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You are on page 1of 13

ENVIRONMENT

EM305 ELEMENT OF HEAT TRANSFER

Tutor Name: Ms. Nor Fazilah

Student Name

Student ID

/EM313 6

Element of Heat Transfer EM305

Semester / Year

/EM313 6

Element of Heat Transfer EM305

EXPERIMENT TITLE:

1. Heat Conduction along homogeneous and composite bar.

2.

a) Natural Convection

b) Forced Convection

4. Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger

a) Parallel Flow

b) Counter Flow

c) Water Temperature Variation

d) Flow Rate Variation

5. Concentric Tube Heat Exchanger

/EM313 6

Element of Heat Transfer EM305

EXPERIMENT 1: HEAT CONDUCTION ALONG HOMOGENEOUS AND

COMPOSITE BAR

Objective

The goals of the experiment are to investigate Fourier's Law for the linear conduction of

heat along a homogeneous bar. Also to study the conduction of heat along a composite

bar and evaluate the overall heat transfer coefficient.

Procedures:

1. Insert a brass conductor (25mm diameter) section intermediate section into the linear

module and clamp together.

2. Turn on the water supply and ensure that water is flowing from the free end of the water

pipe to drain. This should be checked at intervals.

3. Turn the heater power control knob control panel to the fully anticlockwise position and

connect the sensors leads.

4. Switch on the power supply and main switch; the digital readouts will be illuminated.

5. Turn the heater power control to 40 Watts and allow sufficient time for a steady state

condition to be achieved before recording the temperature at all six sensor points and the

input power reading on the wattmeter (Q). This procedure can be repeated for other input

power between 0 to 40 watts. After each change, sufficient time must be allowed to

achieve steady state conditions.

6. Repeat the procedure for composite bar by change the test section with stainless steel

section or any other metals (without sensor) into the linear module and clamp together.

i)

ii)

Note:

When assembling the sample between the heater and the cooler take care to

match the shallow shoulders in the housings.

Ensure that the temperature measurement points are aligned along the

longitudinal axis of the unit.

Questions:

1. Plot the temperature profile as a function of distance for both homogeneous and

composite bar.

2. By using Fouriers Law, calculate the theoretical and actual thermal conductivity for both

cases.

3. Calculate the Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient, U based on the knowledge of k brass and

kstainless steel and distances x1, x2 and x3.

4. Calculate the error between the calculated result and the result obtained during the

experiment.

/EM313 6

Element of Heat Transfer EM305

RADIAL CONDUCTION (Open Ended Lab)

Objective:

The experiments target are to investigate the effect of a change in the cross-sectional area

on the temperature profile along a thermal conductor as well as to examine the

temperature profile and determine thermal conductivity of the material resulting from

radial conduction through the wall of a cylinder.

Procedure:

Conduct a test with different cross-sectional area of the conductor. Student may vary the heater

power between 0 20kWatt. Ensure that the conductor has a good surface contact with the test

section. As for the radial conduction, student encourages to vary the heater power between 0

40kWatt.

Questions:

1. Plot the temperature profile as function of distance for both linear and radial conduction.

2. Comment on the trend and slope of the graph.

3. Evaluate the thermal conductivity of the material (W/Km) (Radial Conduction).

/EM313 6

Element of Heat Transfer EM305

Fouriers Law states that:

Q kA

dT

dx

(1)

where,

Q = heat flow rate, [W]

W

Km

A = cross-sectional area of the conduction, [m2]

dT = changes of temperature between 2 points, [K]

dx = changes of displacement between 2 points, [m]

From continuity the heat flow rate (Q) is the same for each section of the

conductor. Also the thermal conductivity (k) is constant (assuming no change with

average temperature of the material).

Hence,

AH (dT ) AS (dT ) AC (dT )

(dx H )

(dx S )

(dx C )

(2)

i.e. the temperature gradient is inversely proportional to the cross-sectional area.

AC

AH

AC

XH

XS

XC

AC

/EM313 6

Element of Heat Transfer EM305

Temperature

Distribution

Ti

To

Ri

Ro

Ri

Ro

When the inner and outer surfaces of a thick wall cylinder are each at a uniform

temperature, heat rows radially through the cylinder wall. From continuity

considerations the radial heat flow through successive layers in the wall must be

constant if the flow is steady but since the area of successive layers increases with

radius, the temperature gradient must decrease with radius.

The amount of heat (Q), which is conducted across the cylinder wall per unit

time, is:

Q

2Lk (Ti To )

R

ln o

Ri

(3)

Where,

Q = heat flow rate, [W]

L = thickness of the material, [m]

/EM313 6

Element of Heat Transfer EM305

Ti = inner section temperature, [K]

To = outer section temperature, [K]

Ro = outer radius, [m]

Ri = inner radius, [m]

W

Km

Objectives:

The experiment aims to illustrate the transfer of heat by convection both naturally and by

forced. The parameters that effects the heat transfer are also explore and comparisons

between different types of solid surface are made.

