1)
(1.1)

The value chosen for a is 6.87.


Hydrate equilibrium curve
The hydrate equilibrium is given as a tabulation of temperature and pressure. The hydrate curve must be
user given. The following format is chosen:
<Hydrate curve (C, Bar)>
31
-10.00
-8.00

3.29
3.59

.
Here <Hydrate curve (C, Bar)> is a tag telling how the temperature and pressure data is given. 31 is the
number of data points given.
An example of a hydrate curve is given in the HydrateTutorial.tab. The HydrateTutorial.tab is used in the
HydrateTutorial.opi.

Formation of hydrate if the temperature drops below the hydrate equilibrium temperature
When the fluid temperature (
) drops below the hydrate equilibrium temperature (
hydrate particles will form according to the hydrate reaction.

),

Reaction rate:
(1.2)

Here,

is the gas mass reacted per time and section volume.

Mass limitation for hydrate formation rate:


(1.3)

(1.4)

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OLGA GUI user manual

(1.5)

Here
is the stoichiometric constant in the hydrate reaction.
mass per section volume.

is the time step and

is the phase

Distribution of phase mass on fields:


The reacted mass rates are given as overall phase values. These phase values must be distributed to
fields. To distribute the phase values, we use the following logic:

The hydrate particles is only present in the oil layer.


Gas and water field masses are distributed based on field mass fractions (field mass / phase mass).

If the gas or water phase mass is missing, the mass is distributed equally on all fields.

Increased oil viscosity


The effective viscosity of the hydrate-oil dispersion is higher than the pure oil viscosity. The effective
viscosity is used in the friction calculations in OLGA, and the dispersion viscosity will give a higher
pressure drop over the pipeline. The effective oil viscosity will be modeled with the Krieger-Dougherty
correlation.
Krieger-Dougherty correlation:
(1.6)

Where

is the oil viscosity without particles,

is the particle volumetric concentration in water and

is the maximum concentration set to 0.65.

Hydrate PVT properties


Hydrate enthalpy:
(1.7)

Where
is the enthalpy and
is the constant heat of reaction assumed to be 4.088e6 J/kg. The heat
capacity, partial enthalpy with respect to pressure, partial enthalpy with respect to temperature and entropy
is derived from the enthalpy equation.
Hydrate heat capacity:

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Pigging

(1.8)

Hydrate density:
(1.9)

Hydrate thermal conductivity:


(1.10)

Hydrate viscosity:
(1.11)

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OLGA GUI user manual

Sand in water
The case consists of a single 2000 m pipe with an elevation of 150 m. The pipe diameter is 0.2 m. The
case name is SandInWater.opi.
Water and sand is injected in the first pipe section.
The case is set up to use INITIALCONDITIONS. Initially the pipe is filled with water only.
The tasks in this case are as follows:

Tracking the sand particles following the flow in the water layer
Tracking the sand forming a bed.

Calculating the effects of sand on the viscosity of the water film


Calculating the slip velocity between suspended sand particles and the water in the water layer

Case description
The physical models needed to handle the tasks listed above are included in the plug-in DLL
OlgaPlugInSandWaterTutorialStructDat.dll, which is included in the executable folder for the OLGA X.x
installation package. The UD phase specific input is described below:
1. The DLL is specified as follows:
In the GUI, under CaseDefinition, UDOPTIONS, the dll name OlgaPlugInSandWaterTutorialStructDat.dll
has been entered in the PLUGINDLL field. The dll is located in the same folder as the OLGA X.x engine
executable, and it is thus not necessary to include path in this case.
2. The phase which is recognized by the DLL is defined as follows.
Under Library, UDPHASE has been added. LABEL has been set to SAND, TYPE=PARTICLE,
PARTDIAMETER = 0.001 m and PARTDENSITY = 2000 kg/m3.
The case uses OPTIONS TEMPERATURE=OFF, and therefore we dont need to model the sand heat
capacity and enthalpy. The sand density is 2000 kg/m3. The sand particle diameter is 0.001 m. Other sand
properties are not required.
3. The case is set up to use INITIALCONDITIONS. Initially the pipe is filled with water only. Thus, it is not
necessary to specify any initial conditions for sand in this case.
4. Sand is injected together with water in the first pipe section, with a constant mass fraction of sand = 0.1.
At case level, UserDefined/UDGROUP has been added. UDGROUP label = SAND-SOURCE
Under UDPhasesAndDispersions/UDFRACTION[1], TIME = 0, MASSFRACTION = 0.1 has been set.
LAYER = WATER has been chosen, as the sand should enter in the water layer.
The PHASE is referring to a UD phase, SAND has been chosen.
Source entry: At FLOWPATH: BRAN-1/Boundary&InitialConditions/SOURCE:SOURCE-1-1,

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Sand in water

UDGROUP=SAND-SOURCE has been chosen.


5. Plotting of results:
Sand propagates through the pipeline and forms an expanding bed, and the velocity of the sand particles
in the water film is different from the water velocity. This can be seen by inspecting e.g. the following profile
plot variables:
P-HOL_SandInWater, P-HOL_SandAtBed, P-U_SandInWater, ULWT. The variable name PU_SandInWater is a composite name based on a generic name, P-U, the defined UD phase, (Sand), and
the specified layer: (InWater). The other UD phase output variables have the same composite structure.
At FLOWPATH: BRAN-1/Output, PROFILEDATA, the variables P-HOL, P-U for FLOWLAYER = WATER,
BED and PHASE = SAND have been specified to get the output variables described above.
The effect of sand on water viscosity can be seen by plotting the effective viscosity of the water layer,
VISWTEFF, and pure water viscosity from tables, VISWT in the same plot.
Physical effects modelled
The three following physical effects has been modeled:

Sand offset velocity due to density differences

Increased friction due to sand particles in the water

Bed formation

Sand offset velocity due to density differences


The density of the sand particles are larger than the water density, and the particles will, due to the pipe
inclination, get a negative offset velocity. The offset velocity will be calculated by Stokes law.
Stokes law:
1)
(1.1)

Where ufall is the terminal settling velocity, p is the particle density, f is the fluid density, f is the fluid
viscosity, g is the gravity constant and rp is the particle radius.
The offset velocity then becomes:
(1.2)

Where uOffset is the offset velocity which will be used by OLGA, and is the pipe angle with the gravity
vector.
The sand velocity (uSand) will then be:
(1.3)

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OLGA GUI user manual

Where uWater is the water film velocity.

Increased friction due to sand particles in the water


The effective viscosity of the water-sand dispersion is higher than the pure water viscosity. The effective
viscosity is used in the friction calculations in OLGA, and the dispersion viscosity will give a higher
pressure drop over the pipeline. The effective water viscosity will be modeled with the Krieger-Dougherty
correlation.
Krieger-Dougherty correlation:
(1.4)

Where
and

is the water viscosity without particles,

is the particle volumetric concentration in water

is the maximum concentration set to 0.65.

Bed formation
A dummy bed formation model is used to demonstrate how to set mass transfer rates. A fixed deposition
rate to the bed is used. If the bed height is lower than 15% of the pipeline diameter, sand mass will deposit
on the bed. As a result, the bed should build up from zero to 0.03 m, in the SandAndWater.opi case.
The deposition rate can therefore be expressed as:
(1.5)

Where

is the deposition rate [kg s-1 m-3],

is the mass [kg m-3] of sand particles, and

is the

current time step [s]. Note that in OLGA the masses are divided with the section volume, and thus are in
units of [kg m-3].
The deposition rate is fixed to 0.1, but the deposition rate is limited. A maximum of 50 mass percent of
the particle mass can be deposited over the next time step. For the tutorial case remember that the
pipeline initially is filled with only water, i.e. there is no sand that can deposit and make a bed.
When the bed height is 15% of the pipeline diameter or higher, the deposition rate is set to zero. The bed
height is calculated from the Wetted angle, , that are given as input to the entrainment/deposition and
flash interface.

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Sand in water

Wetted angle, , and height, h, of water bed interface.


The bed height, h, is calculated as (See Figure 15):
(1.6)

Where rp is the pipe diameter.

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OLGA GUI user manual

OLGA Compressor control


OLGA Compressor Control is a sample case for a compressor with anti-surge and pressure performance
controllers.

Case description
Model consists of a single branch with compressor CMPR-1.
PID controller C-PT controls compressor suction pressure by adjusting compressor speed. Note the speed
signal is normalized in range 0 1 corresponding to range MinRPM - MaxRPM.
Anti-surge controller C-ASC adjusts the opening of the recycle valve to avoid the compressor surges.
Signal connections
CMPR-1 ACSIG (compressor input) is connected to C-ASC CONTR (controller output).
CMPR-1 SPEEDSIG (compressor input) is connected to pressure controller C-PT CONTR (controller
output). Speed signal range 0 to 1. The terminal signal adjusts the compressor speed:
CompressorSpeed = MinRPM + (MaxRPM - MinRPM) * Speed Signal
C-PT MEASRD (controller input) is connected to transmitter PT-1 with variable PT in unit bar.
C-ASC MEASRD (controller input) is connected to transmitter QG with variable QG in unit m3/s.
Transmitter QG is placed at the same section boundary as the compressor.
The set point terminal of C-ASC SETPOINT (controller input) is connected to transmitter TM-3 with
variable QGSURGE in unit m3/s. This is the set point to the anti-surge controller and is the surge point for
the compressor at the current operating conditions.
Dynamic simulation
To test the performance of the compressor control set point, changes to the pressure controller C-PT are
introduced at times 200 and 400 seconds. The controller set point is changed from 33 bar to 30 bar at time
200 seconds and from 30 to 25 bar at time 400 seconds.
To test the anti-surge controller, the flow through the compressor is lowered (changed in the source,
SOUR-1). The source flow rate is lowered from 100 to 50 MMscf/d in the time interval 800 to 900 seconds
and from 50 to 30 MMscf/d in the time interval 1200 to 1300 seconds.

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Compressor manual controls

Compressor manual controls


Compressor Manual Controls is a simple model to demonstrate compressors with a manual speed
controller and a manual controller attached to the compressor recycle valve.

Case description
The model consists of a single branch with a compressor CMPR-1. A manual controller C-MAN-SPEED
adjusts the speed of the compressor. The controller C-SCALE-SPEED normalizes (scales the speed from
rang MinRPMMaxRPM to range 0-1) the speed input to the compressor. The manual controller CMANRECYCLE adjusts the opening of the compressor recycle valve.
Signal connections
CMPR-1 ACSSIG terminal for compressor anti-surge controller. Anti surge signal in range 0 to 1. The
terminal signal adjusts the compressor recycle valve.
CMPR-1 SPEEDSIG terminal for compressor speed controller. Speed signal range 0 to 1. The terminal
signal adjusts the compressor speed:
CompressorSpeed = MinRPM + (MaxRPM - MinRPM) * Speed Signal
Dynamic simulation
To test the performance of the compressor the speed is changed (set-point change in controller C-MANSPPED) at time 100 and 200 seconds and the recycle valve opening is changed for closed to 0.1 at time
500 seconds.

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OLGA GUI user manual

Jet pump
The sample case Jetpump.opi defines how water at low pressure can flow towards a higher outlet
pressure using a Jet pump with water as power fluid.

Case comments
Case definition
OPTIONS: The Steady state preprocessor is used to generate initial conditions.

INTEGRATION: The simulation end time is set to 30 minutes. This will allow the system to stabilize.
Controller:
PIDCONTROLLER: PID-LP: The opening of the valve in the Jet pump outlet branch is adjusted by a PID
controller connected to a transmitter in the low pressure flowpath to keep the pump suction pressure at 60
bara. The BIAS is set to 0.05 to give proper starting conditions for the system. The purpose of the
controller system is to ensure well balanced pressure conditions in the Jet pump.
Flow components
FLOWPATH: LP-LINE Boundary and Initial Conditions SOURCE: LP-SOUR: A mass source is
included in the first section of the low pressure (suction) flowpath. The source supplies water at a constant
mass flow rate of 20 kg/s and a temperature of 10 oC.

FLOWPATH: LP-LINE Process Equipment TRANSMITTER: TM-LP: Transmits the variable PT


[bara](pressure) from the pump suction to controller PID-LP.
FLOWPATH: MIXED Process Equipment VALVE: VALVE-1: A valve with the same diameter as
the pipe diameter is positioned in the middle of the Jet pump outlet branch.

