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GMANS

MOD ERN MA THEMA ZYCAA SERIES

G ener a l Edi tor s

P An s o n
.

I . S;

BHA , C

JAC K SO N, M A

MAC A ULAY MA
,

D Sc
-

EX ERC ISES IN A LG EB RA
:

LONGJIA VS 1V OD E RN IIA THEMA TICA L SERIE S


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Gen era l Edito

P A
and F S
rs

BBO TT

B A

M AC A U LA Y

C ON M A

S JA K S
M A D so

C HING O F A LG EB RA ( N CLU D NG THE


ELE M EN T S O T R GONO M ETR Y ) B y T P ERC NU NN
M A D S E mi
i P d gogy i th U i
i ti
f C mb i d g
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EX ERC ISES IN ALG EB RA ( N C LU D NG TR GONO M ET R Y )
B y T P ERC NU NN M A D S
Co s
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W ith o t A
Wi th A
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Thes e a r e compa n i on books d ea l i n g w i th the tea c hin g of A l geb ra


a nd Ele men ta ry Tr i g on ometr v on m od er n l i nes
The r s t b ook
i s w r i tten fo r the tea cher a n d dea l s w i th t he gener a l tea c hi n g of
the s ubj ec t. a n d a l s o i n d eta i l w i th the w or k i n the c ompa n i on
b ook of E x er c is es w hi c h i s for the u se of the pupi l
.

IN A RIT H ETI
ENS RA
A ND
T I N (W I
D IA RA S )
B y P A B B O IT, B A ,
Hea of the
a the ma tica l D epa r tm en t , T he P ol y tec h
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E X E RC I SES

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T HE T EA C HING O F A RITHM ETIC
B y P A BB TT
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T HE G ROU ND W O RK O F A RIT HMET IC
M P U NN TT Lo d o D y T i i g C oll g So h
m p to R
Lo d o
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E X E RC I SES IN ARIT HM ETIC By M i M P U NN ETT
B ook I Book
Bo k I I I
T HE T EA C HING O F G EO M ETRY
By G E ST L
C AR ON B A B S R d i M th m i U i
i y f Li
p ool
A SC HOO L C O U RSE IN G EO M ET RY ( N C LU D NG HE
ELEM N T
TR G NO M ETR Y
N MEN RA
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N IN T R O D UC T N
N
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G EO METR Y ) By W J D
MA
om im Fo d io S hol f St Joh C oll g
C m b idg With D i g m C o 8
B y C O LO NEL H C D U N LOP
SL ID E RU LE NOTES
f G
y Od
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ON M A C o 8
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P ROJEC T IV E G EO M ET RY

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EX A M P LES IN D I FFE RE NT I A L A ND INT EG RA L


L S
By C S JA C K S ON M A a n d S de 1
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O ther V ol u mes i n prepa r a ti on

LO NG MA NS,

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EX ERC ISES IN A LG EB RA
T RIG O NO MET RY )

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MS

D IAG RA

NG MA N S G R E E N A N D C
3 9 PATERNO STER RO W LO ND O N
NEW YO RK B O MB AY AND CALC UTTA
,

or

NO T E

s s i n th i s v ol u m e ar e in t en d e d to su ppl y
th e m a ter i al s for a cou r s e i n Al gebr a to b e com pl e t e d
a t a b ou t th e a e of si x teen
In a dd i t i on to th e su b j ec t s
g
u s ua l l y r e u i r e d i n th e En tr an c e Ex a m i n a t i on s of th e
q
U n i v er si ti e s i t con t a i n s ex er ci s e s u p on l ogar i th m s a n d
th e el e m en t ar y p ar t s of tr i gon om e tr y an d a s i m pl e
i n tr od u c ti on to th e m e th od s of th e d i ffer en ti a l a n d
i n tegr a l c a l cu l u s
A d i s cu ss i on of th e pr i n c i pl e s u p on w hi ch th e a u th or
h a s s el ec t e d a n d pr e s en t e d th e s u bj ec t m a t ter of th e
ex er c i s e s w i ll b e f oun d i n th e com p a n i on v ol u m e on
Th e T ea c h i n g of Al ge br a
T h a t v ol u m e c on t a i n s
a l so s u
gge s ti on s a s to th e or d er i n w h i c h th e ex er c i s e s
sh oul d b e t aken a n d a fu ll s t a tem en t of th e pr ep a r a tor y
It i n cl u d e s a s i m i l ar
t ea c hi n g p r e s u pp os e d i n ea c h
Ex er c i s e s i n AI
tr ea tm en t of th e gr ou n d cov er e d i n
P ar t II i n w hi ch th e cou r s e com m en ce d i n
geb r a
th e pr e s en t book i s c om p l e t e d
Th e a u t h or w ill b e gr e a tl y ob l i ge d i f r ea d er s w h o
d e t e c t er r or s or Ob s cur i ti e s i n th e ex a m pl e s or th e
a n s w er s w il l ki n d l y d i r e c t h i s a tten t i on to t h em
THE

ex er c i e

R N NG C OLLEG E
LON D ON)
(U N ER TY

LON D ON D AY T
IV

SI

AI

OF

Ju ly , 1 91 3

C O NTENTS

SEC TIO N I

NON D IRECTED NU MB ERS


-

X RCISE

PA G E

E E

H OR TH AN D 0 F ALG E B R A
G R P H C REPR E S E N T T ON
THE WR T NG O FORMU LZE

13

THE RE AD ING

23

I THE
.

II

III

V II

V III

IX

X II

X III

XVI

I I

U SE

AND

OF

F ORMU LIE

FAC T O RIZ ATION


FAC T OR IZ ATION (II)
SQ U AR E ROO T
SU R D S
APPR OXIMATION FORMU LAL (I)
APPR OX IM ATION FORMU LZE (II)
APPR OXIM ATION FORMULIE (III)
FR AC TION S (I)
FR AC TION S (II)
CH ANG ING THE SU B JEC T OF A F O R MULA (I)
C H ANG ING THE SU B J EC T OF A F OR MU LA
SU PPLE M E N TAR Y EXAM PLE S
A For m u l a ti on (p 8 1 ) B Su bsti tu ti on

32
39
44
46
48

XI

XV

53

55

S me

63
70
74

Ar i th m eti c a l

G r a p h i c Rep r e
i za ti on , etc (p

57

en ta ti

C h a n gi n g th e

P uz z l e

(p

(p

Fa c tor

F Appr ox i m a ti on s (p
Subj ec t etc (p
.

viii

C O N TEN TS

EXERC ISE
X VII D I RECT P R O P O RTI ON
XV III THE U SE O F THE TA N C E N T TA BL E
XIX THE U SE O F THE SI N E : AND C O S I N E TABL ES
X X SO M E N AV I G AT I ON P R O BL E M S
RE LATI ON O F SI N E C O S I NE AND TA N G E N T
XXII L I N E AR RE LAT I ON S
XX III I NVERSE P R O P ORT I ON
XXIV P R O P O RTI ON To SQ U ARES AND C U B ES
X X V J O I N T V AR I A T I ON
XXVI SU PPL E M ENTARY EX AM PLES

PAC E
1 08

1 08

112

118

1 20

1 22

1 26

1 29

132

1 35

Tes P a p er 1 (p 1 3 5 )
C Tes
P a p er 3
.

(p
(p

P a p er 6

E Su r ds
.

(p

Tes

B Te s P a p er 2 (p 1 3 6 )
S a i s i cs
(p
.

(p

P a p er 5

(p

t t t

Tes P a p er 4
Tes

SEC T I O N II

DI REC TED N U M B ERS

XXVII THE U SE OF D I RECTE D N U M B ERS


XXVIII ALG E B RAI C ADD I T I ON AND SU B TR ACT I O N
XXI X D I RECTE D P R O D U CTS
XXX SU MM AT I ON O F AR I TH M ET I C SER I ES
XXXI ALG E B R AI C M U L T I PL I C AT I ON
XXXII THE I N D EX N O TA T I ON
XXXIII N E G ATI VE I N D I CES
XXXIV FACT OR I Z AT I ON
XXXV ALG E B RAI C D I V I S ION
X XXVI G E O M ETR I C SER I ES
XXXVII THE C O M PL ETE N U M B ER SC AL E
.

1 55

1 61

1 68

1 75

1 83
1 87

1 91
1 93

1 96
201
208

C O N TEN TS

ix

EXERCISE
XX X V III F U RTHER EXAM PL ES 0 N D I RECTE D NU M B ERS
XXXIX LI N E AR F U N CT I ON S
DI RECTE D TR I G ONO M ET RI C AL RAT I O S
X LI SU RVE Y I N G P R O BL E M S
HY P ER B O L I C AND P AR AB O L I C F U NCTI ON S
XL III Q U AD R AT I C EQ U AT I ON S
XLIV FU RTHER EQ U ATI ON S
I N VERSE P AR AB OL I C F U N CTI ON S (I)
XLVI INVERSE P ARAB O L I C F U N CT I O NS (II )
XLVII ARE A F U N CT I O NS
XLVIII D I FFERE N TI AL FO RM U L IE
XL IX G R AD I E N TS
L THE C AL C UL ATI ON O F AND THE SI NE TABLE

PAGE

21 3

21 7
221

229

242

247

250

255

25 8

1r

SEC T ION

III

26 4

L OG ARITHM S

LI

R O W TH FACT O RS
G R O W TH P R O BL E M S
LIII THE G U NTER SC AL E
LO G AR ITHM S AND ANTI L O GAR I TH M S
LV THE B A SE O F LOG ARII HMS
LV I C O MM O N LO G AR I TH M S
LV II THE U SE O F TABL ES OF LO G AR I THM S
LVIII TE E LOG AR I THM I C AND ANTI L O G AR I TH M I C F UNCTI ONS
N OM I NAL AND EFF ECTIVE G RO WTH FACT O RS
.

26 9

27 2
27 7

28 1

28 3

28 6

28 9

292

'

297

'

CO N TEN TS

S U PP LE ME NT A RY EXE RC I SES

RCISE

PAGE

EX E

LX

LXI

LXII
LX III
LX IV

3 49

AN SWERS

3 59

LX V

LXV I
LXV II
L X V III
LXIX

U SE OF LO G R I TH M S I N TR IG ONO M ETR
P O L AR C O R D I N ATES
SO M E I M P O RT N T TR I G ONO METR I C L ID E N T I T IES
THE P R AB O L I C FU NCT I ON
I M PLI C I T Q U D R TI C FUNCT I ONS (I )
I M PL I CI T Q U D R T I C FU NCT I ON S (II )
MEAN P O S I T I ON
ROO T ME AN SQ UARE DEVI T I O N
THE B INO M I AL THE O RE M
THE G E N ER L I TI ON
W LL S L W
THE

3 03
3 08
3 10
3 17

3 20

3 25

ZA

0F

IS

331
337
3 40

SEC TION I

NON DI RECTED N U M B ERS


-

EXE RC I SE I
THE

SHORTHAN

E pres s in the

rtha nd

s ho

in Nos

of

OF A GEB RA

Al ge bra

the

rule s mention ed

1 12
1 Th e rul e for c a lcul a ting the a r ea of a n ob l ong oor wh en
y ou know i ts l ength a n d i ts br ea dth
2 The ru l e for c a l cu l a ting the brea dth of a n ob l ong r oom
when you k now i ts length a n d th e a rea of the oor
3 The rul e for c a lcu l a ting the c os t of a nu m b er of th in gs
when you know the price of ea ch Also the rul e for ca l cu l a t
ing the pric e of a s ingle a rticle W hen you know t ha t a certa in
num ber of th em cos t so m uch (Let n : the num ber
"

:
:
the price of ea c h
bought 0
th e t ot a l c os t ,
p
-

4 Th e rul e for c a lcula ting the c os t (C ) of a c e rta in nu m b er


of t h ing s (N) w h e n y ou kn ow how m uc h (0) a n o t he r nu m b e r
of th ings (it ) c o s t s
5 Th e rul e for nding the nu m b er of penc e in a gi ven

nu m b er of Shi l lings (Let p


the nu m b er of p enc e
s
th e nu m b er of s hi l lings
6 The rul e for reducing penc e to Sh illings
7 The rul es for reducing p ounds to s hilling s a n d p ound s

L
L
the nu m b er of p ound s
to p enc e
( et
8 The ru l es for reducing s h i l lings to pound s a n d p e nce to
.

p ounds

9 The rul e for c a lcul a ting th e t ota l a r ea of three ob l ong


room s ea ch of the sa m e l ength a n d th e sa m e brea dth The
s a m e rul e written to s uit a n y nu m b er (n ) of r oom s
1 0 The rul e for c a lcula ting th e a r e a of a s qua r e room

The rul e for th e a rea of


t
th e l e ngth of the Side
(Le s
a nu m b er of s uc h r oom s a l l of th e s a m e S i z e
1 1 The rule for ca lcu l a ti ng the vol um e of a n obl ong r oom
i( ) given the a rea of the oor (A ) a n d the he igh t (h) ; (ii)
given the l ength , brea dth , a n d height
1 2 The r u l e for c a lcul a ting th e d epth of wa ter in a n oblong
.

ALG EB RA

cis tern (i ) when you know the volu m e of w a ter (V) a d the
ow the
n
kn
a r ea of th e b o tt om of th e ci s t ern ; (ii
h
u
w
e
o
y
)
volum e of wa ter the l ength a n d t he brea dth of the ci s t ern
1 3 A nu m ber of pe rs on s s u bs crib ed e qu a l a m o unt s to s e nd
Write
th e c hildr e n in a c ert a in s c hool a wa y for a hol id a y
a form u l a for the a m ount s ub s crib ed by ea c h p e r s on gi v e n
th e nu m b er of ch ildr en a n d the ex p en s e of s e nding e a c h ch ild
aw ay
U s e the s y m b ol s of No 4
1 4 How m u s t th e l a s t for m ul a be c h a nged if th e ex p en s e
p er h ea d i s r e ck on ed in Sh illings a n d th e s ub s cripti on in
pounds ?
O e s p oonful of tea for
1 5 The rule for m a king tea i s
Reduc e t h i s r u l e to a
ea ch p er s on a n d on e for t he p ot
f orm ul a l etting t 5 the nu m ber of s poon ful s of tea p
the nu m b er of p ers on s
16
Write form ul as for th e rules u s ed (i ) in reducing
S h il lings a n d p enc e to pe nce ; (ii) in r educing p ound s a n d
s h illings to S hillings ; (iii ) in r educing p ound s a n d p e nc e to
p e nc e
1 7 Gi ve in a for m ul a the Pos t Of c e rul e for the c os t of
th e cos t of th e t el e gra m in
a n inl a nd t el egr a m
(Let C
the nu m b er of word s over twel v e
p e nce n
1 8 A lib r a y c ha rges a n e ntra nc e fee of ha lf a cr own a n d
a s ub s criptio n of twop e nc e for ev ery b ook borr owed
Write
a for m ul a for the t o t a l a m ount p a id (in s h il l ing s for b orr o w
)
ing a giv en num b er of book s
1 9 Th e foll owing rul e for c ooking a j oint of b eef i s ofte n
gi ve n All ow a qua rter of a n hour for every pound a n d twenty
m inut es over
E x press thi s rul e in a form ula for the ti m e in
h our s n eeded to c ook a j oint of a give n w eight
20 I a m twenty s eve n y ea r s y ounger t ha n m y fa t he r
Write in a for m ul a the rule for nding m y a ge whe n hi s a ge
i s known
m y fa th er s a ge a s
m y a ge
(Let A
21 My a ge i s t h ree y ea r s l ess th a n h a l f m y fa t he r s a ge
Write the rule fo n ding m y a ge gi ven m y fa the r s
22 A s ec ond h a nd b ook s elle r b ough t a nu m b e r of b ook s
Writ e a for m ul a
for 1 IOS a n d s o ld th e m a t 9d ea c h
for hi s pr o t (in s h i ll ings ) a fter sel l ing a c e rt a in num b er of
them (a )
23 A greengroc er buy s a nu mb er of or a nges a t a c erta in
pric e p er d oz en a n d s ells them a t s o m uch ea ch Writ e a
for m ula for hi s prot a fter s ellin g a c erta in num ber (Let P
n

EXE RC I SE

II

GRAP HI C REP RE SEN TATI ON

Fig 1 i s a copy of the a ctua l Si z e) of the tra ces left by


tw o s n a il s a fte r wa nd eri ng on a s h eet of p a p er
Th e nu mb ers
Ma ke a
indica te their pos ition s a fter 1 2 3
9 m inutes
ta ble of the dis ta nces tra velled by ea c h s na il duri ng ea ch
m inut e
Dra w a di a gra m in a ccorda nc e w ith in s tructi on s
1

FIG 1
.

wing by vertica l lin es the di s ta nce s c overe d in ea ch m inute


by the s n a il wh ich l e ft the tra ce m a rked AB Dr a w a n other
dia gra m sho wing the m ovem ents of the other s n a il
2 Dr a w in th e w a y ex pl a in ed to y ou a di a gra m or gra ph
by which the s p eed s of the tw o s n a il s during a n y given
W hich ha d the grea te s t a ver a ge
m inut e ca n b e c om p a red
S p eed during the rs t (ii) th e t hird (iii) the fo urt h m inut e
Why i s it n ec es s a ry to Sa y a vera ge Speed
sh o

EX ERC I SE

II

A cyclis t tra vel s a l ong the s ame roa d in the s a me


dir ection on tw o o c ca s ion s : O n ea ch occa s ion he keep s
a cco unt of th e di s ta nc es he rides in the r s t sec ond t h ird
h our s of hi s j ourn ey
T he y ar e give n in the foll owing
t a bl e Dra w a s in No 2 a gra ph by wh ich hi s p erform a nces
in corresponding hour s on the tw o occ as ion s m a y be
com pa red
H ur
2
3
1
5
4
6
7
M il ridd n
l s t j urn y
11
8 9% 1 3
6 g 1 0; 1 2
r y 1 0% 9 9* 8 1 0% 1 1 1 1 1 %
2 dj
3

es

ou n e

F IG

Fig 2 i s a s eries of picture s (J; of the n a tura l S i e) of a


growing t u lip The bulb be ga n to germ ina te on a Monda y
morning a n d the pictures were t a k en on s ucces s ive Mo nd a y
m ornings a ft erwa rds with th e ex c eption of the fourth which
Dra w as in s tructed
w a s dra wn a fortnight a ft er the third
4

ALGEB RA

dia gra m c om posed of vertica l lin es repres enting the t ota l


l ength of the pla nt (fr om A to B) a t ea ch m ea s urem ent
Dra w in i ts proper pl a ce a d otted l in e repr esenting the length
which the pl a nt proba bly ha d on the Mond a y whe n the
m ea s urem e nt w a s om itt ed (Na ta
The proc es s of s up p lying
in thi s w a y a m is s ing obs er va tio n i s ca lled i n ter p ol a t i on )
5 Dra w a gr a ph (like tha t o f No 1 ) Sh owing the i n cr ea s e
in le ngth of the pla nt in e a ch w e ek IS there in thi s gra ph
a nyt h ing w hich s er v es a s a t es t of the c orre ctn es s o f th e
int erp ol a tion in No 4 ?
6 I f during on e of the hour s in No 3 the cycli s t h a d n eg
l ected t o n ot e the dis t a nc e h e r od e would it be s a fe to s upply
th e om i s s i on by int erp ol a ti o n
S ept ember 27 1 91 1 a r od 6 inches h igh w a s
7 O
e r e c te d v ertic a lly u p on a dr a w ing b oa rd a n d pl a c ed in full
s un s h in e
The foll owing ta ble gi ves the l ength s of the
Dra w
s had o w of the r od a t dier en t ti m es during the da y
a h o ri z ont a l
time lin e (a s in No 5) gra d u a ted in h our s
At the pr op er p oint s dra w p erp e ndicul a r lin es to repres e nt
the va ri ou s le ngt hs of the Sh a d ow
Dra w c a refully the curve
wh ich you would u s e for nding by interpol a tion the l ength
of t he s h a d o w a t ti mes n ot m e nti o n ed in the t a bl e
a

Ti me

L n gth
Tim
L ngth
e

of

S had ow in

in s

of

Sha dow in

in s

At wha t ti me on S ept em b er 27 1 91 1 w a s th e Sh a dow


of a n u p righ t r od sh ort es t ?
(Not e t ha t it i s n ot ex a ctly a t
1 2 o c l ock
Noon coincides with 1 2 o cl ock only ve ry
r a rely ) W ha t would the l ength of the Sha d ow ha v e been
a t (i ) 1 1 o cl ock (ii
p m ?
)
9 Div id e the b as e lin e in No 7 i n to h a l f h our int er va l s
m ea s uring righ t a n d left from th e tim e of n oon
Sta rting
with n oon n d how m uc h the Sha dow lengthens during ea ch
ha lf ho ur t o wa rd s the eve ning
Ma ke a gra ph of the ha lf
h ourly increase a s in Nos 1 a n d 5 dra wing in th e s m oo th
curv e which the mea s urem e nt s s ugges t
1 0 D o th e s a me wit h the ha lf hou rly d ecrea s e in the
s ha d o w s fr om the m orning on till n oon
Wha t fa ct s do the
t w o gr a p h s bring ou t ?
8

'

'

EX ERC I SE

B
Nata

II

In the gr a p hs of Nos 4 5 7 , a n d 9, the mos t i mp or


t a nt t hing i s the s m ooth curv e
T h i s curve s how s how the
qua ntity rises or fa l ls in S iz e a n d e na b l es u s by inter
to n d i ts proba b l e m a gnitud e a t a ti me whe n w e
pol a tion
did n ot a ctua lly m ea s ure it The pos i tion of the curve could
be xed without a ctua ll y dra w ing th e v e rtic a l lines if the
points where the e nd s of those l ines wou l d com e wer e m a rked
Moreo ver , the a b s e nc e of the ve rtic a l l ines would m ake the
gra ph clea rer I n the follo wing gra ph s the vertica l lin es a r e
n ot to be dra wn
Ma rk the points w here their ends would
c om e if they were dra wn , a n d r un the gra ph s moothly through
or a mong t hose p oi n t s
The b es t w a y to t e ll whether you a r e
dra wing the graph prop erl y is to hold the pa per horiz onta lly
close to the eye so tha t you c a n look a l ong the curve
1 1 A wood en b ea m i s s upp ort ed h ori z ont a l ly on the edges
of tw o les a n d i s l oa d ed with weight s a t the point m idwa y
b etween the s upports The f ol l owing ta ble shows how much
a gi ve n w eight pr es ses the m iddl e of th e b ea m d own
E xhibit
the r es u l ts of the ob s erv a ti on s in a gra ph
(How m uch w ould
the b eam s ink if n o wei gh t a t a l l w a s pl a c ed on it ? W ha t
ob ser va ti on , ther efor e w i ll y ou e nt e r in the gr a ph in a dditi on
to thos e given b el ow ?)

W ei ght
Sa g in

in l b
i n ch e s

12

10

16

14

I n No 1 1 n d the s a gging p r oduced in the beam by a


of (i) 5 1h
(ii) 1 1 lb Al so n d wha t loa d would ma ke

12

loa d
the b ea m sa g (iii) 3 inch (iv) 2 inch es
1 3 A m a rble w a s a llowed to rol l d own a s m ooth groove
cut in a sloping pla n k The following t a ble s hows the dis
s e c o nd s
ta nces it rol led in 1 2 3
Exh i bit thes e
dis ta nc es in a gra ph U s e the gra ph to n d how fa r the
Al so
ma rbl e w ould ro ll in (i) 1 5 se conds (ii) 4 3 s econd s
u s e it to n d how lo ng the m a rbl e wou l d t a ke to r oll (iii ) 50
i( v) 1 00 c ms 1 (Rea d the que s tion s a t the en d of No
cm s
.

i in c nd 1 2 3
4
Di s t nc in m
8 3 2 7 2 1 28
r t p rf r m d b y th
Th is e peri ment w
T me

1 63 8

se o

as

200

6
28 8

re t G l il eo b out

ALG EB RA

1 4 Draw a gr a ph s h owing h ow fa r the m a rbl e r ol l e d in


th e r s t , s ec o nd , t h ird
Wha t inform a tion
s e c ond s
d oes the gra p h give with re ga rd to the increa s e of the a vera ge
s p ee d of th e m a rbl e during e a ch s e c o nd
Find by int erp ol a
tion how fa r the m a rble rol led (i ) b etween 1 7 s econds a n d 2 7
s e c ond s a ft er s t a rting
(ii ) b etween 3 6 s e cond s a n d 4 6
s ec ond s a ft er s t a rting
An s wer the s a m e ques tion s by m ea n s
D o the a n s w er s a gr ee ?
of th e gr a p h of No 1 3
Note In the foregoing gra ph s the vertic a l lines h a v e
There i s n o r ea s o n w hy
a lwa y s repr es e nt e d a ctu a l l e ngt h s
t hey shou l d n ot r epres ent other qu a ntiti es , for ex a m ple, m on e y
(If y ou plea se y ou m a y t hink of the l ength of a v ertica l l in e
a s r e pr es e nting th e h eight of a pile of c oin s
)
1 5 A furni s hing r m a d verti s e s the f ol l o win g r a tes a t
which furnitur e m a y be bought by m onthly pa ym ent s Dra w
a gra p h r epr es e nting th e gi v en r a t es
Wha t m ont hly p a y
m ent s s h ou l d s ec u r e furniture to th e va lue of (i ) 3 0, (ii) 40,
(iii) 85 ?
.

Va l ue

fur itur
M nt h ly p y m nt
of

10

6S

20

50

75

1 00

1 0s

26s

3 5S

42S

t a ble gives in degrees the height of th e s u n a b ov e


ri n a ltitud e a s m ea s ured in London a t di ffe rent
tim es on Augu s t 23 1 91 2 E x hibit the ob s er va tio n s in a
gra ph U s e the gra p h to de t erm in e (i) the grea t es t he ight
rea c hed by the s u n during the da y ; (ii) the ti m e of n oon ;
(iii) the ti m e of s unri s e a n d s un s e t
1 6 The
th e h o z o
.

