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Quality Assurance for

Acidizing Treatments

Part No. 101765409

All information contained in this publication is confidential and proprietary property of


Halliburton Energy Services, Inc. Any reproduction or use of these instructions, drawings,
or photographs without the express written permission of an officer of Halliburton is forbidden.
2009 Halliburton
All Rights Reserved. Printed in the United States of America.
Part No. 101765409
Printing History:
First Release (March 2009)

Quality Assurance for Acidizing Treatments

Table of Contents
Section 1: Introduction and Safety
Overview............................................................................................................................................ 1-1
Safety .................................................................................................................................................1-2
Hydrogen Chloride (HCl) Acid Safety .........................................................................................1-2
Hydrogen Fluoride (HF) Acid Safety ........................................................................................... 1-3
Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) Safety .................................................................................................... 1-4
Emergency-Spill Procedure for Acid............................................................................................ 1-5
Section 2: On-Site Quality Assurance Standards for Acidizing Treatments
Overview............................................................................................................................................ 2-1
Pre-Mobilization Preparation............................................................................................................. 2-1
Job Preparation .................................................................................................................................. 2-4
During-Job Requirements .................................................................................................................. 2-8
Post-Job Requirements ...................................................................................................................... 2-9
Section 3: Acidizing Treatment Laboratory Procedures
Overview............................................................................................................................................ 3-1
Sampling Chemicals/Water ............................................................................................................... 3-2
Measuring Temperature ..................................................................................................................... 3-3
Measuring Specific Gravity ............................................................................................................... 3-4
Measuring pH .................................................................................................................................... 3-5
Acid-Strength Test.............................................................................................................................3-6
Additive Solubility/Dispersibility Test............................................................................................ 3-10
Blend-Compatibility Test ................................................................................................................ 3-11
Emulsion Break Test........................................................................................................................ 3-13
Sludge Test ......................................................................................................................................3-15

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Quality Assurance for Acidizing Treatments

Section 4: Acid Systems


Carbnate 20/20 Acidizing Service................................................................................................. 4-2
Zonal Coverage Acid (ZCA) System ....................................................................................... 4-3
Hot Rock Acid (HRA).............................................................................................................. 4-6
Carbonate Completion Acid (CCA) System ............................................................................ 4-8
Fines Recovery Acid System.................................................................................................. 4-11
Carbonate Emulsion Acid (CEA) Service.............................................................................. 4-14
Carbonate Stimulation Acid (CSA) Service........................................................................... 4-17
Sandstone 2000 Acidizing Service.............................................................................................. 4-20
Sandstone Completion Acid System ...................................................................................... 4-21
Fines Control Acid System..................................................................................................... 4-24
K-Spar Acid............................................................................................................................ 4-26
Volcanic Acid System ............................................................................................................ 4-28
Silica Scale Acid System........................................................................................................ 4-31
Appendix A: Hazardous Material and PPE Selection Matrix
Appendix B: Acidizing On-Site QC Example Forms
Appendix C: Acidizing Equipment Check Example Forms
Appendix D: Change Request Form

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Table of Contents

March 2009

SECTION
Section

Preface

Introduction and Safety


Overview
This document is intended to provide a global standard set of procedures for performing acidizing
jobs. The objective is to improve the execution of designs being pumped down the well, to increase
productivity, to have consistency in the methods used by Halliburton at different locations, and to
provide top-quality service to our customers.
Quality control (QC) is the process of ensuring that the materials and equipment meet specifications
and are delivered in proper condition at the well site. It is also important to ensure that the fluids
prepared on location have similar properties to the fluids selected on the basis of the initial laboratory
tests and to the parameters used in the design. Failure to carry out these quality-control checks can
result in the treatment not being pumped exactly as designed.
By implementing standard operating procedures for pre-job testing, during-job testing, real-time
monitoring, and post-job reporting, along with appropriate safety precautions, Halliburton can help
create a consistent, stable, safe, and environmentally acceptable work place. Providing all field
personnel with quality assurance and QC guidelines for acidizing operations can help ensure that the
customer receives exactly what the job proposal stipulates.

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Introduction and Safety

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Safety
Hydrogen Chloride (HCl) Acid Safety
Introduction
HCl acid can cause eye, skin, and respiratory burns, and it is harmful if swallowed.
Personal Protection Equipment (PPE)

Engineering Controls: Use in a well-ventilated area. Local exhaust ventilation should be used in
areas without good cross ventilation.

Hand Protection: See Appendix A to select appropriate gloves.

Skin Protection: Use full protective chemical-resistant clothing and rubber boots. (See Appendix
A).

Eye Protection: Wear chemical goggles and also a face shield if a splashing hazard exists.

Respiratory Protection: See Appendix A to select appropriate respiratory protection (respirator).

Other Precautions: Eyewash fountains and safety showers must be easily accessible.
Note

See Appendix A for proper PPE selection. Select the PPE for the most stringent
chemical exposure situation.

First Aid Measures

Inhalation: If inhaled, remove victim to fresh air. If victim is not breathing, give artificial
respiration, preferably mouth-to-mouth. If breathing is difficult, give oxygen. Get medical
attention.

Skin: In case of contact, immediately flush skin with plenty of soap and water for at least 15
minutes. Get medical attention. Remove contaminated clothing. Clothes contaminated with
chemicals should be thoroughly washed before wearing them again.
Note

Eyes: In case of contact or suspected contact, immediately flush eyes with plenty of water for at
least 15 minutes. Keep a premixed solution of 1 tsp of soda (sodium bicarbonate) and 1 pt of water
to flush the eyes. Get medical attention immediately.
Note

1-2

Apply sodium-bicarbonate solution at burn site, rubbing continuously.

When washing eyes, use a gentle flow of water when rinsing. A heavy stream of water
could damage the eyes. DO NOT use dry soda in the eyes.

Ingestion: Do not induce vomiting. Slowly dilute with 1 to 2 glasses of water or milk and seek
medical attention. Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person.

Introduction and Safety

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Quality Assurance for Acidizing Treatments

Hydrogen Fluoride (HF) Acid Safety


Introduction
HF acid is an extremely hazardous liquid. It can cause severe skin and eye irritation or deep-seated,
slow-to-heal burns (the acid penetrates the skin and attacks the bones). In certain cases, exposure can
prove fatal. For any major exposure to HF, immediate paramedic assistance is necessary.
PPE

Engineering Controls: Use in a well-ventilated area. Local exhaust ventilation should be used in
areas without good cross ventilation.

Hand Protection: See Appendix A to select appropriate gloves.

Skin Protection: Use full protective chemical-resistant clothing and rubber boots. (See Appendix
A).

Eye Protection: Wear chemical goggles and also a face shield if a splashing hazard exists.

Respiratory Protection: See Appendix A to select appropriate respiratory protection (respirator).

Other Precautions: Eyewash fountains and safety showers must be easily accessible. Calciumgluconate gel should be available on location.
Note

See Appendix A for proper PPE selection. Select the PPE for the most stringent
chemical exposure situation.

First Aid Measures

Skin: Skin contact with HF can cause severe burns. In case of contact, follow this procedure:
1. Remove the victim to a safe location. Use PPE when handling a contaminated victim.
2. Immediately flush the exposed skin with plenty of soap and water for at least 15 minutes. It is
critical to apply antidote as soon as possible.
3. Remove contaminated clothing while flushing exposed skin. Cut away clothing, if necessary,
to avoid injuring affected skin.
4. After adequate 15-minute rinsing, apply 2.5% calcium-gluconate gel to the skin gently and
freely. While wearing gloves, aggressively massage the gel into the affected area and continue
to reapply and massage until pain is entirely relieved. If medical assistance is delayed, apply gel
every 15 minutes until pain and/or redness disappear, or until the emergency rescue team
arrives. Get medical attention.
Note

Calcium gluconate is a topical gel used for treating HF-acid burns to the body. The
immediate use of calcium-gluconate gel can be extremely beneficial in reducing burn
damage to bone and deep tissue, and it can help relieve pain almost immediately.

Eyes: HF acid can cause severe eye burns, resulting in destruction or opacification of the cornea.
Blindness can result from severe or untreated exposures. Immediate first aid is necessary.

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In case of contact or suspected contact, follow this procedure:


1. Immediately flush eyes with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes.
2. Irrigate the eye repeatedly with 500 to 1000 mL of a 1% calcium gluconate solution (mix
calcium gluconate with water) applied through a syringe.
3. Get medical attention as soon as possible.

Inhalation: HF acid produces pungent fumes on contact with air. These fumes can cause severe
problems if inhaled. If fumes are inhaled, remove the victim to fresh air. If the victim is not
breathing, give artificial respiration, preferably mouth-to-mouth. If breathing is difficult, give
oxygen. Get medical attention.

Ingestion: Do not induce vomiting. Slowly dilute with 1 to 2 glasses of water or milk and seek
medical attention. Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person.

Important

Do not store samples of HF acid in glass jars/beakers. Always use plastic. Proper PPE
must be worn by all personnel when handling HF acid.

Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) Safety


Introduction
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a highly toxic, colorless gas, heavier than air, with the odor of rotten eggs. It
is an irritating gas with a pungent odor that forms explosive mixtures with air. The maximum allowable
concentration in an 8-hour day is 10 ppm of air (0.001% concentration of the gas). Death can occur
rapidly with exposure to 600 ppm (0.05% H2S).
PPE

Respiratory Protection: Positive-pressure self-contained breathing apparatus.

Hand Protection: Impervious rubber gloves.

Skin Protection: Normal work coveralls.

Eye Protection: Safety glasses.

Other Precautions: Eyewash fountains and safety showers must be easily accessible.

First Aid Measures

Inhalation: If inhaled, quickly remove the victim to fresh air (rescuers must be careful). If the
victim is not breathing, give artificial respiration, preferably mouth-to-mouth. Get medical
attention.

Skin: In case of contact, immediately flush skin with plenty of soap and water for at least 15
minutes. Get medical attention. Remove contaminated clothing and thoroughly wash clothes before
reuse.

Eyes: In case of contact or suspected contact, immediately flush eyes with plenty of water for at
least 15 minutes and seek medical attention immediately after flushing.

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Warning

Exposure to H2S can be deadly. Avoid unnecessary risks. Be aware of the


concentration of gas present before doing any work.

Important

The only way to determine the amount of H2S present is to test with an approved H2S
detector. Do not rely solely on sense of smell.

Note

Always be prepared for H2S when treating limestone or dolomite formations.

Emergency-Spill Procedure for Acid


Introduction
An emergency-spill procedure is required to provide guidance on the appropriate course of action to be
taken in the event of an acid spill. It is important to ensure that the risk relating to the spill of any
substance is effectively assessed and managed to help protect personnel and the environment. This can
be achieved by ensuring that the job safety analysis (JSA) documents contain the proper procedures for
the appropriate response in the event of an acid leak:

Minor leaks from hoses/connections

Major leaks from acid storage tanks

After an acid spill is observed, the level of response required depends on the severity of the incident,
which should initially be assessed by the person discovering the spill and then communicated to the field
supervisor.
All acid spills have the potential to harm human health and the environment. Care should be taken at all
stages to ensure that:

Personnel do not place themselves at risk

Damage to the environment is minimized and controlled

Spill Management
When preparing the JSA, remember to consider these steps to follow in the event of spill on location:
1. The reporting procedure needs to be clearly identified, including emergency contact telephone
numbers and reporting to higher management. Also, be aware of the customer requirements.
2. Secure your own safety first. Inform all personnel in the area and evacuate nonessential persons
from the spill area.
3. Barricade the area with barrier tape to prevent traffic (people or equipment) from going through the
spill area.
4. If you are qualified and trained, assess the spill type (minor or major) by identifying the material
spilled (check the container label), and then approximate the quantity spilled.

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5. Check the label on the container and identify any hazardous properties of the chemical (hazard
symbol, risk phrases, and safety phrases). Make sure MSDS is available and refer to the MSDS for
details.
6. Identify appropriate PPE to protect you from exposure to the chemical and wear required PPE.
7. Contain and neutralize the spill.
a. Spill containment.
i. Stop the source of the spill by shutting valves or temporarily plugging any holes (if this
can be done safely).
ii. Prevent the spill from contaminating surface/water drains if they can be safely accessed.
iii. Use sand or soda ash/sodium bicarbonate to form a bund around the spill to limit it from
spreading before attempting to neutralize.
b. Spill neutralization.
i. Once the spill is contained, neutralize the spill using a reasonable quantity of soda
ash/sodium bicarbonate. Use the information in Table 1.1 as a guideline for the required
amount of agent needed to neutralize the acid.
Warning

1-6

Significant heat will be generated as the acid is being neutralized. Spontaneous


combustion (fire) can occur during neutralization if materials are added
quickly. Allow time for heat to dissipate.

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Quality Assurance for Acidizing Treatments

Table 1.1Amount of Agent Required to Neutralize Acid


Neutralizing Agent for 1,000 gal of Acid
Sodium
Carbonate
(Soda Ash or
K-35
Buffering
Agent), lb

Sodium
Bicarbonate
(K-34
Breaker), lb

Calcium
Carbonate
(Limestone),
lb

122

193

115

245

388

231

369

584

348

494

783

466

620

983

586

748

1,186

706

7.5

942

1,492

889

1,007

1,596

951

1,139

1,805

1,075

10

1,271

2,015

1,200

11

1,405

2,227

1,327

12

1,540

2,441

1,454

13

1,676

2,657

1,582

14

1,814

2,874

1,712

15

1,952

3,094

1,843

16

2,092

3,316

1,975

17

2,233

3,539

2,108

% HCl Acid
Strength

ii. Ensure plenty of water is available to dilute acid remaining in tanks, to dilute spills, or
to flush lines of acid.
8. If any solid waste is left once the spill has been contained and neutralized, transfer the solid waste
to a suitable waste container. Clearly label the waste container with the identity of the spilled chemical and the appropriate hazard warning (e.g. corrosive).
9. Arrange for the collection and disposal of the waste through the person responsible for waste management.