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Jet pump

NODE: HP-INLET: A pressure node is placed at the inlet of the high pressure (power) flowpath. The node
is specified with a pressure of 135 bara, a WATERFRACTION of 1 and a temperature of 10oC.

NODE: OUTLET: A pressure node is placed at the system outlet. The node is specified with a pressure of
40 bara, a WATERFRACTION of 1 and a temperature of 10oC.
Output:
PROFILE: Profile variables are plotted every 15 minutes.
TREND: Trend variables are plotted every 30 seconds.
Process Equipment:
JETPUMP: The diameters of the Jet pump inlets and outlet are set equal to the diameters of incoming and
outgoing pipes. Loss coefficients are specified for the nozzle, throat (mixing tube) and diffuser.
JETPUMP: Output: All TRENDDATA variables available for the Jet pump are selected.

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OLGA GUI user manual

PID controller
The sample case PID-Controller.opi demonstrates pressure control at a riser base. The pipeline consists
of 5 pipes. First a horizontal pipe and two weakly descending pipes before a vertical pipe and a short
horizontal pipe. A valve is used to control the pressure at the riser base.

Case comments
CaseDefinition
OPTIONS: Temperature option ADIABATIC has been chosen. The pipeline is simulated without heat
transfer through the pipe walls.
INTEGRATION: The simulation starts at t=0 s, and ends at time t=1.5 h. The time step starts at the
minimum value of 0.01 s and is limited to a maximum value of 25 s.
Controller
PIDCONTROLLER: A pressure control valve is used to control the pressure at the riser base. A PID
controller is used to regulate the valve opening, which is 0.1 initially (see the BIAS key). The pressure
setpoint is 75 bara. The measured value is taken from the transmitter. A range of 50 bara is set for the
controller (NORMRANGE key).
FlowComponent
FLOWPATH Boundary&InitialConditions SOURCE: The inlet boundary condition is a constant
mass source with mass flow 10.0 kg/s and a temperature of 62C. The mass fraction of free water is set to
0. By default, the equilibrium is used to determine the gas source at the inlet.
FLOWPATH FA-models DTCONTROL: The CFL criterion is used to limit the simulation time step. A
safety margin of 20% is added to the CFL criterion to get a stable simulation (CFLFACTOR = 0.8).
FLOWPATH ProcessEquipment TRANSMITTER: A transmitter is positioned at the riser base. The
transmitter is used to collect the pressure from the pipeline, which is transmitted to the controller. The
section pressure is transmitted with unit bara.
FLOWPATH ProcessEquipment VALVE: A valve is placed before the riser but downstream the
transmitter. The valve has the same maximum cross section as the pipeline. The valve opening is
regulated by the pressure controller.
FLOWPATH Output TRENDDATA: The valve opening is plotted.
FLOWPATH Output PROFILEDATA: Profiles of pressure, temperature, liquid holdup, liquid mass
flow and gas mass flow are plotted.
FLOWPATH Output SERVERDATA: Server variables are available for plotting in interactive
simulations.
NODE: The inlet node is closed. The outlet boundary condition is a constant pressure of 55 bara.

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PID controller

Output
ANIMATE: 3D plot of holdup for liquid along the pipeline is plotted every 10 seconds.
OUTPUT: OLGA variables are printed to the output file at the start and end of the simulation.
TREND: Trend variables are plotted every second.
PROFILE: Profile variables are plotted every 6 minutes.

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OLGA GUI user manual

Process equipment
The sample case Process-Equipment.opi is an example of a simulation with process equipment. The
case shows examples of several types of process equipment, e.g., separator, valves, compressor, and
heat exchanger. A total of 5 PID controllers are used to stabilize the process. See " Process flow sheet."
on page 74 shows the process flow sheet.
One pipeline feeds the separator with a mixture of gas and liquid. This pipeline is 15100 meters long
divided into 12 sections, and a diameter of 0.5 meters. The pipeline has a valve close to the outlet. The
valve is used to control the overall flow into the separator.
The separator has a gas and liquid outlet. The gas outlet is 400 m long, has a diameter of 1.0 m, and is
divided into 7 sections. The gas line contain a compressor with recycle and anti-surge control. The
compressor speed is used to control the separator pressure. Downstream the compressor, a heat
exchanger is included to cool the gas. The heat exchanger is connected to a temperature controller.
The liquid outlet is 100 m long and has a diameter of 0.12 m. The liquid line contains a valve that is used
for level control of the separator. The pipe has only two sections.
The simulation time is 20 hours. After 10 hours the separator feed is dropped from 70 to 50 kg/s.

Process flow sheet.

Case comments
CaseDefinition
OPTION: Temperature option UGIVEN has been chosen. The pipelines are simulated with a constant
outer heat transfer coefficient. The steady state pre-processor is deactivated.
INTEGRATION: The simulation start at t=0 s and ends at time t=20 h. The time step starts at the minimum
value of 0.01 s, and is limited to a maximum value of 10 s.

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Process equipment

Controller
5 controllers are used to stabilize the process. All controllers are of type PID. One controller (FC) is used to
manipulate the feed flow rate of the separator. One pressure controller (PC) is used to control the pressure
in the separator. A level controller (LC) is used to stabilize the liquid level of the separator. An anti-surge
controller (ASC) is used to stabilize the operation of the compressor. The ASC is an asymmetric PID
controller, i.e., it has two amplification factors. A temperature controller is used to control the temperature
at the outlet of the gas pipeline.
FlowComponent
FLOWPATH ProcessEquipment COMPRESSOR: The compressor is used to lift the gas from the
separator. At steady state, the compressor lift from approximately 71 to 110 bara. A recycle valve with
diameter 0.25 m is controlled by the ASC controller.
FLOWPATH ProcessEquipment HEATEXCHANGER: A controlled heat exchanger is used to
manipulate the pressure out of the gas pipeline. The heat exchanger is given a capacity of -3 MW.
FLOWPATH ProcessEquipment TRANSMITTER: Transmitters are used to transmit the
temperature and overall flow from the pipeline to the controllers.
FLOWPATH ProcessEquipment VALVE: One valve is placed before the riser, but downstream the
transmitter. The valve has the same maximum cross section as the pipeline. A pressure controller is
connected to the valve to manipulate the valve opening.
FLOWPATH Output TRENDDATA: Gas volume flow at the compressor boundary and the
compressor surge flow setpoint for the ASC controller (QGSURGE) are trended.
FLOWPATH Output SERVERDATA: Server variables are available for plotting in interactive
simulations.
NODE: The case has three nodes, all of type pressure. The inlet boundary condition is a constant pressure
of 108 bara and temperature 40C. The mass fraction of free water is set to 0 and the gas faction to 0.7.
The outlet boundary conditions for the gas and liquid outlets are constant pressures of 110 bara and
65 bara, respectively.
ProcessEquipment
SEPARATOR Output TRENDDATA:
SEPARATOR: The separator is horizontal with length 15 m and diameter 2 m. It separates gas and liquid.
Output
Pressure, temperature, and liquid level are trended.
ANIMATE: 3D plot of holdup for liquid along the pipeline is plotted every 10 seconds.
OUTPUT: OLGA variables are printed to the output file at the start and end of the simulation.
TREND: Trend variables are plotted every 20 seconds.
PROFILE: Profile variables are plotted every 30 minutes.

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OLGA GUI user manual

Centrifugal pump
The sample case Pump-Centrifugal.opi demonstrates how OLGA can be used to model a centrifugal
multiphase pump with recycle function and bypass lines.
The system consists of a 100 m long horizontal wellhead pipe followed by a 300 m long pipe containing a
pump inlet valve, a centrifugal pump, a pump outlet valve, and a check valve at the outlet of that pipe.
Following this is a 100 m long pipe leading up to a 200 m tall riser to the topside. A bypass pipeline is
connected to the pump pipeline. This line has a bypass valve on the inlet and a check valve on the outlet.
A sketch of the model is shown in the figure below.
Operation scenario:
In the first hour, the system's inlet pressure is 8 bar higher than its outlet pressure. The production is to go
through the bypass line and the total flow rate is about 45 kg/s. In the second hour, the inlet pressure is
reduced to be the same as the outlet pressure so that no production is expected without a pump. Then, the
pump line is opened, the bypass line closed, and the centrifugal pump starts to increase the pump speed
in order to yield the flow rate 50 kg/s.

Case comments
CaseDefinition
OPTIONS: The full heat transfer calculation option with heat transfer through the pipe walls is used. The
steady state pre-processor is turned off.
FILES: The characteristic data of the pump is found in the file ol-pumpc-2.tab.
Controller-models
PIDCONTROLLER: C-PUMP-C-SP: This controller is required by the Multiphase pump module. In this
sample case, the pump speed is controlled by the total mass flow rate (PUMPGT) through the pump. The
total mass flow rate is measured by and defined in the Transmitter TM-2.
PIDCONTROLLER: C-PUMP-C-RE: This controller is required by the Multiphase pump module. In this
case, the pump recycle flow is controlled by the pump inlet pressure. The pump inlet pressure is measured
by Transmitter TRAN-B-PL-PT, and if the pump inlet pressure is lower than 38.12 bara, the recycle flow
will be started. If no recycle flow is required, a manual controller with SETPOINT=0 can be used for the
recycle controller or the recycle diameter, RECDIAMETER, can be set to zero.

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Centrifugal pump

MANUALCONTROLLER: C-PUMP-C-BY: This controller is required by the Multiphase pump module.


However, the built-in bypass function of the Multiphase pump module is obsolete since any bypass line
can be modeled using an additional flow-path. In this sample case, the bypass controller is a manual
controller withSETPOINT=0, which means that the built-in bypass line is closed.
MANUALCONTROLLER: C-PUMPV-1: This controller is optional. The controller is used to control the
built-in valve in the Centrifugal pump module to stop the flow if the pump is deeded, e.g., if the pump is
shut down and no back flow is allowed. In this sample case, this controller is defined as TYPE=MANUAL
and SETPOINT=1, which means that the valve is fully opened.
FlowComponent
FLOWPATH Boundary&InitialConditions INITIALCONDITIONS: Since the steady state preprocessor is not used, the initial conditions have to be given.
FLOWPATH Boundary&InitialConditions HEATTRANSFER: The ambient temperature is set to
15C. The heat transfer coefficient on outer walls is set to 500 W/m2K. The minimum heat transfer
coefficient on inner walls is set to 10 W/m2K.
FLOWPATH ProcessEquipment PUMP: The centrifugal pump is defined by following parameters:
DENSITYR=900 kg/m3; EFFIMECH=0.7; FLOWRATED=0.15 m3/s; HEADRATED=150 m;
SPEEDR=1500 rpm; MAXSPEED=8000 rpm; RECDIAMETER=0.1 m (diameter of the built-in recycle
pipe); BYDIAMETER=0 (bypass diameter, zero means no bypass flow through the built-in bypass).
FLOWPATH Piping: The pipeline consists of a 500 m long pipe horizontal pipe with a 0.2 m diameter
which leads up to a 200 m tall riser. At topside a 100 m pipe leads to the outlet. The bypass line,
constituted by six sections, is 300 m long and has the same diameter, 0.2 m, as the rest of the pipe.
FLOWPATH Output TRENDDATA: Pump variables are plotted.
FLOWPATH Output SERVERDATA: Server variables are available for plotting in interactive
simulations.
NODE: Both the inlet and outlet nodes are pressure nodes. The inlet pressure is 47 bara over the first hour
and is then reduced to 39 bara. The inlet temperature is held constant at 30C. The outlet pressure is held
constant at 39 bara and the temperature is 20C. Two internal nodes are used to connect the bypass
around the pump.
Output
ANIMATE: 3D plot of holdup for liquid along the pipeline is plotted every 10 seconds.
OUTPUT: OLGA variables are printed to the output file every 10 hours.
TREND: Trend variables are plotted every second.
PROFILE: Profile variables are plotted every 30 minutes.

