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Sodiumhydroxide
FromWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Sodiumhydroxide(NaOH),

Sodiumhydroxide

alsoknownaslyeandcaustic
soda,[1][2]isaninorganic
compound.Itisawhitesolid
and

Names
PreferredIUPACname
Sodiumhydroxide[3]
SystematicIUPACname
Sodiumoxidanide[4]
Othernames
Causticsoda
Lye[1][2]
Ascarite
Whitecaustic
Sodiumhydrate[3]
Identifiers

CASNumber

1310732

ChEBI

CHEBI:32145

ChemSpider

14114

ECNumber

2151855

GmelinReference

68430

Jmol3Dmodel

Interactiveimage

KEGG

D01169

MeSH

Sodium+Hydroxide

PubChem

14798

RTECSnumber

WB4900000

UNII

55X04QC32I

UNnumber

1823

InChI

[show]

SMILES

[show]

Properties
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Chemicalformula

NaOH

Molarmass

39.9971gmol1

Appearance

White,waxy,opaquecrystals

Odor

odorless

Density

2.13g/cm3

Meltingpoint

318C(604F591K)

Boilingpoint

1,388C(2,530F1,661K)

Solubilityinwater

418g/L(0C)
1110g/L(20C)
3370g/L(100C)

Solubility

solubleinglycerol
negligibleinammonia
insolubleinether

Solubilityinmethanol

238g/L

Solubilityinethanol

<<139g/L

Vaporpressure

<2.4kPa(at20C)

Basicity(pKb)

0.2[5]

Refractiveindex(nD)

1.3576

Thermochemistry
Specific
heatcapacity(C)

59.66J/molK

Stdmolar
entropy(So298)

64Jmol1K1[6]

Stdenthalpyof
formation(fHo298)

427kJmol1[6]

Gibbsfree
energy(fG)

380.7kJ/mol
Hazards

Safetydatasheet

ExternalMSDS

GHSpictograms

GHSsignalword

Danger

GHShazard
statements

H314

GHSprecautionary
statements

P280,P305+351+338,P310

EUclassification(DSD)

Rphrases

R35

Sphrases

(S1/2),S26,S37/39,S45

NFPA704

ALK
Lethaldoseorconcentration(LD,LC):
LD50(mediandose) 40mg/kg(mouse,
intraperitoneal)[8]
LDLo(lowest
published)

500mg/kg(rabbit,oral)[9]

UShealthexposurelimits(NIOSH):
PEL(Permissible)

TWA2mg/m3[7]

REL(Recommended) C2mg/m3[7]
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IDLH(Immediate
danger)

10mg/m3[7]

Relatedcompounds
Otheranions

Sodiumhydrosulfide

Othercations

Caesiumhydroxide
Lithiumhydroxide
Potassiumhydroxide
Rubidiumhydroxide

Exceptwhereotherwisenoted,dataaregivenfor
materialsintheirstandardstate(at25C[77F],
100kPa).
verify(whatis

?)

Infoboxreferences

highlycausticmetallicbaseandalkaliofsodiumwhichisavailableinpellets,
flakes,granules,andaspreparedsolutionsatanumberofdifferent
concentrations.[10]Sodiumhydroxideformsanapproximately50%(by
weight)saturatedsolutionwithwater.[11]
Sodiumhydroxideissolubleinwater,ethanol,andmethanol.
Thisalkaliisdeliquescentandreadilyabsorbsmoistureandcarbon
dioxideinair.
Sodiumhydroxideisusedinmanyindustries,mostlyasa
strongchemicalbaseinthemanufactureofpulpandpaper,textiles,drinking
water,soapsanddetergentsandasadraincleaner.Worldwideproductionin
2004wasapproximately60milliontonnes,whiledemandwas51million
tonnes.[12]
Contents[hide]
1 Properties
1.1 Physicalproperties
1.2 Chemicalproperties
1.2.1 Reactionwithacids
1.2.2 Reactionwithacidicoxides
1.2.3 Reactionwithamphotericmetalsandoxides
1.2.4 Precipitant
1.2.5 Saponification
2 Production
3 Uses
3.1 Chemicalpulping
3.2 Tissuedigestion
3.3 Dissolvingamphotericmetalsandcompounds
3.4 Esterificationandtransesterificationreagent
3.5 Foodpreparation
3.6 Cleaningagent
3.7 Watertreatment
3.8 Historicaluses
3.9 Experimental
4 Safety
5 Commercialbrands
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6 Seealso
7 References
8 Bibliography
9 Externallinks

