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GE Oil & Gas

Overspeed Detection Application Guide

3500/53 Electronic Overspeed Detection System or ADAPT 3701/55 Emergency Shutdown Device (ESD)

Bently Nevada* Asset Condition Monitoring

Table of Contents
1. Purpose2
2. Scope2
3. References2
4. Overspeed Fundamentals3
Function 3
The Overspeed Map 3
Independence 4
Redundancy 4
Target (Speed Wheel) location 4
Speed Sensors (Transducers) 5
Events per revolution (EPR) of the Speed Wheel 5
Non-Overspeed related components integrated into the ODS 5
Basic Application Integrity Assessment and Acknowledgement 6
Typical Speed Targets 7
Overspeed Target Design Guidelines for Proximiter Applications 7
Fundamental Dimensional Details 7
Number of Events per Revolutions 8
Target Material 8
5. Components of Overspeed Detection System (ODS)8
3500/53 ODS 8
3701/55 ESD 9
6. Overspeed Applications as a Function of SIL9
3500/53 ODS 9
3701/55 ESD 9
Appendix A 10
Appendix B 11
Appendix C 12
Appendix D 13
All drawings and diagrams contained herein were produced by GE and cannot be
reproduced or copied without GEs express consent.

application guide

application guide

1 Purpose
This best practices document contains recommendations and
requirements for the selection and installation of GE's Bently
Nevada* overspeed detection products. The words detection
and protection are not used interchangeably with respect to
overspeed systems. The distinction is important both in terms of
understanding the primary purpose and function of each system,
and in understanding the scope of responsibility assumed by the
suppliers of each system.
An Overspeed Protection System is the complete
electro-mechanical system (hydraulic-mechanical or electropneumatic) that senses the onset of an overspeed condition
and automatically shuts the unit down by closing (or opening)
valves, solenoids, and other devices necessary to bring the unit
to a safe halt.

An Overspeed Detection System (ODS) is one part of the
larger overspeed protection system. It is responsible only for
sensing the onset of overspeed and providing a signal suitable
for triggering the rest of the overspeed protection system,
which then removes energy from the machine and brings it to a
safe halt. The ODS supplies this signal in the form of activation
of one or more electrical relays.
The 3500/53 Electronic Overspeed Detection System (3500/53 ODS)
or ADAPT 3701/55 Emergency Shutdown Device (3701/55 ESD) are
designed to detect and output a relay actuation upon a machine
overspeed as part of an overall emergency overspeed protection
system. These recommendations and requirements apply to new,
as well as existing, machines targeted for retrofit installations.
Note: 3500/53 ODS or 3701/55 ESD will be used in this guide in place of the full
description for brevity.

Bently Nevada 3500/53 ODS and 3701/55 ESD can be applied

to a wide variety of industrial machinery. Steam turbines, gas
turbines, hydro turbines, and turbo-expanders found in refinery,
petrochemical, power, and process industries can use these
products as part of their overspeed protection systems. If the
governor overspeed trip protection system fails to function at the

designed overspeed setpoint, major components of the turbine

wheel can break free of the rotor and potentially penetrate the
turbine casing causing significant damage to the turbine and driven
equipment with the possibility of injuries to individuals.
Note: The 3500/53 product has been included in this application guide to support our
existing installed base where the 3500/53 product is in operation. The 3500/53 is no
longer available for new installations and 3701/55 ADAPT.ESD should be considered
for all Bently Nevada Overspeed Detection and Emergency Shutdown applications
moving forward.

2 Scope
This document describes the fundamentals of an overspeed
protection system and how an overspeed detection device is
applied as an integral part of the protection system.
GE's Bently Nevada product line includes two overspeed detection
devices, the 3500/53 ODS and the 3701/55 ESD, for overspeed
detection as part of an overspeed protection system. The overall
performance of the protection system is dependent on all
components that comprise the system including the 3500/53 ODS
or 3701/55 ESD systems.
All of these components need to be incorporated into a working
system by a system integrator who is familiar with overspeed
protection systems. The system integrator and the end user are
ultimately responsible for proper functioning of the overspeed
protection system.