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OLGA GUI user manual

Displacement pump
The sample case Pump-Displacement.opi demonstrates how OLGA can be used to model a
displacement multiphase pump with recycle function and bypass lines.
The system consists of a 100 m long horizontal wellhead pipe followed by a 300 m m long pipe containing
a pump inlet valve, a displacement pump, a pump outlet valve, and a check valve at the outlet of that pipe.
Following this is a 100 m long pipe leading up to a 200 m tall riser to the topside. A bypass pipeline is
connected to the pump pipeline. This line has a bypass valve on the inlet and a check valve on the outlet.
A sketch of the model is shown below.
Operation scenario:
In the first hour, the system's inlet pressure is 4 bar higher than its outlet pressure. The production is to go
through the bypass line and the total flow rate is about 22.2 kg/s. In the second hour, the inlet pressure is
reduced to be the same as the outlet pressure so that no production is expected without a pump. Then, the
pump line is opened, the bypass line closed, and the displacement pump starts to increase the pump
speed in order to yield the flow rate 30 kg/s.

Case comments
CaseDefinition
OPTIONS: The full heat transfer calculation option with heat transfer through the pipe walls is used. The
steady state pre-processor is turned off.
FILES: The characteristic data of the pump is found in the file ol-pump1-2.tab.
Controller-models
PIDCONTROLLER: C-PUMP-D-SP: This controller is required by the Multiphase pump module. In this
sample case, the pump speed is controlled by the total mass flow rate (PUMPGT) through the pump. The
total mass flow rate is measured by and defined in the Transmitter TM-2.
PIDCONTROLLER: C-PUMP-D-RE: This controller is required by the Multiphase pump module. In this
case, the pump recycle flow is controlled by the pump inlet pressure. The pump inlet pressure is measured
by Transmitter TRAN-PUMP-IN-PT, and if the pump inlet pressure is lower than 38.2 bara, the recycle flow
will be started. If no recycle flow is required, a manual controller with SETPOINT=0 can be used for the
recycle controller or the recycle diameter, RECDIAMETER, can be set to zero.
MANUALCONTROLLER: C-PUMP-C-BY: This controller is required by the Multiphase pump module.
However, the built-in bypass function of the Multiphase pump module is obsolete since any bypass line

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Displacement pump

can be modeled using an additional flow-path. In this sample case, the bypass controller is a manual
controller with set-point 0, which means that the built-in bypass line is closed.
FlowComponent
FLOWPATH Boundary&InitialConditions INITIALCONDITIONS: Since the steady state preprocessor is not used, the initial conditions have to be given.
FLOWPATH Boundary&InitialConditions HEATTRANSFER: The ambient temperature is set to
15C. The heat transfer coefficient on outer walls is set to 500 W/m2K. The minimum heat transfer
coefficient on inner walls is set to 10 W/m2K.
FLOWPATH ProcessEquipment PUMP: The centrifugal pump is defined by following parameters:
SPECAPACITY=0.01 m3/R; PREFSPEED=3000 rpm; MAXSPEED=8000 rpm; RECDIAMETER=0.1 m
(diameter of the built-in recycle pipe); BYDIAMETER=0 (bypass diameter, zero means no bypass flow
through the built-in bypass).
FLOWPATH Piping: The pipeline consists of a 500 m long pipe horizontal pipe with a 0.2 m diameter
which leads up to a 200 m tall riser. At topside a 100 m pipe leads to the outlet. The bypass line,
constituted by six sections, is 300 m long and has the same diameter, 0.2 m, as the rest of the pipe.
FLOWPATH Output TRENDDATA: Pump variables are plotted.
FLOWPATH Output SERVERDATA: Server variables are available for plotting in interactive
simulations.
NODE: Both the inlet and outlet nodes are pressure nodes. The inlet pressure is 43 bara over the first hour
and is then reduced to 39 bara. The inlet temperature is held constant at 30C. The outlet pressure is held
constant at 39 bara and the temperature is 20C. Two internal nodes are used to connect the bypass
around the pump.
Output
ANIMATE: 3D plot of holdup for liquid along the pipeline is plotted every 10 seconds.
OUTPUT: OLGA variables are printed to the output file every 10 hours.
TREND: Trend variables are plotted every second.
PROFILE: Profile variables are plotted every 30 minutes.

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OLGA GUI user manual

Simplified pump
The sample case Pump-Simplified.opi demonstrates how to model a simplified pump in OLGA.
The system consists of a 500 m long horizontal pipe followed by a 250 m tall vertical riser, and a 100 m
long horizontal topside pipe. The inlet pressure is only 5 bara and the outlet pressure is 50 bara. A pump is
installed in order to deliver the water to a higher pressure tower. No speed controller is required for a
simplified pump. A valve and check vale are placed at the topside pipe. A sketch of the model is shown
below.

Case comments
CaseDefinition
OPTIONS: The full heat transfer calculation option with heat transfer through the pipe walls is used. The
initial conditions are determined by the steady state pre-processor.
FlowComponent
FLOWPATH Boundary&InitialConditions HEATTRANSFER: The ambient temperature is 20C.
The heat transfer coefficient on outer wall is set to 500 W/m2K. The minimum heat transfer coefficient on
inner wall is set to 10 W/m2K.
FLOWPATH ProcessEquipment PUMP: The simplified pump is defined with following parameters:
DENSITYR=1000 kg/m3; FLOWRATED=600 m3/h; SPEEDR=2000 rpm; DPRATED=70 bara. It is assumed
that the pump pressure only depends on the pump flow rate.
FLOWPATH Piping: Three pipes are defined for the geometry. The first pipe is a 500 m long horizontal
pipe and the pump is placed at the second section boundary. Downstream of the horizontal pipeline is a
250 m high vertical riser. At the top of riser is a 100 m long horizontal topside pipe. Pipe diameter is 12"
and roughness 0.001 m
FLOWPATH Output TRENDDATA: Mass flow rates and pump variables are plotted.

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Simplified pump

FLOWPATH Output SERVERDATA: Server variables are available for plotting in interactive
simulations.
NODE: Both the inlet and outlet nodes are pressure nodes. The inlet pressure is 5 bara and the outlet
pressure is 50 bara. Both nodes have a temperature of 20C.
Output
ANIMATE: 3D plot of holdup for liquid along the pipeline is plotted every 10 seconds.
OUTPUT: OLGA variables are printed to the output file every 10 hours.
TREND: Trend variables are plotted every second.
PROFILE: Profile variables are plotted every 30 minutes.

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OLGA GUI user manual

Separator
The sample case Separator.opi illustrates the use of a separator.
A 4100 m long pipe leads up to a 300 tall riser. On topside a 120 m pipe leads into a separator. The
separator is 4 m long and has a diameter of 2.5 m. The separator has three outlets, a gas outlet, an oil
outlet, and an emergency drain. On the separator outlets, valves controlled by controllers are applied. The
pressure is 50 bara at the gas outlet and 20 bara; at the oil outlet and emergency drain outlet.

Case comments
CaseDefinition
OPTIONS: Full temperature calculations are enabled.
FlowComponent:
FLOWPATH Boundary&InitialConditions INITIALCONDITIONS: The first 100 m of the pipe is
filled with oil whereas the rest of the pipe contains only water. Within the water, three regions containing
different amounts of MEG are set up.
FLOWPATH Boundary&InitialConditions SOURCE: The mass source is ramped up to a steady
mass flow of 53.34 kg/s over the first 8.5 seconds of the simulation. The source temperature is 30C.
FLOWPATH Piping: The branch is a single pipe, 1 km long with an elevation of 50 m.
FLOWPATH Output PROFILEDATA: Variables of interest are hold-ups and inhibitor fractions.
FLOWPATH Output SERVERDATA: Server variables are available for plotting in interactive
simulations.
NODE: The inlet node is closed. The outlet boundary condition is set to a constant pressure of 4.5 MPa
and a temperature of 30C.
Output
ANIMATE: 3D plot of holdup for liquid along the pipeline is plotted every 10 seconds.
OUTPUT: OLGA variables are printed to the output file every 100 seconds.
TREND: Trend variables are plotted every 0.1 seconds.
PROFILE: Profile variables are plotted every 5 seconds.

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OLGA Single separator 3-phase compressor

OLGA Single separator 3-phase compressor


OLGA Single Separator 3-Phase Compressor is a sample case for a three phase separator with a
compressor at the gas outlet.

Case description
Single three phase separator model with compressor CMPR-1 at gas outlet.
PID controller C-PT-SEP controls separator pressure by adjusting compressor speed. Note the speed
signal is normalized in range 0 1 corresponding to range MinRPM - MaxRPM.
Anti-surge controller C-ASC to adjust the opening of the recycle valve to avoid that the compressor surges.
PID controllers C-LC-OIL and C-LC-WAT controls separator levels by adjusting valves at separator liquid
outlets.
Signal connections
CMPR-1 ACSSIG (compressor input) is connected to C-ASC CONTR (controller output).
CMPR-1 SPEEDSIG (compressor input) is connected to pressure controller C-PT-SEP CONTR (controller
output). Speed signal range 0 to 1. The terminal signal adjusts the compressor speed:
CompressorSpeed = MinRPM + (MaxRPM - MinRPM) * Speed Signal
C-PT-SEP MEASRD (controller input) is connected to transmitter TM-3 with variable PTSEP in unit bar.
C-ASC MEASRD (controller input) is connected to transmitter QG with variable QG in unit m3/s.
Transmitter QG is placed on the same section boundary as compressor.
C-ASC SETPOINT (controller input) is connected to transmitter TM-5 with variable QGSURGE in unit
m3/s, the set point to the anti-surge controller is the surge limit for the compressor at the current operation
conditions.
C-LC-OIL MEASRD (controller input) is connected to transmitter TM-1 with variable OILLV in unit mm.
C-LC-WAT MEASRD (controller input) is connected to transmitter TM-2 with variable WATLV in unit mm.
V-LV-OIL INPSIG (valve input signal) is connected to C-LV-OIL CONTR
V-LV-WAT INPSIG (valve input signal) is connected to C-LV-WAT CONTR

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OLGA GUI user manual

Dynamic simulation
To test the performance of the compressor, control set-point changes to the pressure controller C-PT-SEP
are introduced at times 300, 1800 and 3600 seconds. The controller set-point is changed from 25 bar to
20 bar at time 300 seconds, from 20 to 18 bar at time 1800 seconds and 18 to 16 bar at time 3600
seconds.
The anti-surge controller keeps the recycle valve slightly open to achieve sufficient constant margin to the
surge line.

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Source, leak and choke

Source, leak and choke


The sample case Src-Leak-Choke.opi is a simple demonstration of a the simulation using a choke, a
controlled sources and a leak. A horizontal pipe is initially at high pressure and closed at both ends. The
choke with a constant diameter is positioned at the middle of the pipe, the leak at the end and the source
at the inlet. The outside pressure of the source is set constant and equal to the initial pipe pressure. The
outside pressure of the leak is also constant, but very low. All three devices are given a constant flow area.
The simulation starts with a rapid blow down of the pipe with critical flow in the leak. Inlet mass flow starts
when the pipe pressure decreases and a steady state is obtained when the mass flows of the source and
the leak are equal. The temperature in the pipe decreases during the blow down and increases slowly as
warm fluid enters through the inlet.

Schematic illustration of the simulated pipeline. The pipe is divided into four sections.

Case comments
CaseDefinition
OPTION: The steady state pre-processor is not used since the initial state of the closed pipe is a fluid at
rest. The temperature calculation is performed without heat transfer through the wall.
Controller
MANUALCONTROLLER: The controllers for the source (C-502) and the leak (C-503) are specified as
manual ones. The controller signals determine the flow area and are specified using time series. The time
that the devices need to adjust to a new set point (the actuator time) is 33.33 seconds.
FlowComponent
FLOWPATH Boundary&InitialConditions INITIALCONDITIONS: The fluid is initially at rest with
constant pressure, void fraction and temperature.
FLOWPATH Boundary&InitialConditions SOURCE: The controller reference number for the
source is C-502. The maximum flow area in the source equals the pipe area. The outside pressure is held
constant at 168 bar and the temperature is held constant at 73C. The negative value of the gas mass
fraction indicates that the phase mass fractions are computed from the equilibrium gas mass fraction
values in the fluid properties tables.
FLOWPATH ProcessEquipment LEAK: The controller reference number for the leak is C-503. The
maximum flow area in the leak equals the pipe area. The relative leakage area is increased from 0.03 to
0.1 after 35 seconds. Due to the actuator time, the leak will use 2.33 seconds before it reaches a relative
opening area of 0.1. The outside pressure is held constant at 2 bar.

