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Mohamad Siri Muslimin1, Norazah Mohd Nordin2, Ahmad Zamri Mansor3

National University of Malaysia (UKM),,
The advancement of today's information technology has increased the ability of technology and innovation in
education. Technology enhances learning by BYOD adoption can no longer be separated in teaching and
learning as it has become embedded in the culture society students today and it should integrate with the learning
approach to support learning and teaching among the students and educators in classrooms. Through a process of
BYOD learning experience, resources of knowledge acquired can facilitate students to acquire knowledge and
information resources regardless of the boundaries of place, location and time. This paper discusses the
necessities of BYOD adoption in learning, advantage of BYOD as well as research literature that proves the
advantages of BYOD in classrooms. This paper also discusses a few challenge to considerate for improving the
use of mobile technology in the pedagogy of learning and teaching.
Keywords: BYOD, adoption, Mobile learning, 21st century education
1. Introduction
Todays education system is evolving to take
full advantage of the potential of mobile technology
devices to inspire learning and create independent
and critical thinkers. Each day, more and more
students are bringing their own electronic devices
to school. This is why "Bring your own device"
(BYOD) programs seem so appealing. BYOD
refers to a technology model that allows students to
bring their own devices to school for learning in the
classroom. This allows students to bring their
personal laptops, tablets, and smartphones from
home and use them for educational applications in
the classroom [1].
The term "BYOD" was first coined in the
corporate world a few years ago, with companies,
allowing employees to use their personal laptop
computers, smart phones, tablets and other mobile
devices in the workplace (Afreen 2014). However,
it has since gained traction in the education sector
with an increasing number of schools around the
world choosing to implement their own BYOD
policies [2]
It is widely acknowledged that technology
plays a huge role in students' everyday lives and
should, therefore, be an integral part of their
learning. However, for most schools, it is
financially unsustainable to provide every student
with state-of-the-art technology. BYOD is therefore
considered an attractive, cost-effective alternative,
recognizing that many students already own and are
familiar with as well as that device are superior and

more up-to-date than those available in schools

(Ricci 2015)
2. BYOD and




Educators have been encouraged to come on

board with BYOD in order to assist students
acquire 21st-century skills. The idea is to utilize
the devices that students use regularly out of school
to help occupy them and help them learn. A brief
glimpse into any typical classroom will reveal that
todays students are not the same learners that we
were. These digital natives have grown up
surrounded by computing technology as a natural
part of their everyday life. They live in a
multimedia world, they constantly connect and
collaborate, and they access information that is live
and on-demand through mobile devices [3].
The vision of a learning environment that will
best support and prepare students for life outside of
the classroom is evolving. Todays world is
constantly changing, requiring independent learners
with new skills for changing work environments.
21st century learning is connected, mobile, and ondemand. Educators recognize the power of
technology tools to support 21st century learning
and create an environment that focuses on the Four
Cs of 21st century education: communication,
creativity, critical thinking, and collaboration [4].
Education must move with the times. Students of
this generation require the current learning media to
facilitate their learning process. This point has been

buttressed by an Educational Philosopher John

Dewey If we teach today as we taught yesterday,
we rob our children of tomorrow [5].
A study has been conducted by McNeill, Diao
& Gosper [6] on how student use technology in
their everyday lives whether usage is on or off
campus, to support their learning. The study uses
terms such as Digital Natives and Net
Generation to describe the new group of students
coming into universities.
These students are
fundamentally different than educators have seen
before. Their study states the Net Generation have
spent their lives surrounded by and using
computers, videogames, digital music players,
video cams, cell phones, and all the other toys and
tools of the digital age. . The study also found out
that that this generation of students prefer
receiving information rapidly, have a low tolerance
for lectures, prefer active rather than passive
learning and rely heavily on communication
technologies to access information.
The current generation of students has grown up
with technology and want to use it in every aspect
of their daily lives including school. They
categorize themselves as highly technologically
literate and always carrying a mobile phone and a
USB drive with them. The research is significant in
that it explores how and where the students use this
mobile technology. Students are looking to use the
latest technologies, and the survey in this article
strongly indicates students are seeking to use
technologies that provide access, efficiency and
connectedness [7].
According to Atkins [8], content specialist at
Top Hat states that students devices have become
an integral part of their lives, and naturally will
continue to become an integral part of their
educational experience. The technological standards
students have continued to increase. This
transformation can influence every aspect of the
learning experience for students, staff, and
administrators alike. BYOD educational technology
has far fewer barriers to entry compared to
traditional hardware response systems, is more
affordable for students, and provides more robust
features to educators. This is the way the lecture is
moving and there is no turning back.
Hwang and Chang [9] conducted a similar study
that proposed a formative assessment-based
approach to mobile learning. Pre and post-tests
were developed, and it was concluded that the two
groups did not differ significantly before learning
the subject unit. However, the experimental group
had significant improvements in both their learning
interest and their learning attitude after participating
in the learning activity, these result findings
revealed the possibility that many computerassisted learning strategies with the use of mobile
technologies have the potential for enhancing the
learning achievements of students.

