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Answers to End-of-chapter questions

1 Kinematics describing motion


1 a 120 2 = 4.0 km
60
b The cars direction of motion keeps changing.
Hence its velocity keeps changing. In the
course of one lap, its displacement is zero so
its average velocity is zero. Its average speed
remains constant.
c 1273 1300 m
2 a 1000 m
b 1000 m at an angle 53 W of N
c 16.7 m s1 at an angle 53 W of N
3 a
b
c
d
e

17.2 km
15 200 m at an angle 8 E of N
2000 s
8.6 m s1
7.6 m s1

4 2.6 m s1 at an angle 23 E of N

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2 Accelerated motion
1 100 m
2 Train slows to rest and covers a distance of
2500 m.
3 b 20.4 20 m; 56.4 56 m
c 4.08 4.1 s
4 a
b
c
d

800 m
1.25 m s2; 750 m
5 s (t = 25 s)
1000 m

5 a 2.8 m s1; 0.57 s


b 4.85 m s1; 2.77 m

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3 Dynamics explaining motion
1 a 6440 6400 N
b 656 660 kg
2 a 112 N
b 388 N
c 5.54 m s2
3 a At rst the only force is the weight but as its
speed increases viscous drag increases. When
viscous drag equals weight the acceleration is
zero and the speed is constant.
b Put rubber bands around the cylinder the
same vertical distance apart along the cylinder.
Time the ball between the bands. When
terminal velocity is reached the time taken
between successive bands will be constant.
4 a 6 104 m s1
b 2 103 m s1
c 2 103 m s1
5 a i The Earth, ii upwards, iii gravitational force
b i The Earth or the ground under the man,
ii downwards, iii contact force

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4 Forcesvectors and moments
1 a

4000 N
drag

4000 N

bbCorrect scale drawing giving a value of


6130 6100 N
2 a

contact force
friction

weight

b 5.03 N
c 5.03 N
d 13.8 N
3 a 0.50 N; these components cancel as there is
no resultant horizontal force.
b String 1: 0.87 N; string 2: 0.29 N
c 1.16 N
d
1.0 N
weight

0.58 N

1.16 N
4 28.3 28 N
5 9.83 9.8 N

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5 Work
Work, energy and power
1 a Loss of gravitational potential energy gain
in kinetic energy
b Kinetic energy thermal energy/heat (in the
brakes)
c Loss of gravitational potential energy gain
in kinetic energy
2 a i 1.39 103 1.4 kJ
ii 0
iii 0
b 86.9 87 W
3 Truck: 9 MJ
Dust particle: 14 MJ
The dust particle has greater kinetic energy
than the truck.
4 a 4.66 105 J 4.7 105 J
b 116.5 120 s
c 3.4 105 J
5 a Rate at which work is done; W
b Kinetic energy = 12 mass velocity2
c 7130 7.1 kW

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6 Momentum
1 The law of conservation of momentum applies
if the Earth is considered to rise as the ball falls.
The momentum of the Earth upwards equals the
momentum of the ball downwards. The weight
of the ball has an equal and upwards force on the
Earth due to Newtons third law.
2 a Change in momentum of ball is 12 kg m s1
away from the wall.
b No change in kinetic energy.
3 a
b
c
d

linear momentum = mass velocity


kg m s1
1.5 104 kg m s1
The objects move to the left with a combined
speed of 0.50 m s1.