Ti m e
a .m.

6 40
7O
.

Al t

Ti m e

d eg

15
18
26%
33%
3 6;

1 23
2 15
2 43
.

4 2
.

1 0 27
11 15
.

45 ;
49
49;

4 43
.

A lt

d eg

49;
47
42
3 81}
3 4;
27%
23 ;
21 4
1 6%

Note It i s often unnecess a ry to rep re sent the whole of


W hen a l l thes e lines a r e grea ter tha n a
ea ch v ertica l lin e
certa in le ngth the ex ces s a b ove thi s length i s a l l tha t need be
represe nted For ex a m ple in No 1 7 the vertic a l s c a le m a y

EX ERC ISE

II

b egin with the num b er 20 The l owes t 20 inche s of ea ch


vertica l m a y b e s upposed to be b elow the b a s e
1 7 A ru bb e r c ord 23 7 c m s l ong i s hung up v ertic a ll y a d
a nu m b e r of weigh t s a r e a tt a ch e d to the l o we r en d in s ucces
s i on
The t a b l e gives the l e ngth of the c ord for c erta in
weight s Ex hibit the ob serva tion s in a gra ph Wha t weigh t
woul d m a k e the c ord 25 c m s long ? How long woul d it be if
1 8 gm s were a tta ch ed ?
.

W eigh t

i n gms

L ngt h in
e

ms

5
24 3

10
24 9

15
25 5

20
26 1

25
26 7

30
27 3

h ea v y button w a s hung a t the en d of a pi ec e of s i l k


threa d a n d a l lowed to s w ing li ke a pendulum The ta ble
gi ves the tim e t a ken for 1 00 s wings w ith different l e ngths of
S i lk Dra w a gra ph of the re s u l t s a n d u s e it to n d wha t
length of s ilk would give a pendulu m bea ting seconds Wha t
would be the ti m e of on e s w ing when the s i l k i s 2 feet 6 inches
18

long

th i f

en g

Ti me

ee t

of

1 00 s w
e g h
ee t
Ti m e of 1 00 s w

L n t in f

1
55

n gs

ing

1 mi n

1 m in

s ec .

4
50

s ec

2 m in

2
3
1 8 s ec 1 m i n 3 5 s ec
5
6
4 sec
2 m i n 1 5 s ec

1 9 The lig hti n g up ti m e for cyc l i s ts a n d m o tori s t s i s


gi ven in the following ta b le for certa in da tes in 1 91 2 Dra w
a gra ph by w h ic h th e ligh ting up ti m e on int er m edi a te d a y s
could be determ in ed Wh e n m us t a cyc l i s t ligh t u p on (i)
Febru a ry 1 2, (ii) Ma y 3 ? When c a n the cycli s t rs t ride
without a light until 8 o clock ?
.

Ja n

J an

31

Ma r

Ma r

31

Ma y

Ap 3 0
.

un

29

l ook a t the ba ck of a P os t Ofce Sa v ings B a nk


B ook you will n d the following ta bl e It s t a t es the s ingle
pr e m iu m or s u m wh ich y ou m u s t p a y in order to r e c ei v e
1 00 when y ou a e 6 0 y ea r s of a ge or to s e cur e 1 00 for
yo ur rela tiv es if y ou di e before t ha t a ge The p re m iu m de
p end s upo n the a ge a t which you in s ure Dra w a gra p h
an d u s e it t o n d the pr e m iu m y ou w ould h a v e t o p a y (i) a t
1 8 (ii) a t 3 2
20

If y ou

30

AL GEBRA

10

A ge

n ex t

bi r thda y

P r em i u m

S d
.

15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50

41
4
45
5
49 5
53 1 6
59 1
65 2
72 1
80 3

6
0
6
6
6
0
0
6

During a very w et s ea s o n c erta in eld s in the T ha m es


va ll ey were ooded During the rs t da y of the ood the
wa t er c overed 2 a cres on th e s econd da y it s prea d over 3
a cr es m or e
D uring the follow ing v e da y s
a cr es 4 8 a cr es
3 6 a cres 2 3 a cr es
a cr e s wer e a dd ed in s ucc es s i o n to th e
a r ea c over ed
Dra w a c ol u m n gra ph Showing the w a y in
wh ich the a rea c overed by the ood gre w from da y to da y
22 C o n ve rt th e c olu m n gra p h int o a gr a p h s howing t h e
w a y in w hich th e a r ea of the oo d pr ob a bly gr ew fro m h o ur
to hour
Why m u s t on e s a y p r oba b l y ? W ha t a rea did
th e wa t er prob a b l y c ove r (i ) 1 % da y s (ii ) 4 % d a y s a ft e r the
beginning of the ood ?
23 I n a t er m in a l ex a m i na ti o n in a lg e br a ou t of a cl a s s of
28 b oy s the m a rk s gi ve n r a n a s foll ow s
B etween 1 0 a n d
20 p er c e n t 2 b oy s 20 3 0 p er c e n t 2 b oy s ; 3 0 40 p er c e n t
3 boy s ; 40 50 p er c e n t 4 b oy s ; 5 0 6 0 p er c e n t 5 b oy s ;
60 7 0 p er c e n t 5 b oy s
7 0 80 p er c en t 4 b oy s ; 8 0 90 p er
ce nt 2 boys ; 90 1 00 p er cen t 1 boy Dra w a c olu m n
gra ph exh ibiting th es e re s ult s W ha t i s the u s e of dra w ing
s uch a gra p h ?
Wha t i s the t ot a l a rea of th e r ect an gles
24 O bta in (i) the a ges a n d (ii) the heigh ts of a l l the boy s
Divide the grea test di fferenc es of a ge
or girl s in y our for m
a n d he igh t ea c h int o the s a m e nu m be r of s t ep s a n d d a s
(
in the prec eding ex a m ple) how m a ny boy s or girls a r e incl u ded
in ea ch s tep Dra w tw o c olum n gra phs on e to s ho w the
dis tributi on of a ges a n d the other the di s tri b utio n of heights
in your form Com pa re the tw o gra phs
25 The director s of a
ex h ibiti o n pu bl i s h ed every f our
w eek s the n um ber of person s w ho pa id for a d m i s s ion during
The num bers a r e gi ven (rough l y
the pr eceding four week s
)
in the follow ing ta b l e Exhibit the m in a c ol um n gra ph
21

'

AL GEB RA

12

ga in a s the la tter ride s Find a cc ording to the m ethod e x


pla in ed to y ou the pa th of the dog
3 0 A pi e c e of m u d on the r i m of a m oving c a rt tra ce s ou t
T ra ce a cycl oid on p a p e r by
a curv e ca ll ed the c y c l oi d
rolling a circ le (e g a penny) a long the e d ge of your rule r a n d
m a rking a nu m b er of the p os ition s occupi e d by a c erta in point
on i ts circu m fer enc e
a

EXE RC I SE III

OF FORMULZE

WRI TIN G

THE

I n order tha t y our a n s w er s m a y b e corre cted ea s i ly

uld
u s e th e s y m b o l s p la ced in b ra ck et s a ft er the s t a t
nt
c
problem The rs t l etter i s a lwa y s inte nde d to
y b l
of the s ub j e ct of th e for m u l a
The o ther l ett er s a r e inte nd ed
to b e the s y m b ol s of th e ot her p hra s es in th e o rd e r in which
they occur in the s ta tem ent The s a m e s ym bols should be
us ed i n ea ch of the differe nt pa rt s of the sa m e ques ti on
I n m a n y c a s e s a n a rit hm etic a l ex a m p le of the kind of
probl em y ou a r e to dea l with i s r s t gi ven By c on s idering
h ow yo u wou ld w ork t hi s ex a m pl e you c a n a l w a y s n d ou t
the ge n era l rul e for s ol ving probl em s of tha t p a rticul a r kind
In other c a ses wh e r e you c a nn o t see w h a t i s the rul e for s olv ing
the p rob l em you S hould m a ke up a a rit h m e tic a l ex a m pl e for
yours elf a n d cons ide r how you would sol ve it Y ou will in
tha t w a y be a ble to n d ou t the ru l e
y ou s ho
em e
of ea h
be the s m o

Write down form ula to n d


(i ) Th w i gh t f b g nt ini g 3 7 m rbl g iv n th w i gh t
ing l m bl ( W b m)
f th b g
d th w i gh t f
f
b g c nt ining
y giv n num b r
(ii ) Th w i gh t f
m rbl
( )
f i k giv n th w i gh t f th
(iii ) Th w igh t f b tt l
d th
b tt l th w i gh t f
ubi in h f th ink
qu tit y i th b tt l ( W b i V)
up i d
b k h lf
(iv) Th l ngth f Sh l f th t w u ld b
by 8 v l um f c t i th i kn
f ll w d by 5 v l um
f n th r gi v n th i k
(l t t )
cup i d by
rta
(V) Th l ngth f h l f th t w i ll b
numb r f v l um 3 inch thi k f ll w d by giv
in h th i k (l
m b r f v l um
)
1;
up i d by tw
t
(vi ) Th l ngth f Sh l f th t w uld b
of the
d th t h i k n
f v l um
giv n th num b r
v l um i
h
t
1

an

e,

es ,
n

a n

ess,

1,

es

se

13

an

on a

oo

es

ce

in

oc

es

e o cc

n es s

ea c

es

an

er

es o

nu

ar

a s

es,

an

es

co

an

en

n 1, n 2
oc c

o se s

es s

ALGEB RA

14

d h lf
i gh t f h d f l f w p nc h i l l i g
r w n giv n th numb
h k in d f
d th w i gh t f
i (W
h) ;
m m P
pr
d in p nce (P )
(v i ii ) Th v lu f th h n d fu l f in
2 (i ) A b y g
i t
l ry b gin t 50
f
wh r
hi
d i r
by 5 v ry y r W h t w i ll hi l r y b
ft r giv n num b r f y r ? (S t)
(i i ) W rit d w n in y mb l th g n r l ru l f nd i g th
l ry w h n th c m m n ing l r y th nn l incr
d t h ti m
f
rvic
giv n (S S i t)
b gin t d c n d h i ll t th r t f 1 4
3 (i ) A m t r
h ur
mi l
h ur
d in r
i t S p d by 3 m i l
v ry m inut H w f t w ill it b m i g ft r giv n
num b r f m inut ? ( t)
th t it w i ll pp ly t
(ii) Writ th rul
y initi l S p d
d
t f in r
(S S i t)
4 (i ) A m
d ci d t p nd 3 5 up n b ks f hi l i br r y
Wh t m w ill
d b uy t h m t th r t
f 2 m nt h
b l ft t th
numb r f m nth ? (S t)
nd f
giv
l ving l l uch pr bl m give n th
(ii ) Wri t th rul f
rigin l m f m n y d th m nthly r t f p di
tur (S S
5 (i ) Th b r k
r i lw y tr in
f
w h n it i
g i g
p t
t 45 m l /h
w
p d
h ur )
d it
(m i l
p
d i m ini h
t th r t
f 1 0 m 1 /h
v r y m i ut unti l
it t p W rit f rmul f th S p d f th tr in ft r
pr
d in m inut ( V t)
giv n ti m
th t it w ill pply t
(i i ) Writ t h i rul
y ri gin l p d
d r t
fd r
t)
(V V
f rmul f th p d f th tr in if ft r i t
(iii ) W rit
p d h b n d cr
d t c rt i n r t f
gi v n
ti m th b r k
tk
p d in r
ff
t
d th
num b r f m inut s ( V V
t
giv n r t f
giv

(v i i )

The
c

we

s,

oes

an

o o

ca r

e so

an

o s

e e

su

or

es o

s.

s o

ee

an

su

or

oo

en

s,

ex

a e o

e a

en

e,

or

e s

es a r e

eas e
a

or a

ee

no

ee

ee

en

o n

o an

0,

ee

es

ee

es s e

as

or

an

e c ea s e

ee

e so

a e o

on

er

a e

ar e

es

a e o

e ex

o,

so

es a

an

o an

0,

ov n

es

es a n

c eas e

a e

ee

eas e ,

an

o,

ua

e a

as

es

ra e o

ea s e s

or

s sa a

e a

sa a

es

sa a

an

an

ea

es s e

e are

se

ea

e o

es a n

o s

ea c

ex

e e

s , o an

e, s

co

ce

an

sa a

an

n c ea s e s

s,

ne

er a n

g.

e o

ui .

an

co n

a e

e s

an

en

or

ee

ea s es a

1,

0,

t2)

(i )

A b y ll m d l ying m ch in
num b r f w h it
d
m ic
d S p n d m t b ut
t ll
f th p r c d in b uy
i g r bb it
W rit
f r m ul f th m n y l ft v r
m h r
r i du
th
iv f th ying
(th
giv
m ch i
th p ric
f
m u
d
r bb it n d th
num b
ld d b ugh t (R f m
)
f rmul f th m n y h ti ll r quir if th
t
(ii ) G iv
f th
r bb it i gr t r th n th p r c d f h i l
o

se

s a

e an

n e,

an

es

or

n1, n

e s

ea e

ece

an

o ee

or

se

e su

or

en

es

e an

no

e a

os

er s s o

es

e a

es

o ee

e c os

sa e

(R)

Write fo rm ulae to n d :
r m
t ini g w in d w giv
f t h w ll f
(i ) Th r
d th h i gh t
th h i gh t
d b r dth f th w ll
br d th f th w i d w (A H B h b) ;
(i i ) Th a m w h n th r e ar e thr w in d w of th a m S i

e a
e

ea o
e

an

ea

e s

ea

oo

c on

ee

an

an

e s

en

ze

EX ERC ISE

(iii )
8

Th e s a m e w h e
s a m e S ze

n th r

e e

is

III

15

iv n num b
e

er of w

ind

ow s of

A b a th i s

m inu te ,

ga llons

by tw o ta p s ea c h s up plying 1 7 ga llon s
tie d by a w a s te pip e c a rrying a wa y
m inute
Write do w n for m ul a for nding

fed
a n d i s em p

p er

(i ) The

th e

p er
21

um b r f g ll n i th b th if t b gin w i th it h
40 g ll n in it
d y
turn
t p f
giv n
um b r f m inut (V t)
m
if y turn b th t p
(ii ) Th
m
if y l t th w t r run t w ith b th t p ff
(iii ) Th
ymb l th ru l f
l ving l l pr bl m
(iv) W rit d w n i
d (iii ) giv n th num b r f g ll
l i k (i ) (ii )
i
th
b t h t b gin w ith t h m unt upp l i d p m i ut by
h t p
m u t
rri d w y p m inut by th
d th
t p i p (V V
w
w)
n

e,

ea c

on

ou

as e

e a

0, 3

as

or

ca

so

s o

on s

er

er

Find form ul a by which to ex press


foll ow ing s eries of num bers (T i i )
(i ) 3 5 7 9
n

on e

or

ou

a e

o s

an

an

on

ou

ou

es

e,

e sa

an

e sa

an y

given term of the

(i i ) 8 1 3 1 8 23
28
(iii ) 21
O 1 4 2 1 25 8 3 5
1I ?
(v )
(vi ) 94 88 8 2
1 46
(V i i )
,

Ca lcul a te the 1 0th term of ea ch of the foregoing s e ries


of nu m b er s
1 1 Sup p os ing tha t the b a th in No 8 c onta in ed 1 20 ga llo ns
whe n ful l how w ould y ou d
f th ta p
(i ) Th ti m i w h i h it uld b ll d by
m b th t p b i g turn d
(ii ) Th
?
d th w t b i g turn d
m b th t p
(iii ) Th
Wri te form ul a ex press ing the rul e s for s olving pr oblem s
like (i) (ii ) a n d (iii ) gi ve n the nu m ber of ga ll on s in the ba th
w he n full the nu m b er of ga ll on s delivered p er m inut e by ea c h
ta p a n d the nu m b er c a rrie d a w a y p er m inut e by the w a s te
pipe (13 V s w )
1 2 Ho w wou l d you a n s w e r ques tion s (i) (ii) (iii) if the
ba th conta ined 40 ga llon s a t the b eginning ?
Wri te three form ul a ex pres s ing the rul es you w ould follow
u s ing th e s a m e s y m b ol s a s in the previ ou s qu es tion
10

co

e n

e sa

e,

e sa

e,

s an

as e

on

e n

on

on e o

ALGEB RA

16

Write down f orm ula for nding :


f r ct ngl
d b r dt h
(i) Th r
giv n th l
gth
d th
d th b
(ii ) Th l ng th f r ct gl g i v n t h r
d t h l g th
(iii) Th b r d th f r ct ngl giv th e r
(iv) Th w igh t f gur ( g th m p f Gr t B rit in) cut
t fr m c r db r d giv n th
r f th gur d th
w i gh t
qu r c nti m t (
qu
inch) f th
f
c r db r d (W A w )
f
gur
rdb r d giv n i t w eigh t
t fr om
(v) Th r
d th w i gh t f unit r
f t h c r db r d
Squ r c nti m tre f She t f r db r d
( i ) Th w i gh t
d w i gh t f
r cta gl t
giv n th
gth b r d th
fr m it
f
tri ngl giv n th b
d th
l ti tud (A
(vii ) Th r
13

e a
e

ea o

ea

ea

an

or

ca

a e

an

e
e

ar e

oa

e an

ea

oa

ea o

ea

en

ea a n

ea o

e re

en

e a

e ou

er

en

r ea

ea a n

e a

ea

an

en

e,

e,

oa

oa

e,

an

ou

oa

ca

e cu

e a ea o

b. h)
Th e w e gh
th e w e gh

(viii)

i t
i t
c r db r d
Th w igh t
a

e,

as e an

tri ngl w h n t f
qu r
nti m tr (

of a

of a s

e ce

or s

dboa r d giv en

r om c a r

ou

e a

qua re inch )

th e

of

oa

tri ngl cut fr m br p l t w igh i ng


qu r c nti m tr ) giv n th
gr m / m (gr m p
b
d th
l titud
tri gl cut fr m th m b r pl t
f
( ) Th l titud
t h w i gh t
d th b
giv
1 4 (i ) G iv th rul f
d i g th
v i l bl f
m unt f i
ch p r n in l r m giv th um b r f cubic
f t f i d t h um b r f p r n ( V )
m
num b r f p r
b ing l cul t d by
th
(ii) Th
c unti g th num b r f d k
d dd i ng
f
th
m t er
m is t
m
th
num b r f p r n b ing c lcul te d by
(iii ) Th
c u t ing th numb r f du l d ks (i d k th t
h ld tw )
d dd ing
f
th m t r
mi tr
m w h n th d k
S i gl b ut thr
f th m
(iv) Th
un upi d (Th t h r i pr nt)
m w h n th d k
du l d th re
un cup i d
( ) Th
t)
(t h r pr
1 5 (i ) T d th w i gh t f
ingl l d Sh t I pr p e t w igh
1 50 t g t h r i
b k r W h t f rm ul S h uld I
t
d th w ei gh t f
h t giv
th w igh t f t h b k r
w it h th
Sh t in i t d f th b k r w h n m pty ?
(i x )

of a
2

s c

ea

or

as

sa

en

es

e,

or

an

a r

a,

e s o ns

ass

e n

e so

an

e,

a e

ca

on e

or

or

es

ea c

es

s ar e

e so

on e

occ

e sa

e sa

r es s

e,

oo

or

a e

e a

e n

as e

a. c a s s

e,

a e

a r an

sa

an

e so

ee

an

er

ass

e o

en

e a

e a

ase an

as e

e.

or

es s

ee o

es

ar e

es e

'

e sa

ea c

e s en

n a

(8 w ] w z)
(i i ) W rit e a for mula
s h o t (i t)
)

s ar e

an

e ar e

oc

es

a s

ea

a s

ea

en

an

os

us e

ea

for

an

y g

ea

'

for

th i pr bl
s

em

iv n numb r
e

of

16
sa m e

thr ee

T he r e a r e

certa in num ber of V illa s in a road a l l of the


siz e
Tw o roa d s lea d ou t of th i s r oa d on one s ide a n d
on the oth er
Thes e r oa d s al l ha ve the s a me width
a

EXERC I SE

III

17

Given thi s width a n d the length of the roa d n d a formula for


the front a ge of ea c h Vill a ( n w l
f
)
1 7 I n ma ny t o wn s a l l th e hou s es on on e s ide of a s tr ee t
h a v e odd nu m b er s w hile tho s e on the other s ide ha ve e v e n
nu mbers
(i ) Writ e d w n t h rul f d ing the num b r f h u
th e
dd num b r
id w h
know th numb r f
y
the las t hou e
th t i d ( N)
(ii ) Giv th c rr p nd i g rul f t h e even numb r S i d
umb er of hou b etw n
(iii ) Gi the rul f nd ing t h
d d numb r ( ot counti n g t h
thos e b eari ng tw giv
h ou e tha t h v th
num b ) N N )
m rul h lds go d f
vn
th e
(iv) Find w h ther th
numb r i d
1 8 (i ) N e w la i d gg
2
d
W rit dow n a formul a f
th e cos t in s h i lli ng
f g iv n numb r f ggs (
(ii ) Write a for mul th t w i ll rv w h tever b th p ri p
d n(
p)
1 9 A bu s in e s s r m s e ts a s id e a t C hri s t m a s a su m of
mon ey to be di s tributed equa lly to th e thr ee senior clerk s in
ea c h of t heir d ep a rt m ent s
Write down form ul a for :
m unt
b nu given to each d epa rt m t
f th
(i ) Th
,

ve

en

sa

s es on
o

e s

er s

1,

ee

s es

or

e.

s ar e

oz en

s o

oze

ou

or

os e

e n

"

or

en

on

es

or

c, n ,

se

or

0,

ce

er

(b A , n )
Th6a mo

en

(ii )

unt r c iv d by h cl rk ( )
20 U p on a pie c e of l a nd of a give n a rea (in s qu a re ya rd s )
a gi ve n nu m b er of bl ock s of w ork m e n s dwellings hav e b ee n
ere ct ed
E a ch bl ock conta in s 22 t enem e nts Write down
form ul a for
(i ) Th num ber of q r y r d f th it p bl ck (b A )
(i i ) Th numb r f qu r y r ds f t h it e p tenem nt (t)
e e

ea c

ua

a e

s o

e s

er

er

uburb ha s
ri s en in ten yea rs from 1 20 to 43 0 How would you
c a lcula t e the ri s e in v a lue of a not her Si mila rly Situa ted piece
whic h w a s worth 240 ten y ea rs a go
rul f nding th in r
of
(i ) W rit e dow n i s ym b l
d t he p r
th f rm er
nt
ll s uch
v l ue i
giv
d t h e for m r v lue of t h
va lu f o p i
f l d
V )
ot h r (i
t va l u of the
nd
(ii ) W rit e dow n f r m ul f th pr
p i ece f la n d ( V )
21

The

va lue of

e s

piece of l a n d in

London

o s

e o

c a s es ,

v]

e ce

ne

1713 ,

en

an

or

an
e

an

c eas e

es e

or

es e n

s e co

ALG EB RA

18

nother pa rt of London the re nt of a hous e ha s gon e


d o w n from 8 5 to 7 0 during the l a s t fteen yea r s I f the
va lue of ot her hous e s h a s de crea s ed in the sa m e proportion
h o w would y ou n d the d e crea se in the r e nt of a h ou s e n ow
rented a t 42 ?
uhc
f rmul f th d cr
f t h r nt i
(i ) W rit
d
h ou
nt r nt f
d th pr
giv n th f r m r
R)
nt r nt f th th r (d
th pr
l
f r mul f th f rm r r nt f th c nd
(ii ) W rit
h u
(R )
2 3 A nu m b e r of fri e nd s go on a h ol ida y t oge th er s ha r ing
the tra velling ex pe ns es
equ a lly th e li v ing ex p e n ses a n d
Gi ven the a m ount of ea ch kind of exp en se an d the num ber of
s ettl e
th e frie nd s t h ere ar e tw o wa y s in which t he y c ould
up a t the en d of the h olida y
(a ) E a ch pers on could h and over to the trea s urer r s t hi s
sh a re of the li v ing ex p en se s t he n hi s s ha re of th e tr a v elling
ex p en s es
(b) The trea s urer c ould a dd t ogether the ex pe ns es of bot h
kin ds a n d ea ch p ers on c ould p a y hi s ow n s ha re of the whole
Write down tw o form ul as to ex press t hese tw o wa ys of
proceeding (l t n S)
24 A m a n lea ves hi s h ou se prop erty a n d h i s b a nk s ha r es
Given the
ea ch to b e di v id ed e qu a lly a m o ng h i s c hildre n
va lue of the h ou se pr op erty a n d the b a nk s ha res a n d the nu m b er
of c h i l dr en writ e a s in the l a s t ex a m pl e t w o f or m ul ae for the
va lue of the l ega cy rec eived by ea ch child (l h b n )
25 A m a n l eft pr op erty of a c erta in va lu e to b e s old a n d
div ided equ a ll y a m ong hi s n ephew s a n d nie ces A c erta in
a m ount h a d t o be p a id to the I nl a nd Reve nu e O f
ce a s
E s tate a n d Succ es s i on Duti es Gi ven the va lue of the pr operty
the a m ount of the duti es a n d the nu m b er of p er s on s write
d own tw o form ul a for the sha re u ltim a tely re c ei ved by ea c h
22 In

e a

es e

se

e o

ea s e o

an

a s o a.

or

or

es e

a s es ,

s e an

on e

r]

n s

e se o

(S

p, d
26 Tw o

f a m ilies go on a holida y together with the und er


s t a nding t ha t e a c h per son s ha ll p a y the s a m e prop orti on of
the ex p e n s e s
I f t here wer e 5 in the on e fa m il y a n d 3 in the
o ther Wh a t sh a re of the t ot a l ex p en ses w o uld b e b orn e by
ea c h fa m ily ?
Write a for m ul a for ca lcula ting the sha re of ea c h fa m il y
given the nu m b er in ea ch a n d the tota l exp ens es (S 8 2 u 1
.

