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/EM313 6

Element of Heat Transfer EM305

FACULTY OF ENGINEERING, TECHNOLOGY & BUILT


ENVIRONMENT

SUBJECT CODE & NAME:


EM305 ELEMENT OF HEAT TRANSFER

Lecturer Name: Mr. Mohamed Al-Gailani


Tutor Name: Ms. Nor Fazilah

Student Name

Student ID

/EM313 6
Element of Heat Transfer EM305

Semester / Year

: May - August 2016

/EM313 6
Element of Heat Transfer EM305
EXPERIMENT TITLE:
1. Heat Conduction along homogeneous and composite bar.
2.

Effect of a Change in Cross-sectional Area and Radial Conduction.

3. Free and Forced Heat Convection


a) Natural Convection
b) Forced Convection
4. Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger
a) Parallel Flow
b) Counter Flow
c) Water Temperature Variation
d) Flow Rate Variation
5. Concentric Tube Heat Exchanger

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Element of Heat Transfer EM305
EXPERIMENT 1: HEAT CONDUCTION ALONG HOMOGENEOUS AND
COMPOSITE BAR
Objective
The goals of the experiment are to investigate Fourier's Law for the linear conduction of
heat along a homogeneous bar. Also to study the conduction of heat along a composite
bar and evaluate the overall heat transfer coefficient.

Procedures:
1. Insert a brass conductor (25mm diameter) section intermediate section into the linear
module and clamp together.
2. Turn on the water supply and ensure that water is flowing from the free end of the water
pipe to drain. This should be checked at intervals.
3. Turn the heater power control knob control panel to the fully anticlockwise position and
connect the sensors leads.
4. Switch on the power supply and main switch; the digital readouts will be illuminated.
5. Turn the heater power control to 40 Watts and allow sufficient time for a steady state
condition to be achieved before recording the temperature at all six sensor points and the
input power reading on the wattmeter (Q). This procedure can be repeated for other input
power between 0 to 40 watts. After each change, sufficient time must be allowed to
achieve steady state conditions.
6. Repeat the procedure for composite bar by change the test section with stainless steel
section or any other metals (without sensor) into the linear module and clamp together.
i)
ii)

Note:
When assembling the sample between the heater and the cooler take care to
match the shallow shoulders in the housings.
Ensure that the temperature measurement points are aligned along the
longitudinal axis of the unit.

Questions:
1. Plot the temperature profile as a function of distance for both homogeneous and
composite bar.
2. By using Fouriers Law, calculate the theoretical and actual thermal conductivity for both
cases.
3. Calculate the Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient, U based on the knowledge of k brass and
kstainless steel and distances x1, x2 and x3.
4. Calculate the error between the calculated result and the result obtained during the
experiment.

/EM313 6
Element of Heat Transfer EM305

EXPERIMENT 2: EFFECT OF A CHANGE IN CROSS-SECTIONAL AREA AND


RADIAL CONDUCTION (Open Ended Lab)
Objective:
The experiments target are to investigate the effect of a change in the cross-sectional area
on the temperature profile along a thermal conductor as well as to examine the
temperature profile and determine thermal conductivity of the material resulting from
radial conduction through the wall of a cylinder.
Procedure:
Conduct a test with different cross-sectional area of the conductor. Student may vary the heater
power between 0 20kWatt. Ensure that the conductor has a good surface contact with the test
section. As for the radial conduction, student encourages to vary the heater power between 0
40kWatt.
Questions:
1. Plot the temperature profile as function of distance for both linear and radial conduction.
2. Comment on the trend and slope of the graph.
3. Evaluate the thermal conductivity of the material (W/Km) (Radial Conduction).

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Element of Heat Transfer EM305

Linear Conduction Heat Transfer


Fouriers Law states that:

Q kA

dT
dx

(1)

where,
Q = heat flow rate, [W]
W
Km

k = thermal conductivity of the material,


A = cross-sectional area of the conduction, [m2]
dT = changes of temperature between 2 points, [K]
dx = changes of displacement between 2 points, [m]
From continuity the heat flow rate (Q) is the same for each section of the
conductor. Also the thermal conductivity (k) is constant (assuming no change with
average temperature of the material).
Hence,
AH (dT ) AS (dT ) AC (dT )

(dx H )
(dx S )
(dx C )
(2)
i.e. the temperature gradient is inversely proportional to the cross-sectional area.

AC
AH

AC

XH

XS

XC

AC

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Element of Heat Transfer EM305

Figure 1: Temperature distribution with various cross-sectional areas

Radial Conduction Heat Transfer (Cylindrical)

Temperature
Distribution

Ti
To
Ri

Ro

Ri

Ro

Figure 2: Radial temperature distribution


When the inner and outer surfaces of a thick wall cylinder are each at a uniform
temperature, heat rows radially through the cylinder wall. From continuity
considerations the radial heat flow through successive layers in the wall must be
constant if the flow is steady but since the area of successive layers increases with
radius, the temperature gradient must decrease with radius.
The amount of heat (Q), which is conducted across the cylinder wall per unit
time, is:
Q

2Lk (Ti To )
R
ln o
Ri
(3)

Where,
Q = heat flow rate, [W]
L = thickness of the material, [m]