Properties

[ edit ]

Physicalproperties

[ edit ]

Puresodiumhydroxideisawhitishsolid,soldinpellets,flakes,andgranular
form,aswellasinsolution.Itishighlysolubleinwater,withalowersolubility
inethanolandmethanol,butisinsolubleinetherandothernonpolarsolvents.
Similartothehydrationofsulfuricacid,dissolutionofsolidsodiumhydroxidein
waterisahighlyexothermicreaction[why?]inwhichalargeamountofheatis
liberated,posingathreattosafetythroughthepossibilityofsplashing.The
resultingsolutionisusuallycolourlessandodorless.Aswithotheralkaline
solutions,itfeelsslipperywhenitcomesincontactwithskin.

Chemicalproperties

[ edit ]

Reactionwithacids [ edit ]
Sodiumhydroxidereactswithproticacidstoproducewaterandthe
correspondingsalts.Forexample,whensodiumhydroxidereacts
withhydrochloricacid,sodiumchlorideisformed:
NaOH(aq)+HCl(aq)NaCl(aq)+H2O(l)
Ingeneral,suchneutralizationreactionsarerepresentedbyonesimplenetionic
equation:
OH (aq)+H+ (aq)H2O(l)
Thistypeofreactionwithastrongacidreleasesheat,andhenceisexothermic.
Suchacidbasereactionscanalsobeusedfortitrations.However,sodium
hydroxideisnotusedasaprimarystandardbecauseitishygroscopicand
absorbscarbondioxidefromair.
Reactionwithacidicoxides [ edit ]
Sodiumhydroxidealsoreactswithacidicoxides,suchassulfurdioxide.Such
reactionsareoftenusedto"scrub"harmfulacidicgases(likeSO2andH2S)
producedintheburningofcoalandthuspreventtheirreleaseintothe
atmosphere.Forexample,
2NaOH+SO2Na2SO3+H2O
Reactionwithamphotericmetalsandoxides [ edit ]
Glassreactsslowlywithaqueoussodiumhydroxidesolutionsatambient
temperaturestoformsolublesilicates.Becauseofthis,glassjoints
andstopcocksexposedtosodiumhydroxidehaveatendencyto
"freeze".Flasksandglasslinedchemicalreactorsaredamagedbylong
exposuretohotsodiumhydroxide,whichalsofroststheglass.Sodium
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hydroxidedoesnotattackironsinceirondoesnothaveamphotericproperties
(i.e.,itonlydissolvesinacid,notbase).Afewtransitionmetals,however,may
reactvigorouslywithsodiumhydroxide.
In1986,analuminiumroadtankerintheUKwasmistakenlyusedtotransport
25%sodiumhydroxidesolution,[13]causingpressurizationofthecontentsand
damagetothetanker.Thepressurizationwasduetothehydrogengaswhichis
producedinthereactionbetweensodiumhydroxideandaluminium:
2Al+2NaOH+6H2O2NaAl(OH)4+3H2
Precipitant [ edit ]
Unlikesodiumhydroxide,thehydroxidesofmosttransitionmetalsareinsoluble,
andthereforesodiumhydroxidecanbeusedtoprecipitatetransitionmetal
hydroxides.Thefollowingcoloursareobserved:bluecopper,greeniron(II),
yellow/browniron(III).Zincandleadsaltsdissolveinexcesssodiumhydroxide
togiveaclearsolutionofNa2ZnO2orNa2PbO2.
Aluminiumhydroxideisusedasagelatinousflocculanttofilteroutparticulate
matterinwatertreatment.Aluminiumhydroxideispreparedatthetreatment
plantfromaluminiumsulfatebyreactingitwithsodiumhydroxideorcarbonate.
Al2(SO4)3+6NaOH2Al(OH)3+3Na2SO4
Al2(SO4)3+6NaHCO32Al(OH)3+3Na2SO4+6CO2
Saponification [ edit ]
Sodiumhydroxidecanbeusedforthebasedrivenhydrolysisofesters(as
insaponification),amidesandalkylhalides.However,thelimitedsolubilityof
sodiumhydroxideinorganicsolventsmeansthatthemoresolublepotassium
hydroxide(KOH)isoftenpreferred.Touchingsodiumhydroxidesolutionwiththe
barehands,whilenotrecommended,producesaslipperyfeeling.Thishappens
becausetheoilsofthehandareconvertedtosoap.