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1-8

Introduction and Safety

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SECTION
Section

12

Preface

On-Site Quality Assurance Standards for Acidizing Treatments


Overview
This section presents a summary of the tests to be performed before, during, and after the job. The
detailed procedures and format to be used to record the data and results are given in Section 3 and
Appendix B and Appendix C.

Pre-Mobilization Preparation
Equipment Testing

Check all the equipment (acid tank, batch mixer, pump-tank lining, acid transport-trailer, etc.)

Inspect hoses carefully. Ensure that appropriate hose is being used for the job (usually Parker
Polyflex hose is used for acid jobs).

Tank Lining: Tank linings are essential when transporting corrosive chemicals, such as acid.
Linings increase the life of the tank and help to ensure the chemical's integrity. A brief
description of various tank linings is given below:
TNEMEC (vinyl ester coating) Lining: Contains Derakane resins (primer coat is Derakane
8084 and topcoat is Derakane 470). This lining is especially suited for HCl acid transport. It
is not compatible with solvents, such as xylene.
Note

These tanks should not be used for storing chemicals. They are only intended for
transporting of chemicals.

FRP Lining: Fiberglass-reinforced plastic, sometimes called glass-reinforced plastic (GRP),


uses the same Derakane resin system as TNEMEC lining but contains three separate layers
of glass reinforcement for added structural integrity, along with two layers of polyester or
Nexus veils for added chemical resistance. This lining is thicker than the TNEMEC lining. It
is the best liner for carrying both inhibited and non-inhibited acid.
Important

March 2009

This lining is capable of resisting toluene or xylene up to 120F.

On-Site Quality Assurance Standards for Acidizing Treatments

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Polyethylene: This lining is suitable for almost all chemicals that Halliburton pumps. However,
some chemicals (especially solvents, such as xylene) will permeate and absorb into the
polyethylene. This absorption does not degrade the liner, but will cause some swelling and
possibly contamination.
Natural Rubber: This lining should be used for tanks that are used only for storing
concentrations of HCl acid without additives.
Important

Natural rubber will fail if solvents or acids containing a small amount of


solvents (xylene or toluene) are stored in the tank. Also, small amounts of
organic-based liquids, such as acetic acid and formic acid, will cause the liner
to fail.

Note

If a natural-rubber-lined tank is left empty for more than one month, it should
be filled with a weak salt solution or purged with nitrogen. Air (ozone) will
prematurely deteriorate the liner.

Recommendations

Whenever possible, inspect tank lining before use.

Avoid using chemicals incompatible with the lining.


Do not use solvents (xylene or toluene) with TNEMEC, polyethylene, or natural rubber lining.
Note

Use the following reference to help determine the compatibility of a tank lining
with particular acid systems:
http://halworld.corp.halliburton.com/HES/HESMFG/HESMFG_Catalog/HE
SMFG_Catalog_content/HESMFG_Catalog_pe/PE1D2/Chemical%20Comp
atibility.asp

Raw-Acid Testing
The raw-acid supplier should provide acid that meets the Halliburton specifications given in Table 2.1.
The Halliburton field lab will not be able to cross-check all of the components listed in the table. At a
minimum, the density and raw-acid strength should be confirmed before a batch of acid is accepted. The
procedure for determining acid strength and specific gravity is provided in Section 3.
Raw-acid strength can also be checked before a blend is mixed.

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Quality Assurance for Acidizing Treatments

Table 2.1Specifications for Raw/Stock Acid

Note

Components

Maximum Allowable
Concentration, ppm

Sulfate

400

Iron

20

Fluorides

25

Sulfites

100

Arsenic

Copper

Total other heavy metals

Organic chlorides

Organics (benzene, surfactants etc.)

Free chlorine and bromine

Acid suppliers must provide acid that meets these specifications. If the acid does not
meet these specifications, the supplier needs permission from Halliburton before
attempting to deliver.

Pre-Job Inventory

Before beginning a job, prepare a list of the chemicals/additives required for the job.

All of these chemicals/additives must be documented by strap reading, and the results should be
recorded on the Inventory QC Form in Appendix B.

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Job Preparation
General Mixing Guidelines
When mixing acid blends, the general guideline for the order of addition is as follows:
1. Water
2. Dispersant and/or mutual solvents
3. Corrosion inhibitor
4. Acid
5. Surfactant/ nonemulsifier/ antisludge agent
6. Iron-control additives
Important

Always add water first.

Important

Mixing until the solution is homogeneous is essential after the addition of each
chemical. Failure to do so will not always result in a problem, but will certainly
improve the chances of a problem occurring. Note: "Roading" the acid is not
sufficient to ensure a uniform solution.

Important

Iron-control chemicals in water will invariably lead to precipitates; therefore, ironcontrol additives should be added after the addition of the acid.
It is recommended that iron-reducing agents (FDP-S769-05 and Fe-5A
iron-reducing agent) be added immediately before pumping downhole or on-the-fly.
These agents react with oxygen and become ineffective. Limit the contact with
entrained air or dissolved oxygen as much as possible.
Iron-chelating agents (Fe-2 buffering agent) or pH-control agents (Fe-1A) can be
added at any time during the process. Either could be added before the HCl acid is
added but after the corrosion inhibitor has been added to the water.

Important

Consult the appropriate Technology Bulletin for the order of addition for specific
intensifiers (such as HII-500M, HII-600, HII-124C, and HII-124T
corrosion-inhibitor intensifiers, etc.).

Note

The mixing procedures for gelled-acid and emulsified-acid systems are provided in
Section 4.

Note

The order of addition above should be followed in all cases unless blend-specific
mixing procedures have been developed or lab testing has determined alternative
requirements.

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Quality Assurance for Acidizing Treatments

Source-Water Analysis
Source water is tested to ensure that it is acceptable for use in an acidizing job. Source-water analysis
detects the presence of components that can alter fluid properties and, therefore, might affect the job. Test
source water for pH, iron, and sulphates.
As many factors are involved, it is not always possible to set a specific limit on each component. Table
2.2 lists maximum limits for few parameters. However, these limits should not replace sound chemical
or engineering principles.
Note

Lab testing is recommended to confirm that there are no compatibility problems


between the water and acid.

Table 2.2Limits for Source Water Components


Component

Amount

Iron (Fe)

10 ppm

Sulfate (SO4-2)

400 ppm

pH

5.0 to 10.0

Excess amounts of sulfate can cause scaling issues once the acid spends.

Excess amounts of iron can result in iron-hydroxide precipitation once the acid spends above a pH
of about 3.5.

If sulfide is present downhole, iron-sulfide and elemental-sulfur precipitation can result.

Note

Amounts of other components, such as carbonates, bicarbonates, and hydroxides, will


be dissolved by the acid and will not be relevant to the final acid concentration.

Note

Very high concentrations of potassium chloride or sodium chloride could be an issue


when mixing with HCl blends, as the salt could precipitate from the solution.

Issues with Seawater


Seawater in Carbonates
Seawater can be used for essentially all carbonate acidizing treatments (matrix or fracture). The amount
of precipitated calcium sulfate is generally considered insignificant compared to the insoluble fines that
naturally occur in the carbonates and are released by the acid.

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Seawater in Sandstones

Seawater cannot be used within any stage of an HF acidizing treatment (Sandstone 2000
acidizing service treatments), and it cannot be used as a non-acid pre-flush or over-flush fluid
because the sodium/potassium in the seawater can cause serious precipitation problems.

Seawater should not be used in any acid blend intended for use in a sandstone formation where the
precipitation of calcium sulfate would be unacceptable. Seawater contains about 2,700 ppm of
sulfate, which will almost completely precipitate as calcium sulfate as the acid spends on small
amounts of carbonate in the matrix. The total calcium sulfate being precipitated will only be about
30 lb/Mgal. So, if an acid wash uses 50gal/ft, then only 1.5 lb of precipitation will occur per foot of
interval. If this is too much for the customer, then seawater should not be used to prepare the acid.

Important

Water not conforming to guidelines must be tested for compatibility with the acid
blends and reservoir fluids. If necessary, a different water source should be
considered.

Fluid Testing
After-Blend Preparation

Blend-Acid Strength Test: This test is necessary to ensure that the strength of the acid blend is
correct before it is pumped downhole. Determine the blend-acid strength for a sample from each
acid tank.

Additive Solubility/Dispersibility Test: This test ensures that all of the additives in an acid blend
are compatible and there is no additive separation or precipitation.

Blend Compatibility Test: Blend compatibility testing determines the most effective combination
of additives and the concentration of those additives needed to help prevent incompatibilities with
formation, wellbore treatment, and workover fluids.

Emulsion Break Test: The emulsion break test determines the most effective surfactant and
necessary concentration of the surfactant to help prevent stable emulsions from forming between
the acid fluids and crude oil from the treated formation. Emulsion break tests should be run before
the job begins.

Sludge Test: This test ensures that the live-acid blends are compatible with the formation crude and
that no sludge is formed. This test determines if antisludging agents will be required in case of
sludge formation.

Note

For gelled-acid systems, test a sample from each tank for viscosity and pH.
For emulsified-acid systems, tests should be conducted to check the stability of the
emulsion at surface temperature and BHST.

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Quality Assurance for Acidizing Treatments

On the Day of Treatment


Before pumping downhole, collect samples from each acid tank and test them for the following
parameters:

pH

Temperature

Acid strength

Specific gravity

Note

For gelled-acid systems, test a sample from each tank for viscosity and pH.
For emulsified-acid systems, check the stability of the emulsion.

Review all pre-job test results with the customer, the service supervisor, and the engineer. Conduct this
review before attending the health, safety, and environmental (HSE) safety meeting.
Note

Record all test results on sample forms provided in the appendices.

Tubular Cleanup/Pickling
Before the treatment, the casing, tubing, and workstring should be completely free of rust, dirt, mill scale,
and any other fines-generating debris. Failure to clean the tubulars could lead to losses of reactive acidstimulation fluid because of spending in the pipe. A basic 15% HCl inhibited-acid is typically used to
pickle tubulars to help prevent carrying mill scale and/or precipitating iron hydroxides into the formation
with the main acid.
Tubular Cleanup Recommendations

Use xylene with 1% mutual solvent to remove any pipe dope or hydrocarbon deposits.

Dope Buster M pipe dope remover solvent and BaraScrub casing wash (Baroid product) can be
used to remove pipe dopes. Dope Buster M solvent is a direct replacement for xylene. Refer to the
technical bulletin for more information:
http://halworld.corp.halliburton.com/internal/PS/pe/contents/Best_Practices/web/
A_through_G/DopebusterM_Solvent.html

Use 15% HCl acid containing inhibitor, surfactants, and iron-control additives. This fluid system
can be used to help remove mill-scale (magnetite), rust, or scales from inside tubulars.
Note

The surfactants and iron-control additives can be omitted if the perforations have not
been shot before the pickling treatment.

Acid/tubing contact time should be 45 to 60 minutes for reasonable cleaning. (This is the total time
that the acid will be in contact with the pipe, not the time that it will be in contact with any particular
section of the pipe).

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Monitor pH of the returns for future acid treatments.

The amount of fluid used depends on the tubular size. Table 2.3 lists the recommended volumes for
pickling a tubular with 15% HCl acid.
Table 2.3Recommended Volume for Pickling a Tubular with 15% HCl Acid
Size of Tubular,
in.

Volume of Acid, gal per


1,000 ft of Tubular

2 3/8

85

2 7/8

110

3 1/2

140

4 1/2

190

5 1/2

240

310

Important The listed volume is required to make sure that enough HCl is present to dissolve all
of the mill scale. The contact time is necessary to make sure that the acid has time to
dissolve the mill scale.
Note

These recommendations apply to carbon steel/standard steel and are not applicable
for exotic steel. For information on exotic steel, contact the Duncan Technology
Center (DTC).

During-Job Requirements

Track inventories at regular intervals and record the data.

During the treatment, test for pH, specific gravity, and acid strength. Record all test results on the
During-Job QC form in Appendix B.
Note

2-8

For gelled-acid systems, test samples for viscosity and pH at regular intervals.

Real Time Monitoring: Rate, pressure, and density must be displayed and recorded during the job.
Note

Do not dispose of the samples collected during the job until the job has been
completed and approved by the customer.

Note

Record all test results on sample forms provided in the appendices.

On-Site Quality Assurance Standards for Acidizing Treatments

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Quality Assurance for Acidizing Treatments

Post-Job Requirements
Post-Job Neutralization
Once the job is completed, all equipment/tanks should be properly rinsed before moving them from
location to field camp. Sodium-carbonate/sodium-bicarbonate solution should be used to rinse
equipment/tanks, using the following procedure:
1. Neutralize the remaining acid in the tank using the appropriate quantity of soda ash/sodium
bicarbonate. Refer to the Table 1.1 for detailed information about the quantity required to neutralize
the acid.
2. After removing neutralized acid from the tank, add at least 10 bbl of water and 15 to 20 kg of sodium
carbonate to neutralize the tank. This should be done at the job location if possible. Drain rinsate as
per the requirements of the location.
3. If the tank is not rinsed on location, then on arrival at the field camp rinse the inside surfaces of the
tank with water and drain the tank in an approved location, as indicated by HSE personnel.
4. Leave drain valves open and rinse for 15 minutes.
5. Check the pH of the water; the pH of the drain water should be greater than 5 and less than 10. If it
is not, continue rinsing until the required pH range is observed.
6. Leave the drain valve and top hatch open.