I,

AL GEB RA

20

(i )
(ii )

inf ll p y r d d R)
m th
g r i f ll p
3 1 A m a n own s a c erta in nu m b er of hous es re c eiv ing from
ea ch the s a m e r e nt a n d ha v ing to
p a y ou t of t h i s r e nt the
s a m e a m ount of gr ound re nt
t inc m e fr m th h u
(i ) Wh t i h i
(I
2d
t 1
h p y i i c m t
(i i ) H w m uch (i h i ll ing ) d
i th p u d
(T)
th
pr p rt y t hi ch i ldr n W h t in m
(iii ) H l v
d
ch r c i v
p r nt
f ch i ld r n )
(L t
(iv) H w m n y h i ll i ng in me t d e e ch p y t 1 2d in
th p un d
3 2 I n the gr ea t P a ri s ood of 1 91 0 the d e pt h of wa t er w a s
ob s er v ed to incr ea s e a t on e pla c e from 1 8 m e tr es to 3 2 m etr es
in 1 2 hours How would you n d the a m ount of increa s e to
b e e x p e ct ed in (s a y) 1 6 hour s
f r m ul t d i l l u h c
in r
th
(i ) W rit
duri g giv ti m giv n th r t d c d b v d
d p th f th w t r d th i t rv l f ti m during w h ich
t k pl (i t d d T)
t h i cr
f rmula f th t t l dep th f th w t r ft
(i i ) Writ
ti m (d)
giv
f rmul f th d p th ft r giv ti m upp ing
(i i i ) Writ
th t th d p th f th w t r i d cr i g i t d f i
cr ing (i cl d ) U th ymb l f (i ) d (ii )
f rm ul f th ti m th d w uld t k to di
(iv ) W rit
pp r i f it c nti u d t ub i d t th
m r t (T)
3 3 How m a ny pl a nk s 1 0 inc hes wide would th e re be
The
s ide by s ide a cr os s the oor of a r oom 1 6 fee t wid e ?
nu m b er c ould be determ ined either by reducing the 1 6 feet to
inches or ex pres s ing the 1 0 inches in feet Wha t wou ld the
working be if you chose the la tter w a y ?
(i ) Find th u m b r f 1 0 inch p l nk w h n t h w i d th f t h
fl r i gi ven in f t ( w )
(ii ) Fin d th num b r f 8 inch p l nk w h n th w i d th f t h
r i giv n i f t
3 4 (i ) H w m n y b k 5 i n h t h ick
b
t i d by i d
h l f f giv n l g th in in h
?(
l)
m t h l ngth b ing gi v n in f t
(ii Th
m
th b k b ing 1 1 i n h t h i k
d t h l ngth
(iii ) Th
?
gi v n in in h
m
f tZ
t h l ngt h b i ng gi v n i
(iv) Th
Th e
Th e

vr
v r

e a ge r a

e a

er

a n a

er

ea

1,

on

2,

s ne

n s

ea

o n

e e

oes

s es

r,

ax a

es

oes ea

6 re

co

es e

ax

no

o s

co

en

s o

a ce

e a

an

g,

c ea s e

se

on

s er

o a

or

eas

a s es

a e

er a

or

e a

an

oo

en

se

en

oo

e sa

an

e a

os

n s ea

o s o

e s

ea s n

e s

o s

a e

or

ea

a e

e,

ea s e

a e

e n

oo

ee

e,

e sa

e,

e,

ca n

oo

en

oo s

e sa

e sa

ee

oo

e se

es

n,

e on a

ee

es
e

ee

an

EX ERC I SE

35

III

21

How m a ny

pl a nk s 8 inches w ide a n d 1 3 feet long


oor whose a rea i s 3 91 s qu a r e feet ? Writ e a

uld cover a
for m ula for
d f g iv n l gth
(i ) Th num b r f pl nk 8 i ch W i d
r (i qu r
(in f t ) t h t w uld v r r f giv
f t)
l A)
m
th p l nk b ing 9 in h
w id
(ii ) Th
m t h p l nk b ing 1 0 in h
w id
(i i i ) Th
3 6 The s ub s crib er s to a libra ry p a y a s ub s crip ti on of 2s 6d
a y ea r a n d 2d for every v olu m e b orr o w ed
f r m ul f t h y r
p r n
t i p nc t
(i ) W ri t
wh
b rr w c rt in num b r f b k
f r mul f th y r c t in h i ll ing
(ii ) W rit
f rm ul f th um b r f b k b rr w d th
(iii) W rit
t b ing giv n i p nc
m th
t b i g giv i h ill ing
(iv ) Th
3 7 Men w ere a d m itt e d to a footba ll m a tch for 3 d an d
boys for 2d There were 203 6 m en p re s ent a n d the rec eip t s
a m ount e d to 3 2 9s
How would y ou n d how m a ny b oy s
were pre se nt ?
Write a form ula for ndi n g
d th t t l
(i ) Th um b r f b y w h n th u m b r f m
r ip t (in p und )
giv
(b m T)
d th t t l
(ii ) Th num b r f m w h n th num b r f b y
r c i p t in p und
giv n
t in
(ii i ) Th t t l num b r f p r n p r
(i ) ( )
(iv ) Th t t l nu mb r pr nt in
(ii )
3 8 At a crick et m a tc h 6d i s c ha rge d for a d m i s sion to the
ground a n d a furthe r c ha rg e of l s for a s ea t in the gr a nd
Given the nu mber of pers ons in the gra nd s ta nd a n d
s ta nd
the tota l r ece ipts (in p ound s ) n d a for m u l a
u mb r d mitt d but t t th gr d t d (m
(i ) F th
w o

ee

ee

co

es

e an

oo

en

en a

n s

ea

e sa

e,

e sa

e,

es

es

e.

e a

ea

e cos

os

e n

c os

ea

or

e,

or

e sa

or

s a

e a

cos

oo

so

o a

oo

e n

en

n s

e n

ece

ar e

e e

en

o a

o a

en an

o a

o a

s an

e so

en

s ar e

e n

ca s e

es e

ca s e

e s en

e n

or

no

an

s an

T) i

(ii ) For th e tota l num b er a d m itt e d


iii
rit
W
e for mu l a t o ca l c u la t e t h e s a m e t w o n umb er s in a n y
)
(
ca s e
give n (i n s hi ll ings ) the c h a r ge o f a dm i ss i on to t he
gr o un d a n d t h e e x tra cha rge for the gr a nds t a n d (a s )
3 9 (i ) A b ook s h e l f cont a inin g a cert a in n um b e r o f vo l um e s of t he
,

n fr

ni
n i iv n
vr
i

a l on
a
w a ll
om a
Temp l e Sha kesp ea r e is ha n gi g
W e a o m l a for t he p ll on the a l , g e the w e gh
ol m e
an d
o d a n d th e a e a ge w e gh t of a
of t he s h e l
(P , n , W, w )

rit

fr u
f
cr
.

i t
v u

ALGEB RA

22

(ii )
40

(i)

(ii
(iii

Writ e a for mula for th e a ve r a ge w eight of a vo l ume, given


the p u ll on th e na i l t he w e igh t of t he s h el f a n d cord a n d

nu

v u

the
mbe of o l mes
How far
ma n has to w a lk to a p l a ce 24 m l es a w a y
a gi en n mb e of
w ll h e b e
a
e
om h i s d es i a
o
t)
?
ho s
h i s r a te of w a l k n g i s 3 ; m i l e s a n ho
How m a y mo e h o s w i ll hi s j o n ey a ke hi m
W i e hese ul es s o ha he y w ll a pply to a n y gi e di s
ta e a n d a e of w a l k g (do,

fr

ur if
n
r
rt t
r
nc
r t

t n ti n ft r
i
ur
ur
t
t t t
i
in

u
ur

v n

EXE RC I SE I V
THE REA

U SE OF FORMULZE

D ING AND
A

E a c h of th e follow ing form ula tel ls y ou how to obta in


th e va ri ou s t erm s of s om e s eri es of nu m be rs
C a l cula t e th e
rs t four ter m s of ea c h s e ri es a n d th e 1 0th t er m
2
I
(i ) T
1

(i i )
(i i i )
(i v )

11

Tn

4n

Tn

1 00

3
ou

4(3 n

Tn

(n

xii

Tn

or

2n

(2 n

/ (2 n

or

I) (

4/ (2 n

Tn

I)

(n

A young m a n ha s offers of three a p pointm ents Th e


sa l a ry in p ounds (S ) w h ic h h e w ould ea rn a ft er a gi ven nu m b er
i s giv e n for ea c h p os t by on e of the foll ow
of y ea r s ser v ic e
ing form u la I n ea c h c a se the s a l a ry cea s e s to ri s e a ft er
D es crib e in w ord s th e va rious c ondi tion s offered
20 y ea r s
a n d ca lcu l a t e w hic h wi ll eventu a l l y gi v e hi m th e high es t
s a l a ry
20
(i ) S
i
2

(i i )

90

(iii )

85
23

4n

n.

ALGEB RA

24

ri s e in inch es (R) in the s teps of a s ta irc a s e i s


conne cted with the trea d (T) by the follow ing form ula
c
l
l
d
Fr
nc
i
E
x pl a in th e rul e in w ord s ;
t
h
e
h
a
e
e
()
(
b)
ii
c
lcul
t
e th e ri s e for a tr ea d of (a ) 9% inch es
a
a
(
( )
inches ; (iii) n d w hether t his rule ha s b ee n follow ed i n
m a king the s chool s t a irc a s e
3

Th e

TR

The

giv en by

p
P
N N
p

K
1N

loa d tha t
the

l
l

m a y be s a fely
foll owing form u l a

t ta ched

to

iron c ha in i s

an

7 1 1 d2
'

f loa d in tons ; d E dia meter of c ha in iron i n inches


Find th e grea tes t l oa d tha t c a n be lifted by a cha in in
whic h the dia m eter of the iron i s
ha lf a inc h (ii) 1 2
inches
5 The rul e u s ed by m ilita ry e nginee rs in bl o wing a brea ch
in a wa ll by m ea ns of bl a s ting p owder i s
LE

sa e

0 1 L3
-

cha rge in l b L E ha lf t hickness of wa ll in feet


p
E xpl a in the rul e a d ca lcu la te the cha rge n ecessa r y to
3 fee t th ick
m a k e a brea ch in a w a ll
1 4 fee t thick
Note The w a ll i s b or ed ha lf through
6 The di s ta nc to w hich y ou ca see from the top of a s ea
cliff i s given by the form ul a
s

1 22
-

Jh

di s ta nc e i n m iles h E h e ight of cli ff in fee t


Find how fa r you c a n s ee fr om a cliff (i) 25 fee t high
(ii) 25 6 feet high (iii) 400 feet high
7 I n the following form ul a d E the d epth of the crown of
a brickw ork a rch
7 E the r a diu s of the a rc h
B ot h a r e
m ea s u re d in feet
For a s ingl e a rc h n
for a s e ri es of
0 45
Ca lcul a te th e d ep th of the crown of a
a rc hes n
s ingl e a rc h of ra diu s 1 6 fee t (ii) of a s eri es of a rch es of r a diu s
9 fee t
d

'

'

d =

Jr

EX ERC I SE IV

Note

4, 5 , 6 ?
8 The

thi s ex a m ple 71 i s ca lled a c oef cient or a


Wha t a e t he c oef cients o con s ta nts in Nos

In

cons ta nt

25

trea m a t the bottom of a river


is
connected with the vel ocity a t the s urfa ce (V) by the form ul a
.

vel ocity

of

th e

2 JV

Ca l cula te the velocity a t the b ott om w he n the velocity


a t the s urf a c e i s (i ) 4 ft / m i n
(ii) 9 ft /m i n (iii) 1 21 ft /m in
9 Supp ose y ou w e re a s ke d to n d by th e for m ula of No 6
the di s ta nc e vi s ibl e fro m a cli ff 40 or 5 6 o 7 5 feet high
Y ou
could n o t do it ea s ily b eca u s e it i s n ot e a s y to see the s qua re
root s of 40 5 6 75 etc They m u s t n o d oubt lie betwee n the
s qua r e r oot s of 3 6 a n d 4 9 4 9 a n d 6 4 6 4 a n d 8 1 r e s p e ctiv el y
It i s p os s ibl e th e refo re th a t the y m a y be obta in e d b y dr a w
ing a gra ph Dra w a gra ph a s you a e ins tructed a n d tes t it
by choos ing a n y nu m b e r y ou p l ea se a n d s eeing w h et her the
gra ph gives the squa re root c orrectly
How could y ou u s e th e gra p h to n d th e s q ua re root s
of nu m b er s 1 00 ti m es th os e w hic h y ou h a ve pl ott ed ?
Note Thi s gra ph wil l be r equir ed in s olvi g m a ny of
the foll ow ing pro bl em s
I t m u s t ther efor e b e dra wn very
a ccura t ely
1 0 Find the di s ta nc e v i s ib l e f o m a c l i ff
40 (ii ) 5 6 (iii)
7 5 (i v) 200 (v ) 77 0 fee t high
1 1 From a cliff I ca n j u s t s ee th e ligh t s of a s ea p ort 1 5
m il es a cr os s the s ea
Supp osing tha t the ligh ts a r e 20 fe e t
a b ov e t he s ea w h a t i s the h eigh t of m y ey e ?
(Us e the gra ph
.

of

No

Fin d the vel ocity a t the bottom of a riv er w hen the


v el ocity a t the s urfa c e i s (i) 3 0 (ii) 8 8 feet pe m inute
1 3 Dra w a gra p h to s how h ow ra p idly th e c ha rge of
p owder required to bl a s t a w a ll incr e a s es a s the t hickne s s of
th e wa ll increa s es
1 4 U s e this gra ph to n d the t hickn es s of w a l l t h a t r e
quires a cha rge of (i) 20 1b (ii) 3 5 1b
How c a n you u s e t h i s gra p h for nding cub e r oot s ?
1 5 Surve yor s u se t he f ol lo wi g ru l e to c a l cula te roughly
the h eigh t s of b uildings etc w hen t hey h a ve n o in s trum e nts
Ta ke on l eve l gr ound a lin e AB of con ve ni e nt l ength p ointing
tow a rd s the bui l ding Se t up a t A a s ta ff higher tha n
your sel f W a l k b a ck from it until the lin e of s i ght through
12

ALGEB RA

26

t m eets the top of the building Move the


t f
B a n d repea t Let H E ht of building h E ht of
s ta ff E E ht of ey e a b ove gr ound D E di s t a nc e AB d1 a n d
d2 E di s ta n ces from A a n d B a t the rs t a n d s e c ond o b s e r va
tion s res pectively Then :
E)
D (h
the top
s a f to

of

t he

s a ff

dl

d2

To n d the heigh t of a c h urch t o w er I s e t up a s t a ff 1 2


feet hi gh a t tw o point s dis ta nt 1 00 fee t from on e a n other
The line of s igh t c ut s t he top of s ta ff a n d t ower w he n I s t a nd
1 1 feet from the s ta a t on e en d of the b a s e, a n d whe n I
My eye i s 5 fee t
s t a nd 8 feet fr om it a t th e other en d
from the ground C a lcula t e the height of the tow er
Ca lcula te the height of a tree giv en D 5 0 feet, h 1 0
feet E 4 feet 9 inches d i 9 feet , d2 6 feet 6 inc hes
1 6 Find th e h eigh t of th e s c hool or a n ei gh bou r i n g buildi ng
e tc , by the m e thod of N
15
C om pa re your res u lt s with
o
those obt a ined by others in the cla ss, a n d , if p os s ible, with
the kn own h eight of the ob j ect
.

B
1 7 A b ea m i s xed in m a sonry a t on e en d a n d s tick s ou t
hori z onta lly into a r oom
I t i s l oa ded a t the free en d The
fol lowing form ula gives the weigh t it will j u s t b ear without
brea king :
.

kbd2

W E brea king weight in cwt b E br ea dth of bea m a n d l


length of b ea m d E depth or thickness of b ea m a l l in inches
k i s a c oefcie nt
For wrought iron k
68 for c as t iron k
46 for Engli sh oak k
15
b hun g
th e d f
(i ) Fin d th gr t t w i gh t th t
w r ugh t ir
qu r
b
10 f t l ng
d 2 in h e
m th e b
b in g f s t ir n
(ii ) Th
k b m 1 2 f t l ng 3 inche
(i i i ) Wh t w i gh t w i ll br k
w i de
n d 4 i ch
d pZ
1 8 The qua ntity of wa ter r a i sed p er m in u t e by a p u m ping
e ngin e (e g fr om the h old of a s h ip or from a w el l ) i s gi v e n
by the f orm ul a
.

ea es

e sa
a

on

ar

e,

ar

ee

ea

es

ca n

ca

an oa

ea

ee

0 03 4

an

n ld

on

s s

ee

AL GEB RA

28

A = a rea of hol e in s qua re inches ; d E depth of hol e in


feet
u t of
q
u
r
i
c
f
ll
en
h
h
i
A
riv
t
w
it
h
a
r
f
9
()
t b l w th w te r l in e H w man y
s hi p s bo tto m 20 f
h ip p e h ur s o
t f th
ton s of w a t r m u t b pum p d
th t it ma y n t c um ul te ?
h
i de of a
t
r
l
q
u
r
i
c
in
ti
n
in
h
i
T
h
s
h
4
e
e
i
(i )
b l w th w te r l ine H w ma ny
h i p 4 f t 3 i ch
h ur w i ll l k i 1 (An w r to th e nea res t t on )
tons
23 I f you look a t a cra ne you will s e e a l a rge hook a t the
The wea k es t pa rt of th e h ook i s the s h a nk
en d of the rop e
i e the upr ig ht p a r t tha t pa s s es through the iron a tta c hment
By the follo w ing form ula the engin eer ca lcula tes
to the rop e
the thickn ess of sha nk n e c es s a ry if a gi ven load i s to be lifted
D E dia meter of s ha nk in inches ; W E w ei gh t to be lift ed
in ton s
.

ea

o e

a e

ou

e s

ee

an

as

e o

ee

es

e o

ea

s ec

es

e s

J o4 5 w

02

Wha t i s the s ize of s ha nk n eeded for d ea ling with the follow


ing l oads (i ) 20 ton s (ii) 1 0 tons (iii) 1 6 tons (Use the
gra ph of No
pile driver a
24 Pil es ar e dr iv e n into th e ground by a
ma chin e tha t lift s a h ea v y w eight c a l l ed a r a m a n d drop s
it on to the pil e I f a h ou s e or other loa d i s to be l a id upon
the piles w e m u s t kno w ho w m uch ea c h pil e c an s uppor t
The for mu l a i s

Wh
d (W

P)

grea tes t loa d in ton s pile will bea r ; W E weight of r a m


in cwt h E height in fee t from which r a m fa lls ; d E di s ta nce
in inches tha t the pile w a s dri ven in by the l a s t bl ow ; P
weight of pile in c w t
A r a m weighi ng 6 c w t fa lling a height of 4 feet drove a
pile w eighing 1 5 c w t 1 ) inc hes into th e ground Wha t i s
the grea tes t l oad th e pil e will sa f el y bea r ?
(Note It i s u s ua l a ctu a lly to loa d the pile with n ot m ore
tha n a bout of thi s loa d C om pa re the working an d grea tes t
loa d of ropes in No
25 Fig 3 represe nt s on e s p a n of a tel ep hone wire sup
ported by s ta nd a rd s a t A a n d B An e ngin eer u ses the
s y mb ol s 1 for the b a r e l e ngth of th e s p a n b etwee n A a n d B
LE

EXERC I SE IV

29

ctua l length of wire in the spa n d for the dip or sa g


of the wir e in th e m iddl e a ll t hese
A
m ea s ur e m ent s b eing m a de in f ee t
He a l so u ses the sy m b ol 3 fo th e
pu ll w ith which the wire i s s tre tched
ove r the s t a nda rd s a n d w for the
Fm 3
weigh t of every foot of the wire
both being m ea su red in pound s E xpla in the m ea ning a n d
u s e of th e f oll o w ing f orm ul a ta k e n from hi s p ock et b ook
L for the

(1 )

(1 1 )
(1 1 1 )
t .)

12w

85

19W

8d
8 d2

31
3 10

I)

iron telephone w ire weighs


an d is
w ith a pull equ a l to the weight of 270 1h b e t w ee n
s ta nd a rd s 1 00 fee t ap a rt
Ca lcula te the dip of the wire in
inc hes
27 Th e dip of the sa m e wire s tre tc hed b etween s ta nd a rd s
1 20 fee t a pa rt i s ob serv ed to be 6 inc hes
C a lcula te the
s tre tc hi ng f orc e
28 Wh a t is the a ctua l le ngth of tel ephone wire in the loop
between tw o s ta nda rds 1 5 0 fe et a pa rt when the dip i s 1 8
inch es ?
2 9 The s i ze of the b a rre l of the winding engine u s e d to
ra i se a n d l ower the s kip s in a c oa l pi t is given b y th e
formul a
An
s tr e tch ed
26

D
D

di a m e ter

3 1 5 n 2t

1 2p

'

37

indi ng ba rrel in feet ; p E


of revol u tion s of engi n e p er m i n
of w

depth of p it in
t E thicknes s of

feet n E n o
rop e in inches
Ca lcula te the s i z e of the winding ba rrel for a pi t sha ft 800
feet d eep the rope being 3 inc hes thi ck a n d the num b er of
revolution s of the engin e 3 0 p er m inute
.

Note

ngine

The m os t i mp orta nt p a rts of an ordin a ry


a r e (a ) the cylind er C (g 4) int o w hic h the

t
s t ea m
s ea m

AL GEB RA

30

dm itted from the boil er by a va lve ; (b) the pi s ton P w hich


driven up the cylinder by the s tea m (c) th e pis ton r od R1 ;
(d) the cra nk s ha ft S which turn s the w hee l round ; (e) the
c onn ecting r od R2 ;
the cra nk pin p w h ich f a s te n s the
cra nk s ha ft a n d the c onne cting r od toge ther
When the s tea m enters the cylinder it pres ses a gai n s t the
pis ton with a certa in force Im a gin e the cyl ind er held u psi de
down a n d weigh ts to be p a cked on it till they pres s th e pi s ton
down ex a ctly a s ha rd a s the s tea m did T he n the weight
lying on ea ch s qua re inch of the pis ton i s c a lled the s tea m
pres s ure As the pi s ton m ove s ou t the s tea m press ure will
n ot re m a in s t ea dy but w e c a n i m a gi n e a s tea dy s t ea m pr es s ur e
wh ich would produc e on the w h ole the s a m e effect Thi s i s
c a ll ed the m ea n s tea m pre s su re
Ja m es Wa tt found tha t the w ork p erform ed by hi s engines

is
is

FIG

could a s a rule b e a ccounted for by s uppos ing a s tea dy


He a lwa y s a s
s t ea m pr es s ur e of 7 lb
p er s qua re inch
s u m ed t h i s to b e the pres s ur e ther efore in c a lcul a ting th e
I n t hes e da y s m u c h grea ter
of hi s engin e
hor s e p ow e r
but m a kers in descri bing their
s tea m pr es s ur e s a r e u s ed
The hor s e p ower
e ngin e s sometim es s til l foll ow W a tt s pl a n
c a lcula ted a cc ording to W a tt s rule i s c a lled the nom in a l
The a c tu a l hors e
h or s e powe r
of th e engin e (N
p ower i s c a lled the indica ted hors e pow er
The foll o wing s y m b ol s a r e u sed in Nos 3 0 3 3 :
P E m ea n s tea m press ure in l bs p er squ a re i nch
D E dia meter in inches of cylinder
l E the le ngth of s troke of the p i s t on in inc hes i e the di s
ta nce it i s drive n forwa rd a t ea c h revolu tion of the
wheel
numb er of revol u tions of the wheel p er m inute
11
H E th e indica ted horse power
,

EX ERC I SE IV

NE

nominal horse power


3 0 The tra cti ve forc e or pu l l
given by the form u la :
the

31

loc omotive engine

of a

is

PD 2Z

ra ctive force in l bs
dia m eter of the engine s dr iving
whee l in inches
f
d iving w h l
engin
w it h
(i ) Fin d the tr tiv f r
5 f t h i gh th e c yl ind r
b i ng 2 f t in di m t r
th l ngth of s tr ok 3 f t 6 inch e an d th e m n t m
p r ur 50 lb
ii Th m given th t P 55 D 27 l 45 w 66
3 1 A c ert a in a mou nt of the p res s ure of the s t ea m i s
ne ces sa ril y wa s ted in overcom ing the fricti on of th e p i s t on
The a m ount of thi s pres s ure i s giv e n
a ga in s t th e cylinder
by th e form ula
18
P
T

w E

ac

ee

o ce o

an

e s

es s

e sa

e,

ee

ee

ee

e e

s ea

ea

/D

Dra w a gra ph showing the los s of s tea m press ure to be ex


pected in cylind er s from 1 foot to 4 feet in di a me ter
(Ta k e
inch to r epresent an inc h in the diam eter of the cylinder )
Wha t i s the los s wi th cylind ers of the followin g dia m eters :
23 inc h es
40 inch es ? Wh a t i s the
(i) 1 6 inc hes
s m a ll es t cyli nder for wh ich the los s of pr es s ure w ill b e n ot
more tha n (i v) 4 1h (v) 3 l b
3 2 The old Adm ira lty f ormu l a for c a lcula ting the N H P
of a pa ddl e engin e w as
-

3 000

ula te the N H P f
ngin w hen th d i m t r f
yl inder i s 54 inch
tr k 3 6 in hes a d v luti n p
m i nute 3 0
35
40 inch
48 i nche 1
(ii) Th sa me s ubs ti t tin g D
3 3 The indic a ted horse powe r ma y b e c a lcula t ed by the
followi n g form ula U se it to n d the I H P of a m a rine
the dia m e te r of the cylind er i s 5 f e e t
engin e in which
1 0 inches the l e ngth of s trok e 4 f ee t the m ea n s tea m pres s u re
5 f e et
3 0 1h a n d the nu mb er of r evolution s 1 5 ; (ii) D
20 lb
20 P
l
5 feet 3 inches at
(i )

Ca l c

es , s

re

e e

er

es , at

s,

an e

lD zP

EXE RC ISE

FAC TORI Z ATI O N

1 C a lcul a te the tota l oor s pa c e of tw o room s a rr a nged


g 5 (p 3 4) when the dim e n s ion s a r e a s follows :
.

in

AB

(1)
(ii )
(i i i )
(iv)

BC

24 ft
119
27 e rs
21
4 in

ft

ft

16 a
81
3 27 a
1 8 ft 8

ft

C a lcul a t e the a rea of a room


di m e n s ion s a r e a s follow s
.

a ea

ft

ft
ft
ft

40
25 a
1 8 6 ft
21 ft
26
36
6

20
17
13 2
1 7 ft
22 ft
21
7

'

in

s ha

35
15
11
21
26
36

ft

ped like

in

g 6
.

