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CHAPTER - I

INTRODUCTION

1.1 OVERVIEW
The most popular and widely used amongst all the categories of doors is the
motorized automated rolling shutter. The symbolic feature of our motorized rolling
shutters is its robust structure obtained due to the use of high strength metals in the
making of slate and guide profile. This feature acts as a shield and protection
against burglary, vandalism & storms. If on one hand these shutters require low
maintenance enabling very less inspection & manual attention then on the other
hand our motorized rolling shutters have very easy operation ensuring total
customer satisfaction. All these features are developed with vast years of
experience in the manufacturing of rolling shutters; we can be stated as one of the
oldest and the most trusted name in the manufacture of high grade and high
performance rolling shutters. The products are featured with a door curtain that
winds up very tightly and is suitable for a wide range of applications. Whether
they are installed outside or inside, laterally or overhead due to reduced space,
motorized automated rolling shutters are suitable for any structural situation.
Along with a wide range of accessories and at comparatively low prices our
rolling shutters are ultimate options for external as well as internal mounting
locations & keep the inner space safe and secure.

1.2 WORKING PRINCIPLE


The microcontroller compares the sensed electrical output signal from the
limit switch. The microcontroller sends the corresponding signal to the motor unit
which in turn operates the shutter accordingly. The signal from the microcontroller
operates the function of shutter accordingly. In our project the motor shaft is
connected with lead screw at the other end of the lead screw the shutter is mounted
with help of suitable nut arrangements. When the motor shaft is rotated the lead
screw also rotates. The rotary motion of the lead screw is converted in to linear
motion of the shutter. The shutter motion is limited with help of two limit
switches. When the limit switch is pressed by the shutter the supply to the motor is
stopped and the shutter movement is also stopped.
1.3 APPLICATIONS
This project is also useful to
Homes,
Colleges,
Industries
Commercial complex,
Malls/Multiplexes, etc.

CHAPTER II
LITERATURE REVIEW

The idea for the Shutter House came to life while much of Manhattan
experienced changes in urban development. The design began as a simple twostory renovation project, in 2005, when a well-known gallery owner Klemens
Gasser contacted Shigeru Ban. The rezoning of West Chelsea and the Meatpacking
District, as a result of the High Line development was the major urban
development change to influence the Shutter House design. The High Line
previously existed as an elevated industrial railroad, but after much debate, was
repurposed as a public park. In 1999, a non-profit group known as The Friends of
the High Line formed when threats of demolition loomed over the railroad
remnant. Today, Friends of the High Line along with the city of New York work
together to preserve the structure as a park.
Rezoning of Chelsea and the Meatpacking District greatly influenced the
Shutter House with an art-infused neighborhood. The Special West Chelsea
District was created in co-ordinance with rezoning plans, designated to encourage
significant economic and residential growth. Ban was commissioned by his client
the same year in which the rezoning of West Chelsea took place.
The rezoning of West Chelsea created great incentives for residential
development. These new opportunities influenced Ban and his client to scrap the
renovation plans and instead opt for a total rebuild. Although scheduled for
completion in 2008, construction was not completed until May 2011.

CHAPTER III
DESCRIPTION OF EQUIPMENTS

3.1 DESCRIPTION OF CONTROL SYSTEM

Fig 3.1 Description of control system

Fig 3.2 Shutter


Microcontrollers are destined to play an increasingly important role in
revolutionizing various industries and influencing our day to day life more
strongly than one can imagine. Since its emergence in the early 1980's the
microcontroller has been recognized as a general purpose building block for
intelligent digital systems. It is finding using diverse area, starting from simple
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children's toys to highly complex spacecraft. Because of its versatility and many
advantages, the application domain has spread in all conceivable directions,
making it ubiquitous. As a consequence, it has generate a great deal of interest and
enthusiasm among students, teachers and practicing engineers, creating an acute
education need for imparting the knowledge of microcontroller based system
design and development. It identifies the vital features responsible for their
tremendous impact; the acute educational need created by them and provides a
glimpse of the major application area.
Microcontrollers are used in automatically controlled products and devices,
such as automobile engine control systems, implantable medical devices, remote
controls, office machines, appliances, power tools, toys and other embedded
systems. By reducing the size and cost compared to a design that uses a separate
microprocessor, memory, and input/output devices, microcontrollers make it
economical to digitally control even more devices and processes. Mixed signal
microcontrollers are common, integrating analog components needed to control
non-digital electronic systems.
Some microcontrollers may use four-bit words and operate at clock rate
frequencies as low as 4 kHz, for low power consumption (milliwatts or
microwatts). They will generally have the ability to retain functionality while
waiting for an event such as a button press or other interrupt; power consumption
while sleeping (CPU clock and most peripherals off) may be just nanowatts,
making many of them well suited for long lasting battery applications. Other
microcontrollers may serve performance-critical roles, where they may need to act
more like a digital signal processor (DSP), with higher clock speeds and power
consumption.