4 a i In an elastic collision both momentum and


kinetic energy are conserved.
ii In an inelastic collision momentum is
conserved but not kinetic energy.
b 1.855 1.9 kg m s1
c When the table and Earth are also considered
then the initial momentum of the ball is equal
to the nal momentum of the ball added
to the momentum of the snooker table and
Earth, and so momentum is conserved.
5 a 26 400 26 000 kg m s1
b 1320 1300 N
c 240 m

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7 Matter
1 a The density of ice is roughly the same as the
density of water.
b The force required to break a solid, e.g. a
metal, is large.
2 a Many molecules of gas hit the tyre each
second. Each impact involves a change in
momentum of a molecule as it rebounds. This
change in momentum is caused by a contact
force on the molecule. There is an equal and
opposite force on the tyre wall. Many random
impacts per second on unit area cause a steady
force and pressure.
b With more molecules there is a greater rate of
change of momentum on the tyre walls.
3 a Average speed increases
b Force increases
c Decreases as molecules have to move
farther between collisions with the walls
and the piston
d Stays the same as the pressure is constant
4 a The smoke particles are hit by fast-moving,
but invisible, air molecules.
b Air molecules move fast and move at random.
5 a Use a liquid with a high density, e.g. mercury,
and have long tubes in the manometer.
b If the area of the tube increases then the
weight of liquid above any point increases
in proportion. As pressure = force/area,
increasing both the force and the area by
the same factor leaves pressure unchanged.

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8 Deforming solids
1 The graph should have a straight line from
the origin to the point where force = 5 N
and extension = 0.25 m. The y-axis should
be labelled F / N and the x-axis labelled
Extension / m. After the straight-line portion
the graph continues with a positive gradient
but the gradient decreases.
2 Diagram as series arrangement in Figure 8.7 on
page 121 of the Coursebook.
Total extension = 0.20 m
3 a
b
c
d

1.96 107 m2 2.0 107 m2


39.3 39 N
0.050 or 5.0%
4.0 109 Pa

4 A crisp biscuit is a brittle material. Being brittle


may be a disadvantage as it will break into many
small pieces. Lead is a ductile material. This is
an advantage as it can be hammered into place
on a roof.
5 a 1.67 1011 Pa 1.7 1011 Pa
b 4.0 103 J
c 3.0 103 J

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9 Electric elds
elds
1 a The foil is positively charged and experiences a
force in the same direction as the electric eld.
b The foil will become negatively charged
and will experience a force in the opposite
direction to the eld.
2 5000 N C1
3 160 V
4 a 8.0 cm
b 1.2 105 V m1
5 The electric eld strength is increased by a
factor of 6.
The eld is directly proportional to the p.d., so
doubling the p.d. doubles the eld; the eld is
inversely proportional to the plate separation,
so reducing the separation by 3 trebles the eld
strength.

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10
0 Electric current
current, potential difference and resistance
1 360 C
2 50 s
3 60 C
4 a 0.3 A
b 35
c 8.4 V
5 a 1440 C
b 8640 J
6 8.0 1015 J
7 Current taken by the hairdryer = 3.75 A
Fuse taken 5 A, nearest above the supplied
current.

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111 Kirchhoffs laws
1 a
b
c
d

W = 3.6 A to the right


X = 1.9 A downwards
Y = 2.1 A to the left
Z=0

2 X = 4.5 mA to the right


Y = 0.3 mA downwards
3 a
b
c
d

0.8 V
3.7 V
2.2 V
X = 9.0 V, Y = 9.0 V

4 a
b
c
d

8.2 mA
4.2 V
730
3.1 1018

5 a 1.5 A
b 2.0
c 4.5

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12
2 Resistance and resistivity
1 a i 8
ii 10
b A lament lamp
2 a Graph showing a current greater than zero at
0 oC, with a positive gradient; it may or may
not be linear.
b Use the graph as a calibration graph. Keeping
the voltage through the thermistor constant,
place the thermistor at the point where the
temperature is to be measured. Read the
current and convert to a temperature using the
calibration graph.
3 a In copper the conduction is by free/delocalised
electrons which are plentiful. In silicon the
conduction is by electrons which escape the
parent atoms due to thermal vibration.
b In a metallic conductor, such as copper, the
vibration of the ions increases their eective
cross-section to the migrating electrons. The
higher the temperature the more the vibration,
hence the greater the eective cross-section
and the more collisions there are between
electrons and the ions. This reduces the mean
drift velocity.
In semiconductors thermal energy gives
electrons sucient energy to escape from their
parent atoms. The greater the temperature the
greater the number of electrons which can
escape, so more charge carriers there are and
the lower the resistance.
4 a 2.4
b 18 m