Production

[ edit ]

Sodiumhydroxideisindustriallyproducedasa50%solutionbyvariationsofthe
electrolyticchloralkaliprocess.Chlorinegasisalsoproducedinthisprocess.
Solidsodiumhydroxideisobtainedfromthissolutionbytheevaporationof
water.Solidsodiumhydroxideismostcommonlysoldasflakes,prills,andcast
blocks.[12]
In2004,worldproductionwasestimatedat60milliondrymetrictonnesof
sodiumhydroxide,anddemandwasestimatedat51milliontonnes.[12]In1998,
totalworldproductionwasaround45milliontonnes.NorthAmericaandAsia
eachcontributedaround14milliontonnes,whileEuropeproducedaround
10milliontonnes.IntheUnitedStates,themajorproducerofsodiumhydroxide
istheDowChemicalCompany,whichhasannualproductionaround
3.7milliontonnesfromsitesatFreeport,Texas,andPlaquemine,Louisiana.
OthermajorUSproducersincludeOxychem,PPG,Olin,PioneerCompanies,
Inc.(PIONA,whichwaspurchasedbyOlin),andFormosa.Allofthese
companiesusethechloralkaliprocess.[14]
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Historically,sodiumhydroxidewasproducedbytreatingsodium
carbonatewithcalciumhydroxideinametathesisreaction.(Sodiumhydroxideis
solublewhilecalciumcarbonateisnot.)Thisprocesswascalledcausticizing.[15]
Ca(OH)2(aq)+Na2CO3(s)CaCO3+2NaOH(aq)
ThisprocesswassupersededbytheSolvayprocessinthelate19thcentury,
whichwasinturnsupplantedbythechloralkaliprocesswhichweusetoday.
Sodiumhydroxideisalsoproducedbycombiningpuresodiummetalwithwater.
Thebyproductsarehydrogengasandheat,oftenresultinginaflame,making
thisacommondemonstrationofthereactivityofalkalimetalsinacademic
environmentshowever,itisnotcommerciallyviable,astheisolationofsodium
metalistypicallyperformedbyreductionorelectrolysisofsodiumcompounds
includingsodiumhydroxide.
Forfurtherinformationinhistoricalproduction,seealkalimanufacture.

Uses

[ edit ]

Sodiumhydroxideisapopular
strongbaseusedinindustry.Around
56%ofsodiumhydroxideproducedis
usedbyindustry,25%ofwhichisusedin
thepaperindustry.Sodiumhydroxideis
alsousedinthemanufactureofsodium
saltsanddetergents,pHregulation,and
organicsynthesis.ItisusedintheBayer
processofaluminiumproduction.[12]In
bulk,itismostoftenhandledas
anaqueoussolution,[16]sincesolutions
arecheaperandeasiertohandle.

Canisterofsodiumhydroxide.

Sodiumhydroxideisusedinmany
scenarioswhereitisdesirabletoincreasethealkalinityofamixture,orto
neutralizeacids.
Forexample,inthepetroleumindustry,sodiumhydroxideisusedasanadditive
indrillingmudtoincreasealkalinityinbentonitemudsystems,toincreasethe
mudviscosity,andtoneutralizeanyacidgas(suchashydrogen
sulfideandcarbondioxide)whichmaybeencounteredinthegeological
formationasdrillingprogresses.
Poorqualitycrudeoilcanbetreatedwithsodiumhydroxideto
removesulfurousimpuritiesinaprocessknownascausticwashing.Asabove,
sodiumhydroxidereactswithweakacidssuchashydrogensulfideand
mercaptanstoyieldnonvolatilesodiumsalts,whichcanberemoved.Thewaste
whichisformedistoxicanddifficulttodealwith,andtheprocessisbannedin
manycountriesbecauseofthis.In2006,Trafigurausedtheprocessand
thendumpedthewasteinAfrica.[17][18]
Seealso:Hydrodesulfurization