3.2 AC MOTOR
An induction motor (IM) is a type of alternating current motor where power
is supplied to the rotating device by means of electromagnetic induction. It is also
called asynchronous motor.
An electric motor converts electrical power to mechanical power in its rotor
(rotating part). There are several ways to supply power to the rotor. In a DC motor
this power is supplied to the armature directly from a DC source, while in an
induction motor this power is induced in the rotating device. An induction motor is

Fig 3.3 AC motor


sometimes called a rotating transformer because the stator (stationary part)
is essentially the primary side of the transformer and the rotor (rotating part) is the

secondary side. Induction motors are widely used, especially polyphase induction
motors, which are frequently used in industrial drives.
Induction motors are now the preferred choice for industrial motors due to
their rugged construction, absence of brushes (which are required in most DC
motors) and thanks to modern power electronics the ability to control the
speed of the motor.

Fig 3.4 AC induction motor


An induction motor or asynchronous motor is a type of alternating current
motor where power is supplied to the rotor by means of electromagnetic induction.
[1]

An electric motor turns because of magnetic force exerted between a


stationary electromagnet called the stator and a rotating electromagnet called the
rotor. Different types of electric motors are distinguished by how electric current is
supplied to the moving rotor. In a DC motor and a slip-ring AC motor, current is
provided to the rotor directly through sliding electrical contacts called
commutators and slip rings. In an induction motor, by contrast, the current is
induced in the rotor without contacts by the magnetic field of the stator, through
electromagnetic induction. An induction motor is sometimes called a rotating
transformer because the stator (stationary part) is essentially the primary side of
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the transformer and the rotor (rotating part) is the secondary side. Unlike the
normal transformer which changes the current by using time varying flux,
induction motors use rotating magnetic fields to transform the voltage. The current
in the primary side creates an electromagnetic field which interacts with the
electromagnetic field of the secondary side to produce a resultant torque, thereby
transforming the electrical energy into mechanical energy. Induction motors are
widely used, especially polyphase induction motors, which are frequently used in
industrial drives.
Induction motors are now the preferred choice for industrial motors due to
their rugged construction, absence of brushes (which are required in most DC
motors) andthanks to modern power electronicsthe ability to control the speed
of the motor
Principle of operation and comparison to synchronous motors

Fig 3.5 Principle of operation and comparison to synchronous


motors
A 3-phase power supply provides a rotating magnetic field in an induction motor.
The basic difference between an induction motor and a synchronous AC
motor is that in the latter a current is supplied into the rotor (usually DC) which in
turn creates a (circular uniform) magnetic field around the rotor. The rotating
magnetic field of the stator will impose an electromagnetic torque on the still
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magnetic field of the rotor causing it to move (about a shaft) and rotation of the
rotor is produced. It is called synchronous because at steady state the speed of the
rotor is the same as the speed of the rotating magnetic field in the stator. By way of
contrast, the induction motor does not have any direct supply onto the rotor;
instead, a secondary current is induced in the rotor. To achieve this, stator
windings are arranged around the rotor so that when energised with a polyphase
supply they create a rotating magnetic field pattern which sweeps past the rotor.
This changing magnetic field pattern induces current in the rotor conductors.
These currents interact with the rotating magnetic field created by the stator and in
effect causes a rotational motion on the rotor.
3.3 AC INDUCTION MOTOR
Slip is calculated using:

where s is the slip.