PART A Natural Convection

Procedures:

1. Start up the equipment and remove the fan assembly from the top of the duct and place

the flat plate heat exchanger into the test duct.

2. Record the ambient air temperature (tA). Set the heater power control to 20 Watts

(clockwise). Allow sufficient time to achieve steady state conditions before noting the

heated plate temperature (tH).

3. Repeat this procedure at 40, 60 and 80 Watts.

4. Replace the flat plate heat exchanger insert by the finned heat exchanger and repeat steps

2 and 3.

PART B Forced Convection

Procedures:

Design an experiment of forced convection. Student may set the heater power to be 50

Watts and vary the fan speed between 0m/s to 1.5m/s. Replace the flat plate heat exchanger by

the finned heat exchanger to vary the experiment.

** Note the ambient air temperature (tA) before set the heater power. Steady state

temperatures are required before noting the heated plate temperature (tH).

Questions:

/EM313 6

Element of Heat Transfer EM305

1. Plot a graph of power against temperature (tH-tA). Explain on the graph plotted. (Natural

Convection)

2. Plot a graph of air velocity against temperature. ( tH tA). Explain on the graph plotted.

(Forced Convection)

(Given cross sectional area = 0.0144 m2 ) and

3. Calculate the air mass flow rate, m

Objective

The experiment aims to demonstrate the working principles of industrial heat exchangers.

Parallel and counter flow arrangements shall be used and the efficiency of the heat exchanger

will be investigated in each case.

PART A Parallel Flow Arrangement

1. Start the circulation of cold water.

2. Using the proper selector valve arrangement, set the flow of cold water parallel to the

flow of hot water.

3. Switch on the main switch and the pump.

4. Set the temperature controller to 60C.

*Note: You may initially reduce the cold water flow rate to speed up the temperature

increase.*

5. Set the hot water flow rate to 2 liters/min and the cold water flow rate to 1.5 liters/min.

6. Enable to temperature to stabilize before recording the temperatures from T1 to T4.

PART B Counter Flow Heat Exchanger

1. Set the temperature controller to 60C, and the hot water flow rate and cold water flow

rate to 2 liters/min and 1.5 liters/min respectively.

2. Upon reaching steady-state conditions, record the temperature readings from T1 to T4.

PART C Flow Rate Variation

1. Use a counter flow set up of the heat exchanger.

2. Set the temperature controller to 60C.

3. Set the cold water flow rate to 2 liters/min and hot water flow rate as in the table below.

PART D Water Temperature Variation

1. Use a counter flow set up of the heat exchanger.

2. Set both the cold and hot water flow rate to 2 liters/min.

/EM313 6

Element of Heat Transfer EM305

3. Vary the hot water temperatures to 65C, 60C, 55C and 50C.

4. Upon reaching steady state conditions at each temperature setting, record the

temperatures of T1 to T4.

*Please show sample calculation

/EM313 6

Element of Heat Transfer EM305

EXPERIMENT 5: CONCENTRIC TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER

Objective

The experiment aims to demonstrate the working principles of industrial heat exchangers.

Parallel and counter flow arrangements shall be used and the efficiency of the heat exchanger

will be investigated in each case.

Procedures

Design an experiment to find the best efficiency of parallel and counter flow arrangement of

concentric heat exchanger. Use previous experiment as guiding. Noted that, temperature readings

are from T1 to T6.

/EM313 6

Element of Heat Transfer EM305

SUMMARY OF THEORY:

Power emitted = QH H CpH (THin - THout)

Power absorbed = QC C CpC (TCin TCout)

Power lost

power absorbed

100%

power emitted

System efficiency, =

t1 t 2

t

ln 1

t 2

Log mean temperature difference, tm =

c ,

h

,t

t 1 =t

h ,t c ,out

t 1 =t

c ,

t 2=t h ,out t

power absorbed

t m area

Overall heat transfer coefficient, U =

where,

area = Surface area of contact

= p x ODinner tube x Length x tube count

= (3.142 x 0.0032 x 0.508) m x 55

= 0.281 m - Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger

where,

= p x ODinner pipe x Length

= (3.142 x 0.015 x 1.36) m

= 0.0641 m - Concentric Heat Exchanger

a) for the cold medium

/EM313 6

Element of Heat Transfer EM305

t Cout t Cin

100%

tHin t Cin

C =

b) for the hot medium

tHin t Hout

100%

tHin t Cin

H =

c) mean temperature efficiency

C H

2

mean =

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