ED

AF

AB

ft

13
64 a
16 5 a
14
6

(1)
(ii )
(iii )
(iv )
(v )
(vi )

as

wh e n

DC

a
a
4 a
a
ft
ft 6

20 ft
17 a
13 2
13 a
1s
28
5 in

ft
ft in
ft in
in
ft
Fig 7 represe nts the pla n of a picture ga lle ry Find
whe n the dim en s i ons a e a s follow s :
AB
AH
DE
CD
5 3 ft
1 5 ft
1 5 ft
(1) 47 ft
23 ft
52 a
27
(ii ) 5 2 ft
.

the

i ts

(i i i )
(iv )
(v)
(vi )

44 ft
57
1 20 a
88 ft

ft

16
14
37
17

ft
ft
a
ft

28 ft
26 ; a
60
44 ft

ft

3 2 a}
28
26 ft
16

ft

ft

Write down a form ula for the to ta l oor s pa c e in the


room s represented in g 8 E x pres s the form ula in the form
mos t s uita bl e for c a lcul a tion
(U s e a b 6 a s s y m b ol s for the
le ng ths of the room s d for thei r c om m on width )
4

I m a gine

f t w id
ee

th e

r t

ec a n g e

C E to b e

32

d ivi d e d i nto tw o r ecta ngl es

16

EX ERC I SE V

33

5 O bt a in form ul a for c a lcul a ting


T s h a p ed room like g 7 z

eas

ily

th e

a ea

of

(i ) W h o

oq u

:1A
;

(ii ) W h en

(a )

AB

un qua l

an d

an d

D E (b)

D E ar e

ar e

qua l (a ) b ut AH (b) an d CD (6 )

ar e

(iii ) W hen
(iv) Wh e

A
n A

(v)

Ali

(c

(a )

an

qua l but AH an d

CD

un e

ar e

d D E (b)

ar e

un qu l
e

an d

CD i s

un u

doubl e

t r

h ee
B
a n d D E (b) a r e
eq a l a n d AH i s
mes CD (6 )
Wh e AB i s do bl e D E (a ) an d AH (b) a n d CD (6 ) a r e

ti

unequa l
d AH (b) an d CD ( )
( i ) When D E i s four ti m AB
unequal
6 The wa ll on on e s ide of a pa s s a ge i s 3 6 fee t l ong a n d
1 4 fee t hi gh
I t i s fa ced with brick s up to a h eigh t of 4 fee t
but a bove thi s height i s c overed w ith p a int Ca lcula te :
(i ) Th e a r of th p int d urf c e in qua r fe t
(ii ) Th r e f th e m i qu r ya r ds
t of p inting i t t 2d
s q u r e ya r d
(iii ) Th
7 Writ e down formu l a (1) fo the a r ea (mea s ur ed in s qu a r e
feet) of the p a int ed s urfa c e of the las t ques tion (ii) for
the c os t of p a inting it
Let a E th e l engt h in fee t b E th e
heigh t in feet of the p a s s a ge 6 E th e h eight in feet of th e
brickwork p E the cos t in pe nc e of th e pa int p er s qu a re ya rd
C E the tot a l cos t in s hillings The form ul a a r e to be exp res s ed
in the form m os t s uita bl e for c a lcula tion
Note Ins t ead of writing Let a b e the s y m bol for the
l ength i n feet of the p a s sa ge
l et p b e the s ym b ol for the
c os t in pe nc e of the p a int p er s qu a re yard it i s ofte n c on
v en i en t b e c a u se s hort er to writ e
Let the p a ss a ge b e a feet
(
)
long l e t the paint cos t 12 penc e per s qua re ya r
U p on thi s
pla n the foregoing ques tion could be express ed a s follow s :
Find the tota l c os t in s hillings (C) of painting a pa s sa ge
61 feet l ong a n d b feet h igh but fa c ed wit h brickw or k up to a
height of 0 feet the cos t of the painting b eing p p e nce p er
s qua re ya rd
8 Acros s th e upp e r pa rt of the wa ll in No 6 th ere run s
Write down form ula
a b oa rd (1 feet wide to c a rry h a t p e g s
for c a lcu l a ting in the e as i e s t w a y (i) the a r ea of th e p a int ed s u r
fa c e ; (ii) th e cos t of pa inting it (U se the sa m e s y m bol s a s
in No
v

an

es

ar e

ea

e a

a o

e cos

sa

"

"

A G EB R

34

FIG

FIG 1 1
.

FIG

10

12

ALGEB RA

36

trip of c a rp et 0 feet wide run s a l ong the m iddl e of a


p a s sa ge a feet l ong an d b feet wide Writ e d own formu l a for
c a lcula ting in the ea s i es t w a y (i) the a rea of th e u nc overed
pa rt of the oor ; (ii) th e total c os t in p e nc e (C) of p olish ing
it a t a cos t of p p enc e p er s qua re f oo t ; (iii) the t ota l cost in
s h illing s (C ) of poli s hing it a t a cos t of p p e nc e p er s qua r e
yar d
1 0 Across a room 97 fee t lo ng a n d 3 5 fee t w i d e (AF in
g 5 ) a pa rtition i s th ro w n s o as to cut off a room 47 feet long
(AE) Find the a rea of the room (BF) on the other s ide of
th e pa rtiti on
1 1 Across a room a fee t long a n d 6 fee t wide a pa r tition i s
thrown so a s to cut O ff a room b feet lo ng Find 1 the a rea of
the room on the ot her s ide of th e p a rtition in a form sui t a ble
for eas y c a lc ul a ti on
1 2 Find the c os t in s h illing s of c ov ering w ith lin ol eu m a t
l s hilling s per s qua re y a rd the room whose a re a w as c a lcul a t ed
in the l a s t qu esti on
1 3 Fig 9 i s the pl a n of a ha ll AC c ont a ini n g a pl a tfor m
EG
S eat s ar e to be pl a ced to the right a n d lef t of the pla t
form a s well as i n front of it C a lcula te the a rea ava ilabl e for
sea t s when the di m en s i o n s a r e a s f ol l o w s
9

AD
40
32
5 7 ft
46
55

AB
1 09
1 07 ft
89
1 1 7 ft
99

ft

ft

ft
ft

ft
ft

EH

EF

ft
ft

18
14
2 7 ft
23 ft
15

20 ft
16
19
34
33

ft
ft
ft
ft

ft
ft
1 4 Writ e down form ul a for the a va ila bl e oor s p a c e in
th e h all repr ese nted by g 9 in the follow ing circ u ms ta nc es
(The form ul a i s in ea ch ca s e to be in th e form m os t s u ita ble
for su b s tit u tion)
un qu l w hi le AD is d ouble EH (
(i ) AB ( ) a d EF (b)
(ii ) A B is d ubl EH ( ) w h il AD (b) d EF ( ) ar e une q
un qu l w h i le AD is thr ee times EF
(iii ) AB ( ) an d EH (b)
.

ar e

B)
31)
f(

ex

Tha t i s ,

pr es s i on

an

EF

(6 )

ar e

un qu l w hi le

an d

EF (6 )

ar e

un qu l w hi le EH is three quar ters

AD (b)
w

an d

(a )

ar e

(iv) A

of

(v) A B

EH (b) is t w o t hir ds
-

ri te d

ow n

n d t he

f rm u l
o

ea ,

n i

r
v ty

for d n g the a
i s s e d for b r e i

ea of, e tc.
.

The

37

EX ERC ISE V

1 5 Write down form ul a for the a r ea s exhibit ed in gs.


10 18
I n ea ch cas e throw the f orm ula int o the sha p e in
which it i s mos t c on venient for u s e in ca lcula ti n g the a rea
Nata If you ca nn ot ea s ily n d the form ula i t i s often a good
pla n to c opy the gure on a p iece of p a per or t hin c ardb oa rd ,
an d to s ee k a w a y of cu tting it up a n d r e a rr anging its pa rt s
s o a s to f or m a s i m pl e a r ea
1 6 C a lcu la te by short m e th ods th e v a l u e of ea ch of the
following nu merica l ex pres s ion s :
.

(i )

r7

4
17 4
24 x
24 x
'

(x )

'

r4

3 + 9
r3 + 9
r4 +

21

33

4
13

55
15

I8 + 2 6

23

13

26

'

43
3 x x3
4 x 39
.

rr

12

12

22

r4 x

34

4 x 28
35 x 8
57 x 3 3

'

12

(i x )

8 6
8 6
'

5
17
.

39

+ 21

21

Find identities by the a id of which f ormul a conta ining


the following ex pres s i on s c a n be m a d e m or e s uit a ble for ca l
cula tion
a o
b
(ii) pq
q
(iii) pq
q
hi m
(v)
p
q
(vi p
b
cd
b cd
sp q
33
(viii) z b
(i
4pq
17

( )
xi

21

1 8 Re duc e the foll owi ng


ven i en t for s ub s titu ti on :
.

M
V
P

(iv)
(v ) Q
(v i ) T
(vii ) W
(vii i ) B

(i x )
(x )

C
V

c.

e.

pq

f orm ul a
51d

1
4

r r

i a pq
z
n t h
g

2 21 %

3
a
b
3

2 7r r 2w
12

to the

a 2.

ar

forms

2 br

m os t

r.

con

a b9c

xi i

r.

a zbc

ap

"

a bc

ab.

3.

32

4r a w
2
m
n
9
3 mn
2
1 521
se )
4w a b c
.

ma

3
6
a
(

Wr ite down formu la in the m os t convenient form for the ca lcula


tion of the f oll owing qua ntiti es (The linea r m ea surements
.

AL G EB RA

38

indica ted in the gures m a y a l l be s upposed to be ma d e i n


c enti metres)
1 9 The w eight (W ) of a br a s s pl a t e cut to th e s h a p e of g
1 4 (the weight of a s qu a re ce ntim e tr e b eing w gra m s)
20 The s a me for a p la te cut to th e s ha p e of g 1 8

EX ERC IS E

VI

FAC TORIZ ATI ON

(II)

Fig 1 9 i s the p la n of a courtya rd AC


FD if c om p l eted by p roducing th e l in es AF a
a l s o a s qu a re
Find th e a rea of
the c ourtya rd wh e n th e di m en
s i ons a r e a s foll ows
1

qua re a d
CD w ould be

is
nd

a s

FE

AB

(i )
(ii )
(i i i )
(iv)
2

Fig

ft

1 29
78 ft
1 46
57 4 a

29 ft
1s it
54 a
32 6 a

ft

(p 4 1 ) repr es ent s a
m e t a l p la t e wit h a s qu a re
20

qu a re
hol e in the m id dl e
Find the
a re a of the pl a te w h en the di m e n s i on s
s

F IG

19

AB

(i )
(i i )
(iii )
(iv)

(Im a gin e

foll o w s :

CD

1 4 5 c ms
62 in
7% i n
1 6 3 in

5 5 cm s
1 1 in
23
43

in
in

be m ove

th e hole to

a r e as

d from

the m

iddle

to the

corn er of the p l a te )
3 Fig 20 m a y a l s o be s upp os ed to rep r esent th e cros s
Fi d i ts volum e w h en AB
s e cti on of a hol low m et a l b a r
6 8 c m s CD
3 2 c m s a n d the ba r i s 20 c m s l ong
4 Writ e d own f orm u l a for c a l cul a ting q uic k l y
(i ) Th v lum (V )
h ll w b
f th
f N
3 u i g
(ii) Th w igh t
ymb l
t h l n gt h f A B
d CD l f
t h l gt h
th
d bf
m
f th m t l
th w i gh t f 1
f th b
dw f
5 Find th e m os t u seful form ul a for the w eigh t w of a cubic
centi m etre of the m a teri a l of the ba r given i ts tota l w eight
a n d i ts di m e n s i on s
.

or

o s a an

e s

ar

an

or

ar

an

c c

39

or

e a

s n

en

A LGEBRA

40

B efore trying the n ex t exa m ple a n s wer th e foll owing


qu es tions :
4 qu l qu r
i d m ur 3 i h b
wh
(i ) H w
r ng d
ingl qu r
t m k
(ii ) W h t w i ll b th l gth f th i d f th i qu r
d
f9 16
t
(i i i ) A w r i m i l r qu ti n w ith g r d t
25 q u l q u r
r pr nt t h i d f q u r
(iv ) B y w h t ym b l w i ll y
m d u p f 4 qu l qu
id i
th l ngt h f w h
r pr nt d by b C2
m q u ti
qu
m d up
w i th
(v) An w r t h
g d t
f 9 16
d 25 f t h
m ll r q u r
6 Fig 2 1 r epres ents a s qua r e m e t a l pl a te m ea s uring a c m s
ea ch w a y in w h ic h fou r s qu a r e n otc h es ha v e bee n ou t ea c h
m ea s uring b c m s ea c h w a y
Find in a form s uita ble for
c a lcula tion the a re a of m e ta l l eft
7 D o th e sa m e for the pl a te re pres ent ed by g 22
8 D o the s am e for the pla te repres e nted by g 23
9 Gi ve c on ve ni e n t form ul a for c a lcul a tin g :
(i) Th w igh t (W ) f th pl t r pr nt d by g 22 giv n
th t t h m t ri l w igh g m / m
cr
cti i
(ii) Th w igh t (W ) f b l m l ng w h
pr
t d by g 21 giv n t h t th m t i l w igh w
o

ca n

ar

es

so a s

e a s

ns

es e

o se s o

re a

ou

re

ar

on

e s

es e

ar es

es

an

an

es

e sa

s s

e o

e s

o s

es

en

es

e s

nc

ea s

es

os e s

os e s

o s

es

es

a r es

10

e s en

re

(iii )

a e

ar

es e

s c

ra

i t

i
t

Give

u r c ti

on

a er a

gr a m s / c m
Th e w e gh (w ) of a s q a e en m e e
w h ch g 23 i s s pp ose d t o b e
, g
p la e w ei ghs W gr a m s
.

os s s e

os e

tr f th pl t fr m
cut iv n th t t h w h l
o

a e

o e

bes t form ula for ca lcul a ting the c os t in sh il


cubic foot of a r od whos e cros s s ection i s r e pr e
2 3 given th e d i me n s ion s in feet a n d the t ota l c os t

th e

lings (6 ) p er
s ente d by g
(C) in p ound s
1 1 Write d own t he ide ntities wh ic h y ou would u s e in
s i m plifying for c a lcul a ti o n for m ul a t h a t c ont a in the f ollowi ng
ex p res s i on s
Show t ha t the ide ntities a r e a lwa y s tru e n o
m a tter w ha t qu a ntiti es a r e or nu m b ers the s y m b ols refer to
q
b
(ii )
(i ) p
(i ii ) m
g
2 5b
b
t
(v p
(iv) 3 6
(vi )
t
e
16
(vii i ) b
(vii ) p
(i )
-

( )
x

51

( )
xi

b3

81

p q

11

25

x ii

Note E x pres s ion s s uch a s a s be a n d a 2


ha v e s ee n b e r ep l a c ed for the purp os es of
,

ex

pres sions s uc h

as

(a

b)c

and

(a

b)

ea s

(a

m an

b2

by

ca n

as

y ou

y c a l cula ti on
b)

T he s e

EX ERC I SE V I

41

F IG

FIG

24

21

FIG

25

AL GEB RA

42

pres sions des cribe fa c t or s wh ich w he n m ultiplied togeth er


will give the re s ult of the c a lcula ti on For thi s rea s on the t a s k
of dis c overing the m i s oft e n c a l l ed fa c t or i z i n g the origin a l
ex pr es s i on s
1 2 Fa cto ri e the f oll owing ex pres s io n s
(You n eed n ot
prove tha t the ide ntities a r e a lwa y s true)
ex

(i ) p a

( )
(vii )
(x )
.

iv

13

pb

ab

s
2

(i i )

(v )
(viii )

2 7b

I 2 51.

49

99

9a q

( )

wt.

( )
(i x )
(x i i )

4p t

vi

h 3 6b 3
i
2
?
6
a b

xi

t3

pt

M 22
3
a st
50

(ii i )

96

D2

Fa ctoriz e the following ex p res s ion s

(i )
(ii i

b)

(a2
(a 2
(a

(v)
(vii)
ix

( )

t)

b 2)
b2)
b2)

"

a.

iv)
(viivii))
(

( )

q)

b)

b)
b )
b)
p (a
b )
(a b )
b )
b)
3 (a
q ) b (p q )

( 2
(a
2
a
( 2
2 (a

a t!

(i i )

6 (a
b (p

<1

b)
b)
b)

3(
4(a

( )
(y )
(v n )
(i x )
(x i )
(x iii)
(x v )
(x vii )
1 11

Na ta

(
(p
4(u
(a

b )2

4(

(a

6 (p

q)
2
ci )
b )2

W2

q)

I2 .

9
(I? ) (p
2
I
6
C
t
I
a
( ) (
2

v
w
v
m
u
( ) 9(
)
4
2
2
x
a
b
b
)2
( ) (
2
xii
a
b
a
)
( ) (
2
2
x iv ) 2 5 a
b
a
)
(
(
2
2
x
v
i
a
b
b
( ) (
) 29
2
x
i
2
vii
9q
(
) 5(p q )

4
2
r
9

b )2
b )2
b )2
b )2

a.

Fa ct or iz e the fol lowing ex p res sion s


b)
(
(ii ) (p

14

7 (a

b2

b2
2
b
4

6
3 p

Before d oing the n ex t s et of ex a m ples a ns wer the


following ques ti on s
(i ) I f f m gr p f 1 2 t h ing I t k l l of th m c p t 5 h w
m ny
l ft 1?
(ii ) I f fr m gr up of 29 th i g I t k l l c p t 1 3 (i e 29 1 3 )
h w m
y
l ft
(iii ) W h t i l ft w h n I t k 3 2 1 7 fr m 3 2 7
(iv) C m p l t th i d ntit y
( b)
(v ) Wh t i th v lu f 48 (48 7)
b)
(vi ) C m p l t th i d ntit y
(
1 5 Fa ct ori z e the foll owing ex pr es s ion s

ro

ar e

ou

ar e

e e

e a

ex

e a

ex

(1

e e

an

e o

at

(i
(i v

(vii)

p
a

(
(p
(a
a

b)2

2
ii
( ) P

v
a
( ) s

(viii)

( )
X

Note

(
(p

(p

mi )

(r

r2
er r

3
.

vr

(f

WY

2
b
p )

fol lowing ex a m p l es th e form ul a a r e a lwa y s


thrown int o the f or m m os t s uit a bl e for s ub s tituti o n
.

to be

(P

(i ii )
(v i )
(i x )

In th e

EX ERC I SE V II

SQ

U ARE

ROO T

Find c orrectly to tw o de cim a l pl a c es (if n e c es s a ry) the


l e ngth of the s ide of a s qua re whos e a re a i s (1) 23 0 4 s qua re
ya rds (ii ) 6 2 41 s qu a re inc hes (iii) 94 09 sq ua re c m s (iv) 7 2
s qu a r e f ee t (v) 3 2 6 s qu a r e m il es (vi 28 7 s qu a r e f eet (v ii )
)
s qu a r e y a rd s
(viii) 1 0 24 s qu a re m il es
2 Find th e s qua r e root of e a c h of the following nu m b ers
(the root s a r e to b e given c orrectly to th ree s igni c a nt
gures )
(i) 3 48 ; (ii)
(iii) 4 1 6 1 6 ; (iv ) 04 3 ; (v)
1

'

000294
3 Th e tota l a r ea of the Britis h I s l es i s
s qu a r e m il es
I f th e l a nd c ould a ll b e a rra nged in th e for m of a s qu a r e w ha t
w ould be th e l e ngt h of i ts s ide ?
4 Th e a rea of Engla nd a n d W a l es i s
s qu a re m il es
C a lcu l a t e the l engt h of the s ide of a s qua re ha ving thi s a rea
5 U s ing th e r es ult s of the l a s t tw o ex a m pl es c o n s truct on
s qu a r e d
pa p er a dia gra m (a rra nged l i k e g 20, p 41 )
s h owing th e pr op o rti on of the a r ea of En gl a nd a n d W a l es to
th e a r ea of th e w hol e of th e Briti s h I s l e s
6 Th e t ot a l p op ul a tion of t he B r iti sh Is l es in 1 901 w a s
th a t of Engla nd a n d W a l es a l so w a s
C on s truct a dia gra m , like the on e of No 5 , s how ing wha t
p a rt of the t ota l p opul a ti on lies wit hin th e bound a ri es of Eng
la nd a n d Wa les
'

1 2 2 J h (s ee Ex I V, No 6) to
U s e th e f orm ul a 01
c a lcula t e th e grea t es t di s ta nc e you c ould see a cross the wa te r
from a c l iff 5 27 f eet high , a ll owing 5 feet m or e for the heigh t
of th e ey e a b ov e th e ground
C om p a re th i s r es ult with tha t
o bt a in ed gra p hic a lly
8 Ma k e a s im il a r c a lcul a tion for th e di s ta nc e v i s ibl e from
a m ount a in 5 3 20 f ee t high
9 The Pea k of Ten er iff i s
f eet h igh W ha t i s the
grea te st dis ta nc e from w hich it could be s een by a n ob s erver
a t the ma s t hea d of a s h ip 5 4 f e e t a b ov e th e s ea

44

EX ERC I SE V II

The

10

velocity (V)

f t
inute
by
f r u :
1 8 5 e e p er m
th e o m l a

45

wa ter a t the s urfa ce of a river i s


C a lcula te the velocity a t the bottom
of

the

(V

1)

Th e top of th e inn e r dom e of St Pa u l s C a thedra l i s so


i a bov e the oor of the n a ve tha t a s m a ll but hea vy wei gh t
c oul d s wing benea th it a t the en d of a wir e 28 5 feet long
Find how long ea ch s w ing w oul d ta k e us ing the form ul a

11
h gh

Jl
s ingl e c om p l et e s wing in
t

in which t E ti m e of a
s e c ond s l
l ength of wire in f eet
1 2 How would y ou c a l cu l a t e the r a diu s of a circ l e if y ou
knew i ts a rea Writ e dow n a form u l a
1 3 U se th e form ul a of the l a s t que s ti on to c a l cu l a te th e
ra dii of the circ l e s whos e a rea s a r e (i) 1 26 2 s qua re inches (ii)
1 8 2 s qua r e f eet
1 4 C a lcul a te the r a dii of the tw o circl e s w hos e a re a s
w oul d be equ a l to th ose of the wh ol e Briti s h I s l es a d
Engl a nd a n d Wa l e s re s pectiv el y (s ee Nos 3 a n d
U s e t he s e
circ les to con s truct a dia gra m on the s a m e principle a s tha t of
,

No

5
15
w h en
16
Wha t
17
.

Give a form ula for c a lcul a ting the ra diu s of a cylind er


you kn ow i ts v olu m e a d i ts h e ight
The v o lu m e of a cyl i nder 4 8 c m s high i s 2 6 7 c c m s
i s i ts ra dius ?
To n d t he thicknes s of som e c opp e r w ire I i mm er s e a
piece of it 1 0 m etres l ong in w a t er in a m ea s uring cylinder
C ai c l a te th e t h ic k nes s of th e
The w a ter ri s es 4 5 c cm s
Wi re
.

EXE RC I SE V III
U

S RD S

Na ta

It m a y be as su m ed in the following exa m pl es tha t


22 4, J 7
26 5 , J 1 1
1 41 , J 3
J5
Wha t do these s ta tem e nts m ea n ?
3 6
J1 3
Find to tw o de ci ma l pl a c es the va lue of the f ollowing
52
0
9
9
56
1 2,
3
9
7
,
,
,
,
/ 6,
J
J
/
s, 6 J 26
Ji z

J2

1
8,

2 Ra tion a liz e the de n om ina tors of the fol lowing fr a cti on s


a n d the n n d thei r va lu es to th ree s igni c a nt gu res :
.

08
-

J5 4
-

11
7 02 2
J1 4 J 2 1
3 Th row the foll owin g ex pres s i on s into the form m os t
s u it a bl e for ca lcul a tion bu t do n ot ac tu a lly n d their v a lu es

J2

2 J3

E
1
3
L

1?