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Element of Heat Transfer EM305

k = thermal conductivity of the material,


Ti = inner section temperature, [K]
To = outer section temperature, [K]
Ro = outer radius, [m]
Ri = inner radius, [m]

W
Km

EXPERIMENT 3: FREE AND FORCED HEAT CONVECTION


Objectives:
The experiment aims to illustrate the transfer of heat by convection both naturally and by
forced. The parameters that effects the heat transfer are also explore and comparisons
between different types of solid surface are made.
PART A Natural Convection
Procedures:
1. Start up the equipment and remove the fan assembly from the top of the duct and place
the flat plate heat exchanger into the test duct.
2. Record the ambient air temperature (tA). Set the heater power control to 20 Watts
(clockwise). Allow sufficient time to achieve steady state conditions before noting the
heated plate temperature (tH).
3. Repeat this procedure at 40, 60 and 80 Watts.
4. Replace the flat plate heat exchanger insert by the finned heat exchanger and repeat steps
2 and 3.
PART B Forced Convection
Procedures:
Design an experiment of forced convection. Student may set the heater power to be 50
Watts and vary the fan speed between 0m/s to 1.5m/s. Replace the flat plate heat exchanger by
the finned heat exchanger to vary the experiment.
** Note the ambient air temperature (tA) before set the heater power. Steady state
temperatures are required before noting the heated plate temperature (tH).
Questions:

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Element of Heat Transfer EM305
1. Plot a graph of power against temperature (tH-tA). Explain on the graph plotted. (Natural
Convection)
2. Plot a graph of air velocity against temperature. ( tH tA). Explain on the graph plotted.
(Forced Convection)
(Given cross sectional area = 0.0144 m2 ) and
3. Calculate the air mass flow rate, m

the amount of heat transfer, Q

EXPERIMENT 4: SHELL AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER


Objective
The experiment aims to demonstrate the working principles of industrial heat exchangers.
Parallel and counter flow arrangements shall be used and the efficiency of the heat exchanger
will be investigated in each case.
PART A Parallel Flow Arrangement
1. Start the circulation of cold water.
2. Using the proper selector valve arrangement, set the flow of cold water parallel to the
flow of hot water.
3. Switch on the main switch and the pump.
4. Set the temperature controller to 60C.
*Note: You may initially reduce the cold water flow rate to speed up the temperature
increase.*
5. Set the hot water flow rate to 2 liters/min and the cold water flow rate to 1.5 liters/min.
6. Enable to temperature to stabilize before recording the temperatures from T1 to T4.
PART B Counter Flow Heat Exchanger
1. Set the temperature controller to 60C, and the hot water flow rate and cold water flow
rate to 2 liters/min and 1.5 liters/min respectively.
2. Upon reaching steady-state conditions, record the temperature readings from T1 to T4.
PART C Flow Rate Variation
1. Use a counter flow set up of the heat exchanger.
2. Set the temperature controller to 60C.
3. Set the cold water flow rate to 2 liters/min and hot water flow rate as in the table below.
PART D Water Temperature Variation
1. Use a counter flow set up of the heat exchanger.
2. Set both the cold and hot water flow rate to 2 liters/min.

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Element of Heat Transfer EM305
3. Vary the hot water temperatures to 65C, 60C, 55C and 50C.
4. Upon reaching steady state conditions at each temperature setting, record the
temperatures of T1 to T4.
*Please show sample calculation

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Element of Heat Transfer EM305
EXPERIMENT 5: CONCENTRIC TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER
Objective
The experiment aims to demonstrate the working principles of industrial heat exchangers.
Parallel and counter flow arrangements shall be used and the efficiency of the heat exchanger
will be investigated in each case.
Procedures
Design an experiment to find the best efficiency of parallel and counter flow arrangement of
concentric heat exchanger. Use previous experiment as guiding. Noted that, temperature readings
are from T1 to T6.

*Please show sample calculation

/EM313 6
Element of Heat Transfer EM305
SUMMARY OF THEORY:
Power emitted = QH H CpH (THin - THout)
Power absorbed = QC C CpC (TCin TCout)
Power lost

= power emitted - power absorbed

power absorbed
100%
power emitted
System efficiency, =

t1 t 2
t
ln 1
t 2
Log mean temperature difference, tm =

c ,
h
,t

For parallel flow :


t 1 =t

For counter flow :

h ,t c ,out
t 1 =t

t 2=t h ,out t c , out


c ,
t 2=t h ,out t

power absorbed
t m area
Overall heat transfer coefficient, U =
where,
area = Surface area of contact
= p x ODinner tube x Length x tube count
= (3.142 x 0.0032 x 0.508) m x 55
= 0.281 m - Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger
where,

area = Surface area of contact


= p x ODinner pipe x Length
= (3.142 x 0.015 x 1.36) m
= 0.0641 m - Concentric Heat Exchanger

Temperature efficiencies of the heat exchanger are:


a) for the cold medium

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Element of Heat Transfer EM305

t Cout t Cin
100%
tHin t Cin
C =
b) for the hot medium

tHin t Hout
100%
tHin t Cin
H =
c) mean temperature efficiency

C H
2

mean =