Table 1. Students
characteristics of 21st century
learning environment

Students live in a world with

anytime, anywhere access to
information at their fingertips
Technology has provided our
collaborative world. They thrive
on teamwork and figuring things
out with their friends.
Todays students want to
connect with others in real time
through social media and mobile
Todays students are equal parts
consumer and creator. They
download and view audio and
video, then create their own to
upload and share with others.
They are used To have
multimedia tools at their
fingertips, and they are adept at
using these tools to express their
independent learners with new
skills for changing work
environments: critical thinking,
collaboration, creativity, and
Physical and
Students live in a world where
Virtual Learning they can learn anywhere, any
time and from anyone.
3. How does a BYOD classroom work?
Students bring their own devices to class to use
as educational tools. To make best use of these
devices, educators may use a cloud-based
classroom engagement platform, making it possible
to surpass the hardware requirements of traditional
clicker solutions. Then, educators prompt students
to answer questions, engage in discussions, and
even anonymously submit questions instead of
having students face the anxiety of raising their
hands. Students then simply send in their answers
from their personal phone, laptop, or tablet. This
method allows educators to instantly start engaging
students with much less effort and at a much lower
cost to students.
Since many schools have the infrastructure to
support wireless devices, allowing students to bring
their own devices gives educators access to
immediate technology integration in the classroom.
The access advantage anytime, anywhere, any
device gives BYOD a significant benefit over more

traditional technology integration models. Often,

this increasing demand for school technology
coincides with decreasing school budgets.
According to Mark Ray [10], With BYOD,
teachers no longer have to be concerned that their
classroom libraries are not diverse enough to meet
students needs, nor do they have to stress about
spending their own money to fill their shelves.
Students no longer have to wait weeks to check out
a library book; their PDAs make texts instantly
downloadable and affordable.
At the secondary level, BYOD opens up
strategies for engaging students in learning they
might otherwise have missed. Rather than hand out
packets, students would consider drudgery, teachers
can have them use smartphones to scan QR codes
that link to online resources, videos, short articles,
art, music all to activate or establish their
background knowledge.
Using devices to explore topics, students are no
longer confined to an outdated textbook.
Additionally, students can use their devices to
summarize their learning (solidifying it in their
memory). Teachers can more quickly collect
formative data to assess student learning [9].
Through apps such as Socrative and Padlet, a
teacher can poll the class, gather information about
their prior knowledge, or facilitate students writing
a reflection about what they learned that day. At the
elementary level, students can use their devices
during independent reading time. They can learn
vocabulary through online tools, view documents
they have created, or look up information for easy
reference. They too can blog, using safe platforms
such as Kidblog. They can create visual stories
through Powtoon and Animoto, or narrative books
through Storybird. Mostly, they can bring their
learning to life by making it more interactive and
timely than a worksheet could ever be [11].
Allowing for BYOD in schools provides students
with the choice they crave as learners, the audience
they need to become writers, and the opportunities
to be voracious, independent readers [12].

4. The Benefits of BYOD in Classroom

4.1 Student participation increases.
Students like using their personal devices and
they keep their beloved mobile devices on them at
all times, and are not just using them to
communicate with friends or download music, but
can be utilized in the class so that they become
engaged in whatever it is that theyre doing with
their personal devices including classwork, which
becomes even more interactive when everyone has
access to technology [13]. BYOD technology in
the classroom allows students that may not
regularly participate in class give feedback and

participate a lot more. Activity helps the student

become engaged in the lesson and retain more
4.2 Learning becomes student-driven.
Teaching in the digital age is becoming less
about directly transferring knowledge and more
about showing students how to sift through vast
amounts of information to find the knowledge they
need. BYOD has changed the environment of
learning and teaching model. With the technology
they are using for BYOD, students have more
authority over their own learning. They can pose
questions and do research instead of just listening to
the lectures as well as the ability to access the
plethora of information the internet has to offer.
Instead of just the traditional style where the
teacher does all the teaching and student just tries to
retain it, students can learn on their own and
actually search, gather, and absorb the information
and not just regurgitate it.

4.3 Student collaboration and communication

Collaboration is key to engagement in todays
classrooms. The students use technology to
communicate with their peers and with me. A
BYOD initiative can provide students with far
greater opportunities to interact virtually with
teachers and work with other students on
assignments, projects and content creation. BYOD
students can use mobile devices to work together in
groups. The teacher can then choose which groups
work to show to the class on a larger display.
Educators can even use games and other interactive
learning to get students involved
4.4 Prepares students for the real world
Students will be using mobile devices in the
workplace. It is important to teach them how to use
these devices in the correct way to best prepare
them for the future. You need to keep your students
up to speed with whats going on in the real world
so they can become successful in the workplace. By
working on their own mobile devices students learn
proper decision making and take responsibility for
their own work and productivity.