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13
3 Practical circuits
1 a 0.75 V; there is work done inside the cell
against the internal resistance.
b E = V + Ir
1.5 = 0.75 + (2 r)
2.5r = 0.75 so r = 0.30
c i 1.875 1.88 W
ii Power for 0.5 : 1.76 W; power for 0.2 :
0.45 W. Both are less than 1.88 W.
2 a

switching
circuit

b Increase the resistance in the potential divider


circuit
3 a Light-dependent resistor. When the light
level increases the resistance of the LDR
decreases. The current through the variable
resistor increases, so the potential dierence
across it increases and the potential dierence
across the LDR falls. (Alternatively, if the
light level decreases the resistance of the LDR
increases, etc.)
b To adjust the range of light levels at which
the device operates.
or
To adjust the resistance of the circuit
so that too high a current does not
ow through the LDR.
4 a i The test cell is the wrong way round, so he
must reverse it.
ii At the balance point the ammeter reading
is zero.
b 0.933 V

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14
4 Waves
1 1200 s, 833 Hz
2 a They travel through a vacuum.
Their speed in vacuo is 3 108 m s1.
b Microwaves have a shorter wavelength than
radio waves (or higher frequency).
c i Between 108 and 1013 m
ii Between 1016 and 1021 Hz
3 a The vibrating vector vibrates in a single
direction only.
b Sound or other longitudinal wave. Cannot be
polarised because the direction of vibration is
parallel to the direction of travel of the wave.
c Goes from zero intensity to a maximum
after 90 rotation, back to zero after further
90, etc.
d By reection and by scattering.
4 a The microwaves from the transmitter are plane
polarised in the vertical plane, parallel to the
detector. When the detector is rotated through
90 the plane of polarisation is at right angles
to the detector, so no signal is detected.
b The reading will be a maximum again.
c Microwaves can be polarised, so must be
transverse waves.

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15
5 Superposition of waves
Displacement

1 a
0
Distance

Dashed line represents the resultant wave.


(Accept a diagram that shows a good attempt
to sum the two waves.)
b Wavelength is the same as that of the longer
wave.
2 a More rounded
b Even atter
3 Radio waves have a long enough wavelength,
up to 1 km, so can diract round the hills. TV
waves have very short wavelength (cm or mm),
so cannot diract round the hills.
4 Damita is correct; the sound from the speakers
will have many dierent frequencies and cannot
be coherent.
5 0.225 m 0.23 m
6 When the waves are in phase they add up to
give loud sound. They gradually go out of phase,
and when they are in antiphase the sound is at
its quietest. The waves gradually come back into
phase and become loud again.
7 First maximum at 19.1; second maximum
at 41.0

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16
6 Stationary waves
1 a, b

c There would be double the number of


loops (6).
2 a Resonance is when the frequency of one
source of vibration coincides with the natural
frequency of vibration of a body, causing the
body to vibrate with a large amplitude.
b 320 m s1

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177 Radioactivity
1 The plum-pudding model predicts there will be
no large angle scattering events; an -particle is
more massive than an electron and will not be
deviated by an electron. The actual experiment
shows a few -particles scattered through more
than 90. These -particles must have interacted
with an object more massive than an electron;
this object, containing most of the mass of the
atom, was called the nucleus.
2 The nucleus contains 38 protons and 52
neutrons.
3 When the nucleus ejects an -particle it emits two
protons and two neutrons, so the nucleon number
decreases by 4 (A 4) and the proton number
(atomic number) by 2 (Z 2). The nucleus then
ejects two -particles, formed by decay of two
neutrons to protons. The nucleon number (mass
number) remains at A 4 but the proton number
now increases by 2, returning to Z.
4

131
53

I 131
X +10e
54

5 Exactly the same graph is obtained, with exactly


the same amount of randomness.
Increase in temperature has no eect on the
nucleons inside the nucleus.

