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Group 5 Team Member:

1) Mohamad Hanif Bin Md Nor
2) Mohammad Rizal Bin Abdul Rahman
3) Irfan Azri Bin Abdul Jalil




Introduction of the panels: Prof. Sarvish, Mr. Muhammad Huzaimi, YB. Nelson &
Mr. Avinash.

A) Definition of Pressure Groups

any collection of people organized to promote a goal they share or to resist some
objective of government or other groups that somehow relates to the political

process. James J. Guy

It is a voluntary organized group of individuals outside the government structure
which attempts the nomination, appointment of government personnel, government

administration and public policies.

Pressure Groups Characteristics:
- Formal structure of organization.
- Able to aggregate and articulate interests.
- Influence public policies.
- Try to influence power rather than exercise the responsibility of government
Pressure groups are all non-publicly accountable organizations that attempt to
promote shared private interests by influencing public policy outcomes that affect

B) The Differences between Political Parties and Pressure Group

1. Goal
The main aim of a pressure group is to affect the decisions of those in power which is
the political parties or simply the government towards certain objectives or interest.

On the other hand, the political parties aim to acquire more power and authority to

rule the nation via elections.

Pressure groups normally emerge as opponents and critics to the government over
certain specific issues is unfavorable to the parties. A political party is a generalist in
opinion which represents an aggregation of interests that embraces the whole nation.
Pressure group only emphasizes on special areas of interest.

2. The Nature of Membership

In political parties, their membership is much more than the pressure group with and
objective to seek enough support from the nation to win an election and impose its
authority or power. Meanwhile, the membership of pressure group is more selective
and their focus is much narrower and emphasizes only on specific problems.
3. Number Limitation

The number of political parties must be limited including the length of a ballot.
However, there is no functional limit on the number of pressure groups. In a political
party such as the government, the members are limited and some are authorized to
withhold certain position that is in charge of certain development in the country.
However, such structure does not exist in pressure group.

4. Influence
Political parties will seek to gain influence of the nation in parliament through the
House of Commons and so put up candidates for elections. The more votes they

receive from the citizen, the greater their influence is in the parliament.
In contrast, pressure groups seek influence to oppose certain policies set up by the
government by spreading their ideologies or knowledge to the citizens through the
set-up of their organization. Methods used by the pressure group to reach this motive
are by internet, demonstration as well as mass media campaigns.

C) Types of Pressure Groups

1. Associational

Organization of people together for common interest of their members which have a

distinctive name, a headquarters and professional employees.

Done in a formal way to pursue their goal that has been set, although their goals are
basically fixed and do not vary much.

People gather with different purposes like for the social identity and some for the

implementation of a purpose. Like setting the goals for their group.

This pressure groups move in such way that they approach those problems according

to the regulations and laws involved, depending on the country condition.

Examples the bar council Malaysia, Womens Aid Organization, Malaysian Human
Rights Commission.

2. Non- Associational

No proper branding or formal structures for the pressure groups.

Have their own distinctiveness from others as they form a group of similar

characteristics and interest.

They reflect certain social, ethnic, cultural or religious interest.
Examples unemployed individuals, members of ethnic groups or trending groups.

3. Institutional

Exist with the government, well established mostly under the government.
Example: bureaucracies, members of armed forces, members of parliament.
More to the government interest and they lobby from inside, meaning they do not
pose a threat to the government.

4. Anomic Groups

Means to go against something in any means although its against the regulations &

They define as spontaneously born when people strongly oppose specific policies.
Started when the people gather up to show the disappointment about particular issues

mostly government policies. Example: BERSIH.

Could even lead to street riots which would worsen the situation.
D) Role/Contribution of Pressure Groups
1. Mechanism of political representation. Forwarding peoples interest in politics.
2. Allows political process to be more responsive. People elect government in
democracy as a form of trust and accountability to government.
3. Serve as mediator which is the bridge between the people and the government.
Information is needed to ensure government can make policies that society wants.
4. Supplements to government agencies such as to give help to governments to adopt the
right public policies.
5. Collective voice of individuals.
6. Prevents concentration of power.

E) Method of Influence, Strategy and Tactics

There are 2 types of method in general:
1.) Direct Methods
Seeking the election of like-minded representatives.
Seeking access to public officials.
Mounting mass media campaign.

2.) Indirect Methods interlocking membership:

Member of Parliament are also member of a group, and as belonging to a group they

have interest concerning the interest of their own group.

Bureaucrats spouses are members of a group and the spouses can influence his/her

partner at home regarding policies related to the group.

Part time trade representative who have continuous access to political representatives

and ministers
Retired bureaucrats join NGOs and private companies, but have connections with
junior bureaucrats who are inside the government decision making institutions.

In term of liberal democracies, the methods are varies according to:

The structure of political institutions

The nature of the party system
The political culture
Nature of issue
Nature of the group

For federal system, the pressure groups are operating both at national and state level. It can be
in many occasions such as federal level, state level and national level. Interrelationship
between political party and pressure groups determines the method used. For example:

Britain/France trade union linked to political parties.

Bangladesh every trade union linked to different political parties.
Malaysia trade unions not openly linked with political parties.
Canada - methods linked to openness and tolerance of political groups.

It can be manifest and latent. The tactics are mainly influenced by the nature of the
government. The common tactics are:
a) Lobbying
- Allow individuals or groups to influence legislators and bureaucrats. Pressure groups
have their permanent agents to establish contacts with Member of Parliament to
influence their votes either in favor or against a particular bill known as lobbyists.
b) Direct action like demonstration
- Done when lobbying fails. For example, Bersih has successfully hosted 4 rallies in
fight for a fair and clean election. It includes boycotts, campaign and strikes to attract
the government and media. Sometime, this ends in violence and terrorist attacks if the
groups are unsuccessful. However, it can catch the world attention and eventually loss
the public support.