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Marvel Studios

Marvel Studios, LLC[1] originally known as Marvel

Films from 1993 to 1996, is an American motion picture
studio based at The Walt Disney Studios in Burbank, California. Since 2015, the studio is a subsidiary of The Walt
Disney Studios, itself a wholly owned division of The
Walt Disney Company, with lm producer Kevin Feige
serving as President.[3]

1970s, and rights reverted to Marvel without a lm having

been produced within the allotted timeframe. From 1986
to 1996, most of Marvels major characters had been optioned, including the Fantastic Four, X-Men, Daredevil,
Hulk, Silver Surfer, and Iron Man.[6] A Howard the
Duck lm made it to the screen in 1986, but was a boxoce op. New World Entertainment purchased MEG in
November 1986[7] and moved to produce lms based on
the Marvel characters. It released The Punisher (1989)
before MEG was sold to Ronald Perelman's Andrews
Group. Two other lms were produced: Captain America (1990) released in the United Kingdom on screens
and direct to video in the United States, and The Fantastic Four (1994), not intended for release. Marvels rival DC Comics, on the other hand, had success licensing
its properties Superman and Batman into successful lm

Marvel Studios subsidiaries include Marvel Music, Marvel Film Productions LLC, MVL Development LLC,
MVL Productions LLC, MVL Film Finance LLC, MVL
Rights, LLC, Iron Works Productions LLC, Incredible
Production and Asgard Productions LLC. The studio has
been involved in three Marvel-character lm franchises
to have exceeded one billion dollars in North American
revenue: the X-Men, Spider-Man, and Marvel Cinematic
Universe multi-lm franchises, with X-Men and SpiderMan licensed out to 20th Century Fox and Sony Pictures, respectively. Marvel Studios lms are distributed
by Walt Disney Studios Motion Pictures; Paramount Pictures from 2008 to 2011; Universal Pictures for 2008s 2
The Incredible Hulk; and Columbia Pictures for SpiderMan: Homecoming scheduled for release on July 7,
Marvel Studios has released 13 lms since 2008 within
the Marvel Cinematic Universe, from Iron Man (2008)
to Captain America: Civil War (2016). These lms all
share continuity with each other.


Marvel Films

Following Marvel Entertainment Group's (MEG) ToyBiz

deal in 1993, Avi Arad of ToyBiz was named President
and CEO of Marvel Films division and of New World
Family Filmworks, Inc., a New World Entertainment subsidiary. New World was MEGs former parent corporation and later a fellow subsidiary of the Andrews Group.[9]
Marvel Productions became New World Animation by
1993 as Marvel would start up Marvel Films including Marvel Films Animation.[9][10][11][12] Marvel Films
Animation shared Tom Tataranowicz with New World
Animation as head of development and production.[13]
New World Animation (The Incredible Hulk), Saban (XMen), and Marvel Films Animation (Spider-Man) each
produced a Marvel series for television for the 1996
1997 season.[14] It was Marvel Films Animations only
production.[11][12] By the end of 1993, Arad and 20th
Century Fox struck a deal to make a lm based on the

Timely era

During what is known as Marvels Timely era, Captain

America was licensed out to Republic Pictures for a serial
just for the free advertising. Timely failed to provide
any drawing of Captain America with his shield or any
further background, and Republic created a whole new
background for the character, and portrayed the character using a gun.[5]



New World Animation and Marvel Films Animation were

Marvel Entertainment Groups initia- sold along with the rest of New World by Andrews Group
to News Corporation/Fox as announced in August 1996.
As part of the deal, Marvel licensed the rights to Captain
America, Daredevil and Silver Surfer to be on Fox Kids
Network and produced by Saban. New World Animation
continued producing a second season of The Incredible
Hulk for UPN.[14][16]

In the late 1970s up to the early 1990s, Marvel Entertainment Group (MEG) sold options to studios to produce
lms based on Marvel Comics characters. Spider-Man,
one of Marvels superheroes, was optioned in the late