4.5 Cost Savings.

Although BYOD is really about delivering
education in new ways, saving money is an

important objective. With the students using their

own mobile devices in the classroom, schools can
save money on technology costs. The institutions or
school does not need to spend a fortune trying to
keep up with all the coolest technology that can be
used for education these days, if students are
allowed to use their own mobile devices.
4.6 Personalized instruction.
The flexibility of personalized devices supports
different learners with different needs, helping
students to identify learning styles and skills that
will make them lifelong learners. By allowing the
students to accompany along with interactive and
multimedia lessons on their mobile devices, will
afford them more control over the pace at which
they learn. . With more engaged and motivated
students, BYOD has the potential to positively
affect educational outcomes [14]. Students spend
countless hours outside the classroom on their
mobile devices and having said that the students
may use their devices as engaging learning tools in
the classroom. Then, they can easily bring their
homework, educational games, and projects with
them. Everything they need to continue learning
outside the classroom can be accessed anytime,
anywhere, with the swipe of a finger.
4.7 A new way of learning.
Incorporating student-owned mobile computing
devices into the curriculum has helped the
educators transform the direct instruction methods
opportunities [16]. This pedagogical approach helps
students learn by doing and gives them ownership
and authorities of their education. The current
generation of students has grown up with
technology and want to use it in every aspect of
their daily lives including school. They have an
expectation that the same technology they use at
home will be available at school too. In fact, they
use technology to study or work on homework
assignments and they believe that mastering the
latest technology skills will improve their
educational and career opportunities.
5. Educational Impact
The adoption of BYOD in the classroom has
changed the roles of both teacher and students.
Teachers are moving towards a facilitator role as
students take more authorities of their learning and
share what they have learned using integrative
technology tools. The main idea of BYOD is to
embrace the student as key contributors to their
learning experience, more ownership and tend to
perform better when they are given responsibilities.

Utilizing the personal devices like tablets,

smartphones, and portable workstations which is
many of the students already own, BYOD is
conveying learning to the 21st century and giving
students a trailer of how their future work
environments will work. BYOD enables students to
be a self- directed leaners and more responsible for
their leaning experience.
BYOD also allows students to tap into their
individual learning preferences according to their
learning style. According to [18] successful BYOD
program models have been shown to boost test
scores (achievement) significantly, with increased
student engagement and motivated learning.
With BYOD, educators may have an authorities
to take full advantage of common features that are
found in most mobile devices which is related to
the learning activities such as data management and
cloud tools (Dropbox), audio for podcasting and
applications for classroom polling and quick tests
(Socrative), or video for creating multimedia
products (Powtoon). Other uses of mobile devices
include storytelling, QR codes and digital language
learning. It is believed that more newer
technologies constantly emerging and thus making
BYOD a valuable and lasting solution for
technology integration [11].
6. Challenges and Considerations of BYOD
One of the main issues and challenge on BYOD
adopted relates to the consideration of the technical
aspects. An increase in the number of mobile
devices presents a growing demand for bandwidth,
requiring schools to devote a large amount of their
BYOD budget, to infrastructure investment for
internet networking [15], bandwidth capacity that
can accommodate the increased use of mobile
devices, type of applications that can support
BYOD, cloud computing, security and standard of
Procedures for recharging personal devices [1].
Another consideration for BYOD is the ongoing
professional development and extensive training for
staff members who are responsible for
implementing the program and procedures on a
daily basis [16] & [17]. Teachers may be more
comfortable with a traditional technology model,
which offers controlled, filtered and exclusive
environments for mobile learning. Teachers need
and deserve the time and training to be experts in
managing and instructing with the tools they are
expected to use in their trade [12].
Although mobile devices have their advantages,
such as anytime-anywhere learning and on-demand
communication, there are limitations to the features
and usability of these devices. Small screen size,
Internet browsing speed, battery life, software
availability, and support for certain multimedia files
are just a few of the considerations. As a result,

mobile devices are best used as companion devices

to supplement the work done on regular computers.
7. Conclusion
With the convergence of widespread broadband
and the growth of powerful, platform independent
web-based tools, BYOD has finally arrived as an
effective educational alternative to other plans that
require expensive purchasing and maintenance.
Hence, BYOD global trend as the next stage in the
evolution of schooling as an inevitable and
preferable phenomenon that will provide students
with the skills they will require for life in the
technological age. Todays younger generation is
using mobile technologies on a regular basis, and
these technologies should be explored for
classroom use to enhance student learning
whenever possible. Viewed within a realistic
perspective of both its benefits and limitations,
BYOD can provide a workable solution for the
many schools seeking to upgrade their educational


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