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OLGA GUI user manual

FLOWPATH ProcessEquipment VALVE: The choke is positioned at boundary number 3. A time


series for the flow area is given. The maximum flow area in the choke equals the pipe area. The flow area
specified is 3% of the maximum.
FLOWPATH Piping: Only four sections are specified in the horizontal pipe. The pipe is 80 m long and
parallel to the x-axis.
FLOWPATH Output SERVERDATA: Server variables are available for plotting in interactive
simulations.
NODE: The pipe is closed at both ends.
Output
ANIMATE: 3D plot of holdup for liquid along the pipeline is plotted every 10 seconds.
OUTPUT: OLGA variables are printed to the output file every 10 seconds.
TREND: Trend variables are plotted every 0.1 second.
PROFILE: Profile variables are plotted every 6 seconds.

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Well ESP

Well ESP
The sample case Well-ESP.opi is a simple demonstration of an Electric Submersible Pump (ESP) in a
well. The ESP is used to increase production (reduce BHP) and push fluids up the well. The well is
deviated and has a profile as shown below.

The model, as shown in See "The model" on page 88, shows the bottom well section with 3 WELL
keywords with linear well flow equations with reservoir pressures at 216 bara and at 102 degC. Above the
casing shoe, two flowpaths are modelled where the annulus (B-CASING) is sealed off by a valve. The
tubing (B-WELL-TUBING) includes an ESP close to the shoe and ends up with a small horizontal section
with a valve (open). The ESP is controlled by a manual controller (MANUALCONTROLLER_1) which is set
to respectively 0,0.5 and 1 (SETPOINT) at time 0, 5000 and 10000 seconds.

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The model
The response after simulation shows an increased total mass flow rate at the well head as the pump is
turned on and the setpoint is changed in time. The figure below (See "Interactive mode" on page 89)
shows the case run in interactive mode giving the results in the embedded plots.

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Well ESP

Interactive mode

Case comments
Library:
WALL: The well contains 3 walls. The first is the annulus which consists of a steel layer and multiple
formation layers. The second is the tubing with only a steel layer. The third is the well head with a steel
layer and some insulated coating.
Case Definition:
OPTIONS: The full heat transfer calculation option with heat transfer through pipe walls is used.
INTEGRATION: The simulation runs for four hours using a minimum time step of 0.01 s and a maximum
one of 5 s. The initial time step is set equal to the minimum one.
Flow Component:
FLOWPATH(s) - The well consists of 4 flow paths: The well flow path, with 3 WELL sources with linear
well flow equations with reservoir pressures at 216 bara and at 102 degC; the casing flow path, with a

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OLGA GUI user manual

closed valve on top; the tubing section placed within the casing with the ESP; and the horizontal well head
flowpath.
OUTPUT: Multiple variables have been set up for output such as trend variables, profile variables and
server variables. The server variables are available for plotting in interactive simulations. (Only
Pumpspeed for ESP, BHP and BHT on at the beginning of the well section and volumetric flow rates at the
well head are set up in the sample case).
NODE: The inlet node is closed. The casing outlet boundary condition is set to a constant pressure of 14.8
bara and a temperature of 22C. The wellhead (tubing) outlet boundary condition is set to a constant
pressure of 14.8 bara and a temperature of 4C
Output:
ANIMATE: 3D plot of holdup for liquid along the pipeline is plotted every 10 seconds.
OUTPUT: OLGA variables are printed to the output file at the start and end of the simulation.
TREND: Trend variables are plotted every 5 seconds.
PROFILE: Profile variables are plotted every 100 seconds.
Thermal Component:
ANNULUS: The tubing is placed inside of the casing using the ANNULUS keyword.

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Well-GLV

Well-GLV
The sample case Well-GLV.opi is a demonstration of a well with a gas lift system installed. The gas lift
system comprises of two gas lift valves (GLV) as illustrated in the well schematic below. The upper most
GLV is used for unloading the well and the bottom GLV is the operational valve. The well is highly deviated
and the OLGA model has an annulus, used to transport the gas down the well and a production tubing with
the completion at botttom.

The simulation scenario is the following:


The model represents a newly completed well that is filled with water in both casing (annulus) and tubing.
The well is unable to start up by itself and requires gas-lift in order to do so. The casing head pressure
cannot exceed the operational rating of 120 bara. A first simulation attempt with only the bottom
operational valve was unsuccessful as the gas was not able to reach the GLV (orifice). An unloading valve
above was used and the well was able to start up within 10 hours.

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Case comments
Library:
WALL: Two walls are present in the model. First is the steel wall of the tubing and the other is the casing
wall which includes the casing steel, the cement and the formation.
CaseDefinition:
OPTIONS: The full heat transfer calculation option with heat transfer through pipe walls is used.
INTEGRATION: The simulation runs for ten hours using a minimum time step of 0.01 s and a maximum
time step of 5 s. The initial time step is set equal to the minimum time step.
Flow Component:
FLOWPATH(s): The well consists of two flowpaths: The annulus which is used to transport the lifting gas
from surface down to the two GLVs and the tubing which is receiving the reservoir inflow and the gas from
the two GLVs. The reservoir is modelled with linear IPR with a reservoir pressure of 198 bara and 123
degC. The inflow coefficients are 0 for A and BINJ= 7e-006 and BPROD=7e-007 and the phase
distribution is set to 85% water fraction. The initial conditions are set so that the wells annulus and tubing
is filled with water.
Two LEAK components are used for the GLVs and both are of type GASLIFTVALVE and uses the DEMO
GLV gas lift valve model. The unloading valve (top) has a port size of 12, PTRO set to 125 bara and the
operational valve (bottom) has a port size of 24 and a PTRO set to 0 bara.
OUTPUT: Multiple variables have been set up for output such as trend variables and profile variables.
Numerous variables related to the LEAK keyword has been included and can be seen in the sample case.
NODE: The bottom of the casing and tubing have two closed nodes. The casing outlet boundary condition
is set to a constant pressure of 125 bara, temperature of 4C and 100% gas fraction. The wellhead
(tubing) outlet boundary condition is set to a constant pressure of 13.5 bara and a temperature of 28C.
Output:
ANIMATE: 3D plot of holdup for liquid along the pipeline is plotted every 10 seconds.
OUTPUT: OLGA variables are printed to the output file at the start and end of the simulation.
TREND: Trend variables are plotted every 5 seconds.
PROFILE: Profile variables are plotted every 100 seconds.
Thermal Component:
ANNULUS: The tubing is placed inside of the casing using the ANNULUS keyword.

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Well-pressure boost

Well-pressure boost
The sample case Well-PressureBoost.opi is a simple demonstration of a controlled PressureBoost pump.
A typical geometry from well to platform is used. The PressureBoost pump is used to increase the
production. A controller is used to achieve a desired flow rate.

Case Comments
CaseDefinition
OPTION
The steady state pre-processor is enabled. The temperature calculation is performed using a constant
overall heat transfer coefficient (UGIVEN).
INTEGRATION
The steady state pre-processor is enabled. The temperature calculation is performed with a heat transfer
through the wall and heat accumulation in the wall.
Controller
PIDCONTROLLER: The flow controller, FC, is used to achieve the desired flow rate of 10 kg/s. A flow
transmitter, FT, is connected to the MEASRD terminal, supplying the measured flow rate in the pipeline.
The controller output is connected to the PressureBoost pump. The controller bias is set to zero, and the
pressure increase of the Pressureboost pump is therefore zero at time 0. The AMPLIFICATION and
INTEGRALTIME is tuned to get a stable simulation.
FlowComponent
FLOWPATH Boundary&InitialConditions HEATTRANSFER: A constant ambient temperature of
6C, and a constant ambient heat transfer of 6.5 W/m 2/C is used..
FLOWPATH Boundary&InitialConditions WELL: The reservoir pressure is set to 150 bara, and
the reservoir temperature is set to 68C. The production and injection model is linear with AINJ = APROD
= 0 and BINJ = BPROD = 6.0e-6.
FLOWPATH ProcessEquipment PRESSUREBOOST: The pump is given a maximum pressure
increase of 60 bar. The isentropic efficiency is set to 0.9.
FLOWPATH ProcessEquipment TRANSMITTER: The flow transmitter, FT, is positioned close to
the PressureBoost pump. FT measures the overall mass flow (GT) in the pipe.

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OLGA GUI user manual

FLOWPATH Piping: 9 pipes is used to describe the pipeline from the well to the platform. The pipeline
is 6500 m long, and have an overall elevation of 1800 m.
FLOWPATH Output SERVERDATA: Server variables are available for plotting in interactive
simulations.
NODE: The pipe is closed the inlet. The outlet node is a PRESSURE node, setting a pressure of 50 bara.
Gas at 22C is used as boundary fluid.
Output
OUTPUT OLGA variables are printed to the output file every 10 seconds.
ANIMATE: 3D plot of holdup for liquid along the pipeline is plotted every 10 seconds.
The controller output CONTR and the pressure increase PUMPDP is included among the TREND
variables.

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Pump battery

Pump battery
The sample case Pump-Battery.opi demonstrates how OLGA can be used to model a pump battery.
The system consists of a 2 km long well tubing followed by a 150 m long wellhead pipe. A pump battery is
installed downstream of the well bottom hole in order to increase the production. The pump battery speed
is controlled by the flow rate at the wellhead. A sketch of the model is shown below.
Operation scenario:
Due to the reservoir conditions, this well can only produce a flow of 6 kg/s. After the pump battery is
installed near the well bottom hole, the production can be increased to 10 kg/s or higher.

Case comments
CaseDefinition
OPTIONS: The full heat transfer calculation option with heat transfer through the pipe walls is used. The
steady state pre-processor is turned off.
Controller-models
PIDCONTROLLER: C-PUMP-SP: This controller is required by the Multiphase pump module. In this
sample case, the pump speed is controlled by the total mass flow rate at the wellhead as measured by
Transmitter TRAN-WH-TT.
FlowComponent
FLOWPATH Boundary&InitialConditions INITIALCONDITIONS: Since the steady state preprocessor is not used, the initial conditions have to be given.

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OLGA GUI user manual

FLOWPATH Boundary&InitialConditions HEATTRANSFER: The ambient temperature is vertically


interpolated from 80C at the bottom of the borehole to 20C at the wellhead. The heat transfer coefficient
on outer walls is set to 500 W/m2K. The minimum heat transfer coefficient on inner walls is set to
10 W/m2K.
FLOWPATH Boundary&InitialConditions WELL: The reservoir pressure is 200 bara and reservoir
temperature 80C. Production and injection type is LINEAR. AINJ=APROD=0, BINJ=10 -7 kg/s/Pa and
BPROD=10-6 kg/s/Pa.
FLOWPATH ProcessEquipment PUMP: The pump battery is defined by following parameters:
MAXCAPACITY=0.06 m3/s; MINCAPACITY=0 m3/s; MAXPRESSURE=230 bara; MAXSPEED=8000 rpm;
MINSPEED=0 rpm.
FLOWPATH Output TRENDDATA: Pump variables are plotted.
FLOWPATH Output SERVERDATA: Server variables are available for plotting in interactive
simulations.
NODE: The outlet pressure held constant at 60 bara and the temperature is 20C.
Output
ANIMATE: 3D plot of holdup for liquid along the pipeline is plotted every 10 seconds.
OUTPUT: OLGA variables are printed to the output file every 10 hours.
TREND: Trend variables are plotted every second.
PROFILE: Profile variables are plotted every 30 minutes.

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Centrifugal pump

Centrifugal pump
The sample case Pump-Centrifugal.opi demonstrates how OLGA can be used to model a centrifugal
multiphase pump with recycle function and bypass lines.
The system consists of a 100 m long horizontal wellhead pipe followed by a 300 m long pipe containing a
pump inlet valve, a centrifugal pump, a pump outlet valve, and a check valve at the outlet of that pipe.
Following this is a 100 m long pipe leading up to a 200 m tall riser to the topside. A bypass pipeline is
connected to the pump pipeline. This line has a bypass valve on the inlet and a check valve on the outlet.
A sketch of the model is shown in the figure below.
Operation scenario:
In the first hour, the system's inlet pressure is 8 bar higher than its outlet pressure. The production is to go
through the bypass line and the total flow rate is about 45 kg/s. In the second hour, the inlet pressure is
reduced to be the same as the outlet pressure so that no production is expected without a pump. Then, the
pump line is opened, the bypass line closed, and the centrifugal pump starts to increase the pump speed
in order to yield the flow rate 50 kg/s.