Marvel Studios


grossed $157,299,717 in the United States and Canada

and $296,250,053 worldwide.[27] The Marvel lms Blade
In August 1996, Marvel created Marvel Studios, an incor- and X-Men demonstrated that widely popular lms could
poration of Marvel Films, due to the sale of New World be made out of comic book characters not familiar to the
Communications Group, Inc., Marvels fellow Andrews general public.[28]
Group subsidiary in lm and television stations, to News
Leading up to X-Men's release, Marvel Studios negotiCorporation/Fox. Filing with the U.S. Securities and Exated a deal with then-functional Artisan Entertainment,
change Commission to raise money to nance the new
successful with the low-budget The Blair Witch Project,
corporation, Marvel, Isaac Perlmutters Zib, Inc. and Avi
for a co-production joint venture that included rights to
Arad sold Toy Biz stocks, which Marvel had started and
15 Marvel characters including Captain America, Thor,
took public in February 1995.[6][17] Toy Biz led an oerBlack Panther, Iron Fist, and Deadpool. Artisan would
ing of 7.5 million shares with a closing price of $20.125 at
nance and distribute while Marvel would developing lithe time, making the oering worth approximately $150
censing and merchandising tie-ins. The resulting promillion. Toy Biz sought to sell 1 million shares, and Marduction library, which would also include TV series,
vel sought to sell 2.5 million shares.[18]
direct-to-video lms and internet projects, would be coJerry Calabrese, the president of Marvel Entertainment owned.[29] With the deal at the time, 24 Marvel properties
Group, and Avi Arad, head of Marvel Films and a di- were then in various stages of development.
rector of Toy Biz, were assigned tandem control of MarBrian Cunningham, editor of Wizard comic book magvel Studios. Under Calabrese and Arad, Marvel sought
azine, believed that Avi Arad was successful in organizto control pre-production by commissioning scripts, hiring strategic alliances and exercising scal responsibility
ing directors, and casting characters, providing the packin multimedia expansion. Cunningham said of Arads
age to a major studio partner for lming and distribuleadership of the studio following its parent companys
tion. Arad said of the goal for control, When you
near-bankruptcy, The fact the X-Men is primed to be
get into business with a big studio, they are developing
the biggest movie of the summer speaks volumes about
a hundred or 500 projects; you get totally lost. That
the turnaround for Marvel. From my observation, hes foisn't working for us. We're just not going to do it anycused on a lot more in diversifying Marvel, doing things
more. Period.[6] Marvel Studios arranged a seven-year
that proliferate Marvel characters in the mainstream.
development deal with 20th Century Fox to cover marArad sought to protect Marvels image by serving as exkets in the United States and internationally.[19] In the
ecutive producer in all Marvel lm productions and befollowing December, Marvel Entertainment Group went
ing responsible for crossover marketing between Marvel
through a reorganization plan, including Marvel Studios
properties. Arad had properties set up at dierent studios
as part of its strategic investment.[20] By 1997, Marto create momentum so one studio would not cannibalvel Studios was actively pursuing various lm producize eorts with one property for the sake of another.[30]
tions based on Marvel characters, including the eventual
By 2001, the success of Marvel Entertainments Ultimate
lms X-Men (2000), Daredevil (2003), Elektra (2005)
Marvel comics created leverage in Hollywood for Marvel
and Fantastic Four (2005). Unproduced projects included
Studios, pushing more properties into development.[31]
Prince Namor, based on the character Namor and to be
directed by Philip Kaufman, and Mort the Dead Teenager, The next lm licensed from Marvel Studios was Spiderbased on the comic book of the same name and written Man by Columbia Pictures, directed by Sam Raimi
by John Payson and Mort creator Larry Hama.[21] Mar- and starring Tobey Maguire as Spider-Man. The lm
vel was developing a Captain America animated series was released on May 3, 2002, grossing $403,706,375
with Saban Entertainment for Fox Kids Network to pre- in the United States and Canada and $821,708,551
The early success of Spider-Man led the
miere in fall 1998. However, due to the bankruptcy the worldwide.
issue a seven-gure advance for a sequel.
series was canceled after only character designs and a
the deal, Movies make sequels. Thereone-minute promotional reel were made.
fore, its a big economic luxury to know that a movies
going to get a second and third. This is a business of
2.3 Licensing lms
precedence.[33] According to a Lehman Brothers analysis, the Studios made only $62 million for the rst 2
The rst lm packaged and licensed by Marvel Studios Spider-Man movies.[26] Marvel was making more from
was Blade, based on the vampire hunter Blade. The lm half the consumer product licensing fees while making
was directed by Stephen Norrington and starred Wesley relatively little from the movie, but was enough for Marvel
Snipes as Blade. It was released on August 21, 1998, to regain its nancial footings.[34] In October 2002, Margrossing $70,087,718 in the United States and Canada vel Studios announced deals for Sub-Mariner and Prime
and $131,183,530 worldwide.[25] In 1999, Marvel li- with Universal Studios.[35]
censed Spider-Man to Sony.[26]
In producing Marvel lms in the 2000s, Avi Arad sought
Blade was followed by X-Men, which was directed by to capture the superheroes internal conicts. According
Bryan Singer and was released on July 14, 2000. X-Men