Sampling Returns
The collection procedure is based on a percentage of total treating volume (TTV):
1. Collect five samples (every 5% of TTV until 25% recovery).
2. Collect five samples (every 10% of TTV until 75% recovery).
3. Collect six samples (every 25% of TTV until 200% recovery).
The cumulative water production and time of collection should be recorded for each sample

Post-Job Report
Immediately after completing the main treatment, compile treatment graphs and outputs and present them
to the customer with a job summary. The report should cover the following points:

Executive summary

Well information

Pumping schedule

Stage summary

March 2009

On-Site Quality Assurance Standards for Acidizing Treatments

2-9

Quality Assurance for Acidizing Treatments

Performance highlights/operational issues


Job summary
Job stage log
Job event log

Quality assurance/quality control forms

Appendix/attachments

2-10

On-Site Quality Assurance Standards for Acidizing Treatments

March 2009

SECTION
Section

13

Preface

Acidizing Treatment Laboratory


Procedures
Overview
This section discusses procedures and equipment required to conduct various acidizing treatment
laboratory tests.
Important

Always refer to Appendix A for proper PPE selection while handling any
chemical. Select the PPE for the most stringent chemical exposure situation.

Sampling Chemicals/Water ....................................................................................................... 3-2


Measuring Temperature............................................................................................................. 3-3
Measuring Specific Gravity....................................................................................................... 3-4
Measuring pH ............................................................................................................................ 3-5
Acid-Strength Test..................................................................................................................... 3-6
Additive Solubility/Dispersibility Test...................................................................................... 3-10
Blend-Compatibility Test .......................................................................................................... 3-11
Emulsion Break Test ................................................................................................................. 3-13
Sludge Test ................................................................................................................................ 3-15

March 2009

Acidizing Treatment Laboratory Procedures

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Quality Assurance for Acidizing Treatments

Sampling Chemicals/Water
Scope: To obtain samples for QC testing.

Required Equipment

PPE: Face shield, gloves (refer to Appendix A), coveralls (refer to Appendix A), safety glasses,
rubber boots, and a hard hat.

Sampling device (10- to 100-cc plastic syringes).

One sample bottle

Labels

Permanent marker

Procedure
Use the following procedure to obtain a chemical sample for QC testing:
1. Determine whether one sample or a composite of several samples is required.
2. Label a clean, dry sample bottle with the following information:
Sample number/tank number
Chemical name
Date
3. Thoroughly agitate, aerate, or stir the liquid in the tank.
4. Collect sample using sampling device.
Note

3-2

Do not use samples from roll lines, manifolds, and hoses. They might not be
representative of the entire fluid volume.

Acidizing Treatment Laboratory Procedures

March 2009

Quality Assurance for Acidizing Treatments

Measuring Temperature
Scope: To determine the temperature of the acid/fluid system.

Required Equipment

PPE: Face shield, gloves (refer to Appendix A), coveralls (refer to Appendix A), safety glasses,
rubber boots, and a hard hat

Thermometer

One sample bottle

Procedure
1. Collect the sample.
2. Immediately after collecting the sample, insert a clean, dry, calibrated temperature probe in the fluid
sample without allowing the probe to touch the sample bottle.
3. After the reading is stabilized, note the temperature.

March 2009

Acidizing Treatment Laboratory Procedures

3-3

Quality Assurance for Acidizing Treatments

Measuring Specific Gravity


Scope: To measure the specific gravity of an acid/fluid sample.

Required Equipment

PPE: Face shield, gloves (heat-resistant gloves might be required; refer to Appendix A), coveralls
(refer to Appendix A), safety glasses, rubber boots, and a hard hat

Appropriate hydrometers for fluid being used

One 50- to 200-mL bottle

Procedure
1. Place a sufficient volume of the sample in a transparent container so that a hydrometer can float
freely within the container without touching the sides.
2. Twirl the hydrometer in the sample, making sure it does not touch the sides of the container.
3. After the hydrometer stops twirling, read the scale to the nearest figure at the bottom of the meniscus and note the reading.
4. Clean the hydrometer.

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Acidizing Treatment Laboratory Procedures

March 2009

Quality Assurance for Acidizing Treatments

Measuring pH
Scope: To measure the pH of the acid system using a pH meter and pH paper.

Required Equipment

PPE: Face shield, gloves (refer to Appendix A), coveralls (refer to Appendix A), safety glasses,
rubber boots, and a hard hat

Portable pH meter

pH probe

Narrow-range pH paper

Buffers

ProcedureUsing pH Meter
1. Ensure that the probe is clean and has been pre-soaked according to the instructions for that probe.
2. Rinse the probe with deionized water.
3. Following the manufacturers' specifications, calibrate the probe and pH meter for two pH values
that span the expected pH range to be measured.
4. Place the probe into the fluid.
5. Allow the pH reading to stabilize and note the reading.
6. Rinse and clean the probe with deionized water.
7. Place the probe in the correct storage container.

ProcedureUsing pH Paper
1. Immerse the paper strip in the fluid sample until the color stabilizes.
2. Compare the color of the paper strip with the color chart and note the reading.
Note

March 2009

Samples that are cooler or have a higher ionic strength will delay reading times.

Acidizing Treatment Laboratory Procedures

3-5

Quality Assurance for Acidizing Treatments

Acid-Strength Test
Scope: To determine the concentration of an acid system.

Required Equipment and Reagents

PPE: Face shield, gloves (refer to Appendix A), coveralls (refer to Appendix A), safety glasses,
rubber boots, and a hard hat.

Two 125-mL Erlenmeyer flasks

One 1-mL pipette

One 2-mL pipette

One 5-mL pipette

One 25-mL burette

One Whatman No. 30 or 41 filter paper

One filter funnel and stand

One magnetic stirrer (optional)

One amber-colored dropper bottle

One 2000-mL beaker

One watch glass for 2000-mL beaker

One 1-L plastic bottle

One hot plate

Standardized NaOH solution

~ 1.5 L deionized water

~ 15 g potassium biphthalate (KHP)

0.1% bromocresol green (indicator)

0.2% methyl red (indicator)

Procedure
Before performing the acid-strength test, the following two solutions must be prepared:
Standard NaOH solution
Mixed indicator solution

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Acidizing Treatment Laboratory Procedures

March 2009

Quality Assurance for Acidizing Treatments

Procedure for Preparation of Standard NaOH Solution


1. Boil and cool more than 1 L of deionized water to remove CO2 that is dissolved in the water; place
watch glass over the beaker while cooling to prevent CO2 from re-entering the solution.
2. Place 11.0 g of solid NaOH into the plastic bottle. Add the boiled, cooled deionized water to dilute
the solution to 1 L total volume.
3. Standardize the NaOH solution against KHP with the following procedure:
a. Weigh approximately 1 g of KHP into a 125-mL Erlenmeyer flask. Record the exact weight
to the nearest 0.1 mg.
b.

Dissolve the KHP in 25 mL of deionized water.

c.

Titrate the KHP mixture with the NaOH solution until the color changes.

d.

Calculate the normality, N, of the NaOH using the following equation:

Record the value of normality to be used later. It should be approximately 0.275 N.


Note

If desired, 0.200-N NaOH can be used instead of the solution standardized above.
0.200-N NaOH is inexpensive, already standardized, and readily available from
several suppliers of laboratory chemicals.

Procedure for Mixed indicator Solution


1. Make 0.1% bromcresol green by dissolving 0.1 g bromcresol green in 100 mL of ethanol.
2. Make 0.2% methyl red by dissolving 0.2 g methyl red in 100 mL of ethanol.
3. Mix 75 mL of the 0.1% bromcresol green solution and 25 mL of the 0.2% methyl red solution. Place
the solution in an amber-colored dropper bottle (the solution is light-sensitive).
Important

Do not allow the standard NaOH solution to contact air (replace the cap on the bottle
as soon as the solution has been removed). CO2 in the air will react with the NaOH,
lowering its activity. If the normality of the NaOH is suspect, re-standardize it against
KHP or discard it.

Caution

Use plastic flasks and pipettes when handling samples containing HF acid
because the HF acid will react with glass. Use extreme caution when handling
HF acid because it can penetrate the skin and react with the calcium in bones.
In large doses, exposure to HF acid can be fatal.

Important

PPE change might be required while handling HF acid. Refer to Appendix A.

March 2009

Acidizing Treatment Laboratory Procedures

3-7

Quality Assurance for Acidizing Treatments

After preparing these two solutions, the main procedure for testing acid strength can begin.
Procedure for Acid Strength Test
1. Filter the acid sample that has a concentration to be determined through the Whatman filter paper.
2. Pipette a 1-mL aliquot of the filtered sample into each of the two Erlenmeyer flasks. The sample
size should increase to 3.00 mL or 5.00 mL if the acid content is suspected to be low.
3. Add 50 mL of deionized water to each Erlenmeyer flask.
4. Add 3 to 5 drops of mixed indicator solution to each Erlenmeyer flask and mix thoroughly by swirling the flask.
5. Titrate one sample quickly (do not attempt to be accurate to the drop) with the standardized NaOH
solution to determine the relative endpoint and relative amount of NaOH that will be needed to see
the color change from red to dark green.
6. Swirl the flask while titrating to ensure proper mixing of the NaOH with the acid sample. This is a
rough measurement that will be used to help make the second titration easier and more accurate.
Use the amount of NaOH required to change the color in this quick titration as a guideline for Step
7.
7. Using the solution in the second Erlenmeyer flask, titrate quickly up to 2 mL before the color
change is supposed to occur.
8. Add 0.2 mL to 0.5 mL slowly, swirling the flask as each drop is added.
9. As the endpoint is approached, add one drop at a time until the first color of green appears. This is
the endpoint.
10. Record this volume of NaOH to use in the acid strength calculations.
Calculations
Calculate the percent acid in the sample with one of the appropriate equations below:
Single Acid Calculations
To obtain the percentage of acid, use the appropriate acid-dilution table and find the acid concentration
corresponding to the measured normality. It might be necessary to interpolate if the measured normality
is not listed.

3-8

Acidizing Treatment Laboratory Procedures

March 2009

Quality Assurance for Acidizing Treatments

Where:
mL NaOH = the volume of NaOH required to reach the endpoint.
N = the normality of the NaOH that was calculated when the NaOH was standardized.
mL sample = the volume of the acid sample pipetted into the Erlenmeyer flask.
Alternately, if the approximate concentrations are sufficient, the following calculations can be used
without the need for acid-dilution tables. These calculations do not give a true weight percent and will be
in error by a factor of the specific gravity. If specific gravity is known or can be determined, the answer
can be corrected to give weight percentage by dividing the answer by the specific gravity.

Where Parameter depends on the type of acid and is defined as follows for different acids:
HCl = 3.65
HF acid = 2
Sulphuric acid (H2SO4) = 4.9
Acetic acid (CH3COOH) = 6.01
Formic acid (HCOOH) = 4.6
Mixed Acid Calculations
This procedure cannot determine the exact composition of solutions that contain more than one acid.
However, the total acid normality can be obtained by titration and compared to the expected normality
for a particular mixed acid.
Example:
HCl acid normality (N): X
Formic acid normality (N): Y
Combined acid normality (N): X + Y

March 2009

Acidizing Treatment Laboratory Procedures

3-9

Quality Assurance for Acidizing Treatments

Additive Solubility/Dispersibility Test


Scope: To ensure that all of the additives in an acid blend are compatible and there is no additive
separation or precipitation. This procedure also shows the ferric-iron (Fe3+) tolerance of the acid-additive
mixture.

Required Equipment and Reagents

PPE: Face shield, gloves (refer to Appendix A), coveralls (refer to Appendix A), safety glasses,
rubber boots, and a hard hat

Two 100-mL graduated cylinders

Two 4-oz glass jars

Procedure
Note

This test is conducted at ambient temperature.

1. Prepare two live-acid blends, one containing all the additives with 500 ppm of Fe3+ and one
containing all the additives without Fe3+.
2. Add 100 mL of the live-acid blend containing all additives without Fe3+ into the glass jar.
3. Add 100 mL of live-acid blend containing all additives with Fe3+ into the other glass jar.
4. Allow both jars to stand for 1 hour.
5. After 1 hour, observe and record any additive separation.
6. The acid blend is acceptable if no separation of additives occurs on the top, bottom, or sides of the
jar.
7. If the acid blend separates, perform one of the following steps:

3-10

a.

Add dispersant or mutual solvent to the blend. The exact amount and type can be determined by testing.

b.

Change additives or adjust the additive concentration. The extent of changes and
adjustments can be determined by testing.

Acidizing Treatment Laboratory Procedures

March 2009

Quality Assurance for Acidizing Treatments

Blend-Compatibility Test
Scope: To find the most effective combination of additives needed to help prevent incompatibilities
between fluids.

Required Equipment and Reagents

PPE: Face shield, gloves (refer to Appendix A), coveralls (refer to Appendix A), safety glasses,
rubber boots, and a hard hat.