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18
8 Circular motion
1 a The angle subtended at the centre of a circle
by an arc equal in length to the radius.
(accept a radian =

length of arc
)
radius

b 0.42 rad s1

5 Friction between the tyres and the road provide


the centripetal force, oil reduces the frictional
force, so car carries on in a straight line.
6 a Weight acting vertically downwards, lift force
perpendicular to the aeroplane wings.
b 7.9

2 a At the position shown, the weight of


the truck.
b 6.3 m s1
3 a The centripetal force is the net force acting
on an object describing a circle it is directed
towards the centre of the circle.
b i speed = distance speed = 2 0.15
time
3.0
speed = 0.314 m s1
2
2
F = mv = 0.060 0.314
0.15
r
force = 0.0394 0.039 N
ii The centripetal force on the toy increases
with its speed.
The toy falls o because the frictional force
between the turntable and the toy is not
sucient to provide the centripetal force.
4 a change in potential energy = kinetic energy
mgh = 12 mv2 leading to v = 2 gh =
2 9.81 0.70
v = 3.71 m s1 3.7 m s1
2
2
b centripetal force = mv = 0.050 3.712
1.50
r
centripetal force = 0.458 N
T mg = 0.458
T = 0.458 + (0.050 9.81) = 0.95 N
c The weight is only equal to the tension when
the ball is at rest in the vertical position.
The ball is not in equilibrium in the vertical
position because it has an upward (centripetal)
acceleration.

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19
9 Gravitational elds
elds
1 1.1 109 N
2 a Arrow vertically downwards labelled weight
or Earths gravitational pull
Arrow to right labelled pull of mountain
b 3.5 106 N
c Earths force is 5.6 104 times as large.
3 a Arrows towards the Earth
b For a rise of 10 000 m the Earths eld maybe
considered to be uniform, but when moving
signicant distances away from the Earth
we must recognise that there is a signicant
reduction in the eld.
4 a 3.68 3.7 N kg1
b 338 340 N
5 4.6 108 J
6 a 4.6 107 m
b The proximity of the very large planet, Jupiter,
would disrupt the orbit.
7 a 2.99 104 3.0 104 m s1
b 5.96 6.0 103 m s2
c 5.96 6.0 103 N kg1

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20
0 Oscillations
1 a No, constant acceleration under gravity
towards ground but not on hitting ground
and when hit by player.
b Yes, the restoring force is directed towards a
point and is proportional to the displacement
from the point.
c No, it travels with constant acceleration
towards each plate and then suddenly reverses
its direction of acceleration on hitting the plate.
d Yes, the restoring force is directed towards a
point and is proportional to the displacement
from the point.
2 a x = 4 sin 2t for x in cm or x = 4 102 sin 2t
for x in m
b i v = 25.1 cm s1
ii v = 21.8 cm s1
3 a f = 1.19 Hz
b vmax = 120 mm s1
c k.e.max = 3.6 104 J as it passes through the
equilibrium position
d g.p.e.max = 3.6 104 J

6 a No, it is not moving with simple harmonic


motion because the displacement does not
show a sin or cos relationship with time.
or
Comment regarding gradient constant
for time showing constant velocity, then a
sudden change, not in keeping with a force
proportional to displacement.
b i, ii

Displacement

Time

Velocity

Time

Acceleration

Time

4 a i 12 cycle ii 180 iii rad


b i 1 cycle ii 90
4

c i 83 cycle ii 135
5 a 125 Hz, 8.0 ms
b

iii rad
2
iii 3 rad
4

Displacement / Velocity / Acceleration

10

12

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211 Thermal physics
1 a Kinetic energy remains constant, potential
energy increases, internal energy increases.
b Kinetic energy increases, potential energy
remains constant, internal energy increases.
2 Just before the stone hits the ground it has
kinetic energy, all the molecules are moving
together in the same direction. When it hits
the ground this unidirectional movement of
the molecules is converted into movement of
individual molecules in random directions.
The kinetic energy for movement in random
directions is internal energy and hence the
temperature rises.
3 The air is being compressed, so work is being
done on it. From the rst law of thermodynamics
the change in internal energy of a body is equal
to the energy supplied by heating + the energy
supplied by doing work. In this case there is no
energy supplied by heating but work is done in
compressing the air.