Disney conglomerate subsidiary (2009-present)

to The New York Times, Mr. Arads great accomplishment and it is one, given the diculties in transferring
any kind of printed material to the big screen is conveying what makes those heroes tick as characters... He
works with the lmmakers to ensure that the heroes are
conicted, the villains motivated, the outcome shaded.
In contrast to the original storylines of DC Comics Superman and Batman lms, Marvel lms were more directly inspired by their comics, copying from them set
pieces, scenes, plots, and dialogue.[28]

Benz dealership in Beverly Hills. Maisel was also named

vice-chairman of the studio, but reported to Isaac Perlmutter.[34] In October 2005, Michael Helfant joined the
studio as president and chief operating ocer.[42]

Partnering with Lions Gate Entertainment in 2004,

Marvel Studios plan to enter the direct-to-DVD market with eight animated lms with Lionsgate handling
distribution.[36][37] The line was a proof of concept for
Masiels later plan.[34] Eric Rollman was hired by Marvel
as Executive Vice President, Home Entertainment & TV
Production for Marvel Studios to oversee the deal with

ident of Production as Iron Man began lming.[46]

In November 2005, Marvel gained the lm rights to Iron

Man from New Line Cinema. Marvel revealed that it had
regained the lm rights to The Incredible Hulk in February 2006.[43] In April 2006, Thor was announced to be
a Marvel Studios production.[44] Lions Gate Entertainment subsequently dropped the Black Widow motion picIn 2003, David Maisel approached Arad about earning ture project it had since 2004 giving the rights back to
Marvel more for their lms. Maisel, Arad and Perlmut- Marvel.[45]
ter met leading to Maisel being hired in as President and Masiel and Arad fought over the rate of movie releases
COO. The studios oce, then on Santa Monica Boule- and strength of characters in the movie line up. Perlmutvard, were small with a dozen or so sta members. Kevin ter supported Masiel and thus, in May 2006, Arad quit as
Feige was a junior executive generating script notes to the studio chair and CEO.[39] In March 2007, David Maisel
licensed studios.[34]
was named Chairman and Kevin Feige was named PresIn January 2008, Marvel Animation was incorporated
to direct Marvels eorts in animation and home entertainment markets including then animation eorts with
Lionsgate and Nickelodeon.[38] The company in March
agreed to a ve picture basic cable distribution with FX
for Iron Man and The Incredible Hulk movies with the
additional movies to be named later.[47] In November,
Marvel Studios signed a lease with Raleigh Studios to
host its headquarters and production oces and lm the
2.4 Production
next four movies on the studios slate, including Iron Man
2 and Thor, at their Manhattan Beach facilities.[48] By
In 2004, David Maisel was hired as chief operating ocer
September 2008, Paramount added to its domestic lm
of Marvel Studios as he had a plan for the studio to selfdistribution contract 5 additional Marvel movies foreign
nance movies.[39] Marvel entered into a non-recourse distribution.[49]
nancing structure with Merrill Lynch that was collateralized by certain movie rights to a total of 10 charac- In 2009, Marvel attempted to hire a team of writers to
ters from Marvels vast vault. Marvel got $525 million to help come up with creative ways to launch its lessermake a maximum of 10 movies based on the companys known properties, such as Black Panther, Cable, Iron