L
5

J 95 J 24 2 J 3
4 C a lcula t e th e va lu e of
a = J5 b
J2 c J 3 :
J3

3a

(i i )

be

4 J5

following

"

b e),
b

(v)

2c

(vii )

J2 J2

ex

J3 9

press ion s whe n

(iv)

26

the

(i )

(viii )

(vi)

hi

(i i i )

We

0 8

3
,

(i x )

b) c

Na ta

in

The a n s wers to the

fol low i ng pr oblem s ar e to be left

urd form
5 The s id es of a s qu a re a r e of length a
Wha t i s the
length of the dia gona l ?
6 Bi sect an e quila t era l tr ia ngl e by a p e rp e ndi cu l a r dra wn
from on e of the ve rtic es to the oppos ite s ide Ca ll the le ngth
Wha t i s the length of the p e rpendicu la r
of half the b a s e a
a s

46

EX ERC ISE V III

47

O n e of the a dj a c e nt s id es of a re cta ngl e i s th ree tim e s


th e ot he r
Ca ll the l ength of the s m a lle r a Give a n ex pres
s 1 0 n for th e l e n t h of th e di a on a l
g
g
8 A l a dde r of l e ng th 7 a i s p l a c ed a ga in s t a hou s e with i ts
foot 3 a a wa y from t he w a ll How hi gh i s the top of the
l a dd er a b ove th e ground ?
7

A p id r m
t f
h l i th
r r f r m ru
6 f t l ng t h f t f t h w ll t h n l i m b v rt i c lly up
th w ll w h i h i 1 0 f t h i gh
d h vi g r
h d th
i ling r w l 7 f t t l ng i t t r i gh t gl t th
w ll
H w f i it fr m th h l
f rmul f th d i t n in l l i mi l
ll ing
(i i ) G iv
t h t hr
m v m ts
b
d
thr d d d nd fr m th c il ing di
(iii ) I f h pi
h wh t i
t
w hi
d i t n fr m th h l
1 0 An a erop l a n e i s a bov e m y h ea d a t a h e igh t of a fee t
It i es du e north a n d u p w a rd s u n til it i s ove r a p oint p f ee t
a w a y a d a t a h eigh t of b f e et
I t t he n i es ea s t w a rd s a t th e
How fa r i s it ow from m e
s a m e l ev e l a di s t a nc e of q feet
1 1 A c a rria ge w he el of r a dius 2 p ic k s up a pi ec e of p a p er
from the roa d a d c a rri es it round o e tw el fth of a r ev olution
How high i s it n ow a b ove th e ground ?
How high will it be wh en it h a s gon e { of the w a y round ?

co

ee

a o

es ou
e

c a

e a
e

e s

a n ce

or

s no

s a
,

an

oo

ea c

an

es

n s

o e

ce

an

s a

a r ca s e s , ca

es c e

an

co n e

a o

en

ou

ea

ee

ns a

oo

ee

ar

ee

o e

ce

ce

o e

EXERC I SE I X
AP PROX I

MATIO N FO RM UL E

(I)

Dra w a s qua re a n d ca ll the length of its s ide a Convert


b by the a ddition of tw o identic a l
i t into a s qua re of s ide a
recta ngles a n d a s qua re Write in sid e e a ch gure the ex
press ion for i ts a rea
2 U s e t he gu re of No 1 to c om pl et e the identity
1

b) 2

(i)

f
cula te th r
ch f t h r ectangles d f the
c nv t qu e meas uring 1 0 inches
s qua r e r e quir d t
m
uri g 1 2 inches ea ch w y Show
ea ch w y int
t ha t the r ul ting qu r h th c rr t r
(ii) Rep a t the lcul ti n ub tituting th m e ur ements

Cal

ea

o on e

es

ms

an d

(iii) Rep ea t

c ms

ca

ea

er

as

s, s

t he m ea s

ec

c ms .

ub tituting

an

ar

a s

ea s

re

me

nt

ea .

as

14

cms . an d

1 47

wha t fra ctio n of the s id e of the c o mpleted


s quar e (1 2 inch es ) i s the a dd e d p ortion 2 inc hes ?
Wha t
(
)
fra cti on of the a rea of t he c om plet e s qua re (1 44 s qua re inches)
i s the a rea of the a dded s qu a r e (4 s qua re inches) ?
An s wer the s a m e ques tion s w ith re ga rd to 3 (ii) a n d 3 (iii )
Wha t do you notic e a bout the tw o s ets of fra ction s ? Will
t hi s propert y a lwa ys hold good ?
5 I wa nt to c ove r with linole um a room 1 2 fee t s qua re
I h a ve a s qua re of linol e um m e a s uring 1 1 fe et ea ch w a y an d
a l s o a s trip 22 fee t long a n d 1 foot wid e
Wha t fra ction of
the whol e oor s pa ce m u s t I lea ve uncove red
6 A s qu a re she d o ccupi es th e c orn er of a s qu a r e pl a y
ground The l ength of i ts wa ll i s on e twentie th of th e l ength
of the pl a yground
Wha t fra ctio n of the a rea of the pla y
grou nd does it c ov er ?
7 A s qu a r e of l ength a i s c o n ve rt ed into on e of length
a
b by a dding a gn om o n of w idth b
C om pa red with
2
Wha t
a b i s s o s m a ll t ha t th e s qu a r e b m a y b e n e gl ect ed
4

I n 3 (1)

48

EXERC I SE

IX

49

form ula for the increa s ed a rea of the s qua re m a y i n this c a s e


2
be u s ed in s tea d of A
a
b
(
) ? T hrow it into the form
m os t c onv e ni ent for c a lcul a ti on
Note A c a lcu l a ti on in wh ich y ou ta k e a cc ount of a rela
ti v el y s m a ll nu m b er b but n egl e ct i ts s qua re i s sa i d to be
c a rried to a r s t a p p r o x i m a t i on Th e word a pp r oxi
m a te ly
w h e n u sed in t h i s a d th e n e t ex erci s e m ea n s
to a rs t a p p rox i m a tion
In w riting a s t a t em ent of a n a pprox im a tion w h et he r in
s y m b ol s or in nu m b er s
y ou s hou ld u s e in s t ea d of th e s ign
the S i gn
Thi s s y m b ol m ea n s i s a ppro i m a t ely
equ a l to
8
p t h 3 f t w i d l g tw
(i) A qu r l w n 40 f t l ng h
id s
U
t h f r m ul
f N 7 t
l ul t p p i
m t ly th
r f th g rd n
R p t th c l ul ti
r p l i g t h f rm r d i m i
d 3% f t
(i i ) by 5 3 f t
r p tiv ly
d 3 f t 3 i h
(i i i ) by 43 f t 6 in h
9
p t h 2} f t w id l l r u d
(i ) A qu r l w n 5 0 f t l ng h
f th g r d
it C l ul t th r
t
r t pp
i
m ti
A b t w h t fr ti n
f th
r i
wh l
gl t d ?
lcul ti n r pl ci ng th f m r d i m n i n by
(ii ) R p t th
d 3 % f t r p tiv ly
77 f t
1 0 A m e ta l tra y i s to be m a d e a inc hes s qua re w it h
vertic a l s id es b inches d e ep a butting direct l y o to on e a not her
w it hout ov erl a p ping
Th e m e ta l p l a t e we i gh s w ounc e s p er
s qua r e inch
Write a for m ul a (c onveni ent for c a lcula tion)
giving the tot a l w eight (W ) of th e tra y
Write a l s o a fo rm ul a fo the p erc e nta ge w a s te of m e ta l
wh en the tra y i s cut ou t of a squa re s heet m ea s uring a 2b
inc hes ea ch w a y
1 1 A s q ua r e m irror m ea s uring 1 7 inc hes ea c h w a y i s
Find a pprox i ma t el y the
m ount ed in a fra m e 3, inc h wid e
a r ea of w a ll c ov er ed by the m irror a d fr a m e
t in r
in r i th
12
Writ d w n f r m ul f th
qu r f N 7
r t
t
f rmul w h i h w ill giv th i r
(i i ) Wr i t
ppr i m ti n
th
qu r h t f p p r m uri g 24 m
d
1 3 (i ) A
Fi d pp
i
tr t h 3 m m
w tt d
h w y wh
f it
r
m t ly t h i c
is b i g
gl t d ?
(ii ) A b ut w h t fr ti n f th w h l
.

a e

se

a e

ee

e a

ea

on

ne

on s ,

e a on

ee

ca c

a e

r ox

ac n

en s on s

ee

es a n

ee

ee

a c

ea o

a c

ee

as a

an

ee

a e

ou

as a

nc

ea

es

en

ec

ee

ac

es

e a

o a

r ox

o e

ea

ec e

ea

e ca

an

ee

ee

es

or

ec

s o

e o

ox

e c

c ea s e

ea

n c ea s e

ee

ac

e ex a c

or

es

a e

a e s

r ea s e o
o

en

ea c

s a

ea

ea s

e si

1n

r ox

o e a r ea

e n

ne

ec e

ALGEB RA

5O

(iii) W ha t

fra ti n f t h i
b eing
f a r ea is
n egle ted 2
(iv) Whi ch of these fr ti ns w uld y give if you were ask ed
how e xa ct your n wer is
1 4 Draw (or if i t is more convenient draw to h alf s ca le)
a re c ta ngle 3 c m s hi gh and equal to the total increa se of a re a
of the wetted paper in No 1 3 Mark off a square eq u al to
the pa rt negle c ted in taking the rst approx imation (The
diagra m will help you to realiz e its relative unimporta n c e )
1 5 The number 1 02 can be regarded as (9
(7
etc Show that when the identity of No 2
(5
(4
i s applied to these e x pressions the result i s 1 00 in ea c h ca se
Choose a nother exa m p le of yo u r own and nd w hether the
identity works when app lied to it
1 6 Take a n y on e of the cases in No 1 5 and show by an
a lysis w hy the identi t y holds good
Describe the steps of
your a na lysis in symbols Wha t use do you n ow consider
th a t you ar e entitled to make of the identity ?
1 7 A piece of thin brass tube h a s an intern a l ra di us r a n d
Write down a formula for c alcul a ting to a
a thickness t
rst approx im a tion the area (A) of the ring of meta l
1 8 A met a l ba l l has a thickness t and a n intern a l ra dius
Cal cul a te a pprox imately the area (A) of its ex tern al su rfac e
How mu ch greater i s it tha n the internal surfac e
[The a rea
of a spher e of radius r is given by the formula A 4W 2 ]
1 9 A boiler c onsists of a cylinder of length l a n d r adius r
c apped a t e ach end by a hemisphere The thickness of the
meta l is t Show t hat the area of the outside surfa ce i s given
a ppro x im a tely by the formula
c

n cr ea se

ac

ou

'

'

'

20

21r {(2r

l)

'

(r

t)

'

Complete the following identities :


( e

(w <a
(i v ) (a

a );

(ii i )

2)

( )
v

( ) (
(1 x ) {1(a
v ii

+ 2

ct

( ) (
vi

(vii i
(x

bl ?

+ q

1s
~

o oo3 t
-

i id

=
>

Suppose a straight line 1 uni t long to be draw n a n y


where on a sheet of metal and let the metal then be hea ted
till it is one degree warmer The line will in cre a se in length
by a denite but very small amount 0 (called the coefc ient
21

ALGEB RA

52

Va

iii
a
( ) J(
2
J
2
v
( )
p

(i )

28

(ii )
(iv) W
(vi) J 1 6

p
b2)
+ q

(vii ) J SI

2p
x

+ a

nt

Deal similarly with the following e xpressions :


2
(i ) # 1 3
(ii ) #27 7 ;
2q
b
(iv) (p
(iii) J
a

M)

(v i ) 4p
(vii i ) lbw / (a

2 w )
(v ) a
T
6 J 6)
(v i i )
(i ) You s ta rt from

a p int H f t ab ve th
and li mb
fur th r h ight f h f t Wri t e f rm ul f D t h
radius (in m iles) f th cir l f
visib le fr m th
high r p int (S E I V N
that h is sm all mp red w i th H Wri t f r m ul
(ii ) Supp
E is kn wn
suit b l f
l ul t ing D w hen M
3 0 A boy standing on a cliff 400 feet above the sea climbs
a tree 20 feet high s o as to see as far as p ossible (i) What
is the greatest distance visible from the higher point ? (ii)
What additional distan c e was b e a ble to see by climbing the
tree ? Write a formula for d the add itional distance rendered
visible by climbing h feet up from a point H feet above the
sea h being small compared with H
29

ee

ee

x.

or ca c

e s ea

c e

co

os e

ee

or

s ea

e a

EXE RCIS E X

AP P ROXI MATI ON F ORMU L E (II )

Draw a square measuring a each way Mark O ff in one


corner a smaller square measuring a I) each way Indicate
i n the gnomon t wo rectangles each of area a b
Supp ose that
you begin to reduce the larger sq uare to the smaller square by
ta ki n g away one of the rectangles a b what must you do before
?
o
u
can
take
away
the
other
y
Com p le te the identity (at b) 2
2 The leng th of the side of a square i s reduced from a to
I
)
Give a formula for calculating approx imately th e area
a
of the reduced square when 6 is small compared wi th a
3 The outside measurement of a s q uare p icture frame is
26 4 inches
The frame i s
inches deep Use the formula
of No 2 to d the a pp ro x imate area of the picture
4 A square sheet of pa p er measures 3 1 2 c m s each way
In drying it shrinks 6 mms each way Find to
w hen wet
a rst ap prox imation its area when dry
Na ta Ima gine the following There are a number of piles
of atlases on a shelf in this room each p ile containing nine
You are asked to carry 20 atlases into a neighbouring room
and p lace them in piles o a table By mistake you ta k e
away 4 com p lete piles i e 9 x 4 atlases Noticing your
mistake you carry back 4 from each pile i e 4 x 4 and put
them on the shelf again Thus you have removed altoge ther
jus t as many as if you had originally taken 5 x 4 i e (9 4)
It is clear then that
x 4 atlases
the total no on shelf
the same no
1

'

4)

4 + 4

Show that the identity of No 1 holds good of all numbers


by rst considering (9
4) and then a n alysing th e
steps by sy m bols
5

53

AL GEB RA

54

Complete the identities

(3 )

(i )

ah

mu sI
(x

(
(ix )
v 11

(i i )
(
(31)
(V 1 11 )
(I )

A(r

ct

ct

The outer ra dius of a thin meta l organ pipe i s r in ches


the thi ckness 23 inc hes ; wr ite a formul a for cal c ula tin g a p
prox imately the volume (V) of the meta l employed considering
the pipe as a cylinder of length l feet Wri te also a form ula
for the c ost (0 ) in shillings of the mater ia l employed if 1 lb
contains 0 0 inches a n d costs 0 pence
8 A sheet of me ta l of area A i s c ooled t the c oei c i en t
of expa nsion being 0 Give an approx im a tion formul a (i) for
its a re a a fter cooling ; (ii) for d the decrease in its a rea
(Compare Ex IX No
9 Wri te a formula for the area of the tota l surface of a c losed
metal c one the radius being r and the slant height I Find
approx im a tely how much it decreases when the cone is cooled
t the coefcient of e x p a nsion being a
7

'

'

'

10

Show by the gur e of No

th a t J et

approximately (Compare Ex IX No
1 1 Write down approximate equiva lents
e x pressions
.

~9a 2

(ii i ) J ( 1 6

(i i )

b ;

(v) J (a

4 J b)

P
2

(i )

to

the following
3

The bob of a pendulum of length a i s pulled out a small


dis ta n c e b fro m the v erti cal Write a formula for ca lc ulating
appro xima tely how muc h the bob rises
Apply yo ur formula to the case of a p endulum 2 feet
long pulled 4 inches out of the verti ca l
12

EXE RCISE XI

AP P ROXI MATI ON FORMU LZE (III)


-

W hat form ula would you use to calculate (a


rst a pp rox imation I) being small com p ared with a ?
1

b) 3

to a

A cubical b iscuit tin measures 1 0 inches each way inside


The metal i s ? inch thick Calculate the volume of the
m etal ex clusive of the solder and the side p ieces of the lid
Find app rox imately its new
3 A inch cube is heated t
vol u me the coef cient of linear ex p ansion b ein g 0
4 Write a formula for calculatin g a p pro x i mately the i n
crease i n volume I of a sphere of radius 7 w hen it i s heated
t the coef cient of linear ex pansion b eing 0
[V
3
Sho
by
the
use
of
symbols
that
the
identity
a
b
w
5
(
)
3
3
b
3
a
?
)
can always be used
3 61 %
a
+
6 Complete the following identities suf ciently for a ppr ox i
mate calculation the second number described being small
compared with the rst
2 b)
ii) (2
b)
(
(i ) (
:
(iv) (
pt)
(iii) (1
z b
7 (i) C m pl t th i d nti ty (
b )
z b
b )b
(i i C m p l t th i d n ti ty (
z b
b ) (a
b)
(i i i ) C m p l t th id n ti ty (
(Read the note b efore Ex X No
8 How could the cube model have been modied so as to
show the ex istence of the identity
2

'

3.

a.

e e

at 2

e e

a2

e e

ct

t) a

3 a 2b

b3 ?

Complete the followi ng identities sufciently for a ppr ox i


m a te calculations the second number being small compared
with the rst
9

(i )
(i i i)

(3 )
9
iv
( ) (
7

g)
2

3
k
3 )

(i i )

55

ALG EB RA

56

Show by the model how to nd approx imately the cube


root of a number which does not differ mu c h from a number
the cube root of which is already known
1 1 Complete for approx i mate c omputation the identities
d
d
(i ) i /
(ii )
1 2 E x press each of the following numbers in on e of the
forms of No 1 1 and nd its cube root to a rst appro ximation
10

1 0, 3 0, 6 0, 1 03 0, 3 22, 05 28 , 00 23

1 6 74

B
1 3 An inch cube of metal is warmed t
nd its new
volume the (very small) coef cient of linear e x pansion bei n g 0
Also nd its volume after being cooled t
Find
1 4 A sp here of the m etal of No 1 3 has a radius 7
the increase i n i ts volume when it is warmed
1 5 A cube of metal measuring 1 inch each way i s heated
until its edges are 1 0 02 inch long What is now (i) the area
of each of i t s faces ; (ii) its volume
1 6 A cube of metal measuring 1 inch each way is cooled
unti l its volume is reduced to 0 991 0 inch What i s now (i)
the length of an edge (ii ) the area of a face
1 7 The volume of a p iece of metal at different tempera
tures is given by the formula V V 0 (1
0 0001 8 t) V being
i ts volume at
W rite down formul ae connec ting (i ) the
leng th L of a rod of the metal with LO i ts length at
and
(ii ) the area A of a plate of the metal with A i ts area a t
=
1 8 Given that
5
nd the value of
/
i
.

O
g/ EE

55 ,

E x press the following in the form most suitable for


computation
19

/ 1

'

/ 0 6 48

6,

'

The following ex pressions describe certain combinations


of numbers symboli z ed by the letters a b etc Wri te down
ex pressions which indicate the easiest way of nding app r oxi
mately the cube root of each kind of c ombination : a ab a b
20

b3 ,

se

13 ,

ab

2 4

1 6 <a 2

q> .
a

b4)

z z

b3 0 2,
64293 <1

b3 c, a 2b5c , 27193 7 l 08 mn 3 ,
s
a
8 t) . (a 4!)
a ), c
o

EXERCISE XII
F RACTI ON S (I )

Convert the following formul ae (in which the subject is


l / R) into formul ae in which the subj ect
I

(1 1 ) R
I

(1 1 1 )
I

(IV )

12

p
2

p
3

q
I

(w )
(v 1 1 )

(viii )

q
q

U
'

(i x )

O
u
x

No

1
v

(In ) R
i

(X 1 1 ) R

Note

I
'

The for mu l as of Nos 2 to are to be t hrown into


th e shape most conve nient for subst i tution
(If the numerator or denominator of a fraction is in the form
ab
a c or a
b will it be more conveni ent to leave it in
that form or to factoriz e it ?)

(0

A =

ab

ALG EB RA
P

r2
r1 .

on )
I

4P

+
1

ALGEB RA

60

5"

iii )

ab

3P

( )

pb

pa

(1 1 1 ) a

am
2

(iv)

3q

pq a b
39

2P

(V )
8

'

I
2

ll

"

29

(i ) Tw o r e c ta ngula r r oom s a r e thr o w n

'

int

o on e

r
r dth
ln h

The a e a
The b ea
th e e gt

oo m

s is A f th th r A
f th r t r m is b
F ind
f th se nd b
m b ined r m s
f th
(ii ) Th sam giv n that t h re f th rst is ti m es th
ar f th s nd r m (A)
9 A man has a number of envelopes to address
The
work w ould take him 5 hours He e n gages the help of a boy
who could address the whole of the envelopes in 7 hours
How would you nd how long they would take together
f rm la f al ulating m t e sily th j int ti m
(i ) W rit
(T ) giv n t h ti m tak n b y th m (m ) and th b y (b)
r sp ctiv ly w h n w rki ng l n
2 m
and
(ii ) W ri t a f r mul f th j int tim if ther
3 b oys t w r k
ddr ssing
th
d a b y w h en th
(iii ) F ind th j int ti m t k n b y a m
b y w r king al n w uld t k
ti m es l ng th m
m)
(T
d a b y giv n th t
(iv) F ind th j in t ti m taken by m
th m
w r k ing al n
uld d t h w rk in I/ th f th
ti m tak n b y th b y (T
b)
(v) F ind f r mul f th j in t ti m in ea h f th last tw
s supp sing that th r
d q b ys n g g d
10 m
th w r k
1 0 (i ) W h n 1 q ual m r b l s
dr pp d int
ylindri al j ar f
w at r th l v l
f th wat r ris s
h ight
Wh n q
eq u l m arb l s
dr pp d int
f noth r si
i d ti
l j ar th
h ng
f lev l is b
H w many t im ( )
f th f r mer m r b les as lar ge as
is
f th l tt r 1
upp sing th t th ar f th w at r surface in
(ii ) Th s m
th s
nd j is 3 tim s great it is i th rst
(iii ) Th s m th radius f th r t j b i g 3 ti m
gr t
th t f th s nd
t h e r o om

of on e o f
o

oo

1, o

e co

I, o

e o

co

2.

2.

oo

e,

ea o

eco

oo

e a

an

ae

cas e

en

'
e 11;

as

as

an

on e o

e, s

eco

e,

an

e e ar e

ca

an

en a n

as

or

0 e

e , co

e ar e

a n an

on

e,

e.

e a

on

a o

an

or

os

or c

e o

eco

o a c

ze a r e

ar

ar e

o an

ea o

as
e

as

ar

e n

en

es

on e o

es as

ea

EX ERC I SE

(iv ) The

X II

61

time th s ti n l r f th rst j b i ng
th
m
t t i m s t h s ti n l ar
nd
f th s
m
tim s th di m t r f th rs t b ei ng q u l t t
(v) Th
ti m th di m t r f th s nd j
1 1 A bath has two taps
One is found to deliver a gallons
of water in 1) minutes the other b gallons in q minutes Write
formula for calculating
(i ) Th q u n ti ty (V ) w hi h is d li r d int th bath i t
m inu t s w h n b th t p
r nni ng ;
tim w hi h i
ti m q
(i i ) Th q uanti ty d liv r d in
m inut s
(iii) Th t i m (T) w hi h th rs t t p l n w uld t k t run in
Q g ll n
in Q
(i ) Th ti m w hi h b th t p t g ther w uld t k t
g ll ns
(v) Th t i m n ss ry t i r s th q uanti ty i th b th fr m
b y th
nd t p ly
Q t Q g ll
m w h n b th t ps
runni ng
( i ) Th
1 2 A boat is rowed u p on a lake for a distance of l /p of a
mile from east to west and then for 1 / q of a mile to the north
How far is i t fro m i ts starting point
1 3 A b oy rows a bo at for l /p of a mile towards the east
Then turning round he rows for l / q of a mile in a direction
between west and nor th until he is ex actly due north of his
starting p oint How far away is the starting point ?
1 4 Tw o cyclists ride together round a circular trac k one
along the outside edge where the radius is R the other along
the inside edge where the radius is r A single revolution
of the pedals carries the former s bicycle forward P feet and
the latter s p feet Write dow n ex pressions fo calculating
(i ) Th di ff r n (d) b tw n th numb r f p d l rev l ti n
m d by t h
y lists in g ing ti m s r und th tr k
(ii ) H w m ny ti m es (t) th p dal r v lut i ns f t h f r m r w il l
num r u th p d l r v luti ns f th l tt r
be
1 5 Two boys X and Y n d that they can cover 1 00 yards
in p paces and q paces respectively X takes on p aces in walk
ing from the ce n tre to the outer circumference of the trac k of
paces in walking from the centre to the
No 1 4 Y takes
inner circ u mference Write formula for
(i ) Th w idth ( ) f th tr k in feet
ut r d inn r
(ii ) Th diff r n (d) in y rds b tw en th
a me , 3

e as

e sa

e sa

e, 3

es

ec

e e

ec

ea o

ea o

o a

e e

eco

e co

ar

ar

s ar e

ve e

e e

es

o r un

e ce

e sa

a o

on s

n c ea e

e s eco

on

ar e

'

e e

ce

e c

as

e o

s as

ee

o u

o s

ac

to

ce

c i r cu m fer e D C e s

ac
a

an

62

ALGEB RA
(iii ) The

differen e (d) i mi l s b tw n 200 r volut ions long


the outer
d 200 rev l t i ns l ng t h inn r cir cumfer
nce ;
(iv) Th e area (A) of th t rac k in q uare f et
(v) Th e cost (0 ) in p und f p rep r i g th tra ck at pen
p er s q uar y rd
1 6 (i ) V c c ms of w t r
p red fr m n rrow ylindri cal j ar
into w ider
c t i n b ei g r e
th ar
f cr s
l y A and A
s p ecti
F ind h w m y centi metres (d)
the level of th w ter sink ;
(n ) The same given tha t th ra di i f th j a s ar e r n d r e
c

an

o u

ee

a o

ar e

on e,

ve

ce

a e

ou

eas

o s -se

2.

an

, a

s p ecti v el y .