Case comments
CaseDefinition
OPTIONS: The full heat transfer calculation option with heat transfer through the pipe walls is used. The
steady state pre-processor is turned off.
FILES: The characteristic data of the pump is found in the file ol-pumpc-2.tab.
Controller-models
PIDCONTROLLER: C-PUMP-C-SP: This controller is required by the Multiphase pump module. In this
sample case, the pump speed is controlled by the total mass flow rate (PUMPGT) through the pump. The
total mass flow rate is measured by and defined in the Transmitter TM-2.
PIDCONTROLLER: C-PUMP-C-RE: This controller is required by the Multiphase pump module. In this
case, the pump recycle flow is controlled by the pump inlet pressure. The pump inlet pressure is measured
by Transmitter TRAN-B-PL-PT, and if the pump inlet pressure is lower than 38.12 bara, the recycle flow
will be started. If no recycle flow is required, a manual controller with SETPOINT=0 can be used for the
recycle controller or the recycle diameter, RECDIAMETER, can be set to zero.

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OLGA GUI user manual

MANUALCONTROLLER: C-PUMP-C-BY: This controller is required by the Multiphase pump module.


However, the built-in bypass function of the Multiphase pump module is obsolete since any bypass line
can be modeled using an additional flow-path. In this sample case, the bypass controller is a manual
controller withSETPOINT=0, which means that the built-in bypass line is closed.
MANUALCONTROLLER: C-PUMPV-1: This controller is optional. The controller is used to control the
built-in valve in the Centrifugal pump module to stop the flow if the pump is deeded, e.g., if the pump is
shut down and no back flow is allowed. In this sample case, this controller is defined as TYPE=MANUAL
and SETPOINT=1, which means that the valve is fully opened.
FlowComponent
FLOWPATH Boundary&InitialConditions INITIALCONDITIONS: Since the steady state preprocessor is not used, the initial conditions have to be given.
FLOWPATH Boundary&InitialConditions HEATTRANSFER: The ambient temperature is set to
15C. The heat transfer coefficient on outer walls is set to 500 W/m2K. The minimum heat transfer
coefficient on inner walls is set to 10 W/m2K.
FLOWPATH ProcessEquipment PUMP: The centrifugal pump is defined by following parameters:
DENSITYR=900 kg/m3; EFFIMECH=0.7; FLOWRATED=0.15 m3/s; HEADRATED=150 m;
SPEEDR=1500 rpm; MAXSPEED=8000 rpm; RECDIAMETER=0.1 m (diameter of the built-in recycle
pipe); BYDIAMETER=0 (bypass diameter, zero means no bypass flow through the built-in bypass).
FLOWPATH Piping: The pipeline consists of a 500 m long pipe horizontal pipe with a 0.2 m diameter
which leads up to a 200 m tall riser. At topside a 100 m pipe leads to the outlet. The bypass line,
constituted by six sections, is 300 m long and has the same diameter, 0.2 m, as the rest of the pipe.
FLOWPATH Output TRENDDATA: Pump variables are plotted.
FLOWPATH Output SERVERDATA: Server variables are available for plotting in interactive
simulations.
NODE: Both the inlet and outlet nodes are pressure nodes. The inlet pressure is 47 bara over the first hour
and is then reduced to 39 bara. The inlet temperature is held constant at 30C. The outlet pressure is held
constant at 39 bara and the temperature is 20C. Two internal nodes are used to connect the bypass
around the pump.
Output
ANIMATE: 3D plot of holdup for liquid along the pipeline is plotted every 10 seconds.
OUTPUT: OLGA variables are printed to the output file every 10 hours.
TREND: Trend variables are plotted every second.
PROFILE: Profile variables are plotted every 30 minutes.

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Displacement pump

Displacement pump
The sample case Pump-Displacement.opi demonstrates how OLGA can be used to model a
displacement multiphase pump with recycle function and bypass lines.
The system consists of a 100 m long horizontal wellhead pipe followed by a 300 m m long pipe containing
a pump inlet valve, a displacement pump, a pump outlet valve, and a check valve at the outlet of that pipe.
Following this is a 100 m long pipe leading up to a 200 m tall riser to the topside. A bypass pipeline is
connected to the pump pipeline. This line has a bypass valve on the inlet and a check valve on the outlet.
A sketch of the model is shown below.
Operation scenario:
In the first hour, the system's inlet pressure is 4 bar higher than its outlet pressure. The production is to go
through the bypass line and the total flow rate is about 22.2 kg/s. In the second hour, the inlet pressure is
reduced to be the same as the outlet pressure so that no production is expected without a pump. Then, the
pump line is opened, the bypass line closed, and the displacement pump starts to increase the pump
speed in order to yield the flow rate 30 kg/s.

Case comments
CaseDefinition
OPTIONS: The full heat transfer calculation option with heat transfer through the pipe walls is used. The
steady state pre-processor is turned off.
FILES: The characteristic data of the pump is found in the file ol-pump1-2.tab.
Controller-models
PIDCONTROLLER: C-PUMP-D-SP: This controller is required by the Multiphase pump module. In this
sample case, the pump speed is controlled by the total mass flow rate (PUMPGT) through the pump. The
total mass flow rate is measured by and defined in the Transmitter TM-2.
PIDCONTROLLER: C-PUMP-D-RE: This controller is required by the Multiphase pump module. In this
case, the pump recycle flow is controlled by the pump inlet pressure. The pump inlet pressure is measured
by Transmitter TRAN-PUMP-IN-PT, and if the pump inlet pressure is lower than 38.2 bara, the recycle flow
will be started. If no recycle flow is required, a manual controller with SETPOINT=0 can be used for the
recycle controller or the recycle diameter, RECDIAMETER, can be set to zero.
MANUALCONTROLLER: C-PUMP-C-BY: This controller is required by the Multiphase pump module.
However, the built-in bypass function of the Multiphase pump module is obsolete since any bypass line

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OLGA GUI user manual

can be modeled using an additional flow-path. In this sample case, the bypass controller is a manual
controller with set-point 0, which means that the built-in bypass line is closed.
FlowComponent
FLOWPATH Boundary&InitialConditions INITIALCONDITIONS: Since the steady state preprocessor is not used, the initial conditions have to be given.
FLOWPATH Boundary&InitialConditions HEATTRANSFER: The ambient temperature is set to
15C. The heat transfer coefficient on outer walls is set to 500 W/m2K. The minimum heat transfer
coefficient on inner walls is set to 10 W/m2K.
FLOWPATH ProcessEquipment PUMP: The centrifugal pump is defined by following parameters:
SPECAPACITY=0.01 m3/R; PREFSPEED=3000 rpm; MAXSPEED=8000 rpm; RECDIAMETER=0.1 m
(diameter of the built-in recycle pipe); BYDIAMETER=0 (bypass diameter, zero means no bypass flow
through the built-in bypass).
FLOWPATH Piping: The pipeline consists of a 500 m long pipe horizontal pipe with a 0.2 m diameter
which leads up to a 200 m tall riser. At topside a 100 m pipe leads to the outlet. The bypass line,
constituted by six sections, is 300 m long and has the same diameter, 0.2 m, as the rest of the pipe.
FLOWPATH Output TRENDDATA: Pump variables are plotted.
FLOWPATH Output SERVERDATA: Server variables are available for plotting in interactive
simulations.
NODE: Both the inlet and outlet nodes are pressure nodes. The inlet pressure is 43 bara over the first hour
and is then reduced to 39 bara. The inlet temperature is held constant at 30C. The outlet pressure is held
constant at 39 bara and the temperature is 20C. Two internal nodes are used to connect the bypass
around the pump.
Output
ANIMATE: 3D plot of holdup for liquid along the pipeline is plotted every 10 seconds.
OUTPUT: OLGA variables are printed to the output file every 10 hours.
TREND: Trend variables are plotted every second.
PROFILE: Profile variables are plotted every 30 minutes.

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Simplified pump

Simplified pump
The sample case Pump-Simplified.opi demonstrates how to model a simplified pump in OLGA.
The system consists of a 500 m long horizontal pipe followed by a 250 m tall vertical riser, and a 100 m
long horizontal topside pipe. The inlet pressure is only 5 bara and the outlet pressure is 50 bara. A pump is
installed in order to deliver the water to a higher pressure tower. No speed controller is required for a
simplified pump. A valve and check vale are placed at the topside pipe. A sketch of the model is shown
below.

Case comments
CaseDefinition
OPTIONS: The full heat transfer calculation option with heat transfer through the pipe walls is used. The
initial conditions are determined by the steady state pre-processor.
FlowComponent
FLOWPATH Boundary&InitialConditions HEATTRANSFER: The ambient temperature is 20C.
The heat transfer coefficient on outer wall is set to 500 W/m2K. The minimum heat transfer coefficient on
inner wall is set to 10 W/m2K.
FLOWPATH ProcessEquipment PUMP: The simplified pump is defined with following parameters:
DENSITYR=1000 kg/m3; FLOWRATED=600 m3/h; SPEEDR=2000 rpm; DPRATED=70 bara. It is assumed
that the pump pressure only depends on the pump flow rate.
FLOWPATH Piping: Three pipes are defined for the geometry. The first pipe is a 500 m long horizontal
pipe and the pump is placed at the second section boundary. Downstream of the horizontal pipeline is a
250 m high vertical riser. At the top of riser is a 100 m long horizontal topside pipe. Pipe diameter is 12"
and roughness 0.001 m
FLOWPATH Output TRENDDATA: Mass flow rates and pump variables are plotted.

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OLGA GUI user manual

FLOWPATH Output SERVERDATA: Server variables are available for plotting in interactive
simulations.
NODE: Both the inlet and outlet nodes are pressure nodes. The inlet pressure is 5 bara and the outlet
pressure is 50 bara. Both nodes have a temperature of 20C.
Output
ANIMATE: 3D plot of holdup for liquid along the pipeline is plotted every 10 seconds.
OUTPUT: OLGA variables are printed to the output file every 10 hours.
TREND: Trend variables are plotted every second.
PROFILE: Profile variables are plotted every 30 minutes.

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OneSubsea pump

OneSubsea pump
The OneSubsea pump example case is meant for training purposes and presents typical pump start-up,
pump stop and pump trip operations. The sequence of events for these operations may differ in real life
operations. The OneSubsea pump is used to increase, prolong and/or enable the production of
hydrocarbons by lowering and/or maintaining the subsea pressure. The OneSubsea pumps will give stable
and flexible operation due to a wide operation envelope, the possibility to operate at all gas volume
fractions and to handle different flow regimes.
The example case is a setup with 2.7 km flowline (profile given in See " Flowline geometry" on page 103)
and a OneSubsea multiphase pump (OneSubsea-Hx310-700-45). The flowline is divided into 27 sections
(each section is 100 meter long).

Flowline geometry
The model, as illustrated in See "Illustration of the sample case." on page 104 includes a closed inlet node
followed by a pressure driven source with a pressure of 90 bara at 50 C. The pressure driven source
represents the wellhead. The OneSubsea multiphase pump is located 500 meters from the wellhead. Two
manual controllers are connected to the pump; V1 (MANUALCONTROLLER: V1) and V3
(MANUALCONTROLLER: V3). V1 is the pump inlet valve and V3 is the pump bypass valve (see See ":
The OneSubsea pump station for the sample case." on page 104. A pressure node with a pressure of 55
bara is located at the outlet. The outlet node is elevated 200 meters to represent a riser.

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OLGA GUI user manual

Illustration of the sample case.

: The OneSubsea pump station for the sample case.

