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Lecture 1 re-cap

Thermodynamics & Fluid Mechanics 1


(MM1TF1) Lecture 2
Pressure distribution in a static fluid

Pressure N/m2 or Pa (Pascal)


Atoms/molecules in random motion
Measure of energy
Pressure creates force perpendicular
to a surface

Lecturer: Dr Cheah Siew Cheong


Room: BB76 (Block B)
Phone: +6(03) 8924 8115
E-mail: cheah.siew-cheong@nottingham.edu.my

force
area

dF
dA

Resultant
force

Total force is sum of elemental forces

dF

Perfect gas law:

pV

mRT or

RT

Lecture 1 re-cap

Compressibility
All fluids are compressible, especially gases.

Definition of a fluid

But most liquids can be regarded as incompressible


in most cases (this will be assumed in this module).

Liquid, gas or vapour


Shape defined by external
forces/containment
Molecules flow past each other
Shear produces unlimited
deformation

The bulk modulus of elasticity (K) is a property which


is used to account for compressive effects:
p
For liquids K ~ 109 Pa
K
V
For gases K ~ pressure in the gas
V
(atmospheric pressure ~ 1 bar (105 Pa)

Density ( ) kg/m3
Matter assumed be continuous
(homogenous) and time-averaged

In this module we do not consider situations where


compressibility is an issue.
2

Surface tension

Pressure variation in a static fluid


A fluid at rest has uniform pressure across a
horizontal plane
If not, the fluid would move to a new equilibrium
position

In a liquid the molecules are


bound to each other by forces
of molecular attraction
(cohesion)
At a boundary between two

Cohesion = staying together


Surface tension usually has the
symbol and has units N/m

Pond skater insect

There is pressure gradient in the vertical


direction
5

How does pressure vary with depth?


Consider a small element of fluid

Fluids at Rest - Hydrostatics

Consider a small
element of stationary
fluid
As the fluid is at rest,
no shear forces apply
and pressure is
constant along any
horizontal plane

No movement of the fluid


Pressure varies with the elevation
Hydrostatic pressure results in forces on
surfaces
Pressure variation also results in
buoyancy

Small
element x,
y, z, m,
Fz + Fz
p+ p
p
z+ z
z

Fz

Datum level
6

mg

Variation of pressure with elevation

Resolve forces in the z-direction


Upwards force due to pressure: FZ
Downwards force due to
Fz p p x y
pressure Fz
Weight g m g
x y z

p x y

z
1

Fz + Fz

Resolving gives : Fz

Fz

Fz

g m

0
2

p x y

x y z

g z2 z1
g h2 h1

The easiest way to


remember how
pressure varies in a
static liquid is:

Expands to
p x y

p2 p1

Pressure at bottom = pressure at top + gh

Fz
mg

p =

g h

11

Liquid columns

Simplify and integrate

pbottom

p x y p p x y g x y z 0
p x y
g x y z
Simplifies to :
p
g
z
dp
and in the limit
g

ptop

gh

Pressure at bottom does not depend on the area of


the column or the shape of the vessel, it depends only
on the depth of the liquid.

dz

For an incompressible
fluid density is constant
and so this expression
can be integrated.

dp
2

g dz
2

dp
1

p2

g dz
1

p1

g z2

p = - g z

z1
10

12

Worked example (2)

Absolute and gauge pressure


Absolute pressure is measured relative to zero
pressure (vacuum)

Atmospheric pressure of 1.01 bar acts on the surface


of a lake 10 m deep. Find the pressure at the bottom
of the lake. Take = 1000 kg/m3.

Gauge pressure = absolute pressure - atmospheric


pressure
often used in industry

If absolute pressure = 3 bar and atmospheric


pressure = 1 bar then gauge pressure = 2 bar

10 m
Note that atmospheric pressure changes with altitude!
2
13

Worked example (2)


pbottom

Ptop

Bourdon pressure gauge


Widely used in industry to
measure pressure
Works like a party blower!
Increased pressure causes
the it to uncurl and a gear
transmits this movement to
the pointer
Accuracy of a standard gauge
is usually about 2% of its
maximum pressure capacity.

gh

p2 1.01 105

15

1000 9.81 10
5

1.991 10 Pa 1.991bar
1
10 m
2

pressure
Tube crosssection

14

16

Manometers

U-tube manometer
can be used to
measure the pressure
of gas, vapour or
liquid
can measure higher B
pressures than the
z1
piezometer

Fluid filled tubes


Depth of fluid indicates pressure
Used to measure an absolute, gauge or
differential pressure depending on
configuration.
Very simple devices
Still widely used although gradually being
replaced by pressure transducers

Fluid 1

pa

p1
C
z2
A

Key principle:
Pressure along any horizontal plane
through a continuous fluid is constant

Fluid 2

17

Piezometer

19

pA

U-tube manometer

pbottom

Left hand limb :

Simplest type of manometer


used for measuring the pressure of liquids

pA

p1

g z1

z2

p1
p1

p2

p1, gauge

p1

pa

g z2

g z1

z2

g z1

pat

p1

g z2

z1

z2

Rearrange :
p1

z1

pat

p1,gauge

z1
18

g z2
2

gh
pat

Equate :
p1

ptop

Fluid 1

Right hand limb :


p A' pat
2 g z2

p2 = pa

p A'

z2

g z1
1

z1

If

p1,gauge

2
2

g z2

Fluid 2
20

Spot the U-tube manometer!

Differential u-tube manometer


pbottom

ptop

gh

Left hand limb - water :


pA

p1

g zC

zA

p1

Right hand limb - water :


pB

p2

g zC

p2

zB

Right hand limb - manometer fluid :


pB

g zB

zA

pA'

p2

g zc

zb

g zB

p2

g zc

zb

g z

zA

p A'

zB

zA
datum

21

23

Differential u-tube manometer


Used to find the
difference between two
unknown pressures
Can be used for any fluid
that does not react with
the manometer liquid
Same principle used in
analysis

Differential u-tube manometer p A


p1

water

p1
p1

p2

zC

g zC

zA

g zC

p2

zB
g z

p2
zB

zC

zA
m

g zC

zB

zA

p A'

g z

g z

g z

g z
p1

p2

p A p A'
pbottom ptop

p1
gh

Manometer
fluid

p2

g z

zA
22

datum

zB
24

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