properties over eight years, according to the parameters Fist, Nighthawk, and Vision.[50] In early 2009, Sony reof the original deal. Those characters were: Ant-Man, turned all Spider-Man television rights (including live
The Avengers, Black Panther, Captain America, Cloak action) in exchange for an adjustment to the movie
& Dagger, Doctor Strange, Hawkeye, Nick Fury, Power rights.[51]
Pack and Shang-Chi.[40][41] Ambac insured the movies
would succeed or they would pay the interest payment on
the debt and get the movie rights collateral.[26]
2.5 Disney conglomerate subsidiary (2009Initially Marvel Studios was in talks with Universal Studios as a possible distributor. Negotiations dragged on,
so the studio began talks with Paramount Pictures. In
second quarter 2005, Merrill attempt to back out of full
nancing of each movie demanding that Marvel nance
1/3 of the budget. Marvel took back in ve foreign territories rights from Paramount to pre-sell to meet that
demand.[34] On September 6, 2005, Marvel announced
the Merrill Lynch nancing deal with Paramount on as
marketer and distributor. Also, the parent company
changed its name from Marvel Enterprise, Inc. to Marvel Entertainment, Inc. to reect the change to selfproduction.[40]

On December 31, 2009, The Walt Disney Company purchased Marvel Entertainment for $4 billion. Both Marvel and Disney stated that the merger would not aect
any preexisting deals with other lm studios for the time
being,[52] although Disney said they would distribute future Marvel projects with their own studios once the deals

In April 2010, rumors circulated that Marvel was looking to create $2040 million movies based on properties such as Doctor Strange, Ka-Zar, Luke Cage, Dazzler,
and Power Pack.[54] Kevin Feige responded by saying,
The studio moved to a new location over a Mercedes- while budgets are generally never discussed early in de-


velopment, Marvel was considering lms for all charac- into future Spider-Man lms.[68][69]
ters mentioned in the rumor, except Dazzler, whose rights In August 2015, Marvel Studios was integrated into The
were at Fox.[55]
Walt Disney Studios, with Feige reporting directly to Walt
In June 2010, Marvel Entertainment set up a television Disney Studios chairman Alan Horn instead of Marvel
division within Marvel Studios, headed up by Jeph Loeb Entertainment CEO Isaac Perlmutter. Marvel Television
as Executive Vice President,[56] under which Marvel An- and subsidiary company Marvel Animation were left unimation would be operated.[57] On October 18, Disney der Marvel Entertainment and Perlmutters control.[3][70]
bought the distribution rights for Marvels The Avengers
and Iron Man 3 from Paramount Pictures[58] with
Paramounts logo remaining on the lms.[59]
On August 22, 2011, at Disneys behest, the Studio dismissed most of its marketing department: Dana Precious, EVP of Worldwide Marketing; Jerey Stewart,
VP of Worldwide Marketing and Jodi Miller, Manager of Worldwide Marketing. Disney markets Marvels lms.[60] In April 2012, The Walt Disney Company China, Marvel Studios and DMG Entertainment
announced an agreement to co-produce Iron Man 3 in
China. DMG partly nanced, produced in China with
Marvel, and handled co-production matters. DMG also
distributed the lm in China in tandem with Disney.[61]
Upon the release of The Amazing Spider-Man in 2012,
Disney and Sony negotiated a two-way agreement. Disney would receive full merchandising ancillary rights to
future Spider-Man lms in exchange for Sony purchasing
out Marvels lm participation rights.[62]