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Chemicalpulping

[ edit ]

Mainarticle:Pulp(paper)
Sodiumhydroxideisalsowidelyusedinpulpingofwoodformakingpaperor
regeneratedfibers.Alongwithsodiumsulfide,sodiumhydroxideisakey
componentofthewhiteliquorsolutionusedto
separateligninfromcellulosefibersinthekraftprocess.Italsoplaysakeyrole
inseverallaterstagesoftheprocessofbleachingthebrownpulpresultingfrom
thepulpingprocess.Thesestages
includeoxygendelignification,oxidativeextraction,andsimpleextraction,allof
whichrequireastrongalkalineenvironmentwithapH>10.5attheendofthe
stages.

Tissuedigestion

[ edit ]

Inasimilarfashion,sodiumhydroxideisusedtodigesttissues,asinaprocess
thatwasusedwithfarmanimalsatonetime.Thisprocessinvolvedplacinga
carcassintoasealedchamber,thenaddingamixtureofsodiumhydroxideand
water(whichbreaksthechemicalbondsthatkeepthefleshintact).This
eventuallyturnsthebodyintoaliquidwithcoffeelikeappearance,[19][20]andthe
onlysolidthatremainsarebonehulls,whichcouldbecrushedbetweenone's
fingertips.[21]Sodiumhydroxideisfrequentlyusedintheprocessof
decomposingroadkilldumpedinlandfillsbyanimaldisposalcontractors.[20]Due
toitslowcostandavailability,ithasbeenusedtodisposeofcorpsesby
criminals.ItalianserialkillerLeonardaCianciulliusedthischemicaltoturndead
bodiesintosoap.[22]InMexico,amanwhoworkedfordrugcartelsadmitted
disposingofover300bodieswithit.[23]Sodiumhydroxideisadangerous
chemicalduetoitsabilitytohydrolyzeprotein.Ifadilutesolutionisspilledonthe
skin,burnsmayresultiftheareaisnotwashedthoroughlyandforseveral
minuteswithrunningwater.Splashesintheeyecanbemoreseriousandcan
leadtoblindness.[24]Thisdangerisoftenoverlooked.

Dissolvingamphotericmetalsandcompounds

[ edit ]

Strongbasesattackaluminium.Sodiumhydroxidereactswithaluminiumand
watertoreleasehydrogengas.Thealuminiumtakestheoxygenatomfrom
sodiumhydroxide,whichinturntakestheoxygenatomfromthewater,and
releasesthetwohydrogenatoms,Thereactionthusproduceshydrogengas
andsodiumaluminate.Inthisreaction,sodiumhydroxideactsasanagentto
makethesolutionalkaline,whichaluminiumcandissolvein.Thisreactioncan
beusefulinetching,removinganodizing,orconvertingapolishedsurfacetoa
satinlikefinish,butwithoutfurtherpassivationsuchasanodizingoralodiningthe
surfacemaybecomedegraded,eitherundernormaluseorinsevere
atmosphericconditions.
IntheBayerprocess,sodiumhydroxideisusedintherefining
ofaluminacontainingores(bauxite)toproducealumina(aluminiumoxide)
whichistherawmaterialusedtoproducealuminiummetalvia
theelectrolyticHallHroultprocess.Sincethealuminaisamphoteric,itdissolves
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inthesodiumhydroxide,leavingimpuritieslesssolubleathighpHsuchasiron
oxidesbehindintheformofahighlyalkalineredmud.
Seealso:Ajkaaluminaplantaccident
Otheramphotericmetalsarezincandleadwhichdissolveinconcentrated
sodiumhydroxidesolutionstogivesodiumzincateandsodiumplumbate
respectively.