One watch glass

One 5-mL disposable syringe

One Pasteur pipette

Two 50-mL graduated cylinders

One 100-mL graduated cylinder

One 250-mL plastic bottle (with a lid)

One hot water bath

One stopwatch

Watch-Glass Testing
1. Use a syringe to transfer 5 mL of test fluid onto a watch glass. Add 5 mL of the acid blend to the
test fluid, drop-wise, using the Pasteur pipette.
2. Observe the mixture for 5 minutes, checking for effervescence or evolution of gas.
Note

If the watch glass indicates the evolution of gas, the blend-compatibility test
procedure using the closed-container test method might not be suitable. Contact your
lab supervisor to determine whether this type of testing is appropriate for your
specific situation.

Note

If the watch glass indicates the evolution of gas and the blend-compatibility test
procedure is still desired, the test should be performed by mixing the components in
an open container with a mechanical mixing device. After mixing, the contents should
be placed into a graduated cylinder and observed for separation.

Procedure
1. Place 50 mL of the acid blend into a 250-mL plastic bottle.
2. Add 50 mL of the formation/wellbore treatment/workover fluid to the plastic bottle.
3. Observe for any effervescence in the bottle. If evolution of gas or effervescence occurs, contact
your lab supervisor and determine whether the test should be performed by mechanical stirring.
4. Tightly seal the lid on the bottle, and then vigorously shake the jar by hand for 30 seconds.

March 2009

Acidizing Treatment Laboratory Procedures

3-11

Quality Assurance for Acidizing Treatments

5. Slowly remove the lid to allow for the release of gas, and then transfer the contents to a 100-mL
graduated cylinder.
6. Allow the graduated cylinder to stand at ambient temperature or place the graduated cylinder in a
water bath set to the BHST or 180F, whichever is lower.
7. Observe the contents in the graduated cylinder for 5 and 10 minutes.
8. Perform one of the following steps:
a.

Repeat the test using spent acid.

b.

If Fe3+ is a concern with the live acid blend, repeat the test with 1,000 ppm of Fe3+ added
to the live acid

Note

If any precipitation occurs, the test is unsuccessful. If separation of any additive


occurs, the test is unsuccessful. If a hydrocarbon fluid is present and a complete
separation of the hydrocarbon fluid from the blend does not occur within 10 minutes,
the test is unsuccessful.

Important

If precipitation, additive separation, or emulsification occurs, the additive


concentrations need to be adjusted or different additives should be used to correct
these problems.

3-12

Acidizing Treatment Laboratory Procedures

March 2009

Quality Assurance for Acidizing Treatments

Emulsion Break Test


Scope: To determine the surfactant and its concentration required to prevent stable induced emulsion.

Required Equipment and Reagents

PPE: Face shield, gloves (refer to Appendix A), coveralls (refer to Appendix A), safety glasses,
rubber boots, and a hard hat

Two 4-oz graduated glass bottles

Syringes

Crude oil100 mL

Test fluid100 mL

Chemicalssurfactant

Procedure
Conduct this procedure with both live and spent acid.
1. Prepare the desired acid-treatment fluid. The volume of treatment fluid is determined by the test
amount.
2. Cool the fluid to ambient temperature.
3. For a blank test, add 50 mL of the acid fluid and 50 mL of the produced crude to one of the glass
bottles.
4. Tightly seal the jar.
5. Vigorously shake the jar for 30 seconds.
6. Record the break rate at time intervals of 1, 5, and 10 minutes.
7. If 100% separation does not occur at ambient temperature, place the emulsion test in a water bath
set to 200F or BHST, whichever is lower.
8. Record the break rate at time intervals of 1, 5, and 10 minutes.
9. To the second bottle, add 50 mL of the acid fluid. Add the appropriate surfactant volume to the acid
fluid. Consult the technology bulletin for the particular surfactant to determine the appropriate
volume. Concentration can be determined from field experience or prior testing knowledge. The
emulsion characteristics of the crude oil will dictate the required chemical concentration. As a
general rule, the surfactant concentration will probably range from 0.1 to 1.0%, depending on test
specifics. Thoroughly combine the surfactant with the acid.
10. Add 50 mL of the produced crude oil.
11. Tightly seal the bottle and repeat Steps 5 thru 8.
12. Observe the crude oil mixture in the water bath after 5- and 10-min intervals to determine if the
induced emulsion has 100% separation.

March 2009

Acidizing Treatment Laboratory Procedures

3-13

Quality Assurance for Acidizing Treatments

Note

If 100% separation of the acid fluid and crude oil occurs in 10 minutes or less at
ambient temperature, the test is successful. These results recommend the surfactant
or surfactant mixtures and concentrations to use with the fluid

Important

If using an HF-acid treatment, prepare the acid and store it in plastic.

3-14

Acidizing Treatment Laboratory Procedures

March 2009

Quality Assurance for Acidizing Treatments

Sludge Test
Scope: To ensure that the live-acid blends are compatible with the formation crude and no sludge is
formed.

Qualitative Sludge Test


Required Equipment and Reagents

PPE: Face shield, gloves (refer to Appendix A), coveralls (refer to Appendix A), safety glasses,
rubber boots, and a hard hat

Two 50-mL graduated cylinders

One 4-oz (120-mL) glass jar

One hot water bath

One stopwatch

One balance

One 100-mesh wire screen

Procedure
1. Prepare 50 mL of the desired live-acid blend.
2. Place the blend in a 4-oz glass jar.
3. Add 50 mL of the formation crude oil and tightly seal the jar.
4. Vigorously shake the jar by hand for 30 seconds.
5. Place the jar in a water bath heated to the BHST or 200F, whichever is lower.
Important Slightly unscrew the jar lid to prevent pressure build-up within the jar. Failure to
release the pressure during the heating stage can result in a sample loss or a broken jar.
6. After 30 minutes, remove the jar from the bath.
7. Pour the contents of the jar through a 100-mesh screen.
8. Observe any sludge adhering to the inside of the glass jar and on the screen.
9. Rinse the solids on the screen with kerosene.

March 2009

Acidizing Treatment Laboratory Procedures

3-15

Quality Assurance for Acidizing Treatments

Quantitative Sludge Test


Required Equipment and Reagents

PPE: Face shield, gloves (refer to Appendix A), coveralls (refer to Appendix A), safety glasses,
rubber boots, and a hard hat.

Two 50-mL graduated cylinders

One 4-oz glass jar

One hot water bath

One stopwatch

One 11-cm Buchner funnel

One 500-mL sidearm vacuum flask

One 11-cm Whatman No. 4 filter paper

One vacuum pump or faucet aspirator

One filtervac seal

One vacuum hose

One vacuum oven

One balance

Procedure
1. Prepare 50 mL of the desired live-acid blend.
2. Place the blend in a 4-oz glass jar.
3. Add 50 mL of the formation crude oil and tightly seal the jar.
4. Vigorously shake the jar by hand for 30 seconds.
5. Place the jar in a water bath heated to the BHST or 200F, whichever is lower.
Important Slightly unscrew the jar lid to prevent pressure build-up within the jar. Failure to
release the pressure during the heating stage can result in a sample loss or a broken jar.
6. Weigh a Whatman No. 4 filter-paper disc.
7. Place the filter-paper disc inside the Buchner funnel.
8. Using a Filtervac seal, insert the Buchner funnel into the sidearm vacuum flask.
9. Using the vacuum hose, attach the sidearm vacuum flask to either the vacuum pump or faucet aspirator.
10. After 30 min, remove the jar from the bath.
11. Activate the vacuum.
12. Open the jar and pour the contents onto the pre-weighed filter-paper disc.
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Acidizing Treatment Laboratory Procedures

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Quality Assurance for Acidizing Treatments

13. Rinse the solids on the filter paper with water.


14. Remove the filter paper.
15. Place the filter paper in an ambient-temperature vacuum oven.
16. After the solids are dry, weigh the filter paper and solids to determine an exact amount of sludge.

March 2009

Acidizing Treatment Laboratory Procedures

3-17

Quality Assurance for Acidizing Treatments

3-18

Acidizing Treatment Laboratory Procedures

March 2009

SECTION
Section

14

Preface

Acid Systems
Carbonate 20/20 Acidizing Service ............................................................................................4-2
Sandstone 2000 Acidizing Service .............................................................................................4-20

March 2009

Acid Systems

4-1

Quality Assurance for Acidizing Treatments

Carbonate 20/20 Acidizing Service


Carbonate 20/20 acidizing service is a candidate-selection and acidizing process for optimized
production in carbonate reservoirs.
Zonal Coverage Acid (ZCA) System ............................................................................................. 4-3
Hot Rock Acid (HRA).................................................................................................................... 4-6
Carbonate Completion Acid (CCA) System .................................................................................. 4-8
Fines Recovery Acid System ......................................................................................................... 4-11
Carbonate Emulsion Acid (CEA) Service...................................................................................... 4-14
Carbonate Stimulation Acid (CSA) Service................................................................................... 4-17
Note

Please consult the appropriate Technology Bulletins for more detailed information on
these acidizing systems.

Important

Ensure that all personnel handling the product read, understand, and follow the
precautions in the MSDS for each chemical. Summaries of the relevant points and
information on first-aid measures by different exposure routes are contained in each
product's MSDS.
The MSDS for components of this service can be found at the following URL
address: http://msds.corp.halliburton.com

4-2

Acid Systems

March 2009

Quality Assurance for Acidizing Treatments

Zonal Coverage Acid (ZCA) System


Introduction
The Zonal Coverage acid (ZCA) system is a crosslinked, acidizing fluid system that can be used in
carbonates for fracture acidizing and for diversion during matrix acidizing.

Applications/Advantages

Used for horizontal wells in carbonate formations and for diversion in matrix acidizing.

Developed for fluid-loss control in fracture acidizing.

Mixing Procedures
The ZCA system can be batch mixed or mixed on-the-fly, depending on the gelling agent that is used.
Note

If SGA-II or SGA-V gelling agents are used, the system can be run on-the-fly.
If SGA-III gelling agent is used, the system must be batch-mixed. Remember that
the crosslink is not apparent until the acid spends, so it is not present at surface or in
the tubulars.

Important

Always clean out the tubing before running this system. Otherwise, crosslinking
might be adversely affected.

Following steps should be performed to batch mix the ZCA system:


1. Add the required volume of water to the mixer.
2. Add these components in the following order:
a.

Corrosion inhibitor

b.

Concentrated HCl acid

c.

Gelling agent (SGA-II, SGA-III, or SGA-V gelling agents)

Important

When adding gelling agent to the acid, use as much shear as possible to help
prevent lumping and to ensure proper hydration, especially when using 28%
HCl.

3. Add BF-1 buffering agent.


4. Add XL-1 crosslinker.
5. Add surfactants.
6. Immediately before pumping and preferably on-the-fly, add the required amount of Ferchek ferric-iron inhibitor.

March 2009

Acid Systems

4-3

Quality Assurance for Acidizing Treatments

Health and Safety Precautions


Potential Chemicals Involved: Zonal Coverage acid system, HCl acid, SGA-II gelling agent,
SGA-III gelling agent, SGA-V gelling agent, BF-1 buffering agent, XL-1 crosslinker,
Ferchek ferric-iron reducer.
Hazard Overview

Acids: Can cause eye and skin burns, and respiratory irritation. Can be harmful if swallowed.

Fercheck Ferric-Iron Inhibitor: Can cause eye, skin, and respiratory irritation. Airborne dust can
be explosive.

SGA-II, SGA-III, and SGA-IV Gelling Agents: Can cause headaches, dizziness, and other
central-nervous-system effects. Can be harmful if swallowed.

XL-1 Crosslinker: Can cause eye, skin, and respiratory burns and damage to internal organs. Can
be fatal if swallowed.

First Aid

Inhalation: If inhaled, remove victim from area to fresh air. If victim is not breathing, give artificial
respiration, preferably mouth-to-mouth. If breathing is difficult, give oxygen. Get medical
attention.

Skin: In case of contact, immediately flush skin with plenty of soap and water for at least 15
minutes. Get medical attention. Remove contaminated clothing and launder before reuse.

Eyes: In case of contact, or suspected contact, immediately flush eyes with plenty of water for at
least 15 minutes and get medical attention immediately after flushing.

Ingestion

Acids, BF-1 Buffering Agent, XL-1 Crosslinker: Do not induce vomiting. Slowly dilute with 1
to 2 glasses of water or milk and seek medical attention. Never give anything by mouth to an
unconscious person.

SGA-II, SGA-III and SGA-IV Gelling Agents: Get medical attention! If vomiting occurs, keep
head lower than hips to prevent aspiration.

Notes to Physician

SGA-III Gelling Agent: Activated charcoal or gastric lavage might be advisable for significant
ingestion.

XL-1 Crosslinker: If ingested, a stomach wash followed by saline catharsis and cenodyne is
recommended.

Spills
Environmental Precautionary Measures

4-4

Prevent from entering sewers, waterways, or low areas.

Acid Systems

March 2009

Quality Assurance for Acidizing Treatments

Procedure for Cleaning/Absorption


1. Isolate spills and stop leaks where safe. Contain spills with sand or other inert materials.
2. Neutralize to pH of 6 to 8.
3. Scoop up and remove.
Handling Precautions

Acid, Gelling Agents, and Buffer: Avoid contact with eyes, skin, or clothing. Avoid breathing
vapors. Wash hands after use. Launder contaminated clothing before reuse.

Ferchek Ferric-Iron Inhibitor: Avoid creating or inhaling dust.

