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MINERALS
KALYANSIR.COM

Mineralsarethenaturallyoccurringmaterialswhichwhenexploitedeconomicallyarecalled
ores.
Therearemorethan5000minesinIndia.
Therearemorethan800metallicmines.
Therestarenonmetallicmines.
MineralsSectoremploysover10lakhpeople.
Themineralsectoraccountsfor12%oftheindustrialoutput.
Themineralsectorcontributesto3%ofGDP.
ClassificationofMinerals:
MetallicNonMetallicEnergy
FerrousNonFerrous

IronOreGoldPotashCoal
ManganeseSilverDolomitePetroleum
ChromiteCopperMica
PyroteLeadGypsum
TungstenBauxiteLimestone
NickleTinNitrate
CobaltMegnisium
IRONORE:
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ThetotalreservesofIndiaareabout20%oftheworldreserves.
Chiefvariationofironoresare:
Magnetite:
Thisisbestqualityore.
Thiscontains72percentpureiron.
ThisisfoundinJharkhand,Goa,Kerala,TamilNadu

MAGNETITE

Hematite:
Thisisthesecondbestquality.
Thiscontains60to70percentpureiron.
ThisisavailableinAndhraPradesh,Jharkhand,Orissa,MP,Goa,Chhattisgarh.

HEMATITE

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Limonite:
Thiscontains40to60percentiron.
Thisisyellowandlightbrownincolor.
Thisisnotverysignificant.
Siderite:

SIDERITE

Thisisanimpureironore.
Thiscontains40to50percentpureiron.

Manganese:
TheManganeseisprimarilyusedformakingIronandSteel.
Thisactsasabasicrawmaterialformanufacturingitsalloy.
Itisalsousedinmanufacturingofbleachingpowder,insecticides,paints,batteriesand
Chinaclay.

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MANGANESE

Chromite:
Itisanoxideofironandchromium.
OrissaisthelargestproducerofChromite.
Karnatakaisthesecondlargestproducerofchromite.
ItiswidelyusedinMetallurgical,refractoriesandchemicalindustries.
Japanisthelargestbuyer.

CHROMITE

Copper:
Itisanexcellentconductorofelectricityandisductile
Thusitisusedinelectricalmachinery,wiresandcables.

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COPPER

Nickel:
Itdoesnotoccurinafreestate.
Itisfoundinassociationwithcopper,uranium,etc.
Itisanimportantalloyingmaterial.
Thisisusedforrustproofinsteelproduction.
ItisusedinHydrogenationoffats.
Singhbhum,Orissa,Rajasthanarethechiefproducer.

Zinc:
Galena,chalcopyrites,ironpyritesandothersulphidearetheimportantores.
Itisusedindrybatteries,electrodestextileanddiecasting.
ItisfoundmainlyinDegonainRajasthanandChandpatharinWestBengal.

ZINC

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Tungsten:
Itschieforeiswolfram.
Itimpartsselfhardeningqualitytosteel.
Itismostlyusedinmanufacturingammunitions,armorplates,heavygun,etc.
ItisfoundmainlyinDegonainRajasthanandChandpatharinWestBengal.

TUNGSTEN

BAUXITE:
Thisisanimportantoreforaluminumproduction.
Itisclaylikesubstancefoundintropicallateritesoil.

BAUXITE

ProductionofBauxite:

State000tonnesProduction(%)
Orissa189036
Gujarat97917
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Jharkhand58912
Chhattisgarh58912
MP52011
NonMetallicMinerals:
Mica:
ItsmainoresareMarguerite,Phlogopite,Biotite.
Itisavaluablemineralfortheelectricalandelectronicsindustry.
JharkhandhastherichestdepositsofMica.
AndhraPradeshstandsatnumbertwopositionwith40%ofproduction.
Rajasthanaccountsforonly7%.

MICA

Limestone:
ItcontainsCaCo3.
Itisusedforcementmakingandironandsteelindustry.
ImportantproducingstatesareMP,AndhraPradesh,Rajasthan,Gujarat,Karnataka,etc.,
Dolomite:
Limestonewithmorethan10%magnesiumiscalleddolomite.
OrissaisthelargestproducerofDolomite.
Orissaaccountsfor50%oftheproduction.
Burmotrapuristhechiefproductioncentre.
Chhattisgarhisthe2ndmostsignificantproducer.
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Chattisgarhaccountfor22%ofthetotalproduction.
ChaibasaofJharkhandisanotherimportantproducer.
Asbestos:
Chrysoliteandtremolitearecollectivelycalledasbestos.
Ithasfibrousstructure.
TheAsbestosisresistanttofire.
Itisusedinfireproofmaterials,paints,insulation,etc.
RajasthanisthelargestproducerofAsbestos.
ThemainproducingcentersareUdaipurandDurgapurdistricts.
PulivendulaTalukinAndhraPradeshisanothersignificantproducer.
magnesite:
Itisanalterationproductofdunites.
Itisprimarilyusedforrefractorybricks.
Thisisalsousedasabondinabrasives,tiles,artificialstones,etc.
TamilNaduisthelargestproducerofMagnesite.
ChalkHillsnearSalemhastheworld'slargestmagnesitedeposits.
KarnatakaandRajasthanareotherimportantstates.
Kyanite:
Thisisavailableinmetamorphicaluminousrocks.
IndiaisthelargestproducerofKyaniteintheworld.
Jharkhandhasthelargestdeposits.
LapsabarutoKharsawaninSaraikelahasthelargestdeposits.
Gypsum:
It is a hydrated sulphate of calcium which occurs as transparent minerals in beds or
bandsinsedimentarydeposits.
RajasthanisthelargestproducerofgypsuminIndia.
TamilNaduandJammu&KashmiraretheotherimportantstatesthatproduceGypsum.
Diamond:
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Thisisanallotropeofcarbon.
Itishighlylustrous,hardesttransparentsubstance.
ThemaindiamondbearingareasarePannabeltinMP.
The other important areas are Wajrakarur Kimbirlite and grovel of Krishna River in
AndhraPradesh.

