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# Lecture 1 re-cap

## Thermodynamics & Fluid Mechanics 1

(MM1TF1) Lecture 2
Pressure distribution in a static fluid

## Pressure N/m2 or Pa (Pascal)

Atoms/molecules in random motion
Measure of energy
Pressure creates force perpendicular
to a surface

## Lecturer: Dr Cheah Siew Cheong

Room: BB76 (Block B)
Phone: +6(03) 8924 8115
E-mail: cheah.siew-cheong@nottingham.edu.my

force
area

dF
dA

Resultant
force

dF

## Perfect gas law:

pV

mRT or

RT

Lecture 1 re-cap

Compressibility
All fluids are compressible, especially gases.

Definition of a fluid

## But most liquids can be regarded as incompressible

in most cases (this will be assumed in this module).

## Liquid, gas or vapour

Shape defined by external
forces/containment
Molecules flow past each other
Shear produces unlimited
deformation

## The bulk modulus of elasticity (K) is a property which

is used to account for compressive effects:
p
For liquids K ~ 109 Pa
K
V
For gases K ~ pressure in the gas
V
(atmospheric pressure ~ 1 bar (105 Pa)

Density ( ) kg/m3
Matter assumed be continuous
(homogenous) and time-averaged

## In this module we do not consider situations where

compressibility is an issue.
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Surface tension

## Pressure variation in a static fluid

A fluid at rest has uniform pressure across a
horizontal plane
If not, the fluid would move to a new equilibrium
position

## In a liquid the molecules are

bound to each other by forces
of molecular attraction
(cohesion)
At a boundary between two

## Cohesion = staying together

Surface tension usually has the
symbol and has units N/m

direction
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## How does pressure vary with depth?

Consider a small element of fluid

## Fluids at Rest - Hydrostatics

Consider a small
element of stationary
fluid
As the fluid is at rest,
no shear forces apply
and pressure is
constant along any
horizontal plane

## No movement of the fluid

Pressure varies with the elevation
Hydrostatic pressure results in forces on
surfaces
Pressure variation also results in
buoyancy

Small
element x,
y, z, m,
Fz + Fz
p+ p
p
z+ z
z

Fz

Datum level
6

mg

## Resolve forces in the z-direction

Upwards force due to pressure: FZ
Downwards force due to
Fz p p x y
pressure Fz
Weight g m g
x y z

p x y

z
1

Fz + Fz

Resolving gives : Fz

Fz

Fz

g m

0
2

p x y

x y z

g z2 z1
g h2 h1

## The easiest way to

remember how
pressure varies in a
static liquid is:

Expands to
p x y

p2 p1

Fz
mg

p =

g h

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Liquid columns

## Simplify and integrate

pbottom

p x y p p x y g x y z 0
p x y
g x y z
Simplifies to :
p
g
z
dp
and in the limit
g

ptop

gh

## Pressure at bottom does not depend on the area of

the column or the shape of the vessel, it depends only
on the depth of the liquid.

dz

For an incompressible
fluid density is constant
and so this expression
can be integrated.

dp
2

g dz
2

dp
1

p2

g dz
1

p1

g z2

p = - g z

z1
10

12

## Absolute and gauge pressure

Absolute pressure is measured relative to zero
pressure (vacuum)

## Atmospheric pressure of 1.01 bar acts on the surface

of a lake 10 m deep. Find the pressure at the bottom
of the lake. Take = 1000 kg/m3.

## Gauge pressure = absolute pressure - atmospheric

pressure
often used in industry

## If absolute pressure = 3 bar and atmospheric

pressure = 1 bar then gauge pressure = 2 bar

10 m
Note that atmospheric pressure changes with altitude!
2
13

pbottom

Ptop

## Bourdon pressure gauge

Widely used in industry to
measure pressure
Works like a party blower!
Increased pressure causes
the it to uncurl and a gear
transmits this movement to
the pointer
Accuracy of a standard gauge
is usually about 2% of its
maximum pressure capacity.

gh

p2 1.01 105

15

1000 9.81 10
5

1.991 10 Pa 1.991bar
1
10 m
2

pressure
Tube crosssection

14

16

Manometers

U-tube manometer
can be used to
measure the pressure
of gas, vapour or
liquid
can measure higher B
pressures than the
z1
piezometer

## Fluid filled tubes

Depth of fluid indicates pressure
Used to measure an absolute, gauge or
differential pressure depending on
configuration.
Very simple devices
Still widely used although gradually being
replaced by pressure transducers

Fluid 1

pa

p1
C
z2
A

Key principle:
Pressure along any horizontal plane
through a continuous fluid is constant

Fluid 2

17

Piezometer

19

pA

U-tube manometer

pbottom

## Simplest type of manometer

used for measuring the pressure of liquids

pA

p1

g z1

z2

p1
p1

p2

p1, gauge

p1

pa

g z2

g z1

z2

g z1

pat

p1

g z2

z1

z2

Rearrange :
p1

z1

pat

p1,gauge

z1
18

g z2
2

gh
pat

Equate :
p1

ptop

Fluid 1

p A' pat
2 g z2

p2 = pa

p A'

z2

g z1
1

z1

If

p1,gauge

2
2

g z2

Fluid 2
20

pbottom

ptop

gh

pA

p1

g zC

zA

p1

pB

p2

g zC

p2

zB

pB

g zB

zA

pA'

p2

g zc

zb

g zB

p2

g zc

zb

g z

zA

p A'

zB

zA
datum

21

23

## Differential u-tube manometer

Used to find the
difference between two
unknown pressures
Can be used for any fluid
that does not react with
the manometer liquid
Same principle used in
analysis

p1

water

p1
p1

p2

zC

g zC

zA

g zC

p2

zB
g z

p2
zB

zC

zA
m

g zC

zB

zA

p A'

g z

g z

g z

g z
p1

p2

p A p A'
pbottom ptop

p1
gh

Manometer
fluid

p2

g z

zA
22

datum

zB
24