3 References
Bently Nevada, 3500/53 Specifications and Ordering Information Part
Number 141539-01
Bently Nevada, 3500/53 Operation Manual Part Number 134939
Bently Nevada, 3701/55 product Data Sheet 100M8833-01
Bently Nevada, 3701/55 Operation Manual Part Number 100M8834-01
Application of Safety Instrumented Systems for the Process Industries,
ANSI/ISA-84.01-1996, First Edition, The Instrumentation, Systems, and
Automation Society, Research Triangle Park, NC (1996)

application guide
Axial and Centrifugal Compressors and Expander-compressors for
Petroleum, Chemical and Gas Industry Services, API Standard 617,
Seventh Edition, American Petroleum Institute, Washington, D.C.
Electronic Overspeed Detection Systems, ORBIT magazine, Vol. 20
No. 2, Second/Third Quarters 1999, pp. 44-45
Functional Safety of Electrical/Electronic/Programmable Electronic
Safety-Related Systems, IEC 61508, Latest Edition, International
Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), Geneva, Switzerland (1998).
Functional Safety: Safety Instrumented Systems for the Process
Sector,IEC 61511, Latest Edition, International Electrotechnical
Commission (IEC), Geneva, Switzerland (2003).
Process Instrumentation and Control, API Recommended Practice
554, First Edition, American Petroleum Institute, Washington, D.C.
Machinery Protection Systems, API Standard 670, latest edition,
American Petroleum Institute, Washington, D.C. (2000)
Petroleum, Petrochemical, and Natural Gas Industries Steam
Turbines Special-purpose Applications, API Standard 612, latest
edition, American Petroleum Institute, Washington, D.C. (2003)

4 Overspeed Fundamentals
The primary path for overspeed protection is typically the governor
or control system. A secondary or back-up system, usually called
the emergency overspeed protection system, is required to provide
an additional degree of protection should the primary overspeed
system suffer a failure. An emergency overspeed protection
system is a fast-response back-up safety system that must act in
addition to, and independently of, the primary machinery controls
mechanism. For this safety-critical application two independent
paths for shutdown capable of responding to an overspeed event
must be in place. GE's Bently Nevada 3500/53 (ODS) or the 3701/55

ESD detect the onset of an overspeed event as a component of

the emergency overspeed protection system. The emergency
overspeed protection system is used in conjunction with the
standard speed governor or control system and cannot act as a
sole overspeed protection system. This stance is a change from the
earlier position that required that the 3500/53 ODS be one of two
backup safety systems. (For example, mechanical overspeed bolt
and the 3500/53 ODS system).

The Overspeed Map

The time required to detect an overspeed condition and then
shut the machine down must be factored into the design of the
overspeed protection system. As shown in the following figure,
the maximum speed reached by the machine is Nos, the Maximum
Temporary Overshoot Speed. This speed must be less than the
yield speed of the machine and should be determined through
consultation with the machine OEM and consideration of relevant
industry standards. To account for the time to detect an overspeed
condition and then execute the various steps necessary to trip the
unit, the Overspeed Trip Speed (Nost) is set at a lower level than Nos.
Nost is generally set as low as possible to provide maximum time
for the overspeed protection system to respond, but without being
set so low that normal speed fluctuations about the machines
maximum continuous operating speed Nmc will trigger a false
overspeed alarm and shutdown.
As an example, American Petroleum Institute Standard 612
(pertains to Special-Purpose Steam Turbines) uses the following
Nost is 10% above Nmc
Nos is 10% above Nost (i.e., 21% above Nmc).
Thus, an overspeed protection system designed to comply with API
612 must begin to act when turbine speed reaches 110 percent of
maximum continuous operating speed and keep the machine from
ever exceeding 121 percent of maximum continuous operating

application guide

It is useful to think of the total time top required for the overspeed
protection system to act as being composed of two parts: The
detection time tod and the execution time toe where
top = tod + toe.
The detection time is the latency for the overspeed detection
system to detect the onset of overspeed conditions and generate
a shutdown signal; the execution time is the latency for the
remainder of the overspeed protection system to act on this signal.
Table 1 summarizes typical values for top, tod, and toe along with
some of the items that would normally contribute to these latencies
in a typical system consisting of a fully electronic overspeed
detection system and an electro-hydraulic shutdown system.
As shown in the table, a typical application will require a total
overspeed protection system response time of between 140 and
250 ms. ODS response time will generally be 50 ms or less (API 670
requires that ODS tachometers be capable of responding within 40
ms when an input signal of 300 Hz or greater is present).