The rotor speed is:

Synchronous Motor
A synchronous motor always runs at synchronous speed with 0% slip. The speed
of a synchronous motor is determined by the following formula:

where v is the speed of the rotor (in rpm), f is the frequency of the AC supply (in
Hz) and p is the number of magnetic poles.[3]
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For example, a 6 pole motor operating on 60 Hz power would have a speed of:

Note on the use of p - some texts refer to number of pole pairs per phase instead of
number of poles per phase. For example a 6 pole motor, operating on 60 Hz
power, would have 3 pole pairs. The equation of synchronous speed then becomes:

with P being the number of pole pairs. For P = 3 and

3.4 CONSTRUCTION
The stator consists of wound 'poles' that carry the supply current to induce a
magnetic field that penetrates the rotor. In a very simple motor, there would be a
single projecting piece of the stator (a salient pole) for each pole, with windings
around it; in fact, to optimize the distribution of the magnetic field, the windings
are distributed in many slots located around the stator, but the magnetic field still
has the same number of north-south alternations. The number of 'poles' can vary
between motor types but the poles are always in pairs (i.e. 2, 4, 6, etc.).
Induction motors are most commonly built to run on single-phase or threephase power, but two-phase motors also exist. In theory, two-phase and more than
three phase induction motors are possible; many single-phase motors having two
windings and requiring a capacitor can actually be viewed as two-phase motors,
since the capacitor generates a second power phase 90 degrees from the singlephase supply and feeds it to a separate motor winding. Single-phase power is more
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widely available in residential buildings, but cannot produce a rotating field in the
motor (the field merely oscillates back and forth), so single-phase induction
motors must incorporate some kind of starting mechanism to produce a rotating
field. They would, using the simplified analogy of salient poles, have one salient
pole per pole number; a four-pole motor would have four salient poles. Threephase motors have three salient poles per pole number, so a four-pole motor would
have twelve salient poles. This allows the motor to produce a rotating field,
allowing the motor to start with no extra equipment and run more efficiently than a
similar single-phase motor.
3.4.1 BEVEL GEAR
Bevel gears are gears where the axes of the two shafts intersect and the
tooth-bearing faces of the gears themselves are conically shaped. Bevel gears are
most often mounted on shafts that are 90 degrees apart, but can be designed to
work at other angles as well. The pitch surface of bevel gears is a cone.

Fig 3.6 Bevel Gear


Two important concepts in gearing are pitch surface and pitch angle. The
pitch surface of a gear is the imaginary toothless surface that you would have by
averaging out the peaks and valleys of the individual teeth. The pitch surface of an
ordinary gear is the shape of a cylinder. The pitch angle of a gear is the angle
between the face of the pitch surface and the axis.
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There are two issues regarding tooth shape. One is the cross-sectional
profile of the individual tooth. The other is the line or curve on which the tooth is
set on the face of the gear: in other words the line or curve along which the crosssectional profile is projected to form the actual three-dimensional shape of the
tooth. The primary effect of both the cross-sectional profile and the tooth line or
curve is on the smoothness of operation of the gears. Some result in a smoother
gear action than others.
3.4.2 STRAIGHT BEVEL GEAR
Straight bevel gears are used for transmitting power between intersecting
shafts. They can operate under high speeds and high loads. Their precision rating
is fair to good. They are suitable for 1:1 and higher velocity ratios and for rightangle meshes to any other angles. Their good choice is for right angle drive of
particularly low ratios. However, complicated both form and fabrication limits
achievement of precision. They should be located at one of the less critical meshes
of the train. Wide applications of the straight bevel drives are in automotive
differentials, right angle drives of blenders and conveyors.
3.4.3 SPIRAL BEVEL GEAR
Spiral bevel gears are also used for transmitting power between intersecting
shafts. Because of the spiral tooth, the contact length is more and contact ratio is
more.
They operate smoother than straight bevel gears and have higher load
capacity. But, their efficiency is slightly lower than straight bevel gear.

3.4.4 HYPOIDAL BEVEL GEAR

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These gears are also used for right angle drive in which the axes do not
intersect. This permits the lowering of the pinion axis which is an added advantage
in automobile in avoiding hump inside the automobile drive line power
transmission.
However, the non intersection introduces a considerable amount of sliding
and the drive requires good lubrication to reduce the friction and wear. Their
efficiency is lower than other two types of bevel gears. These gears are widely
used in current day automobile drive line power transmission.
3.4.5 Teeth
There are two issues regarding tooth shape. One is the cross-sectional profile of
the individual tooth. The other is the line or curve on which the tooth is set on the
face of the gear: in other words the line or curve along which the cross-sectional
profile is projected to form the actual three-dimensional shape of the tooth. The
primary effect of both the cross-sectional profile and the tooth line or curve is on
the smoothness of operation of the gears. Some result in a smoother gear action
than others.
3.4.6 Applications
The bevel gear has many diverse applications such as locomotives, marine
applications, automobiles, printing presses, cooling towers, power plants, steel
plants, railway track inspection machines, etc.
For examples, see the following articles on:
Bevel gears are used in differential drives, which can transmit power to two
axles spinning at different speeds, such as those on a cornering automobile.