Exposure Controls
Engineering Controls

Use in a well-ventilated area. Local exhaust ventilation should be used in areas without good cross
ventilation.

Engineering Controls (Ferchek Ferric-Iron Inhibitor)

Use in a well-ventilated area.

March 2009

Acid Systems

4-5

Quality Assurance for Acidizing Treatments

Hot Rock Acid (HRA)


Introduction
Hot Rock acid is a totally organic acid system with a dissolving power equal to 15% HCl acid. The system
consists of 13% acetic and 9% formic acids.

Applications/Advantages

Helps increase stimulation effectiveness and reduce corrosion rates.

Allows extended reaction times, provides built-in iron control, and enhances the performance of
acid gelling agents.

Emulsion problems are less likely associated with this acid system because of reduced interfacial
tension.

Sludging problems are usually eliminated because of reduced H+ concentration compared to HClacid systems.

Mixing Procedures for 1,000 gal


1. Place 790 gal of water in the mixing tank.
2. Add the inhibitor.
3. Add 135 gal of 95% acetic acid.
4. Add 89 gal of 88% formic acid.
5. Add surfactant and gelling agent.
6. Uniformly blend the mixture.
7. If the acid has been static before use, roll the mixture with air or circulate it before pumping.
Note

Subtract the volume of inhibitor, surfactant, and acid gelling agent from the water
volume

Important

Use the acid calcualtion spreadsheet to determine the required volume of each organic
acid:
http://halworld.corp.halliburton.com/internal/PS/pe/contents/Interactive_Tools/web/
Acid_Brine_Calculations.xls

4-6

Acid Systems

March 2009

Quality Assurance for Acidizing Treatments

Health and Safety Precautions


Potential Chemicals Involved: HRA system (acetic acid and formic acid).
Hazard Overview

HRA System: Can cause eye and skin burns, headaches, dizziness, and other central-nervoussystem effects. Can be harmful if swallowed. Combustible.

First Aid

Inhalation: If inhaled, remove victim from area to fresh air. If victim is not breathing, give artificial
respiration, preferably mouth-to-mouth. If breathing is difficult, give oxygen. Get medical
attention.

Skin: In case of contact, immediately flush skin with plenty of soap and water for at least 15
minutes. Get medical attention. Remove contaminated clothing and launder before reuse.

Eyes: In case of contact, or suspected contact, immediately flush eyes with plenty of water for at
least 15 minutes and get medical attention immediately after flushing.

Ingestion (Acids): Do not induce vomiting. Slowly dilute with 1 to 2 glasses of water or milk and
seek medical attention. Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person.

Spills
Environmental Precautionary Measures

Prevent from entering sewers, waterways, or low areas.

Procedure for Cleaning/Absorption


1. Isolate spills and stop leaks where safe. Contain spills with sand or other inert materials.
2. Neutralize to pH of 6 to 8.
3. Scoop up and remove.
Handling Precautions (Acids)

Avoid contact with eyes, skin, or clothing. Avoid breathing vapors. Wash hands after use. Launder
contaminated clothing before reuse.

Exposure Controls
Engineering Controls

Use in a well-ventilated area. Local exhaust ventilation should be used in areas without good cross
ventilation.

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Carbonate Completion Acid (CCA) System


Introduction
Carbonate Completion acid (CCA) system is used in reservoirs containing asphaltenic crudes and to
minimize compatibility issues with anionic surfactants.

Applications/Advantages

Primarily used for acidizing carbonate reservoirs that contain asphaltenic crude.

Can be used in sour wells if sulfide scavenger is added and in sweet wells if ferric iron-control is
used.

Mixing Procedures
CCA system components are readily dispersible and easily mixed. Use the following procedure to mix
these components:
1. Add water to the tank, reducing the required volume by the additive volume to be used.
2. Add HAI-GE corrosion inhibitor. AS-10 antisludging agent, G-Sperse dispersant, and CCA-H2S
hydrogen-sulfide scavenger can also be added at this time or after the concentrated HCl acid has
been added.
3. Mix well, but avoid rolling the tank with air if FDP-S769-05 iron-reducing agent is used. It is an
oxygen scavenger, and air mixing will deplete its reduction capability.
Important Do not add FDP-S769-05 iron-reducing agent until the concentrated HCl has been
added.

Health and Safety Precautions


Potential Chemicals Involved: CCA system, HAI-GE corrosion inhibitor, AS-10 antisludging agent,
G-Sperse dispersant, FDP-S769-05 iron-reducing agent, CCA-H2S hydrogen-sulfide scavenger (solid).
Hazard Overview

Acids, FDP-S769-05 Iron-Reducing Agent: Can cause eye and skin burns. Can cause respiratory
irritation. Can be harmful if swallowed.

HAI-GE Corrosion Inhibitor, AS-10 Antisludging Agent, CCA-H2S Hydrogen-Sulfide


Scavenger: Can cause eye, skin, and respiratory burns, headaches, dizziness, and other centralnervous-system effects. Can be absorbed through the skin. Can be harmful if swallowed. Can cause
allergic skin and respiratory reactions.

HAI-GE Corrosion Inhibitor, CCA-H2S Hydrogen-Sulfide Scavenger: Flammable.

AS-10 Antisludging Agent: Repeated overexposure can cause liver and kidney effects.

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Quality Assurance for Acidizing Treatments

G-Sperse Dispersant: Can cause eye, skin, and respiratory irritation. Can cause allergic skin
reactions and respiratory reactions. Can be absorbed through the skin. Can be harmful if swallowed.

First Aid
Inhalation

If inhaled, remove victim from area to fresh air. If victim is not breathing, give artificial respiration,
preferably mouth-to-mouth. If breathing is difficult, give oxygen. Get medical attention.

Skin

In case of contact, immediately flush skin with plenty of soap and water for at least 15 minutes. Get
medical attention. Remove contaminated clothing and launder before reuse.

HAI-GE Corrosion Inhibitor: Remove contaminated shoes and discard.

Eyes

In case of contact, or suspected contact, immediately flush eyes with plenty of water for at least 15
minutes and get medical attention immediately after flushing.

Ingestion

Acids, HAI-GE Corrosion Inhibitor, AS-10 Antisludging Agent, FDP-S769-05


Iron-Reducing Agent: Do not induce vomiting. Slowly dilute with 1 to 2 glasses of water or milk
and seek medical attention. Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person.

G-Sperse Dispersant: Under normal conditions, first aid procedures are not required.

Notes to Physician

HAI-GE Corrosion Inhibitor: Probable mucosal damage can contraindicate the use of gastric
lavage.

AS-10 Antisluding Agent, FDP-S769-05 Iron-Reducing Agent: Treat symptomatically.

Spills
Environmental Precautionary Measures

Prevent from entering sewers, waterways, or low areas.

Procedure for Cleaning/Absorption

Isolate spills and stop leaks where safe. Contain spills with sand or other inert materials.

Acids, AS-10 Antisludging Agent, G-Sperse Dispersant:


1. Neutralize to pH of 6 to 8.
2. Scoop up and remove.

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Quality Assurance for Acidizing Treatments

HAI-GE Corrosion Inhibitor:


1. Isolate spills and stop leaks where safe.
2. Remove ignition sources and work with non-sparking tools.
3. Contain spills with sand or other inert materials.
4. Scoop up and remove.

Handling Precaution

CCA-H2S Hydrogen-Sulfide Scavenger: Avoid contact with eyes, skin, or clothing. Avoid
creating or inhaling dust. Wash hands after use.

G-Sperse Dispersant: Avoid breathing vapors.

Acids, HAI-GE Corrosion Inhibitor, FDP-S769-05 Iron-Reducing Agent: Wash hands after
use. Launder contaminated clothing before reuse.

HAI-GE Corrosion Inhibitor, G-Sperse Dispersant: Do NOT consume food, drink, or tobacco
in contaminated areas. Ground and bond containers when transferring from one container to
another.

Exposure Controls
Engineering Controls

Use in a well-ventilated area. Local exhaust ventilation should be used in areas without good cross
ventilation.

HAI-GE Corrosion Inhibitor: When used in high concentrations, a supplied air respirator or a
self-contained breathing apparatus might be required.

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Quality Assurance for Acidizing Treatments

Fines Recovery Acid System


Introduction
Fines Recovery acid service is an energized acid system for stimulating carbonate formations with BHST
up to 150F.

Applications/Advantages

Can be used in low-pressure, liquid-sensitive wells that normally produce fines during acidizing.

Can be used in wells that have fluid and fines-recovery problems.

Under matrix acidizing conditions, the FRA system can be used to divert in long horizontal
openhole sections.

Mixing Procedure
1. Add water to a recirculating mixer.
2. Add HAI-GE corrosion inhibitor or HAI-81M acid corrosion inhibitor.
3. Add non-emulsifier, if needed.
4. Add HCl acid.
5. Add SGA-I gelling agent and mix thoroughly by circulating the acid until all globules of gelling
agent disappear.
6. Place the mixture in a holding tank that is free of rust and organic contamination. The gelled-acid
system is sensitive to high concentrations of iron, oil, and other organic materials.
Important

Do not roll the mixture with air. Doing so can cause excessive foaming.

Note

When using FRA service, follow these guidelines:


Flow the well back as soon as possible after treatment. This action takes advantage
of FRA service's energy.
Foamed acid has a lower rock-dissolving capability than straight, non-foamed acid at
equivalent volumes. Adjust the treatment volume to compensate for this difference.

Health and Safety Precautions


Potential Chemicals Involved: Fines Recovery acid service, HCl acid, HAI-GE corrosion inhibitor,
HAI-81M acid corrosion inhibitor, and SGA-I gelling agent.

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Quality Assurance for Acidizing Treatments

Hazard Overview

Acids, SGA-I Gelling Agent: Can cause eye and skin burns and respiratory irritation. Can be
harmful if swallowed.

HAI-GE Corrosion Inhibitor: Can cause eye, skin, and respiratory burns, headaches, dizziness,
and other central-nervous-system effects. Can be absorbed through the skin. Can be harmful if
swallowed. Can cause allergic skin and respiratory reactions. Flammable.

HAI-81M Acid Corrosion Inhibitor: Can cause eye, skin, and respiratory irritation, headaches,
dizziness, and other central-nervous-system effects. Can be absorbed through the skin. Can be fatal
if swallowed. Can cause blindness. Flammable.

First Aid
Inhalation

If inhaled, remove victim from area to fresh air. If victim is not breathing, give artificial respiration,
preferably mouth-to-mouth. If breathing is difficult, give oxygen. Get medical attention.

Skin

In case of contact, immediately flush skin with plenty of soap and water for at least 15 minutes. Get
medical attention. Remove contaminated clothing and launder before reuse.

HAI-GE Corrosion Inhibitor: Remove contaminated shoes and discard.

Eyes

In case of contact, or suspected contact, immediately flush eyes with plenty of water for at least 15
minutes and get medical attention immediately after flushing.

Ingestion

Acids, HAI-GE Corrosion Inhibitor, and SGA-I Gelling Agent: Do not induce vomiting. Slowly
dilute with 1 to 2 glasses of water or milk and seek medical attention. Never give anything by mouth
to an unconscious person.

HAI-81M Acid Corrosion Inhibitor: If swallowed, induce vomiting immediately by giving two
glasses of water and sticking fingers down throat; never give anything to an unconscious person.
Get medical attention.

Notes to Physician (HAI-GE Corrosion Inhibitor)

Probable mucosal damage can contraindicate the use of gastric lavage.

Spills
Environmental Precautionary Measures

4-12

Prevent from entering sewers, waterways, or low areas.

Acid Systems

March 2009

Quality Assurance for Acidizing Treatments

Procedure for Cleaning/Absorption

Isolate spills and stop leaks where safe. Contain spills with sand or other inert materials.

Acids:
1. Neutralize to pH of 6 to 8.
2. Scoop up and remove.

HAI-GE Corrosion Inhibitor, HAI-81M Acid Corrosion Inhibitor:


1. Isolate spills and stop leaks where safe.
2. Remove ignition sources and work with non-sparking tools.
3. Contain spills with sand or other inert materials.
4. Scoop up and remove.

Handling Precautions

Acids, HAI-GE Corrosion Inhibitor: Avoid contact with eyes, skin, or clothing. Avoid breathing
vapors. Wash hands after use. Launder contaminated clothing before reuse.

HAI-GE Corrosion Inhibitor: Do NOT consume food, drink, or tobacco in contaminated areas.
Ground and bond containers when transferring from one container to another.

Exposure Controls
Engineering Controls

Use in a well-ventilated area. Local exhaust ventilation should be used in areas without good cross
ventilation.

When used in high concentrations, a supplied air respirator or a self-contained breathing apparatus
might be required.

March 2009

Acid Systems

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Quality Assurance for Acidizing Treatments

Carbonate Emulsion Acid (CEA) Service


Introduction
Carbonate Emulsion acid (CEA) service is an emulsified acid system used for stimulating carbonate
formations. By volume, 70% of the CEA service consists of 22% HCl acid as the internal phase and 30%
No. 2 diesel as the external (hydrocarbon) phase of the emulsion. The CEA service is formed through the
use of AF-61 or AF-70 emulsifier. The upper temperature limit of the system is approximately 400F
(205C) when using AF-70 emulsifier.

Applications/Advantages

CEA service is used in carbonate-reservoir stimulation jobs that require retarded acid-reaction rates.

In fracture-acidizing applications, formations that produce heavy crude oils with high quantities of
asphaltenes tend to respond best to CEA service.