The emergency overspeed system must be installed and operate
such that it is independent from the primary machine speed
controls. The transducer inputs to the 3500/53 ODS or 3701/55
ESD must be dedicated to that system, and cannot be paralleled,
jumpered or buffered to or from additional input devices regardless
of the function of the device. Any speed signal outputs from the
emergency overspeed protection system that are shared (4-20mA
outputs, buffered outputs) are to be used strictly for information
purposes only, and cannot serve in a safety or controls loop. It is
acceptable to use the buffered outputs or 4-20 mA outputs as a
supplemental indication of the emergency overspeed channel fault
or removal from the system. This is considered acceptable, as this is
an additional system diagnostic check rather than a fast-response
safety system application or control function. Alternately, each
3701/55 processor module features a protection fault relay output
that serves in this capacity.

Emergency overspeed protection systems are designed to
assure that no single point failure within the system will cause
a false overspeed shutdown or a missed overspeed event. This
requirement is implemented in the 3500/53 ODS and 3701/55 ESD
where they act as a three-channel redundant safety system from
transducer input through to individual relay outputs. This mandates
that each transducer input to the overspeed system must be
a discrete transducer input providing speed information. An
overspeed input cannot be paralleled, jumpered, or buffered from
one channel to another in the overspeed system.
Bently Nevada overspeed detection systems provide three
channels of independent speed monitoring and can be configured
to provide either 2 out of 3 (2oo3), or triplicated 1 out of 1 (1oo1)
voting on alarming. With a 2oo3 voting scheme the alarm outputs
from each module are compared and two modules must agree
before a trip relay is driven. When configured for a triplicated 1oo1
voting scheme, each overspeed detection system channel acts
independently of the others to assess the overspeed condition of
the machine. In this configuration, the outputs from the system
may be voted externally by the system integrator or end user
to achieve the desired trip response from the overall overspeed
protection system. System alarm and fault indications must be
processed and responded to in a timely manner as part of the
site-specific installation and work practices. Continuing to run for
extended periods of time with one or more overspeed detection
system channels faulted is highly discouraged, and can impact any
system SIL certifications that may exist.

Target (Speed Wheel) Location

The target must be directly attached to or be an integral part of the
driven section of the machine rotor. There must be no couplings or
gearboxes between the driver and the location of the transducers.
Additionally, the target gear or speed feature cannot be located
on a driven shaft, or gear driven by another gear located on the
machine rotor. Any coupling or driven gear between the driver and
the transducer location introduces a potential failure mode that can
leave the overspeed system blind to an overspeed event.

application guide
Speed Sensors (Transducers)

Events per Revolution (EPR) of the Speed Wheel

GE's Bently Nevada product line includes eddy current proximity

transducers and monitors that constitute an electronic overspeed
detection system. Such a detection system is one part of an
overall overspeed protection system. The items below are
issues that should be considered when applying eddy current
proximity transducers in such an application. Typical probes for
ODS applications are GE's Bently Nevada 3300XL 8 mm and 11
mm proximity sensors; 3300 NSV proximity sensors. Other Bently
Nevada proximity probes can be used for ODS application with
proper configuration of the 3500/53 ODS or 3701/55 ESD systems.
Bently Nevada 3500/53 ODS or 3701/55 ESD systems are also
compatible with passive magnetic pickups (MPUs).

The overspeed system allows from one to 255 (3500/53) or 1000

(3701/55 ESD) events per revolution for the input to the overspeed
system. While an overspeed safety system is fundamentally a
fast-response safety system, there is no set or defined minimum
EPR value that must be adhered to in order to achieve the required
or worst case response time allowable for a given application. A
single event per revolution may be acceptable for an overspeed

