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International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET)

Volume 7, Issue 3, MayJune 2016, pp. 223232, Article ID: IJCIET_07_03_022


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ISSN Print: 0976-6308 and ISSN Online: 0976-6316
IAEME Publication

STUDY ON THE MECHANICAL


PROPERTIES AND MICROSTRUCTURE OF
CHOPPED CARBON FIBER REINFORCED
SELF COMPACTING CONCRETE
BISWAJIT JENA
M. Tech, Department of Civil Engineering,
National Institute of Technology, Rourkela769008, INDIA
ASHA PATEL
Asso. Prof., Department of Civil Engineering,
National Institute of Technology, Rourkela769008, INDIA
ABSTRACT
As compared to conventional concrete the benefits of SCC comprising
more strength like non SCC, may be higher due to better compaction, similar
tensile strength like non SCC, modulus of elasticity may be slightly lower
because of higher paste, slightly higher creep due to paste, shrinkage as
normal concrete, better bond strength, fire resistance similar as non SCC,
durability better for better surface concrete. Incorporation of fibers further
enhances its properties specially related to post crack behavior of SCC. The
fibers used in the study are 12 mm long chopped glass fiber and carbon fiber.
The volume fraction of fiber taken is 0%, 0.1%, 0.15%, 0.2%. The project
comprised of two stages. First stage consisted of development of SCC mix
design of M30 grade and in the second stage, different fibers like Glass and
carbon Fibers are added to the SCC mixes and their fresh and hardened
properties were determined and compared. The study showed remarkable
improvements in all properties of self-compacting concrete by adding fibers of
different types and volume fractions. Carbon FRSCC exhibited best
performance followed by glass FRSCC in hardened state.
Key words: SelfCompacting Concrete, Carbon Fiber, Mechanical Properties,
Volume Fraction, Microstructures
Cite this Article: Biswajit Jena and Asha Patel, Study On The Mechanical
Properties And Microstructure Of Chopped Carbon Fiber Reinforced Self
Compacting Concrete, International Journal of Civil Engineering and
Technology, 7(3), 2016, pp. 223232.
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Biswajit Jena and Asha Patel

1. INTRODUCTION
The growth of Self Compacting Concrete by Prof. H.Okamura in 1986 [1], [2] has
caused a significant impact on the construction industry by overcoming some of the
difficulties related to freshly prepared concrete. The SCC in fresh form reports
numerous difficulties related to the skill of workers, density of reinforcement, type
and configuration of a structural section, pump-ability, segregation resistance and,
mostly compaction. The Self Consolidating Concrete, which is rich in fines content, is
shown to be more lasting. Addition of more fines content and high water reducing
admixtures make SCC more sensitive with reduced toughness and it designed and
designated by concrete society that is why the use of SCC in a considerable way in
making of pre-cast products, bridges, wall panels etc. also in some countries. Carbon
fibers have low density, high thermal conductivity, good chemical stability and
exceptional abrasion resistance, and can be used to decrease or reduce cracking and
shrinkage. These fibers increase some structural properties like tensile and flexural
strengths, flexural toughness and impact resistance [3], [4], [5], [6]. Carbon fibers also
help to improve freeze-thaw durability and dry shrinkage. The adding of carbon fibers
decreases the electrical resistance. The ductility can be measured by toughness
behavior of FRSCC and to determine toughness index. The general idea of this type
of test is to measure the amount of energy which is absorbed when the specimen is
broken into two halves. From the plot we will conclude that more the area occupied
by load-displacement curve more is the toughness index. Different types of glass
fibers like C-glass, E-glass, S-glass AR-glass etc. are manufactured having different
properties and specific applications. Fibers used for structural reinforcement generally
fall into E-glass, AR-glass and S-glass owing to alkali resistant. By far the E-glass is
most used and least expensive. Principal advantages are low cost, high strength, easy
and safe handling, and rapid and uniform dispersion facilitating homogeneous mixes
which in term produce durable concrete. Limitations are poor abrasion resistance
causing reduced usable strength, Poor adhesion to specific polymer matrix materials,
and Poor adhesion in humid environments [7], [8].
The objective of present research is to mix design of SCC of grade M30 and to
investigate the effect of inclusion of chopped carbon fiber on fresh properties and
hardened properties of SCC. Fresh properties comprise flow ability, passing ability,
and viscosity related segregation resistance [9]. Hardened properties to be studied are
compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, flexural strength. Study of micro
structures by SEM of SCC reinforced with different fibers at different ages [10].

2. EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAMME
2.1. Materials
Portland slag cement of Konark brand available in the local market was used in the
present studies the physical properties of PSC obtained from the experimental
investigation were confirmed to IS: 455-1989[11]. The coarse aggregate used were 20
mm and 10 mm down size and collected from Quarry near Rourkela. Natural river
sand has been collected from Koel River, Rourkela, Orissa and conforming to the
Zone-III as per IS-383-1970[12], [13]. Elkem Micro Silica 920D is used as Silica
fume. Silica fume is among one of the most recent pozzolanic materials currently used
in concrete whose addition to concrete mixtures results in lower porosity,
permeability and bleeding because its fineness and pozzolanic reaction. The
SikaViscoCrete Premier from Sika is super plasticizer and viscosity modifying

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Study on The Mechanical Properties and Microstructure of Chopped Carbon Fiber Reinforced
Self Compacting Concrete

admixture, used in the present study [14], [15]. Potable water conforming to IS: 30251986 part 22 &23 [16] and IS 456-2000 was employed in the investigations [17].
Alkali resistant glass fiber having a modulus of elasticity of 72 GPA and 12mm length
was used. Carbon fiber of length 12mm was used in the investigations.
Table 1 Mechanical Properties of Carbon Fiber
Elastic
modulus(GPa)

Tensile
strength(MPa)

Elong. at
break(%)

1.80

243

4600

1.7

2.53

43-50

1950-2050

7-9

Fiber variety Length(mm) Density(g/cm3)


CARBON
GLASS

12
12

Figure 1 photograph of chopped carbon & glass fiber

2.2. Mixing and curing


The mixing of materials was properly mixing in a power operated concrete mixer.
Adding coarse aggregate, fine aggregates, cement and mixing it with silica fume were
properly mixing in the concrete mixer in dry state for a few seconds. Then the water
added and mixing it for three minutes[18]. During this time the air entraining agent
and the water reducer are also added. Dormant period was 5mins. To obtain the glass
fiber reinforced SCC, carbon fiber reinforced SCC the required fiber percentage was
added to the already prepared design mix, satisfying the fresh SCC requirements.
Fifty four numbers cubes(150150150)mm, twenty seven numbers
cylinders(150300)mm, fifty four numbers prisms(100100500)mm were cast and
investigations were conducted to study the mechanical behavior, fracture behavior,
microstructure of plain SCC, glass fiber reinforced SCC(GFC), carbon fiber
reinforced SCC(CFC). After casting was done the cubes were kept in room temp. For
24 hours then the moulds were removed and taken to the curing tank containing fresh
potable water to cure the specimen for 7 days and 28days.
Table 2 Adopted Mix Proportions of SCC
Cement
(kg/m3)

Silica
fume(kg/m3)

Water(kg/m3)

FA (kg/m3)

CA (kg/m3)

SP (kg/m3)

450.33

45.03

189.13

963.36

642.24

5.553

0.10

0.42

2.14

1.42

0.012

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2.3. Testing methods


To determine the fresh properties of SCC, different methods were developed. Slump
flow and V-Funnel tests have been proposed for testing the deformability and
viscosity respectively. L-Box test have been propose for determine the segregation
resistance. To determine the compressive strength[19], after the required curing
period of the specimen. So in total fifty four numbers cubes were casted to measure
the compressive strength after 7-days and 28-days. The size of the cube is as per the
IS code 10086-1982. To determine the split tensile strength, after the required curing
period of the specimen. So in total twenty seven numbers cylinders were casted to
measure the split tensile strength after 28-days. The flexural strength test was carried
out on a prism specimen of dimension 100mm100mm500mm as per IS
specification. So in total fifty four numbers prisms were cast to measure the flexural
strength after 28-days. The test instrument consists of a means of producing and
introducing a wave pulse into the concrete and a means of sensing the arrival of the
pulse and accurately measuring the time taken by the pulse to travel through the
concrete. The ductility can be measured by fracture behavior of FRSCC and to
determine fracture energy, prisms specimen of dimension 100mm100mm500mm
were cast with a notch of 5mm width (n0) and 30mm depth as per the specification for
the specimen. The schematic diagram of specimen and loading arrangement of test
setup shown in the Fig.2 & Fig. 3.During testing, Crack Mouth Opening
Displacement (CMOD) were noted using through two dial gauges as shown in fig. To
study the Microstructure of the mixes incorporated with different types of fibers SEM
analysis were conducted in SEM lab of MM dept. of NIT ROURKELA. The study
was done to determine the bond development and different period between different
fibers and cement matrix. The sample was cured for 7 and 28 days.