It has been successfully used in high-temperature matrix-acidizing applications.

Mixing Procedure
CEA service can be batch-mixed or mixed continuously or semi-continuously.
Batch-Mixing Procedure
1. Place the hydrocarbon fluid in the emulsion tank and blend the appropriate quantity of AF-61 or
AF-70 emulsifier.
2. Add water to the acid tank, followed by corrosion inhibitor and the 20 or 22Be HCl acid.
3. Slowly add the acid blend to the hydrocarbon. When the fluids pass through the shearing device,
the emulsification process begins.
Important Always add the acid blend slowly. If the blend is added too quickly, the emulsion can
break out.
Note

The fluid must be passed through the shearing device several times before all of the
acid blend is added into the emulsion.

4. Circulate the emulsified fluid to the hydrocarbon storage tank.


Continuous/Semi-Continuous Mixing Procedure
1. Mix AF-61 or AF-70 emulsifier into the hydrocarbon.
2. Mix all other additives, including HV-60 intensifier agent, into the acid.
3. Immediately stream the fluids together before they enter the shearing device. Maintain good flow
control of each fluid to ensure the correct ratio of the two emulsion phases. The fluid must be
viscous enough to stabilize the emulsion after the fluid has passed through the shearing device.

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Quality Assurance for Acidizing Treatments

Health and Safety Precautions


Potential Chemicals Involved: Carbonate Emulsion acid service, HCl acid, diesel, AF-61
emulsifier, AF-70 emulsifier, HV-60 intensifier agent (solid).
Hazard Overview

Acids: Can cause eye and skin burns and respiratory irritation. Can be harmful if swallowed.

Diesel, AF-61 Emulsifier: Can cause eye, skin, and respiratory burns, headaches, dizziness, and
other central-nervous-system effects. Can be absorbed through the skin. Can be harmful if
swallowed. Can cause skin and respiratory allergic reactions. Combustible.

HV-60 Intensifier Agent: Can cause eye, skin, and respiratory irritation.

First Aid
Inhalation

If inhaled, remove victim from area to fresh air. If victim is not breathing, give artificial respiration,
preferably mouth-to-mouth. If breathing is difficult, give oxygen. Get medical attention.

Skin

In case of contact, immediately flush skin with plenty of soap and water for at least 15 minutes. Get
medical attention. Remove contaminated clothing and launder before reuse.

Eyes

In case of contact, or suspected contact, immediately flush eyes with plenty of water for at least 15
minutes and get medical attention immediately after flushing.

Ingestion

Acids: Do not induce vomiting. Slowly dilute with 1 to 2 glasses of water or milk and seek medical
attention. Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person.

Diesel, AF-61 Emulsifier: Get medical attention! If vomiting occurs, keep head lower than hips to
prevent aspiration.

HV-60 Intensifier Agent: Under normal conditions, first aid procedures are not required.

Spills
Environmental Precautionary Measures
Prevent from entering sewers, waterways, or low areas.
Procedure for Cleaning/Absorption

Isolate spills and stop leaks where safe. Contain spills with sand or other inert materials.

Acids, G-Sperse Dispersant:


1. Neutralize to pH of 6 to 8.
2. Scoop up and remove.

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Quality Assurance for Acidizing Treatments

AF-61 Emulsifier:
1. Isolate spills and stop leaks where safe.
2. Contain spills with sand or other inert materials.
3. Scoop up and remove.

Handling Precautions

Acids: Avoid contact with eyes, skin, or clothing. Avoid breathing vapors. Wash hands after use.
Launder contaminated clothing before reuse.

G-Sperse Dispersant: Do NOT consume food, drink, or tobacco in contaminated areas. Ground
and bond containers when transferring from one container to another.

HV-60 Intensifier Agent: Avoid creating or inhaling dust.

Personal Precautionary Measures: Use appropriate PPE. Avoid creating and breathing dust.

Exposure Controls
Engineering Controls

Use in a well-ventilated area. Local exhaust ventilation should be used in areas without good cross
ventilation.

HV-60 Intensifier Agent: When used in high concentrations, a supplied air respirator or
self-contained breathing apparatus might be required.

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Quality Assurance for Acidizing Treatments

Carbonate Stimulation Acid (CSA) Service


Introduction
The Carbonate Stimulation acid (CSA) service is used in carbonate formations for stimulating
production. CSA service is comprised of 15% HCl acid that is viscosified with 2% SGA-HT acid
system gelling agent.

Application/Advantages
CSA service can be used to stimulate carbonate formations by fracture-acidizing or matrix-acidizing.
Note

If the formation contains significant amounts of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and


SCA-130 sulfide-cracking inhibitor is planned for use, then SGA-HT acid system
gelling agent should be used as the gelling agent. SCA-130 inhibitor and CCA-H2S
hydrogen-sulfide scavenger (FDP-S562C) will unpredictably crosslink SGA-II
acid gelling agent and SGA-III gelling agent, making the materials too viscous to
be retrieved from the tank.

Mixing Procedure
Follow the General Mixing Guidelines under Job Preparation on Page 2-4 for order of addition.
Note

The gelling agent should be added after the acid but before the surfactant.

Important

SGA-HT acid system gelling agent should be mixed at a high shear rate for at least
15 min to ensure it is fully hydrated before pumping downhole.

Warning

To avoid unpredictable reactions, do not batch mix SGA-HT acid system gelling
agent and SCA-130 sulfide-cracking inhibitor. Run one or both of these
components on-the-fly.

Health and Safety Precautions


Potential Chemicals Involved: Carbonate Stimulation acid service, HCl acid, SGA-HT acid system
gelling agent, SGA-II acid gelling agent, and SGA-III gelling agent.
Hazard Overview

Acids: Can cause eye and skin burns and respiratory irritation. Can be harmful if swallowed.

SGA-HT Acid System Gelling Agent, SGA-II Acid Gelling Agent, and SGA-III Gelling
Agent: Can cause eye, skin, and respiratory irritation, headaches, dizziness, and other centralnervous-system effects. Can be harmful if swallowed.

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Quality Assurance for Acidizing Treatments

First Aid
Inhalation

If inhaled, remove victim from area to fresh air. If victim is not breathing, give artificial respiration,
preferably mouth-to-mouth. If breathing is difficult, give oxygen. Get medical attention.

Skin

In case of contact, immediately flush skin with plenty of soap and water for at least 15 minutes. Get
medical attention. Remove contaminated clothing and launder before reuse.

Eyes

In case of contact, or suspected contact, immediately flush eyes with plenty of water for at least 15
minutes and get medical attention immediately after flushing.

Ingestion

Acids: Do not induce vomiting. Slowly dilute with 1 to 2 glasses of water or milk and seek medical
attention. Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person.

SGA-HT Acid System Gelling Agent, SGA-II Acid Gelling Agent, and SGA-III Gelling
Agent: Get medical attention! If vomiting occurs, keep head lower than hips to prevent aspiration.

Notes to Physician (SGA-III Gelling Agent)


Activated charcoal or gastric lavage might be advisable for significant ingestion.
Spills
Environmental Precautionary Measures

Prevent from entering sewers, waterways, or low areas.

Procedure for Cleaning/Absorption


1. Isolate spills and stop leaks where safe. Contain spills with sand or other inert materials.
2. Neutralize to pH of 6 to 8.
3. Scoop up and remove.
Handling Precautions

Acids, SGA-HT Acid System Gelling Agent, SGA-II Acid Gelling Agent, and SGA-III Gelling
Agent: Avoid contact with eyes, skin, or clothing. Avoid breathing vapors. Wash hands after use.
Launder contaminated clothing before reuse.

SGA-HT Acid System Gelling Agent: Slippery when wet.

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Quality Assurance for Acidizing Treatments

Exposure Controls
Engineering Controls

Use in a well-ventilated area. Local exhaust ventilation should be used in areas without good cross
ventilation.

SGA-HT Acid System Gelling Agent: When used in high concentrations, a supplied air
respirator or self-contained breathing apparatus might be required.

March 2009

Acid Systems

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Quality Assurance for Acidizing Treatments

Sandstone 2000 Acidizing Service


Sandstone 2000 acidizing service includes the basic HF-acid systems currently available from
Halliburton. These systems are designed to handle most of the problems encountered in sandstone
acidizing. The systems, called SS2000 Damage Removal Fluid Systems, include Silica Scale acid,
Sandstone Completion acid system, K-Spar Acid, Fines Control acid system, and Volcanic acid
systems I and II.
Note

The mixing procedure for all these Sandstone 2000 service treatments should follow
the general mixing procedure, unless otherwise mentioned separately (i.e., water +
corrosion inhibitor + acid + surfactants). The detailed general-mixing guideline is
mentioned in Section 2 (On-Site Quality Assurance Standards for Acidizing).

Sandstone Completion Acid System .................................................................................................. 4-21


Fines Control Acid System ................................................................................................................ 4-24
K-Spar Acid........................................................................................................................................ 4-26
Volcanic Acid System ........................................................................................................................ 4-28
Silica Scale Acid System.................................................................................................................... 4-31
Note

Please consult the appropriate Technology Bulletins for more detailed information on
these acidizing systems.

Important

Ensure that all personnel handling the product read, understand, and follow the
precautions in the MSDS for each chemical. Summaries of the relevant points and
information on first-aid measures by different exposure routes are contained in each
product's MSDS.
The MSDS for components of this service can be found at the following URL
address: http://msds.corp.halliburton.com

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Quality Assurance for Acidizing Treatments

Sandstone Completion Acid System


Introduction
Sandstone Completion acid system consists of 13.5% HCl acid-1.5% HF acid, Pen-88M/Penn-88 HT
surfactant as a penetrating agent, and 5% Alchek agent to prevent precipitation of aluminum in the
formation and in the wellbore (alumino-silicate scaling). It should be used for acidizing most sandstone
formations.
Important

Use of Alchek agent is particularly important when mineralogy is unknown or if the


formation contains high carbonate-content streaks or more than 5% carbonates.

Application/Advantages

This fluid system is compatible with a majority of formations and particularly designed for cases
where the formation mineralogy is unknown or uncertain. It should be used for acidizing most
sandstone formations.

Contains high HCl-HF acids ratio to provide compatibility with most formation mineralogies.

Aids in iron control, in most cases eliminating the need for other iron-control additives, such as
Fe-2 iron-sequestering agent (citric acid) and Fe-1A (acetic acid) agent. If Fe3+ must be reduced,
Ferchek ferric-iron inhibitor, Ferchek A reducing agent, or Ferchek SC iron-control system will
be required.

Contains a penetrating agent to help acid contact the damage.

Note

This acid system should not be used in formations high in feldspars, particularly at
temperatures below 200F and in formations containing HCl-acid-sensitive minerals.

Health and Safety Precautions


Potential Chemicals Involved: Sandstone Completion acid system, PEN-88M surfactant, PEN-88 HT
surfactant, Alchek agent, Fe-2 iron-sequestering agent (solid), FE-1A agent, Fercheck A reducing agent
(solid), Ferchek SC iron-control system.
Hazard Overview

Acids, Ferchek SC Iron-Control System: Can cause eye and skin burns and respiratory irritation.
Can be harmful if swallowed.

PEN-88M and PEN-88 HT Surfactants: Can cause eye, skin, and respiratory irritation,
headaches, dizziness, and other central-nervous-system effects. Can be harmful if swallowed.
Combustible

Alchek Agent: Can cause eye, skin, and respiratory burns.

FE-1A Agent: Reacts violently with water.

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Quality Assurance for Acidizing Treatments

Fe-2 Iron-Sequestering Agent: Can cause eye and respiratory irritation. Airborne dust can be
explosive.

Fercheck A Reducing Agent: Can cause skin and respiratory allergic reactions. Airborne dust
can be explosive.

First Aid
Inhalation

If inhaled, remove victim from area to fresh air. If victim is not breathing, give artificial respiration,
preferably mouth-to-mouth. If breathing is difficult, give oxygen. Get medical attention.

Skin

In case of contact, immediately flush skin with plenty of soap and water for at least 15 minutes. Get
medical attention. Remove contaminated clothing and launder before reuse.

Eyes

In case of contact, or suspected contact, immediately flush eyes with plenty of water for at least 15
minutes and get medical attention immediately after flushing.

Ingestion

Do not induce vomiting. Slowly dilute with 1 to 2 glasses of water or milk and seek medical
attention. Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person.

Spills
Environmental Precautionary Measures

Prevent from entering sewers, waterways, or low areas.

Procedure for Cleaning/Absorption


1. Isolate spills and stop leaks where safe. Contain spills with sand or other inert materials.
2. Neutralize to pH of 6 to 8.
3. Scoop up and remove.
Handling Precautions

Acids, Ferchek A Reducing Agent, Ferchek SC Iron-Control System, PEN-88 HT


Surfactant: Avoid contact with eyes, skin, or clothing. Avoid breathing vapors. Wash hands after
use. Launder contaminated clothing before reuse.

Fe-2 Iron-Sequestering Agent: Avoid creating or inhaling dust.

PEN-88M Surfactant: Do not consume food, drink, or tobacco in contaminated areas.

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Quality Assurance for Acidizing Treatments

Exposure Controls
Engineering Controls

Use in a well-ventilated area. Local exhaust ventilation should be used in areas without good cross
ventilation.

Ferchek SC, PEN-88 HT: In high concentrations, supplied air respirator or a self-contained
breathing apparatus may be required.