As a best practice, GE recommends using proximity probes as part

of the ODS.
Advantages of proximity probes for ODS application:
Constant amplitude at any machine speed (the transducer
system provides information at all machine speeds)
Enhanced OK checking (upper and lower voltage limits can be
checked to determine system health)
Wider gap allowances (50 mil typical)
Electrical gap function and amplitude checking
Ease of troubleshooting
Consistent Bently Nevada sensor between the ODS and the
position and vibration measurements. This offers a spares
advantage where all sensors can be made to be common
Possible disadvantages of proximity probes for ODS
Lower temperature range (as compared to some MPUs)
Required place for Proximitor* Sensor (i.e. Prox. Box)
Minimum space requirements between each probe
Advantages of Passive Magnetic pickups (MPUs) for ODS
Widely available
Higher available temperature range with some MPUs
Possible disadvantages of Passive Magnetic pickups for ODS
No signal at low speeds
Tighter gap requirements (10 to 30 mil)
Variable amplitude with speed
No OK voltage limit checking
No electrical gap function
Potentially high signal swing about the zero-centered ground
plane at high speed

There is a fundamental delay associated with receiving speed

information from the notches/projections on the speed feature.
The delay results from the time that elapses between the
transducer observing individual speed features, which provide
speed information to the overspeed detection device. This tooth/
notch detection delay time is a component of the overall response
time of the overspeed detection system, which is dependent
on the variables of the specific application. This delay time can
potentially be significant in relation to the typical 40 ms response
time requirement established for many applications. Tooth/notch
detection delay is governed by the overspeed setpoint value and
the Events Per Revolution (EPR) for the application. For applications
that have higher overspeed setpoints, the response time for the
detection portion of the delay decreases because at higher speeds
the time delay between pulses is smaller. Similarly, for applications
that feature greater numbers of speed events per revolution, the
time to detection decreases. Again, this is because at a given speed,
higher EPR values generate pulses separated by smaller time
intervals. Therefore, the minimum EPR required for an application is
set by the response time requirements specific to the application.
Any application that has an overspeed detection system danger
response time that is determined to be 40 ms or longer must be
reviewed and signed off by the GE Measurement & Control chief
engineer. . GE's Bently Nevada product line provides alarm delay
calculators which will determine the detection system response
time. The calculations include both the tooth/notch detection delay
time as well as the internal system delay through to relay output.

Non-Overspeed Related Components Integrated into

the ODS
To enhance reliability and availability of the overspeed safety
system, it is recommended that the overspeed system be placed
in a stand-alone rack containing no other monitors or modules.
However, it is permissible that other, non-overspeed monitors
reside in the 3500 system with the overspeed system. The 3500/53
ODS is designed to operate in a 3500 rack chassis and co-exist
with any of the other monitors and modules offered as part of
the 3500 product line. Additionally, it is permissible that multiple
overspeed systems reside in the 3500 system if the correct rack
slot placements are used, and an appropriate Custom Products
modification is applied to the rack backplane. However, it should
be recognized that additional components that are not essential to
the overspeed detection system functionality introduce increased
complexity to the system. Complexity that is non-essential for

application guide
support of the overspeed function may have a slight tendency to
reduce the availability of the safety function.

Basic Application Integrity Assessment and

For each overspeed system sales opportunity, an application review
must be conducted prior to providing a quote for the system. The
application review concentrates on defining the signal integrity of
a proximity transducer system. To do this, the details of the speed
feature geometry (speed wheel) must be known, as well as details
regarding the overspeed application such as transducer mounting
location, overspeed trip setpoint, and non-ideal mechanical
characteristics. An overspeed checklist worksheet is completed
that requests all of the pertinent information. The collected data
is input into an application review tool. The calculator generates
a conservative estimate of the signal strength at the overspeed
trip setpoint, and provides an Approved/Review required status.
For proposed non-standard overspeed applications that require
additional assistance, an appropriate Field Applications Engineer
can be consulted for additional support. Once an application review
has been conducted and approved, an acknowledgement of the
successful review completion must be entered as part of the order
entry of the overspeed system. (See flow chart in Appendix D.)
Each 3500/53 or 3701/55 module accepts a transducer signal
from a set of proximity probes or magnetic pickups. The proximity
transducer sensor viewing a gear will generate a complex signal.
The signal may contain vibration and electrical runout components
in addition to the speed signal of interest in these applications.
Other signal variations could come from mechanical runout sources
such as inconsistencies in speed target characteristics. Normally
these components of the signal are small compared to the speed
component of the signal. However, when a machine approaches
overspeed there must be no doubt which component of the signal
represents the speed of the gear.
Note that for passive magnetic pickup (MPU) applications, the
signal qualities at the overspeed trip point cannot accurately
be determined. While application assessments for overspeed
systems interfaced with MPU transducers are still conducted,
the signal amplitude at the point of overspeed is not estimated.
This means that the details of the gear geometry are not used in
the assessment process in these cases. However, the amplitude
and quality of the input signal at the overspeed trip point must be
confirmed during final system commissioning.
The amplitude and signal quality of a transducer signal produced
by a proximity transducer system observing a speed wheel at
overspeed is dependent upon the following factors:

Gear Dimensions
The speed target width, and tooth/gap dimensions, such as
notch depth, are used to assess the transducer system response
to determine signal amplitude at idealized slow rotational
speed conditions. Less common speed targets, such as phone
wheels, radial holes and dimples, and helical threads, can also be
Signal Frequency
The speed signal input frequency is a function of the number
of speed features on the target (teeth or notches) and the
rotational velocity of the machine at the overspeed trip setpoint.
At extremely high input frequencies, the ability of the transducer
system to fully transition its voltage output from a tooth to
a notch may be a consideration. While this is very seldom an
issue in these applications, this factor is a consideration that is
Transducer Gap
The gap that is established between the transducer and the
tooth or flat portion of the speed target can have a significant
effect on the final signal amplitude from the transducer system.
If the speed target is designed such that the transducer system
cannot detect the bottom of a notch, the peak-to-peak (Pk-Pk)
amplitude of the input signal is directly related to the probe
gap. The closer the probe is gapped to the target, the greater
the Pk-Pk amplitude output from the system. The probe should
be gapped as closely as possible to the speed target without
risking contact between the target and the probe tip under
worst-case conditions, which would result in transducer damage.
GE recommends a probe gap of 0.75 to 1.0 mm (30 to 50 mils)
when using a 3300 XL 8mm Proximity Transducer System
(approximately -6 Volts to -10 Volts).
Field Wiring Length
Excessive field wiring lengths can have an effect on the input
signal received at the monitoring system due to the tendency
for the cable capacitance to attenuate the signal edges at higher
frequencies. Typically, if cable lengths between the overspeed
monitor and the transducer are kept below 1000 feet (300
meters), the effects of the field wiring length are negligible.
Non-Ideal Operating Characteristics
Non-ideal operating characteristics include sources of
mechanical runout. The three non-ideal characteristics
addressed when predicting signal quality are the maximum Pk-Pk
radial vibration at the location of the speed target, maximum
variation in tooth height, and maximum speed wheel nonconcentricity. If the values of non-ideal characteristics cannot be
determined, the application review assumes conservative worstcase values of:
250 m (10 mils) Pk-Pk Radial Vibration
50 m (2 mils) Variation in Tooth Height
125 m (5 mils) Target Non-Concentricity

application guide
Typical Speed Targets
Traditionally the speed target for an overspeed application utilizes
a notched wheel or true gear. In addition to these, there are other
common speed targets that can be encountered. A phone wheel
target utilizes holes drilled in the axial surface of a collar, which are
observed by a set of probes mounted axially over the track that the
holes rotate on. A helical target is a speed feature composed of one
or more coarse screw thread-like features machined around the
rotating shaft. In these applications, the speed probes are mounted
radially and observe the thread as it progresses down the shaft, as
seen by the probe once per rotation.

Examples of the most common wheel types:

Not a True Gear

Helical Target for Radial Probe Location

Overspeed Target Design Guidelines for Proximitor

In the event that a new overspeed target is being developed, the
designer often looks for guidance regarding the parameters that
are critical to the reliable long-term performance of the detection
system. As is the case in most designs, there are few absolutes that
must be adhered to, but rather a set of considerations that should
be worked into the overall design that will help ensure success.