3 Character rights

Marvel had licensed out the lm rights to many of their

characters to other studios in the 1990s, starting with
the X-Men to 20th Century Fox in 1993.[15] One of
the rst characters to see the rights returned to Marvel was Black Panther, which were returned to Marvel
in 2005, having previously been at Columbia and Artisan Entertainment.[71] In November 2005, Marvel gained
the lm rights to Iron Man from New Line Cinema.[43]
In April 2006, Thors rights reverted to Marvel from
Sony,[44] and in June, the Black Widow rights reverted
to Marvel from Lions Gate Entertainment.[45] That same
year, the lm rights to Hulk reverted to Marvel Studios
from Universal Studios, after the latter failed to enter production on a sequel to Ang Lee's 2003 Hulk lm. Universal, however, retained the right of rst refusal to distribute
future Hulk lms.[72]

In April 2013, Marvel Studios moved its production facilities from Manhattan Beach to The Walt Disney Studios
After being acquired by Disney, Marvel began to reclaim
in Burbank, California.[63]
more of their character rights, starting with Blade from
New Line Cinema.[73] In August 2012, it was reported
that 20th Century Fox was willing to allow the lm rights
to the superhero Daredevil and his related characters revert to Marvel and Disney, a contracted stipulation that
required Fox to begin production on a new Daredevil
lm by late 2012. Fox had approached Marvel about
extending the deadline and becoming a co-nancier for
the lm, but was rebued.[74][75] On October 10, 2012,
the Daredevil rights reverted to Marvel Studios, which
was conrmed by studio president Kevin Feige on April
Former typeface logo (2013-2016)
23, 2013.[76] On May 2, 2013, Feige conrmed in an interview that the Ghost Rider and Punisher rights had reOn July 2, 2013, Disney purchased the distribution rights verted to Marvel from Sony and Lionsgate respectively, as
to Iron Man, Iron Man 2, Thor and Captain America: well as rearming the acquisition of the Blade rights.[77]
The First Avenger from Paramount.[64][65][66] In Septem- It was later revealed in May 2013 that Marvel has also
ber 2014, TNT acquired the cable rights for Avengers: reacquired the rights to Luke Cage from Sony.[78] In an
Age of Ultron, Captain America: Civil War, and three interview with Collider in early May 2013, Kevin Feige
other lms, to air on the network two years after their stated he believed the Elektra rights were back at Marvel
theatrical releases. The lms had previously aired on FX through the Daredevil deal.[79]
since 2008.[67]
In February 2015, Marvel Studios and Sony Pictures
In February 2015, it was announced that Disney and Sony
Pictures will collaborate on the next Spider-Man lms,
the rst of which is set to be released on July 7, 2017.
Former Sony executive Amy Pascal will co-produce the
lms with Kevin Feige. The lm rights to Spider-Man
will still remain with Sony. Marvel Studios will also explore opportunities to integrate other characters of MCU

announced that Spider-Man would appear in the Marvel Cinematic Universe, with the character appearing in
Captain America: Civil War and Sony releasing SpiderMan: Homecoming produced by Feige and Pascal on July
7, 2017. Sony Pictures will continue to nance, distribute, own and have nal creative control of the SpiderMan lms. Marvel Studios will also explore opportuni-

ties to integrate other characters of the Marvel Cinematic
Universe into future Spider-Man lms.[80] In June 2015,
Feige claried that the initial Sony deal does not allow
Spider-Man to appear in any of the MCU television series, as it was very specic... with a certain amount of
back and forth allowed.[81]
After the licensing agreement with Sony that allowed
Marvel to have the use of Spider-Man in their shared
lm universe,[80] the only rights that Marvel Studios does
not have access to are the X-Men and Fantastic Four set
of characters and Deadpool; all are still in production as
separate franchises at 20th Century Fox.[82][83] Additionally, Marvel CCO Joe Quesada in 2012 believed Namor's
rights had reverted to Marvel, but Feige said in August
2013 this was not so.[84] However, Feige expanded in July
2014 saying that Marvel Studios, not Universal Pictures
or Legendary Pictures, could make a Namor lm, but its
slightly more complicated than that. Lets put it this way
there are entanglements that make it less easy. There are
older contracts that still involve other parties that mean
we need to work things out before we move forward on
it. As opposed to an Iron Man or any of the Avengers or
any of the other Marvel characters where we could just
put them in.[85]