March 2009

Acid Systems

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Quality Assurance for Acidizing Treatments

Fines Control Acid System


Introduction
Fines Control acid system is a retarded HF-acid system designed for treating sandstone formations. Fines
Control acid contains FE-1A (acetic acid) to control aluminum scaling and iron precipitation,
Pen-88M/Pen-88 HT surfactant as a penetrating agent, and Cla-Sta FS compound as a clay and fines
stabilizer.
Note

If carbonates exceed 5%, Alchek agent should be used in place of FE-1A.


If permeability is less than 30 md, Cla-Sta XP clay-stabilizing agent should be used
instead of Cla-Sta FS compound.

Application/Advantages
1. Retarded reaction with sand and silica to promote deep damage removal and improve compatibility
with feldspar-containing formations.
2. It is primarily used for formations containing significant kaolinite and/or illite.
3. It can also be effective in formations that are HCl-acid-sensitive.
4. Deeper penetration of live HF acid into the formation.
5. Clay stabilizer to control fines migration during and following the treatment.

Health and Safety Precautions


Potential Chemicals Involved: Fines Control acid, HF acid, FE-1A, PEN-88M surfactant, PEN-88 HT
surfactant, Cla-Sta FS compound, Cla-Sta XP clay-stabilizing agent, Alchek agent.
Hazard Overview

Acids and Alchek Agent: Can cause eye and skin burns and respiratory irritation. Can be harmful
if swallowed.

Cla-Sta FS Compound, Cla-Sta XP Clay-Stabilizing Agent, PEN-88M Surfactant, PEN-88


HT Surfactant: Can cause eye, skin, and respiratory irritation. Can be harmful if swallowed.

PEN-88M and PEM-88 HT Surfactants: Can cause headaches, dizziness, and other centralnervous-system effects. Combustible.

FE-1A: Reacts violently with water.

First Aid
Inhalation

4-24

If inhaled, remove victim from area to fresh air. If victim is not breathing, give artificial respiration,
preferably mouth-to-mouth. If breathing is difficult, give oxygen. Get medical attention.

Acid Systems

March 2009

Quality Assurance for Acidizing Treatments

Skin

In case of contact, immediately flush skin with plenty of soap and water for at least 15 minutes. Get
medical attention. Remove contaminated clothing and launder before reuse.

Eyes

In case of contact, or suspected contact, immediately flush eyes with plenty of water for at least 15
minutes and get medical attention immediately after flushing.

Ingestion

Do not induce vomiting. Slowly dilute with 1 to 2 glasses of water or milk and seek medical
attention. Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person.

Spills
Environmental Precautionary Measures

Prevent from entering sewers, waterways, or low areas.

Procedure for Cleaning/Absorption


1. Isolate spills and stop leaks where safe. Contain spills with sand or other inert materials.
2. Neutralize to pH of 6 to 8.
3. Scoop up and remove.
Handling Precautions

Acids, Cla-Sta Compound Additive, Cla-Sta XP Clay-Stabilizing Agent, PEN-88 HT


Surfactant: Avoid contact with eyes, skin, or clothing. Avoid breathing vapors. Wash hands after
use. Launder contaminated clothing before reuse.

PEN-88M Surfactant: Do not consume food, drink, or tobacco in contaminated areas.

Exposure Controls
Engineering Controls

Use in a well-ventilated area. Local exhaust ventilation should be used in areas without good cross
ventilation.

PEN-88 HT Surfactant: When used in high concentrations, a supplied air respirator or


self-contained breathing apparatus might be required.

March 2009

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Quality Assurance for Acidizing Treatments

K-Spar Acid
Introduction
K-Spar acid is designed for treating formations containing significant sodium feldspar, potassium
feldspar, or illite. K-Spar acid is a blend of 9% HCl acid and 1% HF acid that contains Fe-1A (acetic acid)
to control aluminum scaling and iron precipitation, Pen-88M/Pen-88 HT surfactant as a penetrating
agent, and Cla-Sta FS compound as a clay- and fines-control additive.

Application/Advantages

It should be used where the formation contains K-Spar acid and/or illite as the dominant mineral
(Overall content 10%)

Since the fluorosilicates are less soluble at lower temperature, K-Spar acid should be used in most
formations containing significant sodium feldspars at temperatures below 175F.

Contains Fe-1A for iron control and preventing aluminum scaling.

Contains clay stabilizer to control fines migration during and following the treatment.

Note

If carbonates exceed 5%, Alchek agent should be used instead of FE-1A.


If permeability is less than 30 md, Cla-Sta XP clay-stabilizing agent should be used
instead of Cla-Sta FS compound.

Health and Safety Precautions


Potential Chemicals Involved: K-Spar acid, HCl acid, HF acid, FE-1A, PEN-88M surfactant, PEN-88
HT surfactant, Cla-Sta FS compound, Cla-Sta XP clay-stabilizing agent, and Alchek agent.
Hazard Overview

Acids, Ferchek SC: May cause eye and skin burns. May cause respiratory irritation. May be harmful
if swallowed.

Cla-Sta FS Compound, Cla-Sta XP Clay-Stabilizing Agent: Can cause eye, skin, and respiratory
irritation. Can be harmful if swallowed.

PEN-88M and PEN-88 HT Surfactants: Can cause eye, skin, and respiratory irritation,
headaches, dizziness, and other central-nervous-system effects. Can be harmful if swallowed.
Combustible

Alchek Agent: Can cause eye, skin, and respiratory burns.

FE-1A: Reacts violently with water.

K-Spar Acid: Can damage bones.

4-26

Acid Systems

March 2009

Quality Assurance for Acidizing Treatments

First Aid
Inhalation

If inhaled, remove victim from area to fresh air. If victim is not breathing, give artificial respiration,
preferably mouth-to-mouth. If breathing is difficult, give oxygen. Get medical attention.

Skin

In case of contact, immediately flush skin with plenty of soap and water for at least 15 minutes. Get
medical attention. Remove contaminated clothing and launder before reuse.

Eyes

In case of contact, or suspected contact, immediately flush eyes with plenty of water for at least 15
minutes and get medical attention immediately after flushing.

Ingestion

Do not induce vomiting. Slowly dilute with 1 to 2 glasses of water or milk and seek medical
attention. Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person.

Spills
Environmental Precautionary Measures

Prevent from entering sewers, waterways, or low areas.

Procedure for Cleaning/Absorption


1. Isolate spills and stop leaks where safe. Contain spills with sand or other inert materials.
2. Neutralize to pH of 6 to 8.
3. Scoop up and remove.
Handling Precautions

Acid, Cla-Sta Compound Additive, Cla-Sta XP Clay-Stabilizing Agent, PEN-88 HT


Surfactant: Avoid contact with eyes, skin, or clothing. Avoid breathing vapors. Wash hands after
use. Launder contaminated clothing before reuse.

PEN-88M Surfactant: Do not consume food, drink, or tobacco in contaminated areas.

Exposure Controls
Engineering Controls

Use in a well-ventilated area. Local exhaust ventilation should be used in areas without good cross
ventilation.

K-Spar Acid, PEN-88 HT Surfactant: When used in high concentrations, a supplied air respirator
or self-contained breathing apparatus might be required.

March 2009

Acid Systems

4-27

Quality Assurance for Acidizing Treatments

Volcanic Acid System


Introduction
Volcanic acid system is an organic-HF-acid acidizing-blend developed to replace acetic-HF-acid and
formic-HF-acid fluids. Two formulations of Volcanic acid system have been developedVolcanic acid
system I and Volcanic acid system II. Volcanic acid system I contains citric acid (Fe-2
iron-sequestering agent), ABF (AF cannot be used as the fluoride source because it has the potential for
secondary precipitation, which cannot be avoided with this formulation), NH4Cl (Clayfix clay-control
material), and Pen-88M/Pen-88 HT surfactant. Volcanic acid system II is based on Alchek agent and
can be prepared with either ABF or AF.

Application/Advantages

Compatible with HCl-sensitive minerals (for example, chlorite, zeolites, and other clays at
temperatures above their HCl-decomposition temperature).

Can be used at higher temperatures than HCl-based fluids without decomposing clays or zeolites or
having high corrosion rates. This system is much easier to inhibit to prevent excessive corrosion.

Avoids secondary precipitation observed with formic-HF acid and acetic-HF acid.

Contains NH4Cl to prevent swelling of water-sensitive clays.

Typically, this acid system will not cause sludging with crude oils.

Note

MSA-II corrosion-inhibitor should be used with both Volcanic acid systems.

Health and Safety Precautions


Potential Chemicals Involved: Volcanic acid systems I or II, ABF (solid), Fe-2 iron-sequestering agent,
AF, Alchek agent, AF-61 emulsifier, PEN-88M surfactant, PEN-88 HT surfactant, Clayfix
clay-control material.
Hazard Overview

Acids: Can cause eye and skin burns. Can cause respiratory irritation. Can be harmful if swallowed.

Clayfix Clay-Control Material, Cla-Sta FS Compound, Cla-Sta XP Clay-Stabilizing


Agent: Can cause eye, skin, and respiratory irritation. Can be harmful if swallowed.

PEN-88M Surfactant, PEM-88 HT Surfactant: Can cause eye, skin, and respiratory irritation,
headaches, dizziness, and other central-nervous-system effects. Can be harmful if swallowed.
Combustible.

Volcanic Acid System II, ABF: Can damage bones.

4-28

Acid Systems

March 2009

Quality Assurance for Acidizing Treatments

Volcanic Acid System II, AF: Can cause eye, skin, and respiratory irritation. Can damage
bones. Can be harmful if swallowed.

Fe-2 Iron-Sequestering Agent: Can cause eye, skin, and respiratory irritation. Airborne dust
can be explosive.

First Aid
Inhalation

If inhaled, remove victim from area to fresh air. If victim is not breathing, give artificial respiration,
preferably mouth-to-mouth. If breathing is difficult, give oxygen. Get medical attention.

Skin

In case of contact, immediately flush skin with plenty of soap and water for at least 15 minutes. Get
medical attention. Remove contaminated clothing and launder before reuse.

Eyes

In case of contact, or suspected contact, immediately flush eyes with plenty of water for at least 15
minutes and get medical attention immediately after flushing.

Ingestion

Acids, PEN-88M Surfactant, PEN-88 HT Surfactant, Clayfix Clay-Control Material,


ABF, AF, Fe-2 Iron-Sequestering Agent, Alchek Agent: Do not induce vomiting. Slowly
dilute with 1 to 2 glasses of water or milk and seek medical attention. Never give anything by mouth
to an unconscious person.

Spills
Environmental Precautionary Measures

Prevent from entering sewers, waterways, or low areas.

Procedure for Cleaning/Absorption


1. Isolate spills and stop leaks where safe. Contain spills with sand or other inert materials.
2. Neutralize to pH of 6 to 8.
3. Scoop up and remove.
Handling Precautions

Acids, Clay-Control Material, PEN-88 HT Surfactant, ABF, AF, Fe-2 Iron-Sequestering


Agent, Alchek Agent: Avoid contact with eyes, skin, or clothing. Avoid breathing vapors. Wash
hands after use. Launder contaminated clothing before reuse.

ABF, AF, Fe-2 Iron-Sequestering Agent: Avoid creating or inhaling dust.

PEN-88M Surfactant: Do not consume food, drink, or tobacco in contaminated areas.

March 2009

Acid Systems

4-29

Quality Assurance for Acidizing Treatments

Exposure Controls
Engineering Controls

Use in a well-ventilated area. Local exhaust ventilation should be used in areas without good cross
ventilation.

PEN-88 HT Surfactant: When used in high concentrations, a supplied air respirator or


self-contained breathing apparatus might be required.

Fe-2 Iron-Sequestering Agent: A 95% dust/mist respirator is required.

4-30

Acid Systems

March 2009

Quality Assurance for Acidizing Treatments

Silica Scale Acid System


Introduction
Silica Scale acid system is the old, regular HF acid or mud acid (12% HCl acid-3% HF acid).

Application/Advantages

This acid system is recommended for use only where the formation is 100% quartz and contains no
clay minerals.

Used for removal of silica scale from the wellbore in areas where silica scale can form (geothermal
wells or steam flooding).

Note

This acid system is not to be used in normal-formation HF-acidizing treatments. High


HF-acid concentrations would result in secondary precipitation near the wellbore.

Health and Safety Precautions


Potential Chemicals Involved: Silica Scale acid system, HCl acid, HF acid.
Hazard Overview

Acids: Can cause eye and skin burns. Can be harmful if swallowed.

Silica Scale Acid System: Can damage bones.

First Aid
Inhalation

If inhaled, remove victim from area to fresh air. If victim is not breathing, give artificial respiration,
preferably mouth-to-mouth. If breathing is difficult, give oxygen. Get medical attention.

Skin

In case of contact, immediately flush skin with plenty of soap and water for at least 15 minutes. Get
medical attention. Remove contaminated clothing and launder before reuse.

HF Acid: While wearing protective gloves, apply 2.5% calcium-gluconate gel at burn site, rubbing
continuously.

Eyes

In case of contact, or suspected contact, immediately flush eyes with plenty of water for at least 15
minutes and get medical attention immediately after flushing.

HF Acid: If available, apply 1 to 2 drops of 0.5% pontocaine hydrochloride into open eye. Irrigate
with 1.0% calcium gluconate in normal saline for 1 to 2 hours.

March 2009

Acid Systems

4-31

Quality Assurance for Acidizing Treatments

Ingestion (Acids)

Do not induce vomiting. Slowly dilute with 1 to 2 glasses of water or milk and seek medical
attention. Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person.