Fundamental Dimensional Details

Phone Wheel for Axial Probe Location

The dimensional details are key in the successful specification of a

speed target. The following figure illustrates the basic dimensional
guidelines for a speed wheel. These dimensions assume a 3300XL
8mm proximity transducer system application. The minimum
recommended tooth and notch details are shown in the following

True Gear

Keyway Notch Wheel

The A dimension guideline assumes that no axial shift in the

position of the target relative to the probes occurs during machine
operation over its entire speed range, including overspeed. If
axial shift is expected to occur, the relative axial shift must be
considered, and used to increase the A dimension so that the
target is not lost or partially lost as it shifts under the probe set
across all the different machine running conditions.
For applications other than those that use the 3300XL 8mm, the
minimum target dimension requirements for the chosen transducer
system would be used to establish the A, C, and D dimensions. The
B dimension would be defined by the linear range of the transducer
system. This dimension should be greater than the linear range
minus the typical gap for the chosen transducer system. This
causes the transducers to be unable to sense the bottom of the
notch feature resulting in the transducer system providing a Pk-Pk
signal which has the maximum negative peak value possible.

application guide
Number of Events per Revolutions (EPR)

will cause either a missed overspeed alarm or a false machine

shutdown. The 3701/55 ESD can only be applied as a three-channel
system using three independent inputs. Redundant power supplies
are required for any 3500 rack containing a 3500/53 ODS and
redundant power inputs are required for all 3701/55 ESD systems.

Overspeed detection system applications are designed such

that the response time of the system is minimized. The primary
controllable variable that allows this is the EPR (the number of
speed features on the target) of the application. Speed is measured
by calculating the time interval between consecutive speed
pulses. For a given machine speed setpoint, the response time of
the system is limited by the time interval between the pulses. As
the trip speed decreases, the EPR for the application may need to
increase to keep the time interval between the events received
by the overspeed detection system short, and by extension,
the response time of the detection system fast. The detection
system has a fundamental internal signal processing speed of the
overspeed card itself. For a given trip setpoint, there is a minimum
number of events per revolution below which the time interval
between consecutive pulses becomes too long so more events per
turn are required. For lower speed applications or applications that
will also use the target for low speed measurements, such as Zero
Speed and Reverse Rotation, resolution may be an issue.

When a 2oo3 voted 3500/53 ODS suffers a fault the three-channel

overspeed detection system will revert from a 2oo3 voting scheme
to a 1oo2 scheme in the event of a single channel failure. If the
overspeed detection system is further degraded by an additional
channel failure, the system may either be configured such that the
second fault causes a trip indication, or that the machine is allowed
to run as long as the remaining channel is determined to be healthy.
Overspeed detection system alarms and faults are annunciated for
all channels to indicate that the overspeed detection system has
been degraded and the cause of the fault should be corrected as
soon as possible.

To assess the response time of a specific combination of overspeed

setpoint and EPR, system response time calculations are available
to assist in the design. For the 3500 system, the calculator can be
found in the configuration screens for the overspeed system in the
3500 Rack Configuration Software. The equivalent calculator for
the 3701/55 system is a simple formula that can be found in the
product documentation.

A two-channel 3500/53 ODS is available which provides two

channels of independent speed monitoring and provides either 1
out of 2 (1oo2), or redundant 1 out of 1 (1oo1) voting on alarming. In
the event that the voted 1oo2 system experiences a single channel
failure, the system can be configured by the system integrator
or end user to either degrade to a 1oo1 system or generate a trip

Target Material
If the choice of the target material is a design parameter that must
be addressed, most often the material should be ANSI 4140 as
this is the standard material to which Bently Nevada Proximitor
sensors are calibrated. Additionally, this material is widely available.
In cases where the machine has shaft material chemistry other
than ANSI 4140, such that the vibration and position transducers
being applied are custom calibrated, consideration may be given to
making the target material consistent. This approach may facilitate
the use of a common custom calibrated transducer system which
will simplify the site spares. There are cases where the material
chemistry is not known or the material is something other than
ANSI 4140, and a standard proximity transducer system may be
applied for overspeed. In these cases the standard transducers are
acceptable only if the working scale factor of the transducer/target
can be positively determined, and the impact does not significantly
reduce the Pk-Pk amplitude output.