In the p receding q uesti n if i p uring th e water fr m ne


j ar t th ther l lp f i t was s pi l t what fraction would
rema in
(i i) T wha t h eight w ld i t l l a j ar f s ti n l ar A ?
(iii) T w hat heigh t w uld i t l l a j ar f r diu 7
Wha t w ould b th n w ers to (ii) and (iii ) if q/p of the
tr nsf ren e ?
w ater w ere sp il t i
1 8 V c cm s of water are poured from a jar of se c tion a l a rea
A into a jug a n d then poured back again into the j ar At
e a c h pouring q/p th s of the water are spilt Show how to
ca l cul a te
(i ) How mu h w ter ( ) i r turn d t the j ar
(ii) How m h l w r (d) th l vel i tha a t rst
1 9 Inste a d of being poured back into the origin a l jar the
water i s pa ssed into a second cylinder of sma ll er se ction a l
are a a q/p ths being lost at each passing a s before Find
how m uc h higher (d) the w a ter is here tha n it w a s in the
origina l c yl inder
20 (i) T king th da ta f N 1 9 nd h w m ny ti mes ( ) t he
w ter in th s c nd cy lind r is s high s i t w as in the
rst cy lind r
m
r dii f the
q ues ti n g iv n th t th
(ii) Answer t h
cylinders
d
R
17

(i )

e o

ou

ec

ea

r
s '

uc

e o

sa

ar e

an

EXE RCISE XIII


F RACTION S (II)

A
1 Complete the following identities with
evaluation :
.

)
9
(1 1 1 )
(3 )
(Y n )

7)

:6

3a
5p
24

(x iii )

5P
24

2 41

'

(3 ?

Iom 2 +

xi i

(IS

I3

(a
7)
8)
(3 P
r)
(I 8
r
(I 8
4b )

( f)
v1)
(
(v u i )

r)

(H

5)

ii )

(X i V )

(5P

3P

view to e a sier

Write in full the e xplanations of your a nswers to No 1


(ii) (vi) a n d (x iii ) which you would give to a person who did
n ot know how the results were obtained
3 Wh a t restri ctions are there upon the values of numbers
that can be represented by the symbols in No l (i) (ii) (vi)
(xi) (xiii) ?
4 Si mplify the following e x pressions :
2

(ii ) 1 9
(Iv ) 3 (a
(32) 5(zp
(v m ) a (sp
(x ) a (4

14

(III

I41:

t)

4(3 t

2b)
(3 ) 3 (a
(v11 6 (3 m 2 In )
(Ix a (3 p 4)
J 5)
(x i > so
(x i i )

ah)

2 a

7(4m

5n )

a n
2

2b

3 b)

2 a

sq )
3 (4p
7s)
za p
4)
b)
b (a
b)

J3)

Wha t restrictions are there upon the va lues of the


symbols in No 4 (v) (vi) (vii) ?
6 Write full explana tions of the answers whi c h you give to
5

No

(vi i)

an d

(x)

wing t a de e s in th pr ssur a t p w hi h usu lly


delivers q gall n s f w ater p m inut i n to a t n k actually
supplies 8 gall ns a m inut l ss Giv th e b est formula
for calcula t in g h w m u h l n g r (t) i t w ill tak e t run i n
1 00 g llons

cr

a e

er

63

A L GEB RA

64

(ii ) Ada pt th e form ula to suit a n y given decrea s e of suppl y p er


m inute (d) and a n y q ua n ti ty of w at er to b e suppli e d (Q )

When the tire is fully inated the rear wheel of a bicycle


has a radius of 1 4 inches Find a formula for the e x tra
number of revolutions per mile
when owing to a leakage
of air the radius i s red u ced by a g i ven amount (d)
9 In consequence o f an increase in the duty on tobacco
the retail price of ciga r ettes is to be raised by a penny the
ounce packet regardless of the quality of the cigarettes
A certain smoker allows himself 3 per annum for cigar
How many ounce packets fewer must he buy in a
ettes
year if he still purchases the same brand ? L et p E the ol d
price of a packet in pence
1 0 The smoker of No 9 determines to increase by 7 8 6d
his annual allowance for cigarettes but the larger sum does not
yet permit him to buy as much tobacco as he formerly p ur
chased for 3 Find how ma y packets short he is in the
course of a year
1 1 Throw the following formul a into the shape most suit
able for computation
8

(I)

j
'

(i n )

(n )

63

'

p
'

(IV )

(v i )

(v )

f
6
p

2.
1

2a

( )

1x

7 21

7 7a

'

3a

(X)

4p

8
l

3
p
s

(x i )

(x ii )

I
I

I 12
2
p
5
1 2 Simplify the following fractional e x pressions with a V iew
to computation
I
I
I

(I) E

III

a.

53

53

(1 1 )

2b

3p
q

Iv

pm

(V ) m

g,

3p

q
3
P

EX ERC I SE

X III

65

tradesman measures o carpet for sale w ith


a yard measure which is really 3 inches short Of how many
pounds h a s he defrauded his customers by the time he ha s
sold at a pri c e of p shill ings a yard a roll of carpet whic h
really contains l yards
1 4 A metal yard measure is of the corre c t length at a
tempera ture of 6 0 F Obtain expressions for the er ror i n
volved in using it to measure a length which i s really l yards
when the temperature is (i) t a bove 60 (ii ) t below 6 0
(The coefcient of linear expansion of the metal is c )
B
13

A dishonest

15

Show that
an

tha

l
a

1
a

Hence show that

1
a

a
a

Obtain a simila r ex pression for 1 a


1 7 If a 2 i s so much smaller than a that it may be
1
neglected wh a t expressions may be substi tuted for l
a
16

respec tively ?
1
a
1 8 Com p lete the following identities for the pur pos e p f
approx im ate ca lculation (the second member of each de om i n
ator is v ery small compared with the rst)
d
I
and

(m )

'

oco6 t

(IV )

I
a

( )
v

a.

(w )
1

I
on

(V III)

(a

a.

ALG EB RA

66

19

(ii ) No

W rite formula for the approx imate solution of (i ) No

8,

14

On the morning of a cer tain day Con sol e can be bought


for
per 1 00 stock ; at the end of the day the price has
risen to 804 Find appro x imately the difference in the
amount of stock purchasable for 3 200
21 On account of a collision between tw o of their trains
the stock of a railway company falls from 1 02 to 1 01 % per
1 00
W hat di fference approx imately does this fall make
to the amount of stoc k that can be bought for 5 1 00 ?
22 At a tem p erature of 6 0 the length of a rail i s l feet
but in laying the railway line space must be left between the
rails to allow for the ex p ansion due to a possi ble rise of tem
Find w hat di fference this allowance
p er a tu r e of (say)
makes to the number of rails used in laying down a line
L miles long the coefcient of linear ex pansion of the rails
being 0
2 3 A steamer is timed to cover a certain journey of m miles
at an average sp eed of s m l s / h This sp eed is subject
according to the direction of the wi nd to a relatively small
change of d m l s / hr Find a formula for the difference in
hours between the longest and the shortest journey
24 In each of the following e x pressions the second member
of a denomina tor i s very small in comparison with the rst
Wr ite down a seri es of ex p ressions which are equivalent to
the given ones for the p urpose of app ro x imate calculation :
20
80
.

(I)
(III)

(v)
(vii)
(i x )

(x i )

(x i i i )

I
I

at

'

(I
a

(V I)

p t)

I
I

(p

q)

(viii)

W9

~/ p

+ bt

c +

dt

'

(I

b )

(p

(x1 v )

q)

(x v i )

<I

13

p)

(x i i )

a.

(x ) J a ,
(

I
2

(u )
(Iv )

bt

ct

Ja
\

b)

Io

A LG EB RA

68

C
3 4 Express the following in forms more convenient
substitution
I + I
.

0)

(n)

p +

p + 3

(In )

(iv)

for

U
'

(V)

"

(V I)

2p

(vii ) Q

(vm ) Q

i
I

(ix )
q

X1

(x ii ) M

q
a

23

3
2m

(x iii) M

3m

3n

23

3
2m

3m
qb

3n

pa

(m ) M

qb

pa

Reduc e

e a ch of the following
fractiona l e xpression
35

(ii)
(i ii )

(w )

to

b )2

(a

b)

h
b

vi

2n

a.

b )"

2b

b"

2n

'

single equivalent

EX ERC I SE X III

23 .

(x 1 1 )

+ b

x1x

(XX)

b)

2 3.
a

2.

I
p

(X V III)

xv

(M i )

_ b2

(x v i )

(x i i i )
X IV

69

(9

q)

Pg)

(9

Eq

(p

q) 2

(p

I
-

qr

(9

q)

"

Simplify the followi ng algebraic fractions :


I
b
3.

a2

(n )

(iii )
(iv)
(V )

(V II)

"

a.
a

a2

(a

(at

I
(a

b)

'

+ b

'

h)

b)

b)

(a

"

'

Zab

(a

I
a

b)

a
z

+ b

'

(a
a

(a

b)3
b
b)

(a

b)

za
2

(a

m
b
g

b)

EXE RCISE XIV


C

HAN G I N G

THE SU B J EC

OF

A F ORMU LA (I )

A
Nol a Whe n ever your ans w er to a problem is a number
you should test its correctness
1 I am thinking of a number
I multiply it by 3 6 and
add 1 4 7 The result is 23 1 8 What is the number ?
2 I am thinking of a number
I multiply it by 3 % and
subtract 1 % from the product The remainder is
Find the
number
3 I am thinking of a number
I add to it 2 3 and multip ly
the to tal by 8 9 The result i s 1 3 3 5 What is the number ?
4 I am thinking of a number
I subtract from it and
mul tiply the remainder by g The result is
What is the
number ?
5 I am thinkin g of a number
I subtract
from it
and divide the residue by 3 24 The quotient i s 4 Find the
number
6 I am thinking of a number
I divide it by 4 4 and add
The result is 1 3 6 Calculate the
7 3 5 to the quotient
number
7 Write down in symbols a statement of the various steps
followed in working ou t each of Nos 1 to 6 Put a
the
number thought of and u s e a b c as symbols for the other
numbers whether integers or fra ctions
N0 te In the following s i x ex amples (Nos 8 to 1 3 ) you are
to calculate the number desc ribed either (1 ) mentally or (2)
by setting down the statement in symbols and app lying to it
the rules by w hich a number may be moved from one side of
the sign to the other
If you nd the number m entally you must afterward s s et
down the steps by which you found it and see whether they
followed the rule
8 I add 6 to twice a certain number and mul ti p ly the sum
by 7 The product is 8 4
.

70

EX ERC I SE X IV

71

Taking

a certain number I diminish it by 5 and multip ly


the residue by 9 obtaining 99 as the produc t
1 0 I multi p ly a certain num b er by 5 subtract 4 and divide
the residue by 7 The quotient i s 8
1 1 A certain num b er is mul tiplied by 7 the product added
to 1 2 and the s um divided by 4
The result is 1 7
1 2 I think of a number
I add seven to it and divide it
into 6 0 It goes 5 times
1 3 I think o f a number and divide 7 2 by another number
which is 5 less than double the former num b er The quotient
is 8
1 4 Descri be in sym bols the step s followed in solvin g any
three of the last s ix ex amples Put i t for the num b er to be
calculated and a b c d for the other num bers mentioned
Nol a The following eight ex amples (Nos 1 5 to 22) are
statements of Think of a Num ber pro blems E x press the
problems i n words and solve them
9

15
16

1 28 )
5 3 04
26 1 5
5 2
-

6 3%

1 4 91
-

17

(3 7 n
6 (7 n

'

4 9)
5)
50
-

18

19

20

25

18
1

20

1 87

7
5
14 8

9)

(4n
33

21

46

22

2n

Describe in symbols the steps by which y o u could solve


any pro blems like No 1 7 (ii) No 1 9 (iii) No 21
Write down in symbols the step s by which you would in
each case calculate the number
described in the following
eight ex amples (24 to
23

an

24

25

b
+

= d

A G EB RA

72
1

26

27

b = bc

Im + q

28

29

n
a

31

B
Na ta The formula of the following four ex amples ar e
all taken from Ex III After ch a nging the su bj ect of on e
of these formula you should in each case express in words
the meaning of the new formula derived from it and m ake up
your mind whether it is t r ue
3 2 Write down the formula of Ex III 1 (ii)
Obtain from
it formul a (i ) for the number of marbles in the bag ; (ii) for
the weight of a single mar ble
3 3 Write down the formula of No 1 (vi)
Obta in from it
formul a (i) with tl as the subj ect ; (ii) with t2 as the subject
3 4 Write down the formula of No 2 (ii)
Change its
subj ect to t
3 5 Write down the formula of No 4 (ii )
Obtain from it
formul a (i) with So (ii) with n (iii) with t a s subj ect
Nol a The formul a of Nos 3 6 to 41 ar e ta ken from Ex
IV Be prepa red to explain the meaning of the formula
you derive from them
3 6 From the formula of No 1 7 obta in form ul a (i) for l (ii )
for b
Find the gre a test lengt h of wrought iron b ar 4 inches broa d
a n d 3 inches deep th a t ca n safely support a weight of half a ton
hung a t the end of it
3 7 The indi ca ted horse power of a marine engine i s 1 5 0
The diameter of the cylinder is 5 feet the length of piston
strok e 4 feet 2 in c hes the num ber of revolu tions 3 0 per min
.

EXERC I SE

XI V

73

Tur n the formula of No 3 3 into one from which the mean


steam p ressure can be calculated
3 8 Derive from the formula of No 4 a formula wh ich will
enable you to calculate the diameter of the chain iron a ppropri
ate to a given load Use it to calculate the diame ter necessary
for lifting 1 0 tons
3 9 Change the subject of the formula of No 5 from p to L
What does the new formula tell y ou ?
40 Change the subjects of No 25 (i ) and (ii ) to l
Do the
results agree ? W hat len gth of span is possi ble in the case of
a wire weighing 0 1 2 lb ft if it may n ot be stre tched with a
force greater than 25 6 l bs wt nor allowed to dip more than
8 inches
4 1 Change the su bjec t
of No 6 to h ; (ii) of No 22 to
d ; (iii ) of No 3 1 to D
Nol a The formul a of Nos 42 to 47 are ta k en from Ex
III
42 Write the formula of No 3 (ii)
Change its su bject
to 13
4 3 From the formula of No 1 5 (ii) obtain form ul a wi th
(i) w l (ii ) 71 a s subj ec t
44 Change the subj ec t of the formula of No 28 (iv) from
d to (i ) do (i i) t (iii) 3 1
45 Find a formula for the total rainfall (R) duri n g the years
between two given dates (d and d ) given the m onthly avera ge
.

(7

Derive a formula for R from No 3 0 Does it agree


with the one you have just fo und ?
4 7 Ta k e the formula of No 3 2 (i ) and change its subject to
(i) T (ii ) t (iii ) d2
Nol a The formul a of Nos 48 to 5 0 are taken from Ex IV
48 Change the formula of No 24 in to on e b y which y ou
may calculate the height from which the rain should fall
given its weight etc
49 Fro m the formula of No 23 derive a rule for nding
the weight that can safely be lif ted by a crane hook given the
thickness of the shank
that formula (iv) could b e derived
5 0 In No 25 show
from (iii) (ii) that formula (iii ) could be derived from (iv)
46

EXE RCISE XV
C

HAN GI N G

U BJ ECT

THE S

OF

A F ORMU LA (II)

certain number is multiplied by 2 3 and the product


is taken from 1 2 1 The residu e is 4 2 8 Find the num b er
Multip ly my
2 A humorist when as k ed his age replied
age by 6 s ubtrac t the prod u ct from 8 40 and divide the residue
into 1 8 99 Add 7 to the quotient and t he answer will be
What w a s his age ?
3 Asked the same question ne x t day by another p erson he
re plied Take 1 0 times my age away from 8 40 and divide
the di fference into 1 5 3 0 Subtract the quotient from 1 0 and
you will have 7 left
Does this answer agree with the
former ?
4 Divide a certain number b y 26 su btract the quotient
from 8 2 multiply the di fference by 1 2 and you will obtain
20 4
W hat is the number ?
5 What number would you obtain as the answer to No 4
if by mistake you thought that you were to subtract 8 2 from
t he quotient by
6 I take 4 times a certain num b er from 28 6 and subtract
the result from 1 1 3 The residue is 3 5 Find the number
subtract three times
7 If in doing No 6 you had read
the result for subtract the result what answer would
you have obtained ?
8 Describe in symbols the steps taken in solving any t w o
you p lease of Nos 1 to 7
Show how you would in each case nd the number 12 de
scribed in Nos 9 to 1 3
l

10

c.

ALG EB RA

76

A certain number when multiplied by 3 4 is equal to


its product by 1 8 together with 6 4 Find the number
26 What are the numbers described in the following
statements
10
(i ) 3
4
2
II
(ii ) 4
7
6
(iii ) 2 8
3
43
25

n.

(i v )

5n

I zn

Descri be in symbols the steps ta k en in solving problems


like (ii) and (iv) of No 26
28 The humorist of Nos 2 and 3 when shown that his
answers did not a gree said I will tell you my real age If
y o u mul tiply it by 2 or if you divide it by 3 and subtract the
quotient from 3 5 0 you get the same number
What was
h i s age according to this statement ?
29 My age is three times my son s
If you mul tiply his
age by 5 and subtract 3 0 you will again have my age How
old are we ?
3 0 A man who was asked by a foolish young sportsman
to sell h i s horse said I will let you have it either for four times
as much as I ga ve for it less 1 3 0 or for 220 less three
times what I gave for it Choose whic h price you wil l pay
As a matte r of fact the seller kne w tha t the two prices were
the same Find how much he gave for the horse and at what
price he was o ffer ing it for sale
Three times the residue
3 1 I am thin k ing of a number
when it is subtracted from 8 1 is the same a s four times the
residue when 60 i s subtracted from it W hat is the nu mber ?
3 2 Find the numbers referred t 0 in the following state
ments
8
20)
(i )
3(
27

'

'

(i i )

7 (n

)
4)

5 (n

(III ) 7 (II
(1 v ) 4(n
(v )
(Y ! ) 4(3 n
(v u) 5(2 n
(viii)

I I (II

3 (1 4

)
4)
5)
3 n)

2
'

3)

7 (n
7 (4n

)
r7

4H)

Describe in symbols the steps by which problems like


i( ) (iii) (v) and (vii) of No 3 2 can be solved
3 4 X h a d a friend C who went to live in a road in which
X s friend A occupied No 20 and hi s friend B No 4 1 C
gave X a rule for remembering his number Unfor tu nately
33

'

XV

EX ERC I SE

77

X forgot whether the rule was Three ti mes the di fference


between my num ber and As is the same a s four times the
difference between my number and B e or whether the
words three and four should be interchanged W hat
may C s number have been
3 5 A man learnt that a casket of jewels h a d been hidden
in a certain hedge a n d that twice its dist a nc e from on e of tw o
trees growing ou t of the hedge was three times i t s distance
from the other He found that the tw o were 6 0 yards a p art
Calculate the various possible positions of the jewel case and
show them in a diagram
3 6 I am thinking of a num b er
On e fth of the residue
when it is subtracted from 1 00 is the same a s one six th of
the residue when 1 2 i s subtracted from it Find the number
3 7 Find the numbers refe r red to in the following state
ments

'

(I)

S
'

(II)

3n

3
3n

I4

4
10

I3

(w )

50

5I

2 11

gm

Describe in symbols the steps to be taken in solving


problems li k e (i) and (iv) of No 3 7
3 9 A bought a house for 3 6 0 and a year later sold it to
B When B left it he sold it to C for 480 B afterw ards
boasted that his prot was half as large aga in a s A s At
what price did he sell the house ?
4 0 What va lues of n will make the following statements
true
38

01

(i )

7)
5n )

(ii )

g
a
g

zn
'

4n

s:

:7

7n

"

7 = 5

en

(iv)

(v )

3)

<sn

at

m
g

I2

A LG EB RA

78

23

(vi )

3n

23

22

(VII)

3n

(viii)

5n

30

3
9 5

3n

47
.

2n

51

(X )

(i x )

39
2n

4n

cyclist A rides a distance of 28 miles in the time that


another cyclis t B takes to ride 1 8 miles My own usual rate
of riding is 3 miles an hour less than A s and 2 miles an hour
greater than B s How fast do I ride
42 Find the values o f n which satisfy the following state
ments
I4)
)
5(
(i) 8 (7 I
41

(1 1 )
ii ) 7 (2 n
(i_
(Iv ) 1 m
(Y )
(V I) 5(2 n

(vii)
(viii )

27

I3

4n )
3 (n

511 )

3 (2 n

7)

28
27

4
3

(sa

2 2n

2.

4
4)

2n

2n

12

5 (3 n

4)

I am t hinking of a nu mb er The di fference between


What is the
on e third and on e six th of the number is 5
number ?
44 Find a number the fourth part of which ex ceeds the
fth part by 3
45 Find the values of n which satisfy the following state
ments
43

(IV )

2 II

(v i )

:
n

2n

en

EX ERC I SE

XV

10

(viii )

(i x )

79

1
2

I I)

n
(
Io
-

4)

01

I.

The following a r e general descriptions of statements of


the k inds give n in the preceding ex amples Ex hibit the steps
by which the v a lue of 11 could be determined in the case of
each form of state ment
46

()
1

p
'

bn

(ii ) m
q
1
(Ii i ) a (pn
q)
(Iv ) a
(V) s um
(V i )

qn
b (r n

c.

q)

q)

a.

= b n
(p

C
47 From No 46 (ii) derive form u l a for calculating p and q
48 From No 46 (iv ) derive a formula for cal c ulating a / b
49 From No 46 (v) derive a formula for calculating a
b
Na ta The formul a of Nos 5 0 5 7 are ta ken from a book
on electricity
5 0 Change the subject of the following formula to
.

51
V2

to

Change the subject

02
of

2h

the following formul a from

VI
i = cS

Obtain formula ha ving h and a respectively


fr om the formula
F 4 I1
5 3 Obtain a formula for n from the st atement
52

1r

<

L d

73

7b

as

subject

ALG EB RA

80

Change the subj ect of the follo w i n g formula to


1
V V , _1
Q S 4
d,
T
(
Find a formula for q given that
1

55

7:

a0 _ a

<
l

1
_

Convert the following formula into


subject

Obtain an ex pression
1

for V I from
Cl
V

R
58

Fro m the formula

on e

with

as

RI

57

t
6

'

the form u la

'

V1

derive
3
3
2

on e

with

as

subj ec t
0
u
5 9 From the mechan i cal formula Fs
W
deri ve
29
on e with a as subj ect
60 Cha n ge the subjec t of the following formula to r
.

'

'

cv

EX ERCISE

XVI

L EMEN TARY EXAMP L ES


A F ORMULAT O N
l
A certain sum i s required to restore a church and sub
s c i p ti on s are coming in a constant monthly rate
Write
formul a to nd
ll t d ft r a giv n num b r f
(i ) Th m un t till t b
m n ths (S
m t)
(ii ) Th numb r f m n ths aft r this b f r th fund w ill b
l sed (T)
2 Gi v e n the area of a square plo t of g r ass write a formula
for the len gth of t he side of the plot (3 A)
An O blong plot of g ass i n the middle of a garden is to be
al te r ed i n to a square by cutting O ff from its length and adding
to i ts bread th its area being unchan ged Write formula
U

S PP

e a

co

ec e

c o

e o e

fo r

l n h
sd
s ur vn
n h d
re d h
l n
ii
un
fr
len h
n
dd d
r dh
3 W rite down for m ul a for nding
ir l giv n it di m t r ( 0 d)
f
(i ) Th ir m f ren
e f ir l giv n i t r diu (0 )
(i i ) Th i r umf r
(i i i ) Th radius f a ir l giv n i t ir m f r n
th t i t
(iv) Th radi u f a ir le giv n th n mb r f t i m
l)
re lv i r ll i ng thr ugh a rt i n dist nc (
ir l
f gi ven r di u w i ll
(v) Th numb r f t i m es that
rev lv in r lling giv n di t n
ir l giv n i ts r di u (A )
f
( i ) Th ar
(vii ) Th r dius f t h ir le giv n i ts r
d h i ght ( V
(viii ) Th v lum f yl i nder giv n its r diu
Th e e gt of th e i e of th e q a e , g i e th e l e gt
b a t of the O b o g (s , l , b)
( ) Th e a m o t t o b e cu t off om t he
gt (10 )
(i i i ) The a m ou t to b e a e to t he b ea t (q)

(i )

an

e c

cu

e c

e en c

(i x )
4

(x )
(i )

c e,

a c

c e,

c e,
c

ce

a c

c e,

e c

e o

a c

ce

es

at ,

ea

e e
e

ce

e e

c e o

s a

cu

s c

ea o

a c

h)
Th e
Th e
Gi
in

es

vo

ce o

s an

height f ylind r giv n i t v l me d r di s


r di s f ylind r giv n i t v lum d h igh t
f w t r
ve f r m ul f ndi g h w m ch th surf
r t ngul r ist rn w i l l sink w h n a giv n numb r
a

a c

a c

ec a

or

an

o u

e an
e

81

a ce o

a e

ALGEB RA

82

ub i f t f w t r
dr wn ff th l ngth and
i t rn b ing giv n in f t (h V l b)
b r dth f t h
m
ist rn b ing yl i ndri l d f giv n
th
(ii ) Th
r dius
up i s
ub i f e t F ind h w mu h
(iii ) A gall n f w t r
re t ngular istern wh n th
th w t r will i k in
q uant i ty drawn ff i m a ured in g ll ns
(iv ) Th sam th i tern b eing yli dr i al
th sam r d b t
(i ) Tw m t r rs s tar t t g th r
trav ls fast r than th ther H w far wi l l th y b part
t)
ft r
rt in numb r f h urs (d
f rm ul that shall sh w h w f th l w r h
(ii ) Wri t
r t in distan e (d d )
g n wh n th f st r h
g n a
is b hind
(iii) Writ a f r m ul to sh w h w far th sl wer
th
f st r wh n th l tter h g e
er t in dis t n
of

ea

ee

sa

a e

e c s e

e,

ar e

ee

an

ca

a e

occ

s n

a e

e,

o o

ca

a ce

o e

e o

(D 1
(iv) Wr i te

of

as

as

n th r f rm ul t sh w h
sl w r wh n th latter h
o

th e
(D 27 d2)

e a

e s o

ar

ce

ce

f st r is ah ad
n a er t i n di st n

fa r th e

go

as

as

2,

car

on

ow

on e

3 2,

s]

oa

on

e s

e c s

c a

ce

Write down formulae c orresponding to (i) (iii) and (iv)


of the preceding question supp osing that the faster motor ca r
starts a certain distance a head of the slower (d )
7 The L usitania leaves New York to cross the A t lantic a
certain num b er of sea miles behind an ordinary liner Given
t he num ber of knots (i e sea miles per ho u r) at which each of
the steamers is travelling write formul ae to nd
6