Figure 2 Schematic Diagram of Notched Prism Specimen

(a = 0.3D, n 5mm, L 3.5D, D 4d)


Source: Japan Concrete Institute Standard (JCI-S-001-2003)

Figure 3 Loading Arrangement for Fracture Test

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Study on The Mechanical Properties and Microstructure of Chopped Carbon Fiber Reinforced
Self Compacting Concrete

3. RESULT AND DISCUSSION


3.1. Fresh properties of SCC
The slump flow decreases with increase in fiber percentage. The decrease in flow
value is observed maximum 63.88% for carbon fiber, 26.38% for glass fiber and
27.77 %. This is because carbon fibers absorbed more water from the mix and beyond
0.2% fiber addition the mix did not satisfied the norms of self-compacting concrete.
Glass fibers absorb lowest water. The T50 flow, which was measured in terms of time
(seconds) increases as the slump flow value decreases. The decrease in slump value is
due to the increase in the percentage of fiber which was explained in previous section.
The maximum time taken to flow was observed at 0.1% for carbon fiber. The L-Box
value increases as the slump flow value increases. The increase in slump value is due
to the increase in the percentage of fiber as well as the L-Box value also increases.
The maximum value obtained in the case of control mix but as per SCC specification
0.1% carbon fiber fulfill the requirements. The V-Funnel test & T50 flow, which was
measured in terms of time (seconds) & both the value measured are dependent with
each other. V-Funnel value and T5 flow increases as the slump flow value decreases.
The decrease in slump value is due to the increase in the percentage of fiber. It was
observed that at 0.1% of carbon fiber the SCC specification were satisfied.
Table 3 Results of the Fresh Properties of Mixes
sample

Slump flow
500-750mm

T50 flow
2-5sec

L-Box(H2/H1)
0.8-1.0

V-Funnel
6-12sec

T5 Flow
+3sec

Remarks

720

1.6

0.96

Low viscosity
(Result Satisfied)

705

2.0

0.90

10

Result Satisfied

GFC-1.5
GFC-2

665

3.8

0.88

7.7

11

Result Satisfied

650

4.7

0.84

8.5

12

Result Satisfied

CFC-1

560

4.8

0.80

10

14

Result Satisfied

CFC-1.5

410

18

CFC-2

260

23

PSC
GFC-1

Too high viscosity


Blockage (RNS)
Too high viscosity
Blockage (RNS)

3.2. Compressive strength


Compared with the plain SCC the compressive strength reinforced with glass fiber of
volume fraction 0.15% increase by 1.76%. In this study the 7 days compressive
strength of glass fiber shows no obvious improvement. Compared with the plain SCC
the compressive strength reinforced with carbon fiber of 0.15% and 0.2% increase by
29.9% and 23.22% respectively.
Compared with plain SCC, 0.15% of GFC and CFC increase 10.52% and 47.6%
respectively. For 0.2% of GFC and CFC increase 15.21% and 35% respectively at 28
days compressive strength.

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(a)

(b)

Figure 2 (a) comparison of 7days compressive strength w.r.t fiber percentage (b) comparison
of 28days compressive strength w.r.t fiber percentage.

3.3. Split tensile strength


The percentage enhancement of split tensile strength for glass fiber over plain SCC is
17.31%, 20.73% when adding 0.15% & 0.2% respectively. The percentage
enhancement of split tensile strength for carbon fiber over plain SCC is 27.56% &
10.24% respectively.

Figure 3 comparison of 28days split tensile strength w.r.t fiber percentage

3.4. Flexural strength


All FRSCC specimens show an increase in flexural strength with increase in fiber
content. Compared with the plain SCC the enhanced percentage of the flexural
strength of carbon FRSCC were observed in the range of 2.03% to 67.16% while
0.15% gave maximum strength. Increase in flexural strength was observed in ranges
from 0.95% to 36.77% for GFC with the fiber percentage of 0.1% to 0.2%. Maximum
flexural strength 12.32MPa was observed for carbon FRCCC for 1.5% of fiber
percentage.