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Bevel gears are used as the main mechanism for a hand drill. As the handle
of the drill is turned in a vertical direction, the bevel gears change the
rotation of the chuck to a horizontal rotation. The bevel gears in a hand drill
have the added advantage of increasing the speed of rotation of the chuck
and this makes it possible to drill a range of materials.
The gears in a bevel gear planer permit minor adjustment during assembly
and allow for some displacement due to deflection under operating loads
without concentrating the load on the end of the tooth.
Spiral bevel gears are important components on rotorcraft drive systems.
These components are required to operate at high speeds, high loads, and
for a large number of load cycles. In this application, spiral bevel gears are
used to redirect the shaft from the horizontal gas turbine engine to the
vertical rotor.
3.4.7 Advantages
This gear makes it possible to change the operating angle.
Differing of the number of teeth (effectively diameter) on each wheel
allows mechanical advantage to be changed. By increasing or decreasing
the ratio of teeth between the drive and driven wheels one may change the
ratio of rotations between the two, meaning that the rotational drive and
torque of the second wheel can be changed in relation to the first, with
speed increasing and torque decreasing, or speed decreasing and torque
increasing.

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3.4.8 HELICAL

Fig 3.7 Helical


Helical gears
Top: parallel configuration
Bottom: crossed configuration
Helical or "dry fixed" gears offer a refinement over spur gears. The leading
edges of the teeth are not parallel to the axis of rotation, but are set at an angle.
Since the gear is curved, this angling causes the tooth shape to be a segment of a
helix. Helical gears can be meshed in parallel or crossed orientations. The former
refers to when the shafts are parallel to each other; this is the most common
orientation. In the latter, the shafts are non-parallel, and in this configuration the
gears are sometimes known as "skew gears".
The angled teeth engage more gradually than do spur gear teeth, causing
them to run more smoothly and quietly.[9] With parallel helical gears, each pair of
teeth first make contact at a single point at one side of the gear wheel; a moving
curve of contact then grows gradually across the tooth face to a maximum then
recedes until the teeth break contact at a single point on the opposite side. In skew
gears, teeth suddenly meet at a line contact across their entire width causing stress
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and noise. Skew gears make a characteristic whine at high speeds. Whereas spur
gears are used for low speed applications and those situations where noise control
is not a problem, the use of helical gears is indicated when the application involves
high speeds, large power transmission, or where noise abatement is important.[10]
The speed is considered to be high when the pitch line velocity exceeds 25 m/s.[11]
A disadvantage of helical gears is a resultant thrust along the axis of the
gear, which needs to be accommodated by appropriate thrust bearings, and a
greater degree of sliding friction between the meshing teeth, often addressed with
additives in the lubricant.
3.4.9 Skew gears
For a 'crossed' or 'skew' configuration, the gears must have the same
pressure angle and normal pitch; however, the helix angle and handedness can be
different. The relationship between the two shafts is actually defined by the helix
angle(s) of the two shafts and the handedness, as defined:[12]
for gears of the same handedness
for gears of opposite handedness
Where

is the helix angle for the gear. The crossed configuration is less

mechanically sound because there is only a point contact between the gears,
whereas in the parallel configuration there is a line contact.[12]
Quite commonly, helical gears are used with the helix angle of one having
the negative of the helix angle of the other; such a pair might also be referred to as
having a right-handed helix and a left-handed helix of equal angles. The two equal
but opposite angles add to zero: the angle between shafts is zerothat is, the
shafts are parallel. Where the sum or the difference (as described in the equations

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above) is not zero the shafts are crossed. For shafts crossed at right angles, the
helix angles are of the same hand because they must add to 90 degrees.
3.4.10 LEAD SCREW