Spills
Environmental Precautionary Measures

Prevent from entering sewers, waterways, or low areas.

Procedure for Cleaning/Absorption


1. Isolate spills and stop leaks where safe. Contain spills with sand or other inert materials.
2. Neutralize with lime slurry, limestone, or soda ash. Neutralize to pH of 6 to 8.
3. Scoop up and remove.
Handling Precautions (Acids)

Avoid contact with eyes, skin, or clothing. Avoid breathing vapors. Wash hands after use. Launder
contaminated clothing before reuse.

Exposure Controls
Engineering Controls

4-32

Use in a well-ventilated area. Local exhaust ventilation should be used in areas without good cross
ventilation.

Acid Systems

March 2009

SECTION
Appx

1
A

Preface

Hazardous Material and PPE


Selection Matrix
Appendix A contains a copy of the Hazardous Material and PPE Selection matrix.

March 2009

Hazardous Material and PPE Selection Matrix

A-1

Quality Assurance for Acidizing Treatments

A-2

Hazardous Material and PPE Selection Matrix

March 2009

Face shield

Dust, Mist
Fume Respirator

HEPA

AF Additive

CG

AF-61 Emulsifier

CG

OV

NEO/NIT

OV/AG

OV/AG
OV/AG/P
F

AF-70 Emulsifier

Tyvek
Coverall

Chemical
Goggles

BUT

Atmosphere
Supplying
Respirator

Apron

ABF Additive

Product Name

Chemical
Cartridge
Respirator

Gloves

Hazardous Material and Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) Selection Matrix


Emergency Phone Number: (281) 575-5000

Comments

Solid, safety glasses or


goggles
Self-contained breathing
apparatus might be required.

Possible

Alchek Agent (Scale Inhibitor)

CG

AS-5 Anti-Sludging Agent

CG

AS-7 Anti-Sludging Agent

CG

AS-9 Anti-Sludging Agent

CG

AS-10 Anti-Sludging Agent

CG

AS-11a Anti-Sludging Agent

NEO

AS-11e Anti-Sludging Agent

CG/VIT/
BUT/ NEO

OV

OV/AG

OV/AG

Wear a face shield if


splashing hazard exists.
Rubber boots

Supplied air respirator might


be required if methanol
released

Possible

OV/AG/P
F
OV/AG/P
F
Neoprene coated apron or
clothing is required
Supplied air respirator might
be required

95%
Possible

BF-1 Buffering Agent

CG

Cla-Sta FS Compound

CG

OV/AG/P
F

CG

OV/PF

CG

OV/AG/P
F

CG

OV/AG

Rubber boots

CG

OV/AG

Rubber boots

Cla-Sta XP Clay-Stabilizing
Agent
Clayfix Clay-Control Material
(Liquid)
Carbonate Emulsion Acid
(CEA) Service
Carbonate Completion Acid
(CCA) System

Rubber boots
Engineering controls
required

Carbonate Stimulation Acid


(CSA) Service
CCA-H2S Hydrogen Sulfide
Scavenger
Diesel No. 2
FDP-S769-05 (Iron-Reducing
Agent)
FE-1A Acidizing Compound
(Additive)

CG

NIT
CG
CG/NIT/
NEO/PVC

OV/AG

Solid, safety glasses or


goggles

95%
X

CG

FE-2 Iron-Sequestering Agent

CG

FerchekA Reducing Agent

CG

Ferchek Ferric-Iron Inhibitor

WG

Ferchek SC Iron-Control
Process

CG

AG

Fines Control Iron-Oxide


Removal And Surface-Passivator
Service

CG

Fines Recovery Iron-Oxide


Removal And Surface-Passivator
Service

CG

G-Sperse Dispersant

CG

HAI-GE Corrosion Inhibitor

Rubber boots

OV
95%

AG

Wear a face shield if


splashing hazard exists.

OV/AG

Rubber boots

95%

Solid, safety glasses or


goggles

95%

Solid, dust-proof goggles

95%

Solid, safety glasses or


goggles
X

Rubber boots, supplied air


respirator might be required

AG

Rubber boots

OV/AG

Rubber boots

OV/AG
Possible

CG

OV/AG

Possible

Rubber boots, supplied air


respirator might be required

HAI-81M Acid Corrosion


Inhibitor

CG

OV/AG

Possible

Rubber boots, supplied air


respirator might be required
if methanol released

HAI-85M Acid Corrosion


Inhibitor

CG

OV/AG

Possible

HAI-202 Corrosion Inhibitor

CG

OV/AG

Possible

HAI-303 Corrosion Inhibitor

CG

OV/AG

Possible

HAI-404M Corrosion Inhibitor

CG

OV/AG

Possible

Possible

Respirator might be required

Rubber boots, supplied air


respirator might be required
Rubber boots, supplied air
respirator might be required
Supplied air respirator might
be required if methanol is
released
Supplied air respirator might
be required if methanol is
released

HAI-OS Corrosion Inhibitor

CG

HII-124B Corrosion-Inhibitor
Intensifier

CG

HII-124C Inhibitor Intensifier

CG

HII-124F Corrosion-Inhibitor
Intensifier

CG

HII-124T Corrosion Inhibitor


Intensifier

CG
CG

HEPA

95%

OV/PF

CG

OV/AG

Rubber boots

Hot Rock Acid (HRA) System


(Solvent/Acid)

CG

OV/AG

Rubber boots

HV-60 Intensifier Agent

WG

Hydrochloric (HCl) Acid

CG

AG

Rubber boots

Hydrofluoric (HF) Acid

CG

AG

Rubber boots

K-Spar Acid

CG

AG

Possible

Rubber boots, supplied air


respirator might be required

HII-500M Corrosion-Inhibitor
Intensifier
HII-600 Corrosion Inhibitor
Intensifier

OV/AG

Possible

AG

Rubber boots, supplied air


respirator might be required
if methanol is released
Solid, safety glasses or
goggles
Solid, safety glasses or
goggles

Rubber boots
Solid, safety glasses or
goggles; engineering
controls required

95%

Solid, safety glasses or


goggles, respirator might be
required

95%
Possible

MSA-II Corrosion Inhibitor

NEO/NIT/
VIT

OV

Possible

Rubber boots, supplied air


respirator might be required

MSA-III Corrosion Inhibitor

CG

OV/AG

Possible

Supplied air respirator might


be required

PEN-88 HT Surfactant

CG

OV

Possible

Supplied air respirator might


be required

PEN-88M Surfactant

CG

OV

AG

Sandstone Acid

CG
VIT/NIT/N
EO

Rubber boots

SCA-130 Sulfide-Cracking
Inhibitor
SGA-HT Acid System Gelling
Agent (Flocculent)

CG

OV

PVC/OR

OV
Possible

SGA-I Gelling Agent

BUT

SGA-II Acid Gelling Agent

CG

OV/AG/P
F
OV

SGA-III Gelling Agent

CG

OV

SGA-V Gelling Agent

CG

OV/PF
possible

Silica Scale Acid System


(Solvent/Acid)

CG

OV/AG

SP Breaker Agent

BUT

Volcanic Acid System I


(Solvent/Acid)

CG

Volcanic Acid System II


(Solvent/Acid)

CG

XL-1 Crosslinker
Zonal Coverage Acid (ZCA)
System

CG
CG

Rubber boots

Respirator might be required


X

95%

Rubber boots
Solid, dust-proof goggles

95%

OV/AG

AG/PF

AG

Abbreviations:
CHEMICAL CARTRIDGE RESPIRATORS
AG = Acid gas
OV = Organic vapor
PF = Particulate pre-filter (N95)
HEPA = High-efficiency particulate air
95% = 95% dust/mist

Respirator might be required

CHEMICAL PROTECTIVE MATERIALS


BUT = Butyl rubber glove
CG = Impervious rubber glove
NEO = Neoprene glove
NIT = Nitrile glove
PVC/OR = Polyvinylchloride/oil-resistant glove
VIT = Viton glove
WG = Work glove

Rubber boots
Rubber boots

Rubber boots

SECTION
Appx

1
B

Preface

Acidizing On-Site QC Example


Forms
Appendix B contains a copy of the Acidizing On-Site QC example forms.

March 2009

Acidizing On-Site QC Example Forms

B-1

Quality Assurance for Acidizing Treatments

B-2

Acidizing On-Site QC Example Forms

March 2009

Halliburton Energy Services


Acidizing
Production Enhancement
Customer:
Formation:
Ticket No.:

Well No:
Depth:

Date:
Acid System:
On-Site Inventory Form

Chemical Information
Expiration Date
Lot No. / Supplier

Name

Fluid on Location:
Tank No.
1
2
3
4
5

Total, gal:
Starting Volume, gal

Required

Chemical Amounts on Location


Before
After

Ending, gal:
Ending Volume, gal

Used

Total used:
Used Volume, gal

Halliburton Energy Services


Acidizing
Production Enhancement
Customer:
Formation:
Ticket No.:

Well No:
Depth:

Date:
Acid System:

On-Site Water Analysis Record Form


Parameters
Temperature
pH
Specific gravity
Bacteria count
Iron
Sulphates

Tank No.
1

Halliburton Energy Services


Acidizing
Production Enhancement
Customer:
Formation:
Ticket No.:

Well No:
Depth:

Date:
Acid System:

Pre-Job Acid Check Sheet


Acid Tank

NaOH, mL

SG

Temp, F/C

Corrected SG

Acid Conc.

Additives Information:
Additive Name

Visual Inspection:

Remarks:

gal/Mgal

lb/Mgal

Volume, mL

Halliburton Energy Services


Acidizing
Production Enhancement
Customer:
Formation:
Ticket No.:

Well No:
Depth:

Date:
Acid System:

Pre-Job Gel Check Sheet


Chemicals/
Additives

Concentrations

Chemicals/
Additives

Concentrations

Tank No.:

Sample Location:

300 RPM Reading:


Gel Loading:
pH:
Temperature:
Chemicals/
Additives

Concentrations

Chemicals/
Additives

Concentrations

Tank No.:

Sample Location:

300 RPM Reading:


Gel Loading:
pH:
Temperature:
Chemicals/
Additives

Concentrations

Chemicals/
Additives

Concentrations

Tank No.:

Sample Location:

300 RPM Reading:


Gel Loading:
pH:
Temperature:

Halliburton Energy Services


Acidizing
Production Enhancement
Customer:
Formation:
Ticket No.:

Well No:
Depth:

Date:
Acid System:

During-Job Check Sheet For Acid Treatment

Stage
Number

Time,
min

Type of Acid:
Stage Volume,
gal
Temperature,
F/C

Viscosity,
cp @ 300 RPM

NaOH,
mL

SG

Acid Conc.

Halliburton Energy Services


Acidizing
Production Enhancement
Customer:
Formation:
Ticket No.:

Well No:
Depth:

Date:
Acid System:

During-Job Gel QC Testing


Stage
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25

Time,
min

Gel
Loading

Base Gel Data


Temperature,
pH
F

Viscosity,
cp at 300 RPM

Gel
Loading

Crosslinked Gel Data


Temperature,
Viscosity,
pH
F
cp at 300 RPM

SECTION
Appx

1
C

Preface

Acidizing Equipment Check


Example Forms
Appendix C contains a copy of the Acidizing Equipment Check example forms.

March 2009

Acidizing Equipment Check Example Forms

C-1

Quality Assurance for Acidizing Treatments

C-2

Acidizing Equipment Check Example Forms

March 2009

Halliburton Energy Services


Acidizing
Production Enhancement
Customer:
Formation:
Ticket No.:

Well No:
Depth:

Date:
Acid System:

Laboratory Equipment Check Sheet


Item
Fann 35 Viscometer
Calibrated?
Condition: clean and
operational?
pH Meter
Is it calibrated?
Condition: clean and
operational?
Waring Blender
Is it clean and unbroken?
Is it operational?
Weighing Balances
Is it calibrated?
Condition: clean and
operational?
Water Baths
Is it calibrated?
Condition: clean and
operational?
Acid Titration Kit
Is it calibrated?
Condition: clean and
operational?

Yes

No

Remarks

Halliburton Energy Services


Acidizing
Production Enhancement
Customer:
Formation:
Ticket No.:

Well No:
Depth:

Date:
Acid System:

Field Equipment Check Sheet


Item
Pump
Condition: clean and
operational?
Transport Truck
Condition: clean and
operational?
Transport/Storage Tanks
Is it clean?
Tank Lining
Is it appropriate for job?
Is it clean and not damaged?
Blender/Acid Mixer
Condition: clean and
operational?
Monitoring Equipment
Is it clean, tested and
operational?

Yes

No

Remarks

SECTION
Appx

1
D

Preface

Change Request Form


Appendix D contains a copy of the Change Request form.

March 2009

Change Request Form

D-1

Quality Assurance for Acidizing Treatments

D-2

Change Request Form

March 2009

Halliburton Energy Services


Acidizing
Production Enhancement
Change Request Form
Name of the Requestor:
Email:

Type of Request:

Addition of New Procedures/Standards


Change in the Existing Document

Check Whichever is Applicable:


Yes
No
Yes
No

Reason for Change:


Please explain the reason for the change or addition of new document:

Please describe the change/addition in detail:

Please send your request with the above information:


Yogesh Choudhary:
Yogesh.Choudhary@Halliburton.com
Richard Pauls:
Richard.Pauls@Halliburton.com
Klaas Van Gijtenbeek:
Klaas.VanGijtenbeek@Halliburton.com
Achala Danait:
Achala.Danait@Halliburton.com