Chairman and CEO, March 2007 2010

Michael Helfant, President and Chief Operating Ofcer, October 2005[42]
Kevin Feige, President of Production, March 2007
Tim Connors, Chief Operating Ocer, December
12, 2008 present[87]

6 Units




Marvel Music (2005present)[90]

7 Logo

Marvel Knights

See also: Marvel Knights

Named after corporate sibling Marvel Comics' imprint of
the same name, Marvel Knights is also the name given to
a production arm of Marvel Studios intended to be used to
produce some of Marvels darker and lesser known titles.
The rst lm produced under the Marvel Knights banner
was Punisher: War Zone, the 2008 release that rebooted Logo animation (20132016), featuring the Marvel Studios fanthe Punisher franchise. In 2012, Ghost Rider: Spirit of fare (0:28).
Vengeance was the second and nal title to be released
under the Marvel Knights banner.
Starting with the release of Spider-Man in 2002, Marvel
Studios introduced its ipbook logo, created by Imaginary Forces.[91] This logo was accompanied with music
5 Executives
from the lms score, sound eects or a song, to lead
into the beginning of the lm. This was the logo seen in
front of all lms until 2013, when the logo was updated
Avi Arad
with the release of Thor: The Dark World, again cre Marvel Films President and CEO, 1993 Au- ated by Imaginary Forces. Kevin Feige stated that since
gust 1996
Marvel was now their own entity within The Walt Dis Marvel Studios Chairman and CEO, August ney Company, it felt like the time to update it and have
1998 May 2006
something that is more substantial as a standalone logo
in front of our features instead of having it be accom Jerry Calabrese
panied by Marvels studio or distribution partners logos.
Feige added that We didnt want to re-invent the wheel
David Maisel
[with the new logo], but we wanted it to feel bigger, to feel
Chief Operating Ocer, 2004 September more substantial, which is why it starts with the ip, but
suddenly its more dimensional as we go through the let Vice Chairman, September 2005 - September tering and it reveals itself with the metallic sheen before
27, 2006[86]
settling into the white-on-red, well known Marvel logo,


with the added ourish of the arrival and the announcement of the Studios at the bottom of the word Marvel.[92]
Imaginary Forces used the same animation technique on
the updated logo, as they did when they created the rst
version in 2002. They were given a few hundred comic
books to select images from, ultimately choosing 120 that
were universal and not specic to one character and created a narrative where each image spoke to the one before it and after.[91]
The new logo appeared on all subsequent studio productions set within the Marvel Cinematic Universe through
Captain America: Civil War. With the addition of the new
logo, Marvel Studios also added a fanfare to accompany
the logo, composed by Brian Tyler, who wrote the scores
to Iron Man 3, Thor: The Dark World, and Avengers:
Age of Ultron.[92] It was featured on the lms Thor: The
Dark World, Captain America: The Winter Soldier, and
Guardians of the Galaxy. In July 2016, another new logo
and opening were introduced, featuring an updated fanfare, composed this time by Doctor Strange composer
Michael Giacchino. The new opening begins with comic
book panels seen in the previous two openings, but transitions into footage and art of the characters from the Marvel Cinematic Universe.[93] It will rst be seen in front of
Doctor Strange.[94]

Production library

Main articles: Marvel Cinematic Universe Films, and

List of lms based on Marvel Comics

See also
Marvel Entertainment
Marvel Productions
List of lms based on Marvel Comics



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11 External links
Ocial website
Marvel Studios at the Internet Movie Database





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