Fig 3.8 Lead Screw


A leadscrew (or lead screw), also known as a power screw or translation
screw, is a screw designed to translate turning motion into linear motion. Common
applications are Linear actuators, machine slides (such as in machine tools), vises,
presses, and jacks.Leadscrews are manufactured in the same way as other thread
forms.A lead screw can be used in conjunction with a split nut. A leadscrew nut
and screw mate with rubbing surfaces, and consequently they have a relatively
high friction and stiction compared to mechanical parts which mate with rolling
surfaces and bearings. Leadscrew efficiency is typically between 25 and 70%, with
higher pitch screws tending to be more efficient. A higher performing but more
expensive alternative is the ball screw.
The high internal friction means that leadscrew systems are not usually
capable of continuous operation at high speed, as they will overheat. Due to
inherently high stiction, the typical screw is self-locking (i.e. when stopped, a
linear force on the nut will not apply a torque to the screw) and are often used in

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applications where backdriving is unacceptable, like holding vertical loads or in


hand cranked machine tools.
Leadscrews are typically used well greased, but, with an appropriate nut,
they may be run dry with somewhat higher friction. There is often a choice of nuts,
and manufacturers will specify screw and nut combination as a set.
The mechanical advantage of a leadscrew is determined by the screw pitch
and lead. For multi-start screws the mechanical advantage is lower, but the
traveling speed is higher.
Backlash can be reduced with the use of a second nut, or a tensioning
spring, to create a static loading force known as preload; alternately, the nut can be
cut across its diameter and preloaded by clamping that cut back together.
A leadscrew with a sufficiently high helix angle can back drive: forces on
the nut applied parallel to such a leadscrew will cause the leadscrew, if it is not
otherwise held in place, to rotate. Such a tendency to backdrive depends on the
thread helix angle, coefficient of friction of the interface of the components
(screw/nut) and the included angle of the thread form. In general, a steel acme
thread and bronze nut will back drive when the helix angle of the thread is greater
than 20.
The advantages of a lead screw are:
Large load carrying capability
Compact
Simple to design
Easy to manufacture; no specialized machinery is required
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Large mechanical advantage


Precise and accurate linear motion
Smooth, quiet, and low maintenance
Minimal number of parts
Most are self-locking
3.4.11 LIMIT SWITCHES
In electrical engineering a limit switch is a switch operated by the motion of a
machine part or presence of an object. They are used for control of a machine, as
safety interlocks, or to count objects passing a point. [1]

Fig 3.9 Limit Switch


A limit switch with a roller-lever operator; this is installed on a gate on a
canal lock, and indicates the position of a gate to a control system.
Standardized limit switches are industrial control components manufactured
with a variety of operator types, including lever, roller plunger, and whisker type.
Limit switches may be directly mechanically operated by the motion of the
operating lever. A reed switch may be used to indicate proximity of a magnet
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mounted on some moving part. The class of proximity switches operates by the
disturbance of an electromagnetic field, by capacitance, or by sensing a magnetic
field (e.g., a Hall-effect sensor).
Rarely, a final operating device will be directly controlled by the contacts of
an industrial limit switch, but more typically the limit switch will be wired through
a control relay, a motor contactor control circuit, or as an input to a programmable
logic controller.
Miniature snap-action switch may be used for example as components of
such devices as photocopiers or computer printers, to ensure internal components
are in the correct position for operation and to prevent operation when access
doors are opened. A set of adjustable limit switches are installed on a Garage door
opener to shut off the motor when the door has reached the fully raised or fully
lowered position. A numerical control machine such as a lathe will have limit
switches to identify maximum limits for machine parts or to provide a known
reference point for incremental motions.
3.4.12 MILD STEEL:
Steel is an alloy of iron, with carbon being the primary alloying element, up
to 2.1% by weight. Carbon, other elements, and inclusions within iron act as
hardening agents that prevent the movement of dislocations that naturally exist in
the iron atom crystal lattices. Varying the amount of alloying elements, their form
in the steel either as solute elements, or a precipitated phases, retards the
movement of those dislocations that make iron so ductile and so weak, and so it
controls qualities such as the hardness, ductility, and tensile strength of the
resulting steel. Steel can be made stronger than pure iron, but only by trading away
ductility, of which iron has an excess.

21

Although steel had been produced in bloomery furnaces for thousands of


years, steel's use expanded extensively after more efficient production methods
were devised in the 17th century for blister steel and then crucible steel. With the
invention of the Bessemer process in the mid-19th century, a new era of massproduced steel began. This was followed by Siemens-Martin process and then
Gilchrist-Thomas process that refined the quality of steel. With their introductions,
mild steel replaced wrought iron.