5 Components of Overspeed Detection

System (ODS)
The 3500/53 ODS can be applied as either a two-channel or threechannel system. GE strongly recommends the use of a threechannel overspeed detection system. A three-channel overspeed
detection system can be configured so that no single point failure

3500/53 ODS

The 3500/53 ODS provides its own set of relays that are exclusively
designed to support the overspeed protection function. The normal
3500 system relay modules, 3500/32M, and the 3500/33 relay
modules, are not required and they must not serve as part of the
overspeed detection system. However, it is acceptable that the
system relay modules be used as an ancillary indication of alarm,
overspeed, and Not OK, as long as these relay outputs are not used
as part of the protection function.
The overspeed detection system includes the 3500 rack, 3500
power supplies, Transient Data Interface Module, and three (or
two) separate 3500/53 overspeed detection modules with three
(or two) separate dedicated transducer inputs. Surge protection
for 3500 AC power supplies is required in those systems that must
meet Machinery Directive requirements. A stand-alone ODS is
the recommended best practice as well as is recommended by
API 670. However, the 3500/53 ODS is designed to operate in a
3500 rack chassis and co-exist with any of the other monitors and
modules offered as part of the 3500 product line. Additionally, it
is permissible that multiple overspeed detection systems reside
in the 3500 ODS, if the correct rack slot placements are used
and an appropriate Custom Products modification is applied to
the rack backplane. However, as previously discussed, additional
components that do not support the safety function can potentially
introduce additional failure modes that have the ability to affect the
overspeed detection function.

application guide
3701/55 ESD
The 3701/55 ESD system is a stand-alone overspeed detection/
emergency shutdown system featuring three monitor-relay module
sets. The system offers 1oo1 or 2oo3 voted functionality with
the degradation response upon a channel failure of a 2oo3 voted
3701/55 ESD depending on its specific trip logic configuration. The
configuration software allows the user to configure combinations
of logic blocks to manage the system trip logic. This logic dictates
how the trip mechanisms for the system are driven. Using the most
basic, directly-connected trip logic between the overspeed alarm
and the 2oo3 voted relay, the system degrades to a 2oo2 scheme in
the event of the first fault and an unprotected state in the event of
a second fault (2oo3 2oo2 unprotected).
This voting configuration can be augmented through OR voting
the basic channel trip logic with the channel Not OK to yield
(2oo3 1oo2 trip).
With the 3701/55 ESD, it is not readily possible to achieve the
traditional 2oo3 degradation response (2oo3 1oo2 1oo1 trip)
that is available in with the 3500/53 ODS design.
CAUTION: Due to the extremely open and unrestricted configurability
of the 3701/55 ESD, it is imperative that the specific logic configuration
of the system trip function be completely understood, documented,
and tested. Thorough validation is necessary to be certain that the
system responds as desired to all possible input scenarios under all
machinery operational conditions.
The system features a normally energized 5th relay in each relay
module that serves as a protection fault relay which de-energizes
upon detection that the protection function for the channel
(transducer input, monitor and relay) has been compromised. The
output of this relay must be made visible to the end user operator
so that corrective action can be initiated upon the detection
of a fault.

Redundant power supplies are required

Three (3) module systems only
All three monitors in the system must be located adjacent to
one another. Due to inter-module communications (IMC) on the
Inter-module comparison enabled
Not OK voting set to OR Channel not OK voting
with overspeed voting
CE Mark required
Agency approvals required
Only 3300XL 8 mm, Proximitor sensors and certain magnetic
pickups (AIRPAX part number 70085-1010-XXX) are allowed
For hazardous area certifications, reference current FS Mark
certificate for a list of intrinsically safe barriers allowed for use in
a Functional Safety System
Only Normally Energized relays are allowed for use

3701/55 ESD
When used in a safety shutdown system for the purposes of
Functional Safety, the 3701/55 ESD system, as certified by Exida,
must comply with certain installation requirements as outlined
Each signal input source must have a dedicated sensor
Redundant power supplies are required
Redundant relays must be used
All monitors in the system must have identical configurations
Relays must be set for de-energize to trip (normally active)
Monitor configuration must be validated prior to system being
placed in the safety function to ensure proper operation

6 Overspeed Applications as
a Function of SIL

Before attempting to update any firmware for a certified system,

verify that the new firmware revision is included in the latest
Functional Safety Certificate. Do not download a firmware
version that is not listed in the certificate

3500/53 ODS

A complete validation test must be performed whenever a new

configuration is downloaded to certified systems

When used in a safety shutdown system for the purposes of

Functional Safety, the 3500/53 ODS, as certified by TUV Rheinland,
is restricted in its available configurations. Additionally, the
certificate is contingent upon certain requirements of use as
indicated below (the 3500/53M ODS is not SIL capable):