Case comments
Library:
WALL: The case contains one wall of steel layer.
Case definition:
INTEGRATION: The largest time-step allowed is 1 second and the smallest is 0.001 second. The initial
time step is set equal to the minimum time step.
OPTIONS: Heat transfer on the inside and outside wall, wall heat conduction and heat storage is
accounted for in the temperature calculation.
Flow Component:
FLOWPATH:
Flowline:

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OneSubsea pump

Boundary and Initial Conditions: The source is pressure driven with a pressure of 90 bara, temperature
of 50 C, gas mass fraction in gas and oil mixture of 0.1 and a mass fraction of free water in the total
source flow mixture of 0.1.
Output: Multiple trend variables can be added for the pump, such as pump differential pressure
(PUMPDP), GVF mix (GVFMIX), total volume flow through the pump (PUMPQT), total pump power
(PUMPTT), pump speed (PUMPSPEED) and total volumetric recirculation flow (PUREQT).
Trend variables (pressure and total volume flow) have also been added in the section upstream of the
pump.
Piping: The flowline consists of three pipes (PIPE-1, -2 and -3) with an internal diameter of 6 inches and
an absolute roughness of 2.8E-05 m.
Process equipment: The OneSubsea-Hx310-700-45 pump is used in the example case. It is a helicoaxial multiphase pump with a nominal flow rate of 700 Am3/h and a maximum differential pressure of 45
bars. The choice of pump is based on the natural well flow and GVF at pump location conditions and the
required differential pressure. The flow rate gives an indication of the pump size.
The OneSubseaMIXER with a typical mixer volume of 1 m3 is used in the example case.
The size of the recirculation choke (CHOKECV = 70) is based on a simplified control valve sizing equation
(see Eq. 1) and the operational envelope for the pump.

(Eq. 1)
is the valve flow coefficient, Q [
] is the total flowrate, SG is the specific gravity of the flow
mixture and P [bar] is the differential pressure over the recirculation choke.
NODE: The inlet node is closed. The outlet boundary condition is set to a constant pressure of 55 bara and
a temperature of 15 C.
Output:
TREND: Trend variables are plotted every 5 seconds.

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OLGA GUI user manual

OneSubsea pump - Start-up procedure


The case pump_start.opi presents a simplified demonstration of a start-up procedure for a OneSubsea
pump.
Before pump start-up V1 (inlet valve) is closed, V3 (bypass valve) is open and V4 (choke) is open. All flow
is produced through the bypass line and flow is stable.
The start-up sequence starts with opening V1, and then the OneSubsea pump is started with a speed of
1500 rpm. The pump speed is ramped up until the pump capacity is larger than the total well flow. Hence
the total flow from the wells passes through the pump and not through the bypass line. V3 is then closed
and the choke is set to close shortly after. When the choke is fully closed, the pump is set in suction
pressure control. Further, the pump speed is ramped up through a stepwise reduction (2 bars per 20 min)
in suction pressure control set point until the desired suction pressure control set point is reached. Trend
variables and pump envelope operating points for the start-up procedure are given respectively in See "
Trend variables throughout the start-up procedure" on page 106 and See " Pump envelope operating
points throughout the start-up procedure" on page 106:

Trend variables throughout the start-up procedure

Pump envelope operating points throughout the start-up procedure


The simulation shows an increased total volume flow of 55% by lowering the subsea pressure with 5 bar.

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OneSubsea pump - Start-up procedure

Case comments
Case Definition:
INTEGRATION: The duration of the simulation is five hours.
RESTART: Restart data is written to file.
Controller:
MANUALCONTROLLER: V1: The inlet valve is opened at 50 minutes. Typical opening time for V1 is 60
seconds.
MANUALCONTROLLER: V3: The bypass valve is closed at 82 minutes when the total well flow passes
through the pump. Typical closing time for V3 is 60 seconds.
Flow Component:
FLOWPATH: Flowline:
Process equipment: The pump is started at 51 minutes with a start speed of 1500 rpm. At 80 minutes the
pump speed is ramped up to 2400 rpm and the choke is set to close at 83 minutes. Typical closing time for
the choke is approximately 50 minutes. The suction pressure control is initiated at 140 minutes with a
pressure set point of 85 bara. The suction pressure control set point is lowered in intervals of 2 bars per 20
minutes to the desired set point of 80 bara (the last reduction is only 1 bar).

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OLGA GUI user manual

OneSubsea pump - Trip procedure


The case pump_trip.opi is a demonstration of a trip procedure for a OneSubsea pump. The case is
restarted from the start-up procedure, with simulation start at five hours.
The MPP is initially operating at steady state when a trip is initiated. The inlet- and bypass valves go to
their fail-safe positions, i.e. V1 (inlet valve) closes and V3 (bypass valve) opens. See See " Trend variables
throughout the trip procedure" on page 108 for trend variables throughout the trip procedure.

You must run the start-up procedure before this procedure can be run.

Trend variables throughout the trip procedure

Case comments
Case Definition:
INTEGRATION: The start time for the simulation is at five hours and the simulation end time is seven
hours.
RESTART: No restart data is written to file and the pump start-up procedure is used to restart the
simulation.
Flow Component:
FLOWPATH: Flowline:
Process equipment: At 360 minutes a trip is initiated.

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Hydrodynamic slugging

Hydrodynamic slugging
The sample cases HydrSlug-pvt.opi and HydrSlug-comp.opi illustrate slug-tracking using hydrodynamic
slug initiation with and without and with Compositional Tracking, respectively. A platform to platform
transportation is simulated where the fluid enters into a short horizontal pipe before descending down a
173 m long riser. A 7.5 km pipeline through slight uphill terrain leads up to the second, 140 m high, riser
and a short horizontal topside pipe. A sketch of the pipeline geometry is shown below.

Case comments
CaseDefinition
OPTIONS: The two cases run with COMPOSITIONAL=OFF/ON, respectively. Temperature exchange with
the walls are not accounted for, adiabatic flow is assumed.
FILES: The fluid is described by either a pvt-file or an equivalent feed-file depending on the type of
simulation.
FA-models
SLUGTRACKING: Hydrodynamic slug initiation is enabled (HYDRODYNAMIC=ON) is enabled through
the entire simulation.
FlowComponent
FLOWPATH Boundary&InitialConditions SOURCE: The source introduces fluid into the pipeline
at a constant rate of 130200 kg/h. The fluid temperature is 72.2C.
FLOWPATH FA-models SLUGILLEGAL: The sections in the pipe TO-SEP are declared as illegal
sections, i.e., no slugs can be initiated or propagate through these sections.
FLOWPATH ProcessEquipment VALVE: A valve with constant valve opening is put in the middle
of the top-side pipe at the outlet.
FLOWPATH Output TRENDDATA: In addition to standard plotting variables such as liquid content,
pressure, hold-ups, etc., various slug related properties are plotted. E.g., variables like HOLEXP show the
instantaneous holdup at the position specified.
FLOWPATH Output SERVERDATA: Server variables are available for plotting in interactive
simulations.
NODE: The inlet node is closed. The outlet boundary condition is set to a constant pressure of 68.3 bara
and a temperature of 20C.
Output
ANIMATE: 3D plot of holdup for liquid along the pipeline is plotted every 10 seconds.

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OUTPUT: OLGA variables are printed to the output file every hour.
TREND: Trend variables are plotted every second.
PROFILE: Profile variables are plotted every 10 minutes.
TRENDDATA: In addition to standard plotting variables, the number of slugs in the pipeline (NSLUG) and
the accumulated number of slugs initiated (SLUPRO) are plotted.

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Start-up slug

Start-up slug
The sample cases StartupSlug-pvt.opi and StartupSlug-comp.opi illustrate tracking of a start-up slug
without and with compositional tracking, respectively. The pipeline is symmetric with two 200 meter long
horizontal pipes leading up to a 50 meter long and 2 meter deep dip. The dip is filled with liquid and the
pipe leading from the dip to the outlet is half filled. The pipe leading up to the dip is filled with gas and the
inlet is a gas source. The geometry and initial condition is shown below.

Case comments
CaseDefinition
OPTIONS: The two cases run with COMPOSITIONAL=OFF/ON, respectively. Temperature exchange with
the walls are not accounted for, adiabatic flow is assumed.
FILES: The fluid is described by either a pvt-file or an equivalent feed-file depending on the type of
simulation.
FA-models
SLUGTRACKING: Level slug initiation is enabled (LEVEL=ON). The initiation of slugs is limited to initiate
a single start-up slug (MAXNOSLUGS=1) at the start of the simulation (STARTTIME=0 s and
ENDTIME=0.1 s).
FlowComponent
FLOWPATH Boundary&InitialConditions INITIALCONDITIONS: The pressure and temperature in
the branch is set constant and equal to the conditions at the output node. The pipe leading up to the dip is
filled with gas, the dip is filled with liquid, and the pipe leading from the dip to the outlet is half filled.
FLOWPATH Boundary&InitialConditions SOURCE: The gas source is ramped up to a steady
mass flow of 5.325 kg/s over the first 8.5 seconds of the simulation. The source temperature is 30C.
FLOWPATH Piping: The branch is split into five pipes. A 200 m long horizontal pipe split into
20 sections lead up to the dip. The dip is constituted by two 25 meter long pipes split into 5 m sections and
the lowest point 2.17 m below the horizontal pipes. Two horizontal pipes, each 100 m and split into
20 sections, lead from the dip to the outlet.
FLOWPATH Output TRENDDATA: Various properties for the slug are plotted. Furthermore, the
instantaneous values of the droplet volume fraction and droplet velocity are plotted at boundaries
FLOWPATH Output SERVERDATA: Server variables are available for plotting in interactive
simulations.
NODE: The inlet node is closed. The outlet boundary condition is set to a constant pressure of 4.5 MPa
and a temperature of 30C.
Output
ANIMATE: 3D plot of holdup for liquid along the pipeline is plotted every 10 seconds.

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OUTPUT: OLGA variables are printed to the output file every minute.
TREND: Trend variables are plotted every 0.5 seconds.
PROFILE: Profile variables are plotted every 2.5 seconds.
TRENDDATA: The number of slugs in the pipe is plotted.
PROFILEDATA: Integrated additional pressure drops are plotted.

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Submodelling

Submodelling
This sample case is a combination of two cases, mastermodel and submodel_1. Together they form an
integrated OLGA model consisting of two cases demonstrating the submodelling features of OLGA.
The case submodel_1 represents a simplified well using a SOURCE feeding flow into the master model
that represents a 3-phase separator. It is similar to the sample case Separator in functionality that can be
found in the Process category.
Two connections has been made between the two cases:
1.

A flow connection between NODE N-OUTLET-PIPELINE-1 in submodel_1 and SOURCE SPIPELINE-1 in mastermodel.

2.

A signal connection between TRANSMITTER PT-1301 in submodel_1 and MANUALCONTROLLER


SC-PT-101 in mastermodel.

The PIDCONTROLLER PIC-101 located in the master model is regulating the pressure in the outlet of
FLOWPATH B-PIPELINE-1 located in submodel_1. The two other PIDCONTROLLERs LIC-104 and LIC105 are controlling the oil level and oil/water interface level in the separator.