Fig 3.10 Shutter Steel


Further refinements in the process, such as basic oxygen steelmaking
(BOS), further lowered the cost of production, while increasing the quality of the
metal and largely replaced earlier methods. Today, steel is one of the most
common materials in the world, with more than 1.3 billion tons produced annually.
It is a major component in buildings, infrastructure, tools, ships, automobiles,
machines, appliances, and weapons. Modern steel is generally identified by
various grades defined by assorted standards organizations.

22

Definitions and related materials the carbon content of steel is between


0.002% and 2.1% by weight. Too little carbon content leaves (pure) iron quite soft,
ductile, and weak. Carbon contents higher than those of steel make an alloy
commonly called pig iron that is brittle and not malleable. Alloy steel is steel to
which additional alloying elements have been intentionally added to modify the
characteristics of steel. Common alloying elements include: manganese, nickel,
chromium, molybdenum, boron, titanium, vanadium, and niobium. Additional
elements may be present in steel: manganese, phosphorus, sulfur, silicon, and
traces of oxygen, nitrogen, and aluminum.
Alloys with a higher than 2.1% carbon content, depending on other element
content and possibly on processing, are known as cast iron. Cast iron is not
malleable even when hot, but it can be formed by casting as it has a lower melting
point than steel and good castability properties.[1] Steel is also distinguishable from
wrought iron (now largely obsolete), which may contain a small amount of carbon
but large amounts of slag. Note that the percentages of carbon and other elements
quoted are on a weight basis.
Material properties

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Fig 3.11 Material properties

Iron-carbon phase diagram, showing the conditions necessary to form


different phases Iron is found in the Earth's crust only in the form of an ore,
usually an iron oxide, such as magnetite, hematite etc. Iron is extracted from iron
ore by removing the oxygen by combining it with a preferred chemical partner
such as carbon that is lost to the atmosphere as carbon dioxide.
This process, known as smelting, was first applied to metals with lower
melting points, such as tin, which melts at approximately 250 C (482 F) and
copper, which melts at approximately 1,100 C (2,010 F). In comparison, cast
iron melts at approximately 1,375 C (2,507 F).[2] Small quantities of iron were
smelted in ancient times, in the solid state, by heating the ore buried in a charcoal
fire and welding the metal together with a hammer, squeezing out the impurities.
With care, the carbon content could be controlled by moving it around in the fire.

24

The density of steel varies based on the alloying constituents but usually
ranges between 7,750 and 8,050 kg/m3 (484 and 503 lb/cu ft), or 7.75 and
8.05 g/cm3 (4.48 and 4.65 oz/cu in).[4]
Heat treatment
Main article: Heat treating carbon steel
There are many types of heat treating processes available to steel. The most
common are annealing and quenching and tempering. Annealing is the process of
heating the steel to a sufficiently high temperature to soften it. This process goes
through three phases: recovery, recrystallization, and grain growth. The
temperature required to anneal steel depends on the type of annealing and the
constituents of the alloy.
Quenching and tempering first involves heating the steel to the austenite
phase then quenching it in water or oil. This rapid cooling results in a hard but
brittle martensitic structure.[8] The steel is then tempered, which is just a
specialized type of annealing.
3.5 MICROCONTROLLER (8051)
Microcontroller manufacturers have been competing for a long time for
attracting choosy customers and every couple of days a new chip with a higher
operating frequency, more memory and upgraded A/D converters appeared on the
market.
However, most of them had the same or at least very similar architecture
known in the world of microcontrollers as 8051 compatible. What is all this
about?
The whole story has its beginnings in the far 80s when Intel launched the
first series of microcontrollers called the MCS 051. Even though these
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microcontrollers had quite modest features in comparison to the new ones, they
conquered the world very soon and became a standard for what nowadays is called
the microcontroller.
The main reason for their great success and popularity is a skillfully chosen
configuration which satisfies different needs of a large number of users allowing at
the same time constant expansions (refers to the new types of microcontrollers).
Besides, the software has been developed in great extend in the meantime, and it
simply was not profitable to change anything in the microcontrollers basic core.
This is the reason for having a great number of various microcontrollers which
basically are solely upgraded versions of the 8051 family. What makes this
microcontroller so special and universal so that almost all manufacturers all over
the world manufacture it today under different name?