DIAMOND

AtomicMinerals:
thorium:
Thisisaradioactivemineral.
ThisismainlyproducedfrommonazitesandofKeralabeaches.
Beryllium:
TheBerylliumisusedasamoderatorinnuclearreactor.
ThisisfoundinRajasthan,TamilNadu,Bihar,UttarPradeshandJammuandKashmir.
FUELMINERALS:
Coal:
ThisisalsocalledBlackGoldforitshighutility.
Thisisachiefmineralfuel.
Itisaninflammableorganicsubstance.
Thisiscomposedmainlyofhydrocarbons.
TheCoalisfoundintheformofsedimentaryrocks.
TheCoalisusedasafueltosupplyheatorlightorboth.
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CoalisaCombustiblematterincarbon.
Itconstitutesabout60percentoftotalcommercialenergyconsumed.
Thepowersectorandindustriesaccountfor94%ofitstotalconsumption.
ThestatesChhattisgarh,Jharkhand,Orissa,AndhraPradesh,Maharashtra,WestBengal,
andUttarPradesharetheimportantproducersofcoal.

TypesofCoal:
Anthracite:
Thisisthebestqualitycoal.
TheAnthracitecontains80percentofCarbon.
Thisishard,compactandjetblack.
ThisisfoundonlyintheNichagamandKarakumareasofJammuandKashmir.
Bituminous:
Thiscontains60to80percentofcarbon.
TheBituminousismostprofoundandmostwidelyused.
Ithashighcalorificvalue.
ThisisfoundmostlyinJharkhand,WestBengal,OrissaandChhattisgarh.
Lignite:
Ligniteisalsoknownasbrowncoal.
TheLignitecontainsabout60percentofcarbon.
ItisfoundinNeyvelliinTamilNadu,PalnainRajasthan,LakhimpurinAssamand
KarewaofJammuandKashmir.
TamilNadualoneaccountsfor90%ofthereserveand80%oftheproduction.
NeyvellihasthelargestlignitedepositsinSouthEastAsia
Peat:Today'sQuestion

ClickHere

Thismarksthefirststageoftransformationofwoodintocoal.
ThePeatcontains50percentofcarbon.
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Itburnslikewoodandleaveslotofash.
Erstwhile Madhya Pradesh has 20 percent of total coal reserves but contributes 30
percentofthecoalproduction.
Themaincoalfields:
Umaria,Korar,Sohagpur,Singrauli
Tatapani,Jhilmilli,Bisrampur,Kuraisia,Rampur.
MandriverandRaigarh
PenchandKanhanvalleyinChindwaradistrict
Patakhera,DalharaandShahpurinBetul.
PETROLEUM
Petroleumisaninflammableliquid.
Thisisobtainedfromsedimentaryformations.
Itisprimarilymadeofhydrocarbonwhichexiststotheamountof90to95percentand
otherorganiccompoundscontainingOxygen,NitrogenandSulphur.
Petrochemicalindustries,cement,fertilizerindustriesandlocomotiveheavilydepend
onthismineralliquid.
DistributionofPetroleum:
StateProduction(inM.T.)Production(%)
Maharashtra27,27863%
MumbaiHigh
Gujarat12,21221%
Assam16.5%
TamilNadu3701.4%
ArunachalPradesh590.15%
AssamistheoldestoilproducingstateofIndia.
MainoilbearingstratafoundinupperBrahmaputravalley.
DigboifieldinDibrugarhdistrictistheoldestoldestoilfieldofIndia.
NaharkatiyaisanotherimportantoilfieldlocatedsouthwestofDigboi.
InGujarattheONGC(OilandNaturalGasCorporation)in1958struckoildepositsin
theGujaratplainsatAnkaleshwar.
Oilhereisfoundinananticline.
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JawaharLalNehrucalledit'FountainofProsperity.
OilfromAnkaleshwarfieldisrefinedatTrombayandKoyalirefiner.
LunejfieldislocatedintheKhambhatregion.
Offshoreoilfields:
InMumbaihighpetroleumwasstruckin1974byONGC.
It is located on the continental shore of the western coast 175 km northwest of
Mumbai.
TheoilbelongstoMioceneperiod.
Drillingisdonebyspeciallydesignedplatformcalled'Sagarsmata'.
BasseinislocatedlittlesouthofMumbaiHigh.
OtheroilFields:
Jwalamukhi,Nurpur,DharmsalandBilaspurinHimachalPradesh.
MusalgarhinJammuandKashmir.
KrishnaGodavariBasin.
KaveriBasin.
ContinentalshelfofAndamanandNicobar.
EasternandwesterncoastsofIndia.
NaturalGas:
After 1985, Natural Gas has become important with the discovery of oil wells at
CaveryoffshoreandNandainCambaybasin,alsoTanotinJaisalmerbasin.
AndadainGujarat
AdiyakkamangalaminTamilNadu
KhoraghatinAssamand
MumbaiHighareimportantgasfieldsinIndia.
PLACEInCubicMillionProduction(%)
MumbaiHigh13,97680%
Gujarat1,79311%
Assam1,2178%
TamilNadu3061.5%
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Tripura1080.6%

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