(i ) How many

numb r

il s n r r th st m r w ill b aft r
h ur than th y w r t st r ting (m

of

'

ea

t)

s Zs

(ii ) Wha t w ill the n b e th eir


(iii ) How m a ny hours i t will

e s

ea

dist n e par t (d)


t ke th Lusi tania
c

to

iven

g
do,

81,

at h th

ther l i ne r up
Wha t distan c e the y w ill then b e fr om Ne w Y or k (L)
How ma ny hours i t w ill ta k e t o reduce the ir dista n c e apa r t
by a give n num b er o f m ile s (M)
How m a n y hour s i t w ill tak e t o reduce their dis ta nce a pa rt
o

(iv)
(v)
(vi )

iv n num b r f m iles (D )
distan f th Lusit n i a fr m New Y r k ; given th
(vii )
dist n f th ther st m r fr m N w Y r k (L L )
f t h sl w r s t m er fr m N w Y r k w hen
(vi i i ) Th distan
L it i
i
giv n num b r f m iles fr m N w Y r k
to a g
Th e
a

ce o

ce o

g )
E
di t n
2,

(i x ) Th e

t he

( )
x

The

us

an

s a

Ll

ea

e o

ce o

ea

I,

r t m r fr m N w Y r k when
tw st m rs
ap r t (L d)
g iv n dist n
dist n f th Lusi t ni fr m N w Y rk w h n th
t m rs
p r t (L
giv n d is t n

tw o

s a

ea

c e of
ea

ce o
e

th e

sl

ow e

ar e a

ea

ar e a

"

ce

ce a

2,

1,

AL GEB RA

84

(iv) The

st of the ink p ub i in h given th e price f th


b ottle when f ul l th int r nal radius n d th e d p th f t h
ink (0 P r d)
B SU B ST TUT ON
1 1 Where a ra ilwa y line goes round a c urv e the outer rail
is a l w a ys ra ised a bove the inner rail
co

er c

w v2

1 2 57
in in c hes ; 0
'

5 width of
outer rail
ga ug
in feet ; v E gr eates t speed of train in miles per hour ;
radius of curve in feet
(i ) F ind h w much th ute r rail must b e raised round a curv
of 2260 feet r di us
rdina ry English n rr w
4 fee t 8 t in hes) t he greatest s p ed
gauge railw y (w
allowed b e in g 60 m iles p h ur
(ii) S lve the same p r b lem f a rai lway with th e Ir ish gaug
th
adius b ei g 2800 ft
of 6 feet 3 in h s
(iii) Light rail w a y i I ndia h v a me tre gauge (pra tically 3 3
feet ) Find th levati n f th u ter rail t allow a
speed of 24 mil s p h ur r und a c rv f 264 yards
radius
1 2 A movi n g tra in ex p erie n ces a resistan c e due to the a i r
friction of the ra ils e tc Harding s formula gives
B
W (6
0 0025 Av 2
R E r esi s tan ce in lbs on the level in calm weather ; W E wt
of tra in in tons A E area of frontage of train in squa re feet
(i ) C alculate the resis ta ce t a train w ei ghing 3 0 t ns p
senti ng to the air a fr ntage f 60 sq u re feet when it is
h ur
going at 50 m il s
(ii) Th sam e when th tr i n weighs 24 t ns and i going a t 40
m il es p e hour
1 3 The horse power requi red to drive a ship at a given
speed c an be found (a pproximately) by m e a ns of the
formula

he

el eva ti on

of

'

e o

on

an

er

e r

or

er

e o

'

an

re

0 0088 3 3

(O G5 A

0 005 8 )

speed in knots A E immersed cross sectio n in squ are feet ;


S E are a of wetted surface in square feet
(i ) What horse p wer is n d d t driv a steam er at a s p eed
200 q u re fe t a d S
of 1 0 k n ts when A
2000 s q u r
feet 7
240 sq ar f t
dS
3 000 q u re
(ii ) A s t m r in whi h A
feet is trav ell ing t 1 2 kn ts Wh t h se p w er i b ing
used

ea

ee

ee

an

or

a e

XV I

EX ERC I SE

85

The diameter in inches of a c ra nk shaft 1 (when m a de


of wrought iron is g iven by the formul a
)
14

Fi n d the thickness of c rank shaft th a t should be used in a 1 6


horse power ga s engine making 1 20 revolutions per minute
1 5 If you look in a t the door of a n electric lighting wor k s or
a factory you c a n generally see near the roof a lon g shaft with
large p ulley wheels on i t conveying the power from the engine
to the dynamos or other machines by means of leather belts
A suf cient thickness for this shaft is given by :
-

Fi nd the dia meter of a shaft which is made to revolve 1 8 0


times a minute a n d is transmi tting 1 20 horse power from an
engine to a number of machines
1 6 What inform a tion is given by the following formula ?
-

28 8 0d3

E the

steam in the boiler ; D E dia m ete of


cylinder ; d E dia m eter of crank shaft ; l E l en gth of piston
stro k e all thr ee in inches
What should be the boiler p ressure if the cylinder s dia
me ter is 5 0 inches the leng th of the piston stroke 3 0 inches
and the shaft 8 inches in diameter
1 7 There should a lso be a cer tain conne x ion between the
diameter of the cra nk shaft and the dimensions of the cylinder
The conne ion is
B

pressure

D zi

of

6 5 5 d3
'

What is the diamete r of the cylinder suita ble

a crank ;
inches in di a meter the length of the stroke being
to

shaft 1 2
3 feet ?
1 8 The rate at whic h the draught rushes up a factory
c himney is given by the formula :
,

gOq

Nos

14 17
-

/h

5
.

ref r
e

'

to g

an

d t he

a c com

pa nying no t e

A L G EB RA

86

E speed in ft / sec

bars T E
internal temperature (degrees Fahrenheit) t E outside tem

p er a tu r e
( ) Ca

h E height of chimney a b ove r e

l ul t th dr ught in h i m n y 1 69 f t hi gh
sid and utsid t m p r tur s b ing 3 60 d 60
c

a e

(ii )

ti v el y
Th e a m e , th e
a n d ex te
a

e a

ee

an

th e i n
r es p ec

hi m ney b ing 289 f t high th int rnal


rn l t mp er t r s b ing r sp e tiv ly 58 0 d
c

ee

a u e

an

It has been found by observations in Madras that the


greatest number of cubic feet of water discharged per second
in a time of ood i s given by the formula :
19

2
A
3/

square miles drained by the river ; k E a constant


which ha s the value 450 for p laces within 1 5 miles of the
s ea
56 2 5 b etween 1 5 and 1 00 miles from the sea 6 7 5 fo r
limited areas near hills
p t d i M dr s
(i ) F ind th gr t s t d dis h r g t b
riv r t p int 1 0 m il s fr m th
t h drainage r
b ing 8 000 sq u r m il s
ub sti tuting 60 m il s and 3 700 sq uar m il
(ii ) Th s m
(iii ) Th s m f a riv r i hill u try drainin g 1 200 sq u r
mi l
20 The followin g formul a state the rules for determining
the income ta x (in shillings) paya ble on ea r n ed incomes
(In
comes en tirely or partly unearned are s u bject to di fferent rules )
400 T
P
1 00
(1 )
5 00 T
1 00
P
(2)
P
(3 ) 5 00< I > i 600 T
P
an
(4) 6 OO< I } 700 T
T
P)
(5 )
I
P
(6) 2000< I j 3 000 T
(7) 3 000< I j 5000 T
(I P)
I > 5 000 T
(8)
E
a P)
w
(I = ea r n ed income ; C E n o of children under 1 6 ; P
amount of insurance premiums or superannuation fund p ay
ment )
E plain the rules and apply them to calculate the ta x pay
able
rns 3 6 0 p nnum h 4 hildr n d p ys
(i) B y A w h
1 2 i in ur
e pr m ium s th liv f h i w if
d
him s lf
rns 475 h 5 hildr n d p ys 1 6 to
(i i ) B y B w h
s p r nn uati n fund d 1 0 i i sur n pr m i um s
AE

no

of

ea e

oo

e, s

e,

es

e ex

ea

or

e s ea ,

n a

ec e

co

es

>

:
:

>

>

o ea

er a

an c

as

on

es o

an

an

e a

o ea

an

as

an

ce

A L GEB RA

88

if the sum of the digits is divisible by 3 the number is divis


ible by 3 and conversely
28 A num b er is com p osed of three digits a b c a n d i s
divisible by 9 (ii) by 3 Show that the sum of the digits
is divisible by 9 (ii ) by 3
29 Do the rules of Nos 27 and 28 apply to a number of
four o more digits ?
3 0 Find which of the following numbers is divisible by 9
and which of the others are divisible by 3 426 8 91 3 024
.

1 2 7 6 5 , 4293 6 , 8 243 1 5 , 927 6 5 47 27 , 8 245 1 06 8 2


d
31
7 26
11 I
th e 26
33
7
u
7 26
for
a
32
11
53 79
1 32
11
I
is
p of 1 1
m
of
:

In or er to nd whether
is divisible by 1 1 I add
the to
Since
is divisible by
conclude that
is also divisible by that n mber Show that this rule
holds good
all numbers cont ining three digits
To nd whether
it divisible by
I add 7 9 to 5 3
and obtain
which is divisible by
conclude that 5 3 7 9
is also a multi le
Show that this rule true for all
nu bers composed four digits
3 3 What are the corres p onding tests for numbers com
posed
of ve di gits (ii) of s ix d i gits ? Apply them to the
numbers 21 7 3 6 93 208 5
3 4 Show tha t any number o f four gures such a s 8 228 in
which the second hal f is the rst half reversed must be de
visible by 1 1
3 5 Show that the same rule holds for numbers containing
s i x gures such as 8 2 7 7 2 8
Na ta A number whose digits are a and b c a n be written
1 10
b) accordi n g as b or a is
(b a ) or 1 1 a
(a
greater
3 6 Show that if a number of three digits i s divisible by 1 1
the di fference between the middle di git and the sum of the
o ther two must be z ero or 1 1
3 7 Show that if a number of four di gits is divisible by 1 1
the sum of the rst and third di gits is ei ther the same as the
sum of the second and fourth or di ffers from it by 1 1 Can
the rule be e x tended ?
3 8 Test the divisibility by 1 1 of the following numbers
.

1 0203 6 1 5 1 6 02, 924 3 8 7 1 , 8 65 47 6 8


b)
3 9 (i) Factori z e (a t
(bt
than b
2
2
c
c
t
ii
Factori
ze a t
b
t
(
)
( )
(
,

being

reater

than

c.

bt

b ei n g greater

EX ERC I SE X V I

89

Use the results of No 3 9 to prove the following Take


any number com p osed either of two or of three digits Obtain
another number by reversi g the order of the digits The
diff erence b e tween the numbers will be a m ultiple of nine
41 Show that when there are three digits the m iddle digit
of the di fference is always 9 W hat must be the sum of the
other two digits ? (See No
42 I take a numbe r of three di gi ts and form ano ther number
by reversin g the digits On su btractin g I nd that the rst
gure of the di fference is 4 W hat are the other two gures ?
43 In other similar cases the last gure of the di fference
was (i) 7 (ii) 9 (iii) 0 W hat were the g res in each case ?
44 E x p ress
bt
a)
bt
ct
d)
ot
(dt
and (ii) (a t
bt
ct
bt + a )
dt
e)
dt
ot
(a t
each as the sum of two products
45 Use No 44 to show that the rule of No 40 holds good
for num bers containing four and ve digits
46 I write down a number co n taining ve digi t s and a
second number whose digi ts are tho s e of the former taken in
reverse order I su b tract the larger o f the s e numbers from
the smaller I cross out one of the gures of the remainder
The other gures are 3 0 9 7 Wha t g ure did I cross
out ?
47 I d o the same with a number containing s i x gures
The other gures in the remainder are 1 3 6 3 5 Show
that the gure crossed out must have been one of two
48 Wri te down any sum of money ( a bs cd ) less tha n
1 2 the num b ers of pounds and p ence being di fferen t
Obtain a new sum by reve sing the order of the gures
Find the difference between the tw o sums Re
bs
verse the order of the gures of the di fference and so obtain
a fourth sum Add together the third and fourth sums
Show that the result will always be 1 2 1 8 5 1 1 d
49
Show that (5 a ) (5 b) 1 0 (a b) (5 a )
40

"

"

(5

b)

The followin g i s an ex amp le of the Regul a Stu l tor u m


(The Fool s Rule) used in the Middle Ages for multiplying
tw o numbers b etween 5 and 1 0
Assign the numbers 6 7
8 9 1 0 in order to the ngers of each h and counting th e
thumb as the rst n ger To multi p ly 7 by 9 bring togeth er
Including
th e tips of the ngers which hea r these num b ers
these two themselves there are now s i x ngers to the front
50

'

'

A LG EB RA

90

point of contact Therefore the rst gu re of the pro


duct is 6 Also the r e are behind the point of contac t three
ngers on one hand and one on the other Therefore the
second gure in the product is 3 x 1 3
Use No 49 to prove this rul e

of

the

D GRAPH C REPRE S E NTAT O N


5 1 The following ta ble gives the height of the spring tides
at points on the River Thames at specied distances from the
mouth of the river Draw a graph based upon the table
Use it to determine :
(i ) Th h ight f th pri g tid s t B rnes B ridg 70 5 m il s
fr m th m uth f t h riv r
(ii) Th p l s w h re th h igh t i 1 0 fe t and 5 f et
I

e s

a ce

s p ec ti v el y

(iii) How

re

fr
h
riv r
uld f l
l
did
rv n
r
l hih
s ri
id
l s fr
uh

d l inuen

e
t he ti
fa r
om t h e m o u t
of th e
n o t i n te
e e
wo
b e e t i f t h e oc k s
The p ob a b e e g t o f t he p n g t e a t G
mi e
om t h e m o t

(iv)

e,

r n i

w ch ,

ee

ce

50

P l a ce

D i s ta n ce

L nd n D k
P tn y
o

oc

Mil es

Hei ght

ft

67 5
73
76
79
'

ew

Ri ch m ond

in
10
2
1
10
4;
.

18
10

60

7
3
1

T ddingt n
5 2 The following table gives the times of sunrise and sunset
in London on certain dates in Ma y June and July Con
struct from it a graph showing the length of the day for all
dates between 1 Ma y and 3 1 July (The day may be taken
to begin one ho u r before sunrise and to end an hour after
sunset ) When is the longest day and how many hours does
it last ? During how many days in the year i s the night not
more than s i x hours long ? (Read the note above Ex II
e

No

ay

a y.

Ri s e s Se ts
.

10
20
30

7 32

Jun e
R s es Se ts

J u ly
R e Set

is s

3 52

The following table gives the tem p erature at di fferent


times of a quantity of mercury which had been heated and w a s
53

A L G EB RA

92

57

of

Draw a long rec ta gle to represent the complete value


a ) when a
Indicate the lengths which represent
the rst and secon d a ppr ox i m a
tions to the value of the fraction
Do the same with regard to
n

square measuring 1 0
cms each way is made into one
measuri n g (1 0 + h) cms each
way by the addition of a
gn omon consisting of two
equal rectangles R and R and
a s q uare Q Draw a series of
stri p s representing the area of
th e gnomon in the cases when
6
cm
cm
I
t is 1 cm
08
0
U
2 cm r es pec
cm
and
4
0
0
D
ti v el y
(The width of the strip
should be the value of h in each
D
case ) Shade the rectangles
and leave the square Q u
B
k
shaded s o as to indicate the
F I G 26
amount of the error co m mitted
in each case by taking the increase in the original square a s
equal to 20 h
5 9 A cube measuring 1 0 cms each way is made into on e
measuring (1 0 h) cms by the addition of solids to three of
i ts faces as i n Ex X I Dra w a long strip whose a ea shall
rep resent the total vol u me of the solids added wh en It has the
values 1
02
(The height should be the value
of 1 0 h ) Mark off lengths representing the volumes which
involve k W and h3 respectively so as to indicate the relative
importance of their contributions to the whole
6 0 The bearings of a n aeroplane were take n every minute
at tw o stations A and B situated 2000 yards a part on a n
east and west line A record of the height of the aeroplane
was kept by a passenger The observations are given below
Draw a bird s eye view of the track of the aero plane By
measuring the length of the line drawn determine the hori
On a
z o n ta l distance covered b y the i ght of the aero p lane
hori ontal line of the p roper length mark verticals re p resenting
the recorded heights of the aeroplane Draw a smooth cur ve
58

an

'

'

EXERC I SE

XV I

93

showing the prob a ble height at any other time Cut along
t he curve and the ba se line Fi x the stri p so obtained along
the plan of the tra c k so that the curve may represent the
actual path of the a eroplane through the a ir What was the
average hori z o n tal speed When did the aeroplane p ass
be tween the two stations at what distance fr om each and at
what height ? When was the aerop lane nearest to A and to
B What were its dista nces from A a n d B (measured hori
on ta ll y and wh a t w as its height at each of these moments ?
)
.

Mi n u te
O
-

N
J

U
Q
l

m
D
Q

H
O
H
l

Hei ght a bove


Gr ou n d i n
0
1 20
3 90
420
5 70
3 60
1 80
270
480
48 0
3 00
0

feet

B ea r i n g fr om A
du e
E of
83 y E of
E of S
E of S

81
E of S

89 E of

77z} E of
o
6 7% E of N

E of
54

5
3
E of

10
E of

N
N

N
N

N
N
N

N
N
N

B ea r i n g fr om B

76 W of

W of
9
7
8 8 W of

75 W of S
W of S

38
E of S

E of
86
22 E of

W of
33
O
5 3 ; W of

645 W o f

1
W of N
7

N
N
N
N
N

E F ACT OR Z AT ON ETC
Write formul a in the form most convenient for calculating
the numbers specied in Nos 6 1 68 (The linear m easure
ments indicated in the gures m ay be taken to be centi
metres )
61 The volume (V) of a b loc k of wood of height h and of
uniform cross section represented by g 27
6 2 The density (d) of the wood if the block of No 6 1
weighs W gra ms
6 3 The volume (V ) of a bloc k a by a by 3 b with a hemi
sphere of r adius b s coop e i out of the top and bottom faces
(Fig 28 would be a section across the middle of this block )
64 The volume of the gure obtained by rotatin g g 27
about i ts a x is P Q (This gu re can be thought of as r ep e
senting a boiler with hemispherical ends )
6 5 The volume of the gu re obtained by rotating g 28
a b out the line P Q
66 The volume (V ) of a column of uniform c r oss section
re p resented by g 28 and of height h
.

94

ALGEB RA

'

FIG

F IG

FI G

31

29

28

FIG

FI G

30

32

ALGEB RA

96

78 (i ) The top

a ladd r 1 5 fe t l ng r t gai t a w ll t
p in t 1 2 fee t ab v t h gr nd H w far is th f t f
th ladd r fr m th w all
(ii ) W ri t d w n a f rm l f nding th dis t n e (d) f t h f t
f th l dder fr m th w ll given th l ngth f t h ladd r
(l ) and t h h eight (h) f th p oin t against whi h i t rests
7 9 A kite at the end of a s tring l feet long i s immediately
over the head of a boy who is standing d feet from the boy
w ho is ying it
G ive a for mula for calculating the greatest
possible height of the kite above the level of the latter boy s
hand
Why are y ou not asked to give a formula for the actual
height of the ki te
8 0 Af ter w alk ing due east for t h our s at the rate of 3 miles an
hour I nd I am due south of a tower on a hill d miles from
my starting poin t HOW shall I calculate my distance from
the tower ?
8 1 Each of the following ex pressions describes the factors
of a product a being a s y mbo l for any number you p lease
W rite the ex pressions which describe the products
ii
3 )(
(
3 )(
( )
of

o e

es s a

ou

ns

oo

u a

or

oo

(In )
(y )
(rn )
(us)
(x i )
(x u i )

(a
(a
(2 a
(7a
( 1 5a
(5a

8 )(a

3 ) (a
I ) (3 a
Io) (3 a

(IV ) a
(X 1) (a
(v 1 9) (43 L
(7a
(x ii ) (2 3 z
(K W ) (za

)
s)

Z) ( I 2 a

4)

9) (a

s) (sa
I o) (3 a

5)(

5a

Verify your answers to (iv) (viii) (i x ) and (x iv ) by su bsti


tuting for a a y numbers you pl ease
8 2 In the following e x pressions 0 and b are symbols for
any numbers Write symbolic ex p ressions of the products
of the fac tors described
Test the accuracy of the des cr ip
tions i n any three cases you please by substituting numbers
for a and b
,

(1 1 i1 ) (a a a2 bs 2 a

( )
(
v)
(v 1 1
(1 x

(5
(w
(a

)(

83

2a

)(
4b ) (7a
2 b )3
3
3b>

5b )

(i i ) (a

3 b)

(
) (

i)

(
ii )
(
m

se
5a

(i v ) (7a
vi
133
)
(
(u 2
(v i ) ( a
(x ) (4a

Complete the following identities


I)

4)
I

b)
4b > <2 a
2
b
4 )
5b ) (za
7b )
.

3
b
3 )

EX ERC I SE X V I

(i v )
(r )
(v )
(v ii
(V ll l
(IX )
(x )

3a
sa b
n ab
ab
2 83 D

84

28
2
b
4

l (7a

97

3)
ah)
3 b)
Sb )
ah)

Factori z e the following ex pressions


(i)

11
.

9
i
i
i
( ) p

( )
(V II )
(i x )
(x i )
(x i ii )
y

6a

(iv)

b
4

r za b
h
o
2
a
b
1
z
b
5
b
3a
3
(x v ) Z a p

ab

a.

32
1 49
49

a
b
b
3

r3 ab
b
5

a
b
6b
7
bq
3ap
3 pq
6bq
a.

3 bp

4a q

5p

( ) 9
(vi ii )

x
6
a
( )
a
x
i
i
a
( ) 55
(x i v ) a b
vi

3 a.b

2
i
i
( ) p

5p

4a

6
6

5a.

Complete the identity (at b)(c d)


Illustr ate it
by a diagram show i ng how from four adjac ent rooms with
certain di mensions a large room (a 5) long and (c d)
wide can be formed
86 Complete the identity (0
Illustrate
b) (c
d)
it by taking a thin cardboard or paper rec tangle a long and
a wide and redu c ing it by cer tain subtr a ctions and additions
to a recta ngle (a b) long and (c d) wide
Note The expression a
2a b descr ibes a gure li ke g
1 9 in which AF
CD and FE b ED The gure
a
may be mad e into the squar e (a b) 2 by lling i n the
squa re FD b2 The addition of b2 to a 2 2a b is said to
2a b
The com p lete ex pression a
com p l et e t h e s q u a r e
b i s called ) p e r fect s q u a r e
Nex t let AB a
b
Produce BA to C and
b and FE
b and so obtain the sq uare
B C to H making AG
OH
In this case g 1 9 wi ll be represented by a 2 2a b and to
b) 2 it is again ne c essary to add b
c omplete the squ a re (a
8 7 What additions (or subtr actions ) a r e nec essary to make
the foll owing ex pressions perfect squares (or multiples of
per fect squares) ?
6
(i)
(ii)
Iz
(iv)
(ii i)
( i)
(v)
8
1 43
20
3
(vii )
(vi ii )
85

a.

a.

a2

a2

2
i
x
( ) p2
(x i ) a
(x i )

ii

r.

w eb

a2

3p
4a h

(x )
(x i i )
(x iv )

mp

42

a2

6a b

2 0b .

6 p2

40

A LG EB RA

98

xv

vii)

(
(x i x )
x

6 mn
3 os h
5a b

m
4

55

7n

h
7

)
(x viii )
(x x )
xv i

ga

w eb

6 p2

:2 p

2 a.