6 a 0
b 77.8 78 C
c i 206 V
ii That the variation between temperature
dierence and induced e.m.f. in the
thermocouple remains linear beyond 100 C.
7 a Liquid in glass easy to use and quick, great
precision is not required.
b Thermocouple the smallness of the
thermocouple means that the temperature can
be measured at specic points on the cylinder
head.
c Thermocouple or thermistor the operator
can be remote from the device, she does not
have to be inside the reactor vessel itself!
8 a 201 s. No energy is needed to heat the element
or the kettle.
b 273 270 g
No energy is lost to the surroundings; all the
vapour escapes from the kettle.

4 If two bodies are at the same temperature no


energy ows from one body to another. Therefore
if no energy ows from A to B and none ows
from A to C, but energy owed from C to B
it would mean that A and B were at the same
temperature, and A and C are at the same
temperature but C is hotter than B. Clearly a
nonsense! We can see how fundamental this law
is, and why it is called the zeroth law!
5

Substance
oxygen
hydrogen
lead
mercury

Melting point
C
K
223
50
259
14
327
600
39
234

Boiling point
C
K
183
90
253
20
1750
2023
357
630

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22
2 Ideal gases
1 a i
ii
iii
b i
ii
iii

6.02 1023
12.0 1023
6.02 1026
24.1 1023
24.1 1023
48.2 1023

2 a 5.08 mol 5.1 mol


b 3.06 1024 3.1 1024
c 3.27 1022 g 3.3 1022 g
3 a 3.4 105 Pa
b The temperature of the gas would increase,
causing the pressure to be higher than in a.
4 1.47 1.5 cm3; assumes that the temperature at
25 m depth is equal to the temperature at the
surface of the water.
5 a 7.89 mol 7.9 mol
b 347 g 350 g
6 22.4 dm3
7 8.31 106 Pa
8 a 1350 m s1
b This is considerably faster than air molecules at
the same pressure because the He atoms have
a much smaller mass, so as they have the same
energy they have greater speed.
9 a i k.e. at 27 C = 6.2 1021 J
ii k.e. at 243 C = 1.07 1020 J
b Ratio of speed at 27 C to speed at
243 C = 0.76 : 1

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23
3 Coulombs law
1

b
+2 kV

2 a 6.25 104 Vm1


b i 1.5 104 N
ii 3.6 104 m s2
3 a 5.4 104 V m1
b 1.35 104 V m1
4 a 6.7 108 C
b 6.7 105 V m1 or N C1
5 13.7 V

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24
4 Capacitance
1 4.2 103 C
2 15 V
3 400 F
4 0.034 J
5 0.0375 J
6 a 1.44 J
b 1.08 J
7 a
b
c
d
e

0.34 J
0.056 C
0.023 A
260 to 270
Current is dependent on p.d. which decreases
at a non-uniform rate.

9
33 F

300 F

150 F

67 F

10 a Q1 = 90 C, Q2 = 90 C, Q3 = 90 C,
Q4 = 90 C, Q5 = 90 C, Q6 = 90 C.
b 0.90 V across the 100 F capacitor
0.45 V across the 200 F capacitor
0.15 V across the 600 F capacitor