Case definition
SCHEDULER: This keyword is required for enabling OLGA to schedule two or more submodels. Can be
configured in a separate case or as in this example configured as part of a OLGA case including a
submodel.
SERVEROPTIONS: The submodels communicate via OPC, so both submodels needs to be configured as
OPC servers.
Flow component
NODE N-OUTLET-PIPELINE-1:
GASCMASS: 21 kg/m3
OILCMASS: 11 kg/m3
WATERCMASS: 21 kg/m3
PRESSURE: 2500000 Pa
TEMPERATURE: 15 C
SOURCE S-PIPELINE-1:
GASCMASSFLOW: 8 kg/s
OILCMASSFLOW: 5 kg/s
WATERCMASSFLOW: 2 kg/s
PRESSURE: 2500000 Pa
TEMPERATURE: 15 C
Output
The following global output SERVERDATA keys are required:
HT, MAXSPEED, SIMTIME, TIME
Submodelling
Two SUBMODELS keywords are added:

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SUBMODEL: mastermodel. The key LOCATION is set to INTERNAL (internal to the OLGA case).
SUBMODEL: submodel_1. The key LOCATION is set to LOCAL (local to the computer running OLGA).
Required SERVERDATA keys
NODE N-OUTLET-PIPELINE-1: PRESSURE, TEMPERATURE, GASCMASS, OILCMASS,
WATERCMASS, DPDGG, DPDGLTHL, DPDGLTWT and HTEXT.
SOURCE S-PIPELINE-1: PRESSURE, TEMPERATURE, GASCMASSFLOW, OILCMASSFLOW,
WATERCMASSFLOW, DGGDP, DGLTHLDP, DGLTWTDP and HTEXT
Required SERVERDATA keys
NODE N-OUTLET-PIPELINE-1: CGGBOU, CGLTHLBOU, CGLTWTBOU, PTBOU, TMBOU, DGGDPB,
DGLTHLDPB, DGLTWTDPB and HT.
SOURCE S-PIPELINE-1: CMG, CMLTHL, CMLTWT, PT, TM, CMG, CMLTHL, CMLTWT and HT.
Required submodel connections:
Flow: submodel_1.OUTLET-PIPELINE-1 coupled to mastermodel.PIPELINE-1
Signal: submodel_1.SIGNALOUT-1 coupled to mastermodel.SIGNALIN-1

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Fluid bundle

Fluid bundle
The sample case FluidBundle.opi demonstrates how OLGA can be used to simulate how a bundled
pipeline initially filled with gas is heated up before production is started.
Note, when importing similar cases from OLGA 5, a certain amount of manual labor is required. Please
refer to the conversion documentation for a detailed description.
The pipeline consists of a 5480 m long pipe along the seabed followed by a 162 m vertical riser and a
100 m horizontal topside pipe. The pipe has a hydraulic diameter of 30.48 cm.
The part of the pipeline which is on the seabed is contained within a bundle where the carrier line contains
heated water injected on the platform end. The carrier line water returns to the platform through the return
line before it is heated up again and reinjected into the carrier line.
The bundle also contains a methanol line. A sketch of the cross-section of the bundle is shown in See
"Cross-section of the bundle." on page 115.

Cross-section of the bundle.

Case comments
Library
MATERIAL: Carbon steel is the only material used in the pipe walls.
WALL: The flow line pipe wall is 2.54 cm thick and has been divided into 4 layers.
CaseDefinition
OPTIONS: The full heat transfer calculation option with heat transfer through the pipe wall has been used
as this is required by the Bundle module. The steady state initialization has been turned off.
FlowComponent
FLOWPATH Boundary&InitialConditions INITIALCONDITIONS: The flow line is initially filled with
gas and the pressure is set equal to the outlet pressure. The initial temperature is 4C both in the pipeline
and bundle lines.
FLOWPATH Boundary&InitialConditions HEATTRANSFER: The ambient conditions are constant
along the whole system. For the part of the pipeline contained in the bundle, the ambient conditions are
exterior to the flow line.

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FLOWPATH Boundary&InitialConditions SOURCE: During the initial heating up of the system, the
source is turned off. Ramping up to a steady production flow rate is commenced after 10 hours.
FLOWPATH Piping: The pipeline along the seabed (5480 m) is described by seven pipes whereas the
riser and topside are single pipes.
FLOWPATH Output OUTPUTDATA: In addition to standard OLGA variables, TBUN is printed to the
output file.
FLOWPATH Output TRENDDATA: In addition to standard OLGA variables, TBUN is trended for the
bundle lines at selected positions.
FLOWPATH Output PROFILEDATA: In addition to standard OLGA variables, TBUN is profiled for
all bundle lines.
FLOWPATH Output SERVERDATA: Server variables are available for plotting in interactive
simulations.
NODE: The flow line has a closed inlet node whereas the methanol line has a mass flow node on the inlet.
Both these lines have pressure boundaries specified at the outlet. Inlet temperatures are specified for the
bundle lines. An internal node is used for the crossover from the carrier line to the return line. The water is
going in a loop consisting of the carrier and return lines where constant pressure and temperature is set on
the platform side.
ThermalComponent
FLUIDBUNDLE: The bundle consists of four pipelines (BundleComponents). One is defined as a
FLOWPATH and the other three as LINEs. The pipe defined as FLOWPATH defines that the bundle starts
at the beginning of the second pipe and ends at the riser base.
The data of both fluid and line pipe walls are given so that OLGA calculates a u-value for each of the lines.
The flow in the carrier line is counter current to the flow in the other lines and in the flowpath.
Output
ANIMATE: 3D plot of holdup for liquid along the pipeline is plotted every 10 seconds.
OUTPUT: OLGA variables are printed to the output file, every 10 th hour.
TREND: Trend variables are plotted every minute.
PROFILE: Profile variables are plotted every hour.

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Solid bundle

Solid bundle
The sample case SolidBundle.opi demonstrates how OLGA can be used to simulate the transient and
spatial distribution of temperatures in the solid interior of a complex bundle by means of finite element
calculations.
N.B., when importing similar cases from OLGA 5, a certain amount of manual labor is required. Please
refer to the conversion documentation for a detailed description.
The branches 1 and 2 are identical with a 12.0 cm inner diameter. They consist of a 4300 m long pipeline
on the seabed, a 300 m vertical riser, and a 100 m horizontal topside pipe. They merge into branch 3, a
100 m horizontal topside pipe
The riser of branch 1 is contained within the inner fluid bundle where the carrier line contains heated water.
The water is heated at the platform end, sent down into the carrier line, and back up to the platform
through the return line. This fluid bundle is contained within a solid bundle together with branch 2 and a
methanol line. A sketch of the cross-section of the bundle is shown in See "Cross-section of the bundle.
The outer border, i.e., the border of the solid bundle, is given by the shape specified under Library. The
fluid bundle contained within the solid bundle is marked in gray shading." on page 117.

Cross-section of the bundle. The outer border, i.e., the border of the solid bundle, is given by the shape
specified under Library. The fluid bundle contained within the solid bundle is marked in gray shading.

Case comments
Library
MATERIAL: Carbon steel (MATER-1) and insulation (MATER-2) are the materials used for the pipe walls.
HEATING and METHANOLFLUID are fluids used by the Bundle module.
SHAPE: The shape defining the solid bundle, in this case a circle with radius 80 cm made of insulation.
WALL: Five different walls are used in the flowpaths and lines specified.

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OLGA GUI user manual

CaseDefinition
OPTIONS: The full heat transfer calculation option with heat transfer through the pipe wall has been used
as this is required by both the Bundle and FEMTherm modules. The steady state initialization is turned on.
FlowComponent
FLOWPATH Boundary&InitialConditions HEATTRANSFER: The ambient conditions are defined
for all branches. The ambient heat transfer coefficient for the solid bundle is assumed constant along the
length of it. Its value is taken from the first component in the solid bundle definition, more specifically from
its first section entering into the solid bundle. The ambient temperature, on the other hand, may vary along
the length of the solid bundle and the values are taken from its first constituent branch.
FLOWPATH Boundary&InitialConditions SOURCE: The sources at the inlet of each seabed
pipeline is kept at a constant low rate for the first three hours, before being ramped up to a higher rate
during 10 minutes.
FLOWPATH Piping: The pipeline along the seabed (4300 m) is described using three pipes whereas
the riser and topside as single pipes. The topside branch consists of a single pipe.
FLOWPATH ProcessEquipment; VALVE: One valve is installed at the outlet of each of the parallel
pipelines just upstream of the internal node. They are both fully open throughout the simulation.
FLOWPATH Output SERVERDATA: Server variables are available for plotting in interactive
simulations.
NODE: The two inlet nodes for the seabed branches are closed. These two branches lead up to an
internal node where they merge into the topside branch which has a pressure boundary at the outlet. Inlet
temperatures are specified for the bundle lines. An internal node is used for the crossover from the carrier
line to the return line. The water is going in a loop consisting of the carrier and return lines where constant
pressure and temperature is set on the platform side.
Output
ANIMATE: 3D plot of holdup for liquid along the pipeline is plotted every 10 seconds.
OUTPUT: OLGA variables are printed to the output file every 5 hours.
TREND: Trend variables are plotted every 10 seconds.
PROFILE: Profile variables are plotted every 20 minutes.
ThermalComponent:
SOLIDBUNDLE: The shape of the solid bundle containing all the pipes is defined through the Library
keyword SHAPE. The shape is one out of four BundleComponents in this case. The other components are
a FLOWPATH, a LINE, and a FLUIDBUNDLE. The meshfineness (recommended value is between 128
and 640), calculation time step (DELTAT), and time step for saving thermal data (DTPLOT) define the
FEMTherm calculations.

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Solid bundle

OneSubsea pump - Stop procedure


The case pump_stop.opi is a simplified demonstration of a stop procedure for a OneSubsea pump. The
case is restarted from the start-up procedure, with simulation start at five hours.
The MPP is initially operating at steady state. The stop sequence is initiated by reducing the pump speed
by increasing the suction pressure control set point in intervals of 2 bars per 20 min (the last increase is
only 1 bar). When the differential pressure is approximately 5 bars, the pump is stopped. At the same time
V3 (bypass valve) opens. V1 (inlet valve) closes after a time delay of 20 seconds. See See ": Trend
variables throughout the stop procedure" on page 119 for trend variables for the stop procedure.

You must run the start-up procedure before this procedure can be run.

: Trend variables throughout the stop procedure

Case comments
Case Definition:
INTEGRATION: The start time for the simulation is at five hours and the simulation end time is 7.5 hours.
RESTART: No restart data is written to file and the pump start-up procedure is used to restart the
simulation.
Controller:
MANUALCONTROLLER: V1: The inlet valve starts to close 20 seconds after the pump stop has been
initiated. Typical closing time for V1 is 30 seconds.
MANUALCONTROLLER: V3: The bypass valve is opened at the same time as the initiation of the pump
stop. Typical opening time for V3 is 30 seconds.
Flow Component:
FLOWPATH: Flowline:
Process equipment: At 340 minutes the suction pressure control set point is increased in intervals of 2
bars per 20 minutes until a pump differential pressure of approximately 5 bars is reached (suction pressure
control set point of 85 bara). The pump is then stopped.

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OLGA GUI user manual

Valve model
To demonstrate some of the model options for the valve, five simple valve cases have been created:
Sub_Critical_Valve_Flashing_Liquid.opi - Sub critical valve flow of a flashing liquid
Critical_Valve_Two_Phase.opi - Critical two phase valve flow.
Valve_Recovery.opi - Sub critical none flashing liquid valve flow.
Valve_Slip.opi - Two phase sub critical valve flow.
Valve_Termal_Equilibrium.opi - Three phase sub critical valve flow.
All these cases have the same geometry and configuration. The left boundary condition is a closed node
and a mass flow source in the first section. The right boundary condition is a gas pressure node. The
geometry is described with one pipe divided in 10 equal sections. The pipeline is 400 m long and have an
elevation of 10 m. The diameter is 0.12 m.
The cases differ in:

source mass flow, phase fractions and temperature

outlet pressure
valve opening

fluid table

GUI snapshot from the Sub_Critical_Valve_Flashing_Liquid.opi case.

Case comments
CaseDefinition:
OPTION: The steady state pre-processor is enabled. There are no heat transfer to the surroundings. The
simulation is adiabatic.
INTEGRATION: The simulation time is 3 minutes with a maximum time step of 5 seconds.
FlowComponent:

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Valve model

FLOWPATH Boundary&InitialConditions Source: A constant mass source is positioned at the first


section of the pipeline.
FLOWPATH ProcessEquipment Valve: The valve is positioned at the middle of the pipeline. The
valve diameter is identical to the pipeline diameter. The HYDROVALVE model is used.
FLOWPATH Piping: One pipe is used to describe the pipeline. The pipeline is 400 m long, and have an
overall elevation of 10 m. The pipeline diameter is 0.12 m. The pipeline is split in 10 sections.
NODE: The pipe is closed at the inlet. The outlet node is a PRESSURE node. Gas at 25C is used as
boundary fluid.
Output:
OUTPUT: OLGA trend variables are printed to the output file every 15 seconds. Profile variables are
plottet at the start and end of the simulation. Valve TREND variables included: ICRIT, PVALVE,
TVALVEOUT, VALVDP, THROATSLIP, TVALVE

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OLGA GUI user manual

Critical two-phase valve flow


This sample case is created to demonstrate the possible effect of the valve model option
EQUILIBRIUMMODEL. Running the case with EQUILIBRIUMMODEL FROZEN, HENRYFAUSKE and
EQUILIBRIUM will give a large difference in pressure drop. The EQUILIBRIUM option gives the largest
pressure drop over the valve, and the FROZEN option gives the lowest pressure drop. The
HENRYFAUSKE option lies between the FROZEN and EQUILIBRIUM option.

