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SOALAN RAMALAN KBAT BIOLOGI SPM

2015 - Kajian Sel Stem

Prologue - Will this be our future due to stem cell research & cloning?

Memorising Technique - Mendel's First Law


To memorise this, use ASK technique:

A - allele
S - separate
K - (k)combine
Here are the complete explanation:

SOALAN RAMALAN 2015 + KBAT (Soalan


Struktur) - Diabetes Mellitus

Here is the graph of diabetic person being admitted to clinic and administered hormone injection at
time X.

MADEASY - Understanding
Factor in 1st & 2nd Birth

Rhesus

I have a lot of request from teachers/students about how to explain the rhesus factors in
mother/embryo in 1st & 2nd birth. This post is my reply:

First, the question would be something like this:

A mother has Rh(-). Explain why her


1st-born Rh(+) baby has no problem
but the 2nd-born Rh(+) baby does.
For the 1st born, look at the diagram below:

As you can see, mother is Rh(-) and the baby indeed Rh(+). Let's use Rh(-) as the 'bad guy' (
) andRh(+) as the 'good guy' ( ). As usual the bad guy will attack the good guy. But

here, nothing happen because mother's immune system has yet to produce 'weapon' (antibody) to
attack the baby's'target' (antigen). In other words, mother's immune system is simply not ready.
Now, let's see what happen in the 2nd-born baby with similar Rhesus factor:

You realize the bad guy (mother) already produced the 'weapons'. This time, the mother's immune
system is ready with full antibody. As a result, the baby's Rh(+) is attacked, causing harm to the
baby.

This condition is known as erythroblastosis fetalis.

It killed most babies before the Industrial Ages. Thanks to the modern medicine, we have ways to
prevent this from happening...

Haemophilia - Tips on Essay Questions


Paper 2 Section B is the most dreaded part of them all. Here is a quick tips on how you are going
to tackle them, once and for all! :-)

PART 1: 3 SIMPLE TIPS


1) Have flow in your answers
The examiners want to see how good you are in putting down your answers. The key is the flow.
That's why you should use A LOT OF CONJUNCTIONS - such as firstly, secondly, after that, besides,
subsequently, finally, and so forth...

2) Short & Relevant sentence


Remember KISS? - keep it short and simple. Don't burden the examiner with long and repetitive
sentence. Their job is to find points in your answer in order to reward you with marks. Help them
out by writing down

short and relevant sentence.

Short means not more than 10 words per sentence.


Relevant means the sentence should answer the question by delivering at least one
keyword with proper description if required (keywords are the terms with bold
typeface which you can find in the textbooks)
3) 1 Mark = 1 Sentence
The examiner will find your point through sentence by sentence. So, ONE sentence is all you need
to obtain one full mark. So, a 10-marks question means that you have to write at least 10
sentences. You can write more than that if you want to, providing you have the spare time to do
so :-)

REMINDER:
Remember PDF in Series 10? It is basically the same thing. Let's revise the technique:

P(Point) - similar with keywords

D(Description) - describe the keywords

F(Full sentence) - short yet concise sentence

PART 2: EXAMPLE OF A PERFECT


ANSWER

Let us analyze the answers:

This is a 4-marks questions, which means you should have 4 sentences

Can you see the blue circles? Those are the conjunctions :-)

Can you see the red circles? Those are the keywords :-)

Can you see the red lines? Those are the descriptions for the keywords.

PART 3: SUMMARY:
In Paper 2 Section B, all you need to do when answering the question is to...

Write one short sentence to get one mark...


Make sure you have at least 1 (more is better)
keyword in your sentence.
Make sure the keywords are described (if
needed).
Connect the sentences with conjunctions.
Full mark is rewarded if you follow this rule. Wish you the best in your study endeavour!

BIOLOGY 2013 FORECAST SERIES 5 - 8


Terms You Must Know in Inheritance
Topic

Inheritance topics (F5 Chapter 5) if you still cannot


comprehend its 8 terms. Let see if you can enkindle your ability to recall these terms
You can't master the

below.

1. INHERITANCE
The study of passing the characters from one generation to the next

2. CHARACTER VS TRAITS
Character : Certain features controlled by the gene (ex. height)
Traits : Specific characters (ex. tall/short)

3. MONOHYBRID VS DIHYBRID CROSS


Mono: Study of one character only
Di: Study of two characters

4. GENE
BUOI - Basic Unit of Inheritance

5. ALLELE
The pair of genes in the homologous chromosomes - Tt, GG, Hh, KK, Ll, bb, dd, Ww, HH

6. DOMINANT VS RECESSIVE GENE


Dominant gene: The desirable gene showing its character whenever it exists, showed with capital
letters
Recessive gene: The hidden gene only shows its character when dominant gene is absent - in
lower-case letters.

7. GENOTYPE VS PHENOTYPE
Genotype: The 3 coding of gene pairs using alphabets (GG, Gg, gg)
Phenotype: The physical manifestation due to the genotype

8. HOMOZYGOTE VS HETEROZYGOTE
Homo: Allele containing similar pair of genes (HH, KK,mm, ee, HH, gg)
Hetero: Allele containing different pair of genes (Hh, Kk, Mm, Ee, Hh, Gg

Comic - Chromosome Structure Mutation


We learnt about mutation (mutasi) in the final chapter of Bio F5. Here is the simple note about the
chromosome structure mutation (CLICK TO ENLARGE):