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25
5 Magnetic elds
elds and electromagnetism
1 a (The force F is given by F = BIl sin .)
The force is a maximum when the angle
between the wire and the magnetic eld is 90.
b The force is zero when the angle between the
wire and the magnetic eld is 0.
(The wire is parallel to the magnetic eld.)
2 a F = BIl I (force current)
Hence, the force increases by a factor of 3.0
to a value of 1.41 102 N.
b F = BIl B (force magnetic ux density)
Hence, the force is halved to a value
of 2.35 103 N.
c F = BIl l (force length of wire in
the eld)
Hence, the force is reduced to 40% of its
initial value to 1.88 103 N.

b The force on strip A is towards strip B and


the force on strip B is towards strip A, i.e. the
strips attract each other.
This is because strip A, on its own, produces
a magnetic eld vertically down the paper at
strip B by the right-hand rule. The left-hand
rule can then be applied to strip B which has a
current into the plane of the paper and a eld
down the paper and so the force is to the left,
towards strip A.
5 a The current is from Y to X. This is because Q
shows that the magnetic eld above the wire,
produced by the current, is from west to east.
The right-hand rule then shows the current is
upwards.
b P points towards the north-west.
c Q then points towards the north-west.

3 a F = BIl sin
3.8 103
B= F =
Il sin 1.2 0.03 sin 50
B = 0.138 T 0.14 T
b The direction is given by Flemings left-hand
rule. The wire experiences a force into the
plane of the paper.
4 a

Clockwise magnetic eld lines around and


close to each strip.
Elliptical lines further away from the strips,
eventually becoming elliptical around both
strips and, even farther away, the shape
becomes circular (not shown in the diagram).

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26
6 Charged particles
1 The force is at right angles to the velocity v and
does no work on the electron, since work
= force distance moved in the direction of the
force. As no work is done on the electron the
kinetic energy of the electron is constant, as is
its speed.
2

1 mv2
2

= e 1600

r = mv
Be
3200
e = 2V =
= 1.73 1011
m B 2 r 2 0.017 2 (8 103 )2
1.7 1011 C kg1
3 a ratio

mass of -particle
mass of -particle

27
= 4 1.67 1031 = 7333 7300
9.1110

b ratio

charge of -particle
charge of -particle

19
= 3.2 1019 = 2.0
1.6 10
force on -particle
c ratio
force on -particle
= ratio of charges = 2.0

mQ
d r = = 7333 = 3666 3700
r m Q
2
4 The force is always at right angles to the direction
of the magnetic eld and is in the same direction
(or the reverse) in an electric eld.
The force is proportional to the velocity of the
electron in a magnetic eld but does not depend
on the velocity of the electron in an electric eld.
QV
= 1.0 1013 N
d
13
3
Q = 1.0 10 12 10
1250
Q = 9.6 1019 C

5 F=

Number of electrons =

Q 9.6 1019
=
=6
e 1.6 1019

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277 Electromagnetic induction
1 The most obvious demonstration is to demonstrate
that the secondary coil is made of insulated wire, so
no current can ow from the core to the secondary
coil. Alternatively, if you arrange for a small gap
in the core, perhaps a piece of paper, then there
is still an induced e.m.f. even though paper is an
insulator. The e.m.f. will be reduced because the
amount of ux in the core is reduced if there is not
a complete circuit of iron. An electrical current is
induced because there is a change in the magnetic
ux linking the secondary coil. This changing ux is
caused by the changing current in the primary coil.
2 a = BA = 20 10 3 (5.0 10 2)2 = 5.0 10 5 Wb
5
b e.m.f. E = ( N ) = 100 5.0 10
t
0.1
2
= 5.0 10 V
3 e.m.f. E = ( N ) = Blv = 5.0 10 5 40 300
t
= 0.60 V
4 An eddy current is an induced current owing in
a mass of metal, such as the core of a transformer.
Eddy currents are used in electromagnetic
braking, for example, in trains where energy for
the eddy currents comes from the kinetic energy
of the trains and the eddy currents themselves
provide a braking force. Eddy currents are a
disadvantage in the cores of transformers where
energy is wasted in raising the internal energy of
the core.
5 When there is no ux linkage the ux is
changing at the greatest rate and so the induced
e.m.f. is a maximum. When the ux linkage is
a maximum it is, instantaneously, not changing
and thus there is no induced e.m.f.