Esterificationandtransesterificationreagent

[ edit ]

Sodiumhydroxideistraditionallyusedinsoapmaking(cold
processsoap,saponification).[25]Itwasmadeinthenineteenthcenturyfora
hardsurfaceratherthanliquidproductbecauseitwaseasiertostoreand
transport.
Forthemanufactureofbiodiesel,sodiumhydroxideisusedasacatalystfor
thetransesterificationofmethanolandtriglycerides.Thisonlyworks
withanhydroussodiumhydroxide,becausecombinedwithwaterthefatwould
turnintosoap,whichwouldbetaintedwithmethanol.NaOHisusedmoreoften
thanpotassiumhydroxidebecauseitischeaperandasmallerquantityis
needed.
Sodiumhydroxideisalsobeingusedexperimentallyinanewtechnologyto
createsyntheticgasoline.[26]

Foodpreparation

[ edit ]

Foodusesofsodiumhydroxideincludewashingorchemicalpeeling
offruitsandvegetables,chocolateandcocoaprocessing,caramel
coloringproduction,poultryscalding,softdrinkprocessing,andthickeningice
cream.[27]Olivesareoftensoakedinsodiumhydroxidefor
softeningPretzelsandGermanlyerollsareglazedwithasodiumhydroxide
solutionbeforebakingtomakethemcrisp.Owingtothedifficultyinobtaining
foodgradesodiumhydroxideinsmallquantitiesforhomeuse,sodium
carbonateisoftenusedinplaceofsodiumhydroxide.[28]
Specificfoodsprocessedwithsodiumhydroxideinclude:
TheScandinaviandelicacyknownaslutefisk(fromlutfisk,"lyefish").
Hominyisdriedmaize(corn)kernelsreconstitutedbysoakinginlyewater.
Theseexpandconsiderablyinsizeandmaybefurtherprocessedbyfrying
tomakecornnutsorbydryingandgrindingtomakegrits.Nixtamalis
similar,butusescalciumhydroxideinsteadofsodiumhydroxide.
Sodiumhydroxideisalsothechemicalthatcausesgellingofeggwhitesin
theproductionofCenturyeggs.
Germanpretzelsarepoachedinaboilingsodiumcarbonatesolutionorcold
sodiumhydroxidesolutionbeforebaking,whichcontributestotheirunique
crust.
Lyewaterisanessentialingredientinthecrustofthetraditionalbaked
Chinesemooncakes.
MostyellowcolouredChinesenoodlesaremadewithlyewaterbutare
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commonlymistakenforcontainingegg.
Somemethodsofpreparingolivesinvolvesubjectingthemtoalyebased
brine.[29]
TheFilipinodessert(kakanin)calledkutsintausesasmallquantityoflye
watertohelpgivethericeflourbatterajellylikeconsistency.Asimilar
processisalsousedinthekakaninknownaspitsipitsiorpichipichiexcept
thatthemixtureusesgratedcassavainsteadofriceflour.

Cleaningagent

[ edit ]

Mainarticle:Cleaningagent
Sodiumhydroxideisfrequentlyusedasanindustrialcleaningagentwhereitis
oftencalled"caustic".Itisaddedtowater,heated,andthenusedtoclean
processequipment,storagetanks,etc.Itcan
dissolvegrease,oils,fatsandproteinbaseddeposits.Itisalsousedforcleaning
wastedischargepipesundersinksanddrainsindomestic
properties.Surfactantscanbeaddedtothesodiumhydroxidesolutioninorder
tostabilizedissolvedsubstancesandthuspreventredeposition.Asodium
hydroxidesoaksolutionisusedasapowerfuldegreaseronstainlesssteeland
glassbakeware.Itisalsoacommoningredientinovencleaners.
Acommonuseofsodiumhydroxideisintheproductionofparts
washerdetergents.Partswasherdetergentsbasedonsodiumhydroxideare
someofthemostaggressivepartswashercleaningchemicals.Thesodium
hydroxidebaseddetergentsincludesurfactants,rustinhibitorsanddefoamers.
Apartswasherheatswaterandthedetergentinaclosedcabinetandthen
spraystheheatedsodiumhydroxideandhotwateratpressureagainstdirty
partsfordegreasingapplications.Sodiumhydroxideusedinthismanner
replacedmanysolventbasedsystemsintheearly
1990s[citationneeded]whentrichloroethanewasoutlawedbytheMontrealProtocol.
Waterandsodiumhydroxidedetergentbasedpartswashersareconsideredto
beanenvironmentalimprovementoverthesolventbasedcleaningmethods.
Sodium
hydroxideis
usedinthe
homeasatype
ofdrain
openerto
Hardwarestoresgrade
sodiumhydroxidetobeused
asatypeofdraincleaner.

unblockclogged
drains,usuallyin
theformofadry
crystalorasa
thickliquidgel.