Pressure profile for EQUILIBRIUMMODEL FROZEN/HENRYFAUSKE/EQUILIBRIUM at critical valve flow.

Case comments
See Valve Model for a more detailed description of the case.

CaseDefinition:
Files:
2phase.tab
FlowComponent
FLOWPATH Boundary&InitialConditions Source: Mass flow is set to 22 kg/s. The temperature is
set to 90C, and the gas fraction is 0.1. No water is included in the source.
FLOWPATH ProcessEquipment Valve: The valve opening is set to 0.03.
NODE: The outlet node pressure is set to 50 bar.

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Subcritical valve flow of a flashing liquid

Subcritical valve flow of a flashing liquid


This sample case is constructed to demonstrate the possible effect of the valve model option
EQUILIBRIUMMODEL. Running the case with EQUILIBRIUMMODEL FROZEN, HENRYFAUSKE and
EQUILIBRIUM, EQUILIBRIUM will give a large difference in pressure drop.
The reason for the difference in pressure drop, is due to the flashing of the liquid. The EQUILIBRIUM
option includes flashing, the HENRYFAUSKE option has a correction for the gas fraction in the throat while
the FROZEN option do not include any flashing. In a non-flashing case the models will give very similar
results. The pressure drop with the EQUILIBRIUM option is larger than with the FROZEN option.

Pressure profile for EQUILIBRIUMMODEL FROZEN, HENRYFAUSKE and EQUILIBRIUM.

Case comments
See Valve Model for a more detailed description of the case.

CaseDefinition:
FILES
2phase.tab
FlowComponent
FLOWPATH Boundary&InitialConditions Source: Mass flow is set to 18 kg/s. The temperature is
set to 90C, and the gas fraction is 0. No water is included in the source.
FLOWPATH ProcessEquipment Valve: The valve opening is set to 0.05.
NODE: The outlet node pressure is set to 95 bar.

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OLGA GUI user manual

Valve recovery
This sample case is constructed to demonstrate the effect of the valve model option RECOVERY. Running
the case with RECOVERY YES/NO will give a difference in pressure drop over the valve. The pressure
drop over the valve will without recovery always be greater with recovery.

Trend plot of VALVDP with and witout pressure recovery.

Case comments
See Valve Model for a more detailed description of the case.
CaseDefinition:
Files
3phase.tab
FlowComponent
FLOWPATH Boundary&InitialConditions Source: Mass flow is set to 20 kg/s. The temperature is
set to 50C, and the gas fraction is 0. No water is included in the source.
FLOWPATH ProcessEquipment Valve: The valve opening is set to 0.25.
NODE: The outlet node pressure is set to 160 bar.

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Valve slip

Valve slip
This sample case is constructed to demonstrate the possible effect of the valve model option SLIPMODEL.
Running the case with SLIPMODEL NOSLIP and CHISHOLM will give a large difference in pressure drop.
The CHISHOLM model will apply a slip between gas and liquid in the valve.

Pressure profile for SLIPMODEL NOSLIP and CHISHOLM.

Trend plot of THROATSLIP (The slip ratio in the throat) for SLIPMODEL NOSLIP and CHISHOLM.

Case comments
See Valve Model for a more detailed description of the case.
CaseDefinition:
Files
2phase.tab
FlowComponent
FLOWPATH Boundary&InitialConditions Source: Mass flow is set to 22 kg/s. The temperature is
set to 30C, and the gas fraction is 0.1. No water is included in the source.
FLOWPATH ProcessEquipment Valve: The valve opening is set to 0.05.
NODE: The outlet node pressure is set to 50 bar.

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OLGA GUI user manual

Thermal equilibrium in valve flow


This sample case is constructed to demonstrate the possible effect of the valve model option
THERMALPHASEEQ. Running the case with THERMALPHASEEQ YES and NO will give a difference in
pressure drop due to the change in gas density for the valve model. This model option will affect the throat
gas temperature (TVALVE) .
For this case, the valve pressure drop (VALVDP) change when applying thermal equilibrium is
approximately 0.5 bar. The change in the lowest gas temperature in the valve (TVALVE) is almost 16C.

Trend plot of VALVDP for THERMALPHASEEQ YES and NO.

Trend plot of TVALVE for THERMALPHASEEQ YES and NO.

Case comments
See Valve Model for a more detailed description of the case.

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Gas lift well casingheading

Gas lift well casingheading


The sample case Gas-lift-well-casingheading.opi is a demonstration of a gas lift well. The well geometry
and components are shown in the figure below. The gas lift system is built using a LEAK inserted at 2350
m that provides communication between the annulus and tubing. The gas enters the annulus with a
Sourceinflow at 0 m depths with a constant 0.7 kg/s.

The simulation requires flow in annulus which is only available through the OLGA Well module.
The simulation scenario is the following:
The total simulation time is 24 hours. If no gas is injected by for instance setting the SourceInflow to 0 kg/s,
the well will not be able to produce. The well quickly fills up with liquid and stops producing. If 0.7 kg/s is
used, the well will cyclically unload and allow for intermittant production. If the rate however is set a bit
higher (for instance 1.5 kg/s), the well will unload and eventually stabilize the production at a given rate.
The case can be used to play with variables like production pressure, gas lift rates, tubing diameters etc. in
order to optimize the production. See also the output variable GTLEAKs Casing Heading (or Slugging)
Outflow to the Tubing, despite the output variable GTSOURs Constant Inflow. This occurs since the Gas
Lift LEAK needs a smaller hole (and more Orifice dP) to Stabilize its Gas Lift Dynamics
Library:
WALL: Multiple walls are present in the model to accurately represent the various sections of the well. The
walls are built up by many layers of material including casing steel, cement, fluid behind casing and
formation. As can be seen in the well schematic, there is not always cement behind the casing and the wall
will therefore include a defined fluid above cement instead.
CaseDefinition:
OPTIONS: The full heat transfer calculation option with heat transfer through pipe walls is used.
INTEGRATION: The simulation runs for 24 hours using a minimum time step of 0.001 s and a maximum
one of 100 s. The initial time step is set equal to the minimum one.

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OLGA GUI user manual

Flow Component:

FLOWPATH(s): The well consists of two main flowpaths: The tubing section with the well bore section and
the separate annulus flowpath. The reservoir inflow is modeled using a linear equation with 150 bara
Pressure, 100 degC and a PI of 10 Sm3/d/bar. The initial conditions are set so that the well is filled with
gas.
OUTPUT: Multiple variables have been set up for output such as trend variables and profile variables.
NODE: The bottom of the wellbore as well as the top and bottom of the annulus is modeled with closed
nodes. The tubing outlet boundary condition is set to a constant pressure of 20 bara, temperature of 15C
and 100% gas fraction.
Output:

ANIMATE: 3D plot of holdup for liquid along the pipeline is plotted every 10 seconds.
OUTPUT: OLGA variables are printed to the output file every 1 hour.
TREND: Trend variables are plotted every 5 sec.
PROFILE: Profile variables are plotted every 1 hour.
Thermal Component:

ANNULUS: The tubing is placed inside of the casing using the ANNULUS keyword.

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Gas well liquid loading

Gas well liquid loading


The sample case Gas-well-liquid-loading.opi is a demonstration of a liquid loading situation in a well.
The well geometry and components are shown in the figure below.

The simulation does not include flow in annulus so the space between the tubing and casing is only
modelled as part of the tubing wall.
The simulation scenario is the following:
The total simulation time is 48 hours and illustrates how the well starts producing but eventually stop
producing due to high liquid content in the well.

Library:
WALL: Multiple walls are present in the model to accurately represent the various sections of the well. The
walls are built up by many layers of material including casing steel, cement, fluid behind casing and
formation. As you see in the well schematic, there is not always cement behind the casing and the wall will
therefore include a defined liquid behind tubing instead.
CaseDefinition:
OPTIONS: The full heat transfer calculation option with heat transfer through pipe walls is used.
INTEGRATION: The simulation runs for 48 hours using a minimum time step of 0.001 s and a maximum
one of 100 s. The initial time step is set equal to the minimum time step.
Flow Component:
FLOWPATH(s): The well consists of two flowpaths: The tubing section and the well bore section. The
reservoir inflow is modelled using the Forchheimer equation that starts of at time 0 with 35 bar Pressure,
100 degC and a B coefficient of 0.000298 psi2 / (scf/d). After 2 days (24 hours), the pressure is lowered to
30 bar. The initial conditions are set so that the well is filled with gas.
OUTPUT: Multiple variables have been set up for output such as trend variables and profile variables.

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OLGA GUI user manual

NODE: The bottom of the wellbore is a closed node. The tubing outlet boundary condition is set to a
constant pressure of 20 bara, temperature of 15C and 100% gas fraction.
Output:
ANIMATE: 3D plot of holdup for liquid along the pipeline is plotted every 10 seconds.
OUTPUT: OLGA variables are printed to the output file at the start and end of the simulation.
TREND: Trend variables are plotted every 10 min.
PROFILE: Profile variables are plotted every 24 hour.

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Well clean-up

Well clean-up
The sample case Well-Clean-Up.opi is a simple demonstration of cleaning scenario in a well. The well
geometry and components are shown in the figure below.

The simulation scenario is as follow:


The wellbore is initially filled with different types of fluid (see above). At the bottom-hole, the wellbore is
filled with Mud. Above the Mud the wellbore is filled with Brine, and on the top the wellbore is filled with
Baseoil. The simulation starts from a restart file where the well is settled, the wellbore fluid is in thermal
balance with the formation and the pressure profile is established in the wellbore. The inflow zone at the
bottom of the wellbore is at P=235.5 bar and T= 106C, and will not flow when the topside pressure is 20
bara. In order to get the well to produce, nitrogen lift gas is injected at the rate of 5 kg/s for about 5 hours
through the Nitrogen source. The lift gas assist in the clean-up process, and the well starts to produce.

Library:
WALL: Multiple walls are present in the model to accurately represent the various sections of the well. The
walls are built up by many layers of material including formation, spacer between formation and casing,
casing steel, cement, fluid behind casing and formation. As you see in the well schematic, there is not
always cement behind the casing.
DRILLINGFLUID:
4 different drilling fluids are created for this task. Nitrogen for the lifting process, brine, oil-based mud,
water-based brine and base oil.
CaseDefinition:
OPTIONS: The full heat transfer calculation option with heat transfer through pipe walls is used.

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OLGA GUI user manual

RESTART: The case is restarted from a settled wellbore restart solution (CLEANUPINI.rsw)
INTEGRATION: The simulation runs for 10 hours using a minimum time step of 0.001 s and a maximum
one of 1 s. The initial time step is set equal to the minimum time step.
Flow Component:
FLOWPATH(s): The well consists of two flowpaths: The tubing section and the well bore section. The
reservoir inflow is modelled using the linear equation with INJECTIVITY and PRODI= 115 Sm3/d/bar.
OUTPUT: Multiple variables have been set up for output such as trend variables and profile variables.
NODE: The bottom of the wellbore is a closed node. The tubing outlet boundary condition is set to a
constant pressure of 20 bara, temperature of 15C and 100% gas fraction.
Output:
ANIMATE: 3D plot of holdup for liquid along the pipeline is plotted every 10 seconds.
OUTPUT: OLGA variables are printed to the output file at the start and end of the simulation.
TREND: Trend variables are plotted every 5 seconds.
PROFILE: Profile variables are plotted every 30 seconds.

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Well dry tree

Well dry tree


The sample case Well-Dry-Tree.opi is a demonstration of a dry tree well.
The case is very simple and is similar to one of the sample cases. The only difference being that the well
head is of type dry tree. As shown in See "Well dry tree" on page 133, the well riser and tubing starts from
depth 0 in air and goes through water at MSL of 50m and into the formation at 150m. The casing model
includes several surface casings and there is no flow in the annulus (packer) which means that the casing,
cement, fluid behind casing and formation are all part of the WALL.

Well dry tree


There is no particular simulation scenario and no special parameters compared to the sample well cases.

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