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28
8 Alternating currents
1 a V = V0 sin t
b I = I0 sin t

where = 2f

c P = I0V0 sin2 t = I02 R sin2 t =


2 a 2A
b 25 Hz
c I/A

5 a period = 8 5 = 40 ms = 0.040 s
frequency = 1 = 25 Hz
T
b V0 = 3 0.5 = 1.5 V
Vrms = 1.5 = 1.06 1.1 V
2
V
c Irms = rms = 1.06 = 5.3 103 A
R
200
d <P> = IrmsVrms = 1.06 5.3 103
= 5.6 103 W

V0 2 sin 2 ( t)
R

2
Irms (1.4A)

1
0
0.04

t/s

0.08

I0
= 1.41 1.4 A
2
e 0.005 and 0.015 s in the rst cycle and 0.045
and 0.055 s in the second cycle.
d Irms =

3 a N = 1200 6.0 = 30
240
Vrms 2 6.02
= 6.0 W
=
R
6
ii Assuming the transformer is 100%
ecient, for primary coil IrmsVrms = 6.0
Irms = 6.0 = 0.025
240
I0 = 2 Irms = 0.025 2 = 0.0353 0.035 A

b i

P=

4 a i Magnetic ux is in phase with the current.


ii The induced e.m.f. and current are out of
phase by 90.

A
I
t

b The two graphs dier in phase by 90 since


the induced e.m.f. is the rate of change of
magnetic ux linkage.

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29
9 Quantum physics
1 2.7 1015 J
2 4 1023 J to 4 1025 J
3 a 1.63 1024 J
b 2.46 109 Hz
c 0.12 m
4 a 8.0 1013 J
b i 10 000 eV
ii 1.6 1015 J
c 3.8 102 eV
5 a 15 000 eV
b 2.4 1015 J
c 8.4 105 m s1
6 a 11.3 eV
b 1.8 1018 J
7 1.2 1015 Hz
8 a 8.7 1018 J
b 1.8 1015 Hz; this lies in the ultraviolet region.
c The drop in energy from n = 2 to n = 1 is
much more than that from n = 3 to n = 2,
so the frequency of the light emitted is
much higher.

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30
0 Nuclear physics
1 a 3.0 1010 J
b 1.8 1014 J
2 1.1 1017 kg
3 6.3 GW
4 7.47 1013 J, kinetic energy of the -particle,
electromagnetic radiation ( the -ray)
5 a 1.64 1028 kg
b 1.48 1011 J
c 1.23 1012 J
6 a 0.020 271 u or 3.365 1029 kg
b 3.028 1012 J
c 1.823 1012 J
7 a 1.33 102 s1
b 52.0 s
8 a 14 s
b 4.95 102 s1
9 a 1.4 1010 y1
b 5.7 107 y
10 a i Graph drawn using these gures, single
smooth line, points plotted as crosses,
suggested scale: activity (y-axis) 50 Bq per
cm, and time (x-axis) 2 minutes per cm.
ii There is a random element of radioactive
decay which becomes more apparent at
lower levels of activity.
b 4 minutes
c All count rates would be greater but the time
for the rate to halve would remain the same.