Thealkalidissolvesgreasestoproducewater
solubleproducts.It
alsohydrolyzestheproteinssuchasthosefound

Paintstrippingwithcaustic
soda

inhairwhichmayblockwaterpipes.These
reactionsarespedbytheheatgeneratedwhen
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sodiumhydroxideandtheotherchemicalcomponentsofthecleanerdissolvein
water.Suchalkalinedraincleanersandtheiracidicversionsare
highlycorrosiveandshouldbehandledwithgreatcaution.
Sodiumhydroxideisusedinsomerelaxerstostraightenhair.However,because
ofthehighincidenceandintensityofchemicalburns,manufacturersofchemical
relaxersuseotheralkalinechemicalsinpreparationsavailabletoaverage
consumers.Sodiumhydroxiderelaxersarestillavailable,buttheyareused
mostlybyprofessionals.
Asolutionofsodiumhydroxideinwaterwastraditionallyusedasthemost
commonpaintstripperonwoodenobjects.Itsusehasbecomelesscommon,
becauseitcandamagethewoodsurface,raisingthegrainandstainingthe
colour.

Watertreatment

[ edit ]

SodiumhydroxideissometimesusedduringwaterpurificationtoraisethepHof
watersupplies.IncreasedpHmakesthewaterlesscorrosivetoplumbingand
reducestheamountoflead,copperandothertoxicmetalsthatcandissolveinto
drinkingwater.[30][31]

Historicaluses

[ edit ]

Sodiumhydroxidehasbeenusedfordetectionofcarbonmonoxidepoisoning,
withbloodsamplesofsuchpatientsturningtoavermilioncoloruponthe
additionofafewdropsofsodiumhydroxide.[32]Today,carbonmonoxide
poisoningcanbedetectedbyCOoximetry.

Experimental

[ edit ]

Sodiumhydroxidetestforflavonoids

Safety

[ edit ]

Likeothercorrosiveacidsandalkalis,
dropsofsodiumhydroxidesolutionscan
readily
decomposeproteinsandlipidsinliving
tissuesviaamidehydrolysisandester
hydrolysis,whichconsequently
causechemicalburnsandmayinduce
permanentblindnessuponcontactwith
eyes.[1][2]Solidalkalicanalsoexpressits
corrosivenatureifthereiswater,such
aswatervapor.Thus,protective
equipment,likerubbergloves,safety
clothingandeyeprotection,should
alwaysbeusedwhenhandlingthis
chemicaloritssolutions.Thestandard
firstaidmeasuresforalkalispillsonthe
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Chemicalburnscausedbysodium
hydroxidesolutionphotographed44
hoursafterexposure.

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skinis,asforothercorrosives,irrigationwithlargequantitiesofwater.Washing
iscontinuedforatleasttentofifteenminutes.
Moreover,dissolutionofsodiumhydroxideishighlyexothermic,andtheresulting
heatmaycauseheatburnsorigniteflammables.Italsoproducesheatwhen
reactedwithacids.
Sodiumhydroxideiscorrosivetoseveralmetals,likealuminiumwhichreacts
withthealkalitoproduceflammablehydrogengasoncontact:[33]
2Al+6NaOH+3H2+2Na3AlO3
2Al+2NaOH+2H2O3H2+2NaAlO2
2Al+2NaOH+6H2O3H2+2NaAl(OH)4
Sodiumhydroxideisalsomildlycorrosivetoglass,whichcancausedamage
toglazingorfreezingofgroundglassjoints.Carefulstorageisneeded.

Commercialbrands

[ edit ]

RedDevilLye
LewisLye

Seealso

[ edit ]

HAZMATClass8CorrosiveSubstances
Commonchemicals
Listofcleaningagents
AcidandBase

References

[ edit ]

1.^ a b c

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