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# Theory

For this experiment, by mixing two immiscible liquid of solution (organic solvent + propionic
acid) and water and then it is allowed to separate into extract and raffinate phase. The extract
phase would be the water plus the propionic acid, while the raffinate phase would be the
solution of organic solvent and residual of propionic acid.
The distribution coefficient, K, can be calculated using the following equation:
Concentration of solute the extract phase ,(Y )
Concentration of solutethe raffinate phase ,( X)

It can be assume that the equilibrium state exist between these two phases. At a low
concentrations, the distribution coefficient, K, is dependent on the concentration and thus
Y = KX
For system Trichloroethylene-Propionic acid-water, a theory can be described as follows:
Let
Vw

Vo

## = Propionic acid concentration in aqueous phases (Kg/L)

Mass balance:
Raffinate: Propionic acid extracted from organic phase = Vo(X1-X2)
Extract: Propionic acid extracted by aqueous phase = Vw(Y1-0)
Therefore,
Vo(X1-X2) = Vw(Y1-0)
Mass transfer coefficient:
MTC =

## Rate of acid transfer

Volume of packing Meandriving force

## Where log mean driving force :

( x1x 2)
ln(x 1 x 2)

x2 is a driving force at the bottom of the column while x 1 is a driving force at the top of the
column which same with (x1-x1*). X1 and X2 are the concentration organic phases which
equilibrium with concentration Y1 and Y2 in the aqueous phase. The distribution coefficient is
then used to find equilibrium value for the chemical used by assuming the Y = KX. Both
equation Vo(X1-X2) and Vw(Y1-0) is used to calculated rate of acid transfer based on the
raffinate and extract phases.

## Apparatus and materials :

Experiment A:
1. 50 ml Burette
2. 250 ml conical flask
3. 50 ml measuring cylinder
4. 5 ml measuring cylinder
5. 250 ml separator funnel
6. Phenolphthalein
7. Propionic acid
8. Water
9. Trichloroetylene
10. 0.1M NaOH
Experiment B:
1. 50 ml Burette
2. 250 ml conical flask
3. 50 ml measuring cylinder
4. 5 ml measuring cylinder
5. 250 ml separator funnel
6. Phenolphthalein
7. 10 ml liquid Feed
8. 10 ml liquid Bottom
9. 10 ml liquid Raffinate
10. 0.1M and 0.025M NaOH

Procedure
Experiment A

## 1. 50 mL of water, 50 mL of Trichloroehylene and 1 mL of Propionic acid was mixed in

a conical flask.
2. A stopper was placed and the conical flask was shaken well for 5 minute.
3. The mixture was then being transferred into the separator funnel. The mixture will
become 2 layers (the upper one was the organic solvent, while the bottom one was the
aqueous layer.)
4. 10 mL of bottom and 10 mL of upper sample was taken.
5. The sample was added with three drop of Phenolphthalein before titration. Then 10
mL of bottom and 10 mL of upper was titrated with 0.1 M NaOH.
6. The initial and final reading of titration was recorded
7. Step 1 to 6 was repeated using difference Propionic acid which is 3mL and 5mL

Experiment B

## 1. 10 litre of trichloroethylene was added with 100ml of propionic acid

2. The power was switch on, and C1 was set at flow rate 200. The water will be pump
from filled tank.
3. F2 was switch on, it will pump organic solvent. Leave the condition continues
minimum for 20 minutes.
4. Then, 50ml-100ml of 3 samples was collected (at the feed, V11 (raffinate tank), V1
(extract tank).
5. 10 ml of each samples were then being titrated against 0.1M and 0.025M NaOH
solution using 3 drop of Phenolphthalein as indicator
6. The initial and final reading of titration was recorded.

Reference
1. Lab manual HEAT & MASS TRANSFER LABORATORY (CHE 504)
2. https://www.thevespiary.org/rhodium/Rhodium/chemistry/extraction_theory.htm
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Appendices

Separator funnel