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311 Direct sensing
1 Exchange T and the 10 k resistor.
+9 V
10 k

15 k

9 V

15 k

0V

+9 V
15 k

+
10 k

15 k

9 V
0V

3 a Feedback is the process where a part of the


output of a device is passed back to the input.
b Unless an op-amp is saturated, the p.d.
between the two input terminals of an op-amp
is almost nothing. Since one of the terminals,
usually the (+) terminal, is connected to 0 V
(earth), the other terminal () is almost at
earth potential and called a virtual earth.
4 a gain =

5 a The feedback resistor Rf is half the resistance


of the input resistor Rin. This then means the
output voltage is half of the input voltage and
of opposite sign.
b The gain of a non-inverting amplier
= 1 + R1 . The smallest value of R1 is zero
R2
R2
so the smallest value of the gain is 1. When R1
is zero, all of the output voltage is fed back to
the negative input (). As long as the op-amp
is not saturated, the (+) and () terminals are
at the same potential and the gain is 1.0. If R1
is any bigger a smaller fraction of the output
voltage is fed back. Since this smaller fraction
is the input voltage, then the output voltage
must be larger in value than the input.
6

Voltage / V
0.8

output

0.2

Time / s

Rf 200
=
= 20
Rin
10

output voltage 8.0


=
gain
20
= 0.40 V
c Maximum input voltage for the op-amp to
still have the gain calculated in a:
V
V = s = 12 = 0.60 V
20 20

input

b input voltage =

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7 Non-inverting amplier of gain 10.

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32
2 Medical imaging
1 a Radiation which can cause ionisation of the
air; it is likely to have sucient energy to
cause cell mutation.
b X-ray shadow imaging, CAT scan
2 6.2 1011 m
3 There is a large dierence between the acoustic
impedance of air and skin, consequently a very
large percentage of the ultrasound is reected.
The gel is used to match the impedances.
4 0.19%
5 3.25 103 3.3 103 m
6 The angular frequency (or velocity) of the
precession of a protons magnetic axis around the
direction of the applied eld.
7 1 Large (relatively) exposure of patient to the
ionising radiation with consequent risks.
2 Expensive as sophisticated equipment
required.

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33
3 Communications systems
3 a attenuation = 10 lg P2
P1
= 10 lg 1.26 = 0.51 dB
1.12
b attenuation per unit length = 0.51
60
3
3
1
= 8.53 10 8.5 10 dB m

1 a

( )

The carrier wave has a higher frequency than


the signal. The amplitude of the signal is used
to change or modulate the amplitude of the
carrier wave. The height of the carrier wave is
made to fall and rise with the actual value of
the signal.
b

P
4 a Number of decibels = 10 lg 2
P1
P

2
100 = 10 lg
12
6.0
10

5 a
The carrier wave has a higher frequency than
the signal. The amplitude of the signal is used
to alter the frequency of the carrier wave. Thus
the frequency of the transmitted wave is the
frequency of the carrier wave but it varies at
any time according to the amplitude of the
signal at that time.
2 a i

An analogue signal is any continuous


signal where the quantity, for example, a
voltage, varies in time with the signal. In
principle any small change in the quantity
causes a small change in the signal, i.e. the
signal can have any value.
ii The bandwidth of a signal is the range of
frequencies present in a signal.
b The bandwidth of the microphone is less than
the range of audible frequencies, which is
approximately 20 Hz to 20 kHz. This means
that the microphone will not reproduce high
frequencies and, for example, music will not
be of high quality although the microphone
may be suitable for speech and for a telephone.

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b
c

P2 = 6.0 102 W (60 mW )


allowed attenuation of optic bre
= 100 30 = 70 dB
Length of bre = 70 = 233 230 km
0.3
A satellite in geostationary orbit around the
Earth takes 24 hours to make an orbit. It
travels above the equator travelling in the
same direction as the rotation of the Earth
and, from the Earth, appears to be above the
same point on the equator. The satellite is
at a height of 3.6 104 km above the Earths
surface.
Between 0.001 and 0.300 m
Advantage: satellite dishes do not need to be
moved to track the satellite.
Disadvantages: communication with some
polar regions is not possible. The satellite is
higher above the equator and so the signal
is delayed longer, is of lower intensity than
a polar satellite and the resolution when
viewing the Earth is less. The satellite is above
the same point on the equator and cannot see
other parts of the Earth.

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