Fig 3.12 8051 pin description


As seen in figure above, the 8051 microcontroller has nothing impressive in
appearance:
4 Kb of ROM is not much at all.
128b of RAM (including SFRs) satisfies the user's basic needs.

26

4 ports having in total of 32 input/output lines are in most cases sufficient


to make all necessary connections to peripheral environment.
The whole configuration is obviously thought of as to satisfy the needs of most
programmers working on development of automation devices. One of its
advantages is that nothing is missing and nothing is too much. In other words, it is
created exactly in accordance to the average users taste and needs. Another
advantages are RAM organization, the operation of Central Processor Unit (CPU)
and ports which completely use all recourses and enable further upgrade.

27

Fig 3.13 8051 Architecture

28

CHAPTER-IV
DESIGN OF EQUIPMENT AND DRAWING

4.1 COMPONENTS
The automatic dam shutter is consists of the following components to full
fill the requirements of complete operation of the machine.
1. Motor
2. Limits switch
3. Bevel and helical gear
4. Control unit

Fig 4.1 Drawing for Automatic Shutter Control System

29

CHAPTER-V
LIST OF MATERIALS

5.1 FACTORS DETERMINING THE CHOICE OF MATERIALS


The various factors which determine the choice of material are discussed
below.
5.1.1 Properties:
The material selected must possess the necessary properties for the
proposed application. The various requirements to be satisfied can be weight,
surface finish, rigidity, ability to withstand environmental attack from
chemicals, service life, reliability etc.
The following four types of principle properties of materials decisively
affect their selection
a. Physical
b. Mechanical
c. From manufacturing point of view
d. Chemical
The various physical properties concerned are melting point, thermal Conductivity,
specific heat, coefficient of thermal expansion, specific gravity, electrical
conductivity, magnetic purposes etc. The various Mechanical properties
Concerned are strength in tensile, Compressive shear, bending, torsional and
buckling load, fatigue resistance, impact resistance, eleastic limit, endurance limit,
and modulus of elasticity, hardness, wear resistance and sliding properties.
The various properties concerned from the manufacturing point of view are,

30

Cast ability
Weld ability
Surface properties
Shrinkage
Deep drawing etc.
5.1.2. Manufacturing case:
Sometimes the demand for lowest possible manufacturing cost or surface
qualities obtainable by the application of suitable coating substances may demand
the use of special materials.
5.1.3. Quality Required:
This generally affects the manufacturing process and ultimately the
material. For example, it would never be desirable to go casting of a less number
of components which can be fabricated much more economically by welding or
hand forging the steel.
5.1.4. Availability of Material:
Some materials may be scarce or in short supply. It then becomes
obligatory for the designer to use some other material which though may not be a
perfect substitute for the material designed. the delivery of materials and the
delivery date of product should also be kept in mind.
5.1.5. Space consideration:
Sometimes high strength materials have to be selected because the forces involved
are high and space limitations are there.
5.1.6. Cost:

31

As in any other problem, in selection of material the cost of material plays


an important part and should not be ignored.
Sometimes factors like scrap utilization, appearance, and non-maintenance
of the designed part are involved in the selection of proper materials.
S.No

DESCIRPTION

QTY

Material

Motor

C.I

Float sensor

Electronic

Limits switch

Electric

Control unit

Electronic

Table 5.1 Cost estimating material

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CHAPTER VI
COST ESTIMATION

1. MATERIAL COST.
S.No

DESCRIPTION

QTY

MATERIAL

AMOUNT
(Rs)

Motor

C.I

Float sensor

Electronic

Limits switch

Electric

Control unit

Electronic

Table 6.1 Cost estimation


2. LABOUR COST:
Lathe, drilling, welding, drinding, power hacksaw, gas cutting cost
3. OVERGHEAD CHARGES:
The overhead charges are arrived by manufacturing cost
Manufacturing Cost

=Material Cost +Labour Cost

Overhead Charges

=20%of the manufacturing cost

4. TOTAL COST:
Total cost = Material Cost +Labour Cost +Overhead Charges
Total cost for this project =
CHAPTER VII
CONCLUSION
33

The project carried out by us made an impressing task in the field of dam
shutter is water level controlling place. It is very usefully for the workers to work
in the shutter controller are in the service station.
This project has also reduced the cost involved in the concern. Project has
been designed to perform the entire requirement task which has also been
provided.

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