A complete validation test (proof test) must be performed at

least every 12 months

3500/53 ODS is required

Dependent voting
Installation or onsite audit performed by GE personnel
Discrete configuration only
(each monitor channel has dedicated transducers)


application guide
Appendix A
3500 Overspeed System Quick Reference Application Guideline
Function Acts as a safety backup system
Independence Independent from the primary machine speed controls
Redundancy Discrete XDCR input per channel
Target Location Target must be directly attached to or be an integral part of the driven section of the machine rotor
Events per Revolution (EPR) of the Speed Target System allows for 1 to 255 EPR 1 EPR is acceptable. Minimum EPR is a function of
multiple parameters
Monitor and Other Non-Overspeed Related Components in the 3500 Rack Other functions may co-exist in the rack. A stand-alone
ODS is the recommended best practice
Basic Application Integrity Assessment and Acknowledgement Basic application parameters must be reviewed prior to sale
Scope of Overspeed Applications with GE Machines If applied to a GE machine must be a three-channel system and GE must supply
the full scope protection system
Consideration for SIL-rated Overspeed Applications SIL-rated systems have special application restrictions (configuration)


application guide
Appendix B
Overspeed Detection System Check List
Answer all questions and submit to Custom Products for review and approval prior to quoting or ordering.
Customer _________________________________________________________ Customer Profile? OEM End User Other __________________
End User _________________________________________________________ End User Country _________

System Integrator ____________

Monitor? 3701/55 3500/53

Are there multiple overspeed systems in a single rack (3500/53)? NO YES, positions__________________
Have you established a high degree of comfort with this application? YES NO
Have you reviewed the specifications with the customer? YES NO
Machine type? Steam Turbine Gas Turbine Turbo Expander Other __________________
Manufacturer______________________________________________________ Model # ________________ Power _________
Rated speed _______________________________________________________ Overspeed Trip Speed in RPMs ____________
Driven machine type? Compressor Generator Other __________________
Transducer type? Magnetic 3300XL 3300 (non-XL) NSV Other __________________
Transducer location? Gear on turbine shaft on driver side of coupling Other __________________
Are the overspeed system and the governor using separate transducers? YES NO
How many transducers are being used to monitor overspeed?* _________
*For 3500/53 applications, the minimum number of transducers recommended to monitor overspeed is two. Three 3500/53 monitors with
three different transducers is strongly recommended (see 3500/53 manual for more details).
*For 3701/55 applications, three transducers must be used.
If the observed wheel is not AISI 4140 Steel, please supply the material of the wheel: ______
Events per revolution** ________
The observed wheel is a true gear; it is designed to turn
another gear.

The observed wheel is not a true gear; it is a toothed wheel

designed for a magnetic pickup or proximity probe.













**If the tooth dimensions are smaller than those shown in the figures, or if the wheel center line peak-to-peak radial vibration exceeds 1/4
of the tooth depth or if (Events Per Rev.) x (Overspeed Trip Speed in RPMs) > 180000 then answer the following questions:
Maximum peak-to-peak radial vibration of the toothed wheel__________________________________
Maximum variation in the tooth height (dimension B)__________________________________________
Maximum runout of the wheel due to non-concentricity________________________________________
Cable length between the transducer and the monitor if greater than 300 meters _______________
Has the output of the transducer viewing the toothed wheel been measured? ____ Volts peak-to-peak


application guide
Appendix C
Turbine Overspeed Protection System Overview


application guide
Appendix D
Overspeed Detection System Sales Flowchart


application guide

2015 General Electric Company. All rights reserved. Information

provided is subject to change without notice.

1631 Bently Parkway South

Minden, Nevada USA 89423
Phone: 775.782.3611
Fax: 775.215.2873

*Denotes a trademark of Bently Nevada, Inc., a wholly owned subsidiary of

General Electric Company. The GE brand, GE logo, Bently Nevada, System
1, Keyphasor, Proximitor, Velomitor, RulePaks, Bently PERFORMANCE SE,
and SmartSignal are registered trademarks of General Electric Company.
AIRPAX, TUV, and EXIDA are a trademarks of their respective companies.
GEA32294 (12/2015)