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Study on The Mechanical Properties and Microstructure of Chopped Carbon Fiber Reinforced
Self Compacting Concrete

Figure 4 comparison of strength effectiveness of flexural strength w.r.t different fiber


percentage
Table 4 Hardened Concrete Properties of SCC and FRSCC
Mixes
PSC
GFC-1
GFC-1.5
GFC-2
CFC-1
CFC-1.5
CFC-2

7-Day
compressive
strength (MPa)
33.185
24.88
33.77
32.89
24.44
43.11
40.89

28-days
compressive
strength (MPa)
40.89
40.89
46.19
47.11
42.22
62.22
55.2

28-days split
tensile strength
(MPa)
4.1
2.97
4.81
4.95
3.82
5.23
4.52

28-days flexural
strength (MPa)
7.37
7.44
9.74
10.08
7.52
12.32
10.54

3.5. Load-CMOD behavior


The load vs. crack mouth opening deflection diagrams obtained clearly proved that
addition of fibers to SCC increase ductility whereas control beam PSC exhibited
brittle behavior. The maximum increment was observed from carbon fiber than the
basalt and the lowest from the glass fiber. In each series the mix which gave
maximum compressive strength rendered maximum ductility. The area below the load
deflection curve represents toughness. Almost same pattern of behavior were
observed from all mixes. The observations made during the tests (LOAD-CMOD)
were used to draw the LOAD-CMOD curves. The ultimate load and the fracture
parameters were determined.

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(a)

(b)

Figure 5 load-CMOD curve for (a) carbon fiber reinforced SCC &(b) glass fiber reinforced
SCC

3.6. Microstructure Behavior


SEM test is the actual way to study the microstructure of the hydrated cement based
products. To assessment the bond characteristics of GFC & CFC mix at 7 and 28days,
the microstructure of FRSCC was studied by means of SEM.

(A)

(B)

Figure 6 SEM photographs for (A) 7-Days & (B) 28 days concrete & glass fiber matrix

(A)

(B)

Figure 7 SEM photographs for (A) 7-Days & (B) 28 days concrete & carbon fiber matrix

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Study on The Mechanical Properties and Microstructure of Chopped Carbon Fiber Reinforced
Self Compacting Concrete

Fig. shows the photographs of microstructure of fiber surfaces and hydrated


concrete matrix. It is observed from fig that glass and carbon fiber SCC surfaces
covered with densely hydrated concrete matrix than GFC.

4. CONCLUSION

Carbon fiber addition more than 2% made mix harsh which did not satisfy the aspects
like slump value, T50 test etc. required for self-compacting concrete.
Addition of fibers to self-compacting concrete improve mechanical properties like
compressive strength ,split tensile strength, flexural strength etc. of the mix.
There was an optimum percentage of each type of fiber, provided maximum
improvement in mechanical properties of SCC.
Mix having 0.15% carbon fiber, 0.2% of glass fiber were observed to increase the
mechanical properties to maximum.
0.15% addition of carbon fiber to SCC was observed to increase the 7-days
compressive strength by 29.9%, 28-days compressive strength by 47.6%, split tensile
strength by 27.56%, flexural strength by 67.16%.
2% addition of glass fiber to SCC was observed to increase the 7-days compressive
strength by 1.76%, 28-days compressive strength by 15.21%, split tensile strength by
20.73%, flexural strength by 36.77%.

The load vs. crack mouth opening displacement diagrams for FRSCC exhibited
increase in fracture energy properties of the mixes. This is owing to crack arresting
mechanism of the fibers in the matrix. In this regard the carbon fiber exhibited best
performance, and then glass fiber.

The SEM analysis of microstructure of FRSCC exhibited good physical bond


between all types of fiber and the hydrated matrix. A dense structure of matrix was
observed in each mixes owing to addition of silica fume. No apparent variation was
observed between mix of 7days and 28 days.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT
The experimental work was conducted at Structural Engineering lab of Civil
Engineering Department of NIT, Rourkela. The work involved mixing, casting and
testing of standard specimens.

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