7a b

In the following equivalences s E the sid e of a certain


square
Find (by completing the square) what is the length
of the side in ea c h c ase
12
13
2
8
(ii ) 5
(i) 5
65
2
13
8
(iv)
s
3
36
(v) 60
4
( )
88

( )
(i x )
vi i

89

2a

vi

3a

(VIII)
(x )

5
s

63

L et the volume of the complete cube model (Ex X I )


.

be a 3 and that of the inner cube b then the additions have


a volume a 3
Lay these additions side by side on the
table so as to show that
3

b3 =

(a

Prove by multiplication that the result holds good for all


numbers
90 Call the volume of the inner cube a 3 and that of the
small cube b3 Stand the latter upon the former and note
what further additions would make a column having a for its
base and (a b) for its height Hence show that
.

b) a 2
b) (a.2

(
(a
a

bg) b
b2)

ab

Prove the universal validity of the identity

F A PPROX MAT ONS


91 Find the di er en ce between the distances of the
hori z ons visible from the bottom and top of a tower 60 feet
high built on the side of a hill 6 66 feet above the sea
( J74
(See Ex I X No
92 A pendulum consists of a small heavy ball at the end
of a light thread of length I When wetted the thread
stretches by a small amount h Write formul a for ca l cu
lating approximately
the new time of sw ing of the pen
dulum
and (ii) the increase (a) in the time of swing (See
Ex VII No
At B erect a
93 Draw a straight line AB of length a
perpendicular of length b small compa red with a Write
down a formula for cal c ulating the hypothenuse c to a rst
app ro x imation
I

A LG EB RA

1 00

In No

1 04

to

31

change the subj ect of (i x) to

32

and of (x )

Deduce a formula for 1) from the one given in No 1 1


Use it to nd the greatest speed allowable when a train goes
round a curve of 2000 feet radius the gauge being 5 feet
and the outer rail raised 9 inches above the inner rail
1 06 Change the subject of No 1 5 to H
Calculate the
horse power that may be transmi tted safely by a 4 inch shaft
revolving 1 95 times a minute
1 07 Change the subject of No 1 6
to D (i i) to d Inter
pret the new formula
1 08 Change the subject of No 1 3 to 8
Calc ulate the
speed at which the steamer in No 1 3
would travel if the
engines were working at 220 horse power
1 09 A square la w n meas u res 3 feet each way
The owner
wishes to enl arge it into a square of area A square feet by
adding a feet to e ach side Change the formula A (s a )2
into on e for calculating a given 3 and A
1 1 0 A ower bed shaped l ike g 1 4 (p 3 5 ) is m ade by
adding triangles in which b 6 to the sides of a square Find
the len gth a so that the bed may have a tota l area of 6 4
square feet (See Note to No
1 1 1 Give a general formul a for calculating a when b and
A (the total area ) are given
1 1 2 In the case of g 1 5 obtain a formula for calculating
a when b and A are given
1 1 3 By the addition of or feet to both its length and its
breadth a lawn 3 0 feet by 20 feet becomes 8 7 5 square feet in
area Calculate a
1 1 4 Obta in a general formula for calculating a when the
original length and breadth and the nal area of the lawn
are given
1 1 5 A lawn 40 feet by 3 0 feet i s to be reduced to 1 000 square
feet of turf by cutting a strip from the width and a strip
twice as w ide from the length Calculate to the nearest
tenth of a foot the nal dimensions
1 1 6 In g 27 (p 94) a is 1 1 c m s a n d the area 88 c m s 2
Calculate b to the nearest millimetre
1 1 7 Give a general formula for solving pro b lems like No
1 1 6 given a and A
n yield on squaring
1 0 and 1 0
Nol a The num b ers n
2
2n
identical results n 2 20%
1 00 or 1 00
n
If one
1 05

'

XV I

EXERC I SE

1 01

the last two ex pressions i s given it i s impo s sible therefore


to say whether it is the square of a number greater or less
than 1 0 That can be told only fro m the conte x t Thus
2077
44 giv es on completion of the square
of

2071

1 00
10
n

1 44
12
= 22

It is evident here th a t n 1 0 i s the required square r oot for


n
1 2 would be impossi b le
10
On the other hand if we
a r e told that
2
n
2071 + 1 00
36
(ii )
both
n
1 0 = 6 and 1 0
n = 6
~

or

= 16

an d n

= 4

are possible
Unless therefore the statement of the problem shows (as
in Nos 1 1 0 1 1 7 ) that it ha s only one a nswer two must be
sought Can you tell (by considering lines and (ii) above )
when there will be tw o and when only one is possible
1 1 8 Calculate (to two decimal places ) the numbers which
comply with the following conditions
(ii) n
(i )
.

2
n
iii
( ) 3

(v)

r zn

2 2 11 2
n

20 a

vi

2n

7n

( )
(vi ii) 1 50
(x ) (2 n

9:

4) (zn

(i v )

20

I rn

( )
(i x ) (3 11
vii

80

20.

:1

r 4n

3
32
.

n2

) (3 n

40

Calculate the num b ers which comply with the follow


ing conditions
2)
I) (
2
)
(n
(i ) (
119

(i i )

n n

3 (n

03

'

( ) 3n

=
5

(v )
(v i i )
(V III)

3
3n

4o

1
6

I
-

n + 2

28

3 (n

2 n

10

6)

4) (n

(n

8)

:5

4 _

2 +

16

+ 1
20

X11

7)

A LG EB RA

1 02
L

(xx )

I
z

:(s g) a:

:(s

Trace the steps by wh ich you would determine


value of the numbers which comply with conditions
fol lo wing form
1 20

a h
4

(i ii )

a
n

an

are

3.

bn

+ 9
n

(v i i )

(viii ) a (2 n
(i x ) (n
n

P + q

)(

b
a

b (2 n
b)

b)

za b .
a

)h

b2

MM

ALG EB RA

Two variables are connected by a relation of the form


y
Find the value of k
km a n d when a:
1 08
y
What would the rela tion be if the independent variable be
came the dependent variable and vi ce ver sa 9
8 W rite a formula showing that W the weight of a quantity
of liquid is directly p roportional to V the volume of the
liquid
Given that 1 0 cubic feet of water weigh 625 1h adapt the
formula for calculating the weight of given quantities of
water
9 Adapt the same for m ula for ca lculating the weights of
given quantities of se a water given tha t any quantity of sea
water weighs 1 0 % times as much as an equal quantity of
fresh water
7

bath already contains 24 gals of water when a


tap delivering 1 % gals a minute is turned on Draw a
graph showin g the number of gallons in the bath at s u b s e
quent times Also write the formula corresponding to the
10

gr a ph

(Q t)
:

Change the subject of the formula to t How sho u ld the


graph be held s o a s to correspond to the changed formula ?
1 1 A bath had in it 24 gals of water when the waste
pipe was partially opened It then began to empty at a c on
stant rate o f .
1 gal / min Draw (on the sheet used for No 1 0)
a graph showing the amount of water left in the bath at given
subsequent times Write the formula corresponding to the
gra ph
Change the subject of the formula to t U se the new
formula to nd when the bath will be empty Compare the
answer with that obtained from the graph
1 2 Write down formul ae corresponding to the straight
lines of Nos 1 0 and 1 1 but n ot referring to any pa rticular
variables
What do these formula become when the dependent vari
a ble replaces the inde p endent varia b le and v i ce v er s a 9
1 3 The increase in the length of a vertical rubber cord is
directly proportional to the weight hung at the end of it
When there is no weight the length is 1 6 inches When a
wei ght of 8 oz is added the length becomes 1 7 2 inches
.

'

EX ERC I SE

X V II

1 05

Wri te a formula (i) for the increase in l en gth in inches


due to a given wei ght in pounds (W) and (ii) for the total
length of t he cord (L) when supp orting a given weight
Chan ge the subj ect of the second formula to W What i s
the u se of the new formula
1 4 Draw (on one sheet) the graphs correspondi ng to the
formulae (i) y 20
20
3 56 ; (iii ) 3;
(ii) y
,

Water runs into an empty bath at the rate of 3 gals / min


After seven minutes the tap i s turned on further and the rate
of ow increases to 5 ga l a / mi n Draw a graph showing the
amount of water in the bath at vario u s times
Write a formula for the amoun t of water at a given time
(i) during the rst seven minutes (ii ) after the rst seven
minutes ; the time being measured in each case from the
moment when the tap w a s rst turned on Calculate the
amount at the end of thirteen minutes Compare the result
with that obtained from the grap h
1 6 A motor runs from a point A at a constant speed of 24
m l s / hr for fteen minutes when its speed i s suddenly reduced
to 1 7 m l s /h r Write formul a for the distance it has covered
in a given number of minutes since it passed A Calculate
its position (i) af ter ten minutes (ii) after twenty seven
minutes Compare the results with those obtained from a
graph
1 7 Change the subject of the second formula of No 1 6 to
t
U se the new form la to nd when the car will have
travelled 23 miles from A
After
1 8 Water i s running into a bath at a constant rate
three minutes the bath contains 20 gals after eight minutes
Draw a graph showing the amount of water in the
3 0 gals
bath at di fferent times How would you calculate (i) the
amount of water run in every minute
(ii) the quantity origin
Give the formula corresponding to the
a ll y i n the bath (Q )
graph
15

C
Na ta

When the graph showing the connex ion between


tw o varia bles i s a straight line there is said to be a l i n ea r
Wha t is the difference between
r e l a t i on between them
saying this and sa ying that they are directly p roportional

A LG EB RA

1 06

Two variables ac and y are connected by a linear rela


tion When d; 8 y 1 7 ; w hen x 1 8 y 3 0 Find the
formula connecting them
20 The same given that when a:
43 ; and when
7 y
19

20, y

A motor car after running for some time a t 1 8 m l s /hr


suddenly changes its speed to 24 m l s / hr Five minutes after
the change it has travelled altogether 8 miles Find
by
a formula (ii) by a graph how long it ran at the lower Speed
22 In No 1 8 the ra te of ow is at a certain moment
suddenly changed After the water has been owing for
seventeen minutes altogether the bath contains 5 2 gals at
the end of the twenty third minute it contains 7 0 gals De
termine (i) b y a graph (ii) by a formula the moment of the
change Give formul a for the q uantity of water in the bath
at su bsequent times counting the time (iii) from the moment
of change (iv) from the beginning
23 At the end of an entertainment the peop le leave a hall
in a uniform stream After one minute there are 1 8 00 people
left in the hall after three minutes there are 1 440 Shortly
after this another door is thrown Open with the consequence
that seven and a half minutes after the performance there are
only 3 60 p eop le left wh ile at the end of eight and a quarter
minutes altogether the hall is empty Calculate the number
of persons present at the end of the entertainment the number
who left per minute through each of the two doors and the
time when the second door w a s Op ened Also write formula
for the number of peop le in the hall at different times
How many people were in the hall when the second door
was opened When was the number e x actly 6 00 ?
24 Tw o variables a: and y are connected by a linear rela
tion W hen :1; reaches a certain value they become connected
by a different linear relation When a: 4 y 3 7 when
35
20 y
6 5 ; w hen x
x 7 y 6 1 ; when ce
At what value of a; does the relation change Find the for
mula of the tw o linear relations For what value of a: does
O
Con rm by drawing a graph
21

EXE RC I SE XVIII

TAN GENT TAB LE

THE U SE O F THE

Na ta

Distances should be calculated to the nearest tenth


Neat diagr am s
of the unit angles to the nearest half degree
should accompany solutions but need not be drawn to scale

A
1 At a point (on level ground ) 1 20 feet from the foot of
a r tree the elevation of the summit of the tree is
The
observer s eye i s 5 feet a bove the ground How high is the
tree
2 What to the same observer would be the angle of ele
vation of the sum m it of the tree at a point (i) 1 00 feet (ii)
200 feet from its foot
3 At what distance from the tree would the a ngle of ele
vation be
4 Early this morning the shadow of an upright metre
rule was 205 c m s long What was then the angle of eleva
tion (or altitude of the s un ?
5 What would be the length of the shadow when the
sun s altitude is
twice (ii) three times a s great a s in
.

No

Find the a ltitude of the sun when the shadow is (i) on e


half (ii) one third of i ts original lengt h in No 4
7 From an upper window in a house 1 6 0 feet from a
church tower the angle of elevation of the top of the tower
i s 41 and the angle of depression of the bottom
How
high i s the tower ? How high is the point of observa tion
8 Standing 6 0 feet away from a house I nd that the alti
tude of a window sill on the rst oor is 27 and the altitude
of the top of the wall
How far is the window sill below
the roof ?
9 L ying on a cli ff 425 feet above s ea level I observed two
The angle of depression of the
b oats both due west of me
6

1 08

EX ERC I SE

X V III

1 09

more distant was


that of the nearer
How far were
they apart ?
1 0 From the battlement of a castle tower 200 feet hi h I
g
note that the line from my eye to the foot of the gateway
makes an an gle of 6 5 with the vertical face of the tower
How far i s the gateway fro m the central tower ?
1 1 I note also that the an gle between the face of the
tower and the line fro m my eye to the top of the gateway i s
How many feet i s the top of the gateway below the
level of my eye ? How high is the gateway ?
1 2 From the top of a vertical cli ff I observe that the an gle
of depression of the summit of a lighthouse is 3 3 and that
of the foot of the lighthouse i s
The lighthouse i s 3 20
feet from the cli ff W hat is its height
How many feet is
my eye above i ts summit ?
1 3 A a gs t a ff stands on the roof of a buildin g 1 1 5 feet
high Standing in the street some distance from the building
I observe that the elevation of the bottom of the a gs ta ff i s
3 7 and that of the top
What is the height of the a g
staff ? (My eye is 5 feet above the ground )
.

AB is a straight line of length Z From a point 0 the


p erpendicular OP falls between A and B and i s of length p
The distances AP and B P are a and b respectively The
angle AOP is and the angle BOP 3 Find formul a for a
b and l in terms of p
and 8
1 5 Change the subj ect of the last formula of No 1 4 to p
1 6 Find a formula for p w hen P falls on AB produced
beyond B
1 7 AB and CD are two vertical lines of length H and h
respectively H being the longe r The straight line B D
joining their bases i s hori z ontal The an gles BAC and BAD
are and 8 respectively Show that
tan B) / ta n
H (tan
h
(Consider how y ou did Nos 1 1 and
Make u p
1 8 Change th e subject of the last formula to H
a problem which could be solved by this formula
1 9 ABC and CD are two straight lines at righ t an gles
L et AB
h and let the angles ADC and ED O be
d CD
Find a ex pression for c alculating d
a n d B respectively
14

u.

A LG EB RA

1 10

(Consider No

Change the subject to h To what prob


lem does the second formula correspond
and DAC B
20 In the gure of No 1 9 let D B C
Show that d h (tan
tan B) / ta n tan B Change the
subject to h
21 The esplanade in a certain seaside town on the south
coast lies precisely east and west and is 1 5 00 yards long A
yachtsman wishing to know his distance from shore observed
(with his compass) that the lamp at one end of the esplanade
bore 1 1 east of north and the lamp at the other end 6 west
How far w a s the yacht out at sea ?
of north
22 On another occasion the bearings were as before 1 1
and
but both were to the east of north Where was the
yacht
2 3 Upon the top of a hill there is a a gs ta ff 42 feet hi gh
From where I stand the angle of elevation of the bottom of
the sta ff is
tha t of the top
How far away i s the
a gs ta ff? What i s the di fference of level between my eye and
the t0 p of the hill ?
24 From the top of a church tower I look due north to
wards a river owing east and west The angle of depression
of the further bank i s
that of the nearer bank
The
river is at this point 20 feet wide How high is the tower
(to the level of my eye) ? W hat is the distance of the river
from the tower ?
At a certain point the
25 A boat i s sailin g towards a cl i
angle of elevation of the cli ff is found to be
When the boat
has come 200 yards nearer the angle is
Find the height
of the cli ff
From a
26 A church spire i s due north of a point A
point B 3 00 feet west of A the spire bears 1 4 east of north
W hat is the distance from A to the point on the ground below
the top of the spire ? The elevation of the top of the S pire
How high is the S pire ?
a s seen from A is
27 Make a paper or cardboard model to illustrate problems
like No 26 L et P N be the height of the spire Dra w the
two right angled triangles P NA B AN Fold the gure about
AN s o that the triangle P NA i s vertical
PAN
L et P N h AB d ANB
B Write formul a
for calculating NA (ii) h
28 An iceberg was seen due east of a ship and had an
elevation of
After the ship had sailed a quarter of a
.

a.

u.

EXE RC I SE
THE U SE OF THE SIN E

Nata

X IX

AND C OSI

N E TAB LES
-

Distances should be calculated to the nearest tenth


of the unit angles to the nearest half degree Neat diagrams
should accompany solutions but need not be drawn to
scale
A

Cal c ulate the amount of northing or southing and of


easting or westing made by a ship on each of the following
occasions
1

C ow r se

D i s ta n ce r u n
1 5 m es
17 m e
22 m e
35 m e

il
il s
fN
il s
fS
il s
7 E f S
(i )
2 After sailing 26 miles on a course E of N a ship is 8 1
miles farther north than at starting Find (i ) the course and
(ii ) the amount of easting
3 Find the course of a ship which after sailing 1 8 miles
between west and south has made 1 4 6 miles to w ards the
west Calculate the southing
4 A ship s a iling 3 4 W of N ha s reached a point 1 2
miles farther north tha n h er point of departure Find the
distance she has run and the amount of westing
5 A ship which has been sailing 28 W of S ha s made
Find the distanc e run and the amount
9 4 miles to the west
of sout hing
6 A smack after le a ving Yarmouth harbour h a s sailed in
succession ou the following courses Find how fa r she is
north and east of the harbour mouth
(i )
(ii )
(iii )

23 E

42 W
68 W

of

'

C ou r s es
82 E of
27 E of

2
7 E of S
.

N
N

112

D i s ta n ces r u n
5 m e
1 4 m es
1 8 m es

il s
il
il

EX ERC I SE XIX

1 13

7 Use

the ta nge n t table to nd the nal bea ring of the


Shl p n N
o 6 from the harbour mouth
Calcul ate a lso the
dis ta n c e
8 A ship took her departure from a p oint in the Ch a nnel
where the Li z a rd bore 23 W of N and was 1 5 miles aw a y
She sa iled 45 E of S 3 4 miles and then 7 9 W of S 1 6
miles C a lc ulate the nal bearing and distance of the Li z ard
9 A ship w a s steered for 3 hours 40 W of N in a c urrent
running 60 W of S at 2 miles an hour According to the
log the dista nce run w a s 1 7 m i les Find the ac tual c ourse
and the actua l di sta nce run
1 0 A Ch a n n el swimmer estimates t hat he ha s swum S E 6
miles from hi s sta r ting poi n t a t Deal but that the tide ha s
ca rried him 40 W of S 1 4 miles
How far is he now from
De al
Na ta In the gures illustrating Nos 1 5 let A represent
the ship s st arting point B the point a t the other end of the
dista nce run AC the northing or southing CB the ca stin g or
westing It i s convenient to represent the length of CB (i a
the side opposite A) by a the length of AC (Opposite to B) by
b the leng th O f AB (Opposite to C ) by c and the course (i e
the number of degrees in the angle CAB ) by
1 1 Write i n symbols the sailor s rules for nding :
thing giv n th co rse and the distan e
(i ) The n rthing
.

"

a.

(ii

r un

or s ou

est ing g iv t h s m e
dista n e run giv n t h
rthi ng o s uthing d th
(iii
c urse
ti g
run giv n th
westing a d th
an
(iv) The d i
co rse
1 2 Give the rules for n di ng
w sti g gi ven th n rthing 0 r southing and
(i) The ea sting
the c u e ;
s uthing giv n t h ca ti n g or w sting n d
(ii) The n r thing
th e c urse
1 3 Give the rules for nding :
i( ) The ourse given th n rth ing s uthing n d the dista nce
run
d the dis t n e
w s tin g
ti g
(ii) The cd e giv n th
run
a d t he e sting
iii
iv
n
n
rthin
s
u
t
hin
h
t
h
our
T
e
g
g
g
)
(
o w esting
The
The

e s ti n g or w
c

en

e no

an

ce

e ca s

or

or

rs

or

ur s

se,

0r

c as

or

or

an

A LG EB RA

1 14

boy s c out is walking along a straight road towards


the west He leaves the road at A by a straight footpath on
the left in order to e x amine a tree at C 3 2 yards along the
pa th He then returns to the road by a second straight path
at right angles to the former striking it at B 7 3 yards from
the place where he quitted it Find the angles between each
footpath and the road and the lengt h of the second path
1 5 Bet w een two points A and B in the footpath across a
eld there is a piece of swampy ground To avoid it a lady
leaves the path at A and walks 42 yards along a straight line
Here she turns again towards the path and
to a point C
rejoins it at B 5 4 yards in a straight line from C Given
tha t AC and CB make respectively angles of 47 a n d 3 5
with AB calculate the direct distance from A to B [Draw
a perpendicular from C to AB ]
1 6 In a case similar to that of No 1 5 it i s known that
AC 5 2 yards the angle A
the angle B
and
the direct distance AB 6 7 yards Calculate the distan ce
along CB
1 7 A man is walking in a north easterly direction across
a common At a point A he turns 22 towards the left a n d
proceeds 1 5 0 yards to read a sign post at C Here he turns
towards the right and walks 1 8 0 yards farther to a rock B
where he sits dow n From his present position the angle
between A and C is
and A is 28 0 yards away Calculate
(i ) the angle between AB and the north easterly line upon
which he w a s origina lly wa l king ;
the number of de grees
through which he turned at C
Note In a diagram intended to illustrate completely any
one of the last four problems it would be necessary
(a ) to draw the li n es to scale to represent the given
distances ;
(b) to draw them in the proper directions i e making
the given angles with one another ;
(0) to mark them with arrow heads t o show which way
along them the movements were supposed to take
place
The movements actually ta k en along AC and CB may be
called c omp on en t movements : the direct movement AB
whi c h would lead from the same starting point to the same
14

A L GEB RA

116

Show that No 21 could have been solved in a similar


w a y if the a ngle of 48 had not been mentioned
24 Two vectors of len gth 8 6 c m s and 1 3 2 cms di ffer in
direc tion by
Calculate the angles which they make with
the resultant and the length of the latter
25 Calculate the result a nt of two vectors of length 8 6
inches and
inches respectively when their directions di ffer
by 1 42
C
26 By means of his range n der an artillery o fcer dis
covers that one Of the enemy s guns i s 3 200 yards and the
other 27 00 yards away The angle between them i s
Calculate their distan ce from on e another
An
27 Tw o hostile warships are ring at one a nother
observer on shore judges by the interval between the ash
and the sound of a gun that at a certain moment one ship is
He
1 1 3 miles and the other 8 4 miles distant from him
About
j udges also that the angle between them is about
how far are the ships apa rt ?
28 Two straight high roads AC CB meet at C
A lane
a lso straight cuts across from A to B making an angle of
AB is 8 00 yards long
5 3 with AC a n d of 49 with CB
How much distance does a cyclist s a ve by taking the short
cut from A to B ?
[ Draw the vector diagram Repla ce AB as before by a
vector AP along the line of AC and PB at right angles to it
The length of PB can be calculated in tw o ways from
the triangle APB an d the triangle B P C Hence sho w that
a sin 7 8
8 00 s i n
Calculate a from this relation To
nd 5 replace AB by AQ Q B at right angles Q being on EC ]
29 Solve a problem simila r to No 28 substituting 63 and
42 for the angles and 1 1 20 yards for the length of the lane
3 0 Tw o railway st a tions A and B are 1 5 miles apart in a
straight line bu t the line deviates from its direction a t A in
order that trains may ca ll at a third place C Supposing
that the lines AC and CB are stra ight an d that they make
respectively angles of 23 and 3 4 with AB nd how much
longer the jou rney is from A to B than it would be if the line
did not deviate to C
3 1 Tw o lighthouses are e x actly 8 miles fr om on e a nother
on a north and south line The master of a ship w ho w ishes
23

EX ERC I SE

XI X

1 17

to x hi s position observes (with the compa ss) that the


northern light bears due west and the southern light 50 west
of south How far i s the ship from the two li ghthouses
3 2 An hour la ter the northern lighthouse bea rs 8 0 W of
N an d the southern l ighth ouse 6 4 W of S How far i s the
ship now from the tw o lighthouses (Indicate the two posi
tions of the ship in the same diagram )
3 3 A c ertain seaside town has a stra ight esplan a de a mile
long Fr om th e north ern end a a gs ta on an island in the
W of N From the southern end the a g
s ea bears 43
sta ff bea rs 3 2 W of N From the southern to the nor thern
end the espla nad e it self points 1 2 E of N Find the dis
tanc e of the a gsta from the northern end of the espla nade
3 4 I w a nt to nd the di stance from my house to a dista nt
I mea sure
c hurch whose spire i s visible from my window
the a ngle between the church and the last telegraph post I
can see on the road wh ich runs before my house and nd it
to be
Sta nding by the p ost I nd the angle between
The dista nce
the c hurch spire a n d my window to be 5 1
a long the ro a d between the post and my w m dow is by my
How far is the chur ch from my house ?
c y c lometer 06 mile

EXE RC I SE XX
SO

M E NAVI GATI O N

P ROB

L EMS

A
Na ta The word miles in this E x erci s e always means
nautical miles To nd s in 24 20 a dd to s i n 24 one third
of (s i n 25
sin
To nd cos 24 20 s u btr a ct from
cos 24 one thi rd of cos 24
cos
(
1 A steamer left the Island of Ascension (lat 7 56 S )
for Tristan d Acu n ha and sailed 1 600 miles due south Find
i ts latitude
2 Another vessel sailed due north from Ascension with the
obj ect of making the African coast near Sierra L eone Find
its latitude after a run of 1 200 miles
3 A ship sailing from H a lifax (Nova Scotia l a t 44 3 6 N)
to the Bermudas (3 2 20 N) follows practic a lly a southern
course Find the distance
4 Au c kland (lat 50 40 S ) and Bering Island (lat 5 5 N)
are on the same meridian How far are they apart ?
5 When Captain Scott s Antarctic ex pedition left Christ
churc h New Z ealand (lat 43 3 0 S ) in 1 91 1 h ow far was it
from the South Pole ?
6 An ex ploring ex pedition circumnavigated the Antarctic
seas along the six tieth p a ra llel What w a s the distan c e
travelled
7 Ne w York (long 7 4 W ) and Oporto (8 3 1
are both
very nearly on the forty r s t parallel
What i s their
di st a nce a p a rt along this parallel ?
8 A ship sailing fro m Sydney (long 1 51 1 2
to Val
paraiso (7 1 3 0 W ) c ould follow the thirty third parallel
for practically all the way
Calc ulate the le n gth of the
voyage
Note A s a il or c a n determine his latitude wherever he is
by simple observations of the sun or the stars To nd h i s
longitude he needs a s a rule a chronometer which will tell
him at any moment what the time is at Greenwi ch Befor e
.

'

118

EXE RCISE XX I

RELATI ON S OF SI N E, C OSI N E, AND

TAN G ENT

Use the relation tan


sin / c os to test the concord
ance of the ratios given in the tables on pp 1 07 1 1 1 for the
angles
3 6 and
2
1 the
c os
2 Test by means of the relation sin
concordance of the values given in the table o p 1 1 1 for
1

a.

a.

The sine of an angle is


What is its cosine ?
I am told that the sine and cosine of a certain angle
are respectively 0 1 8 and 08 8 Is the information corr ect ?
sin / J (1 sin ) to test
5 U s e the relation tan
the agreement of the values given for s i n 3 5 and tan
6 The sine of an a ngle is
Calculate its tangent as a
vulgar fraction
7 U s e the relation tan
J (1 c os )/ cos to test the
values given for c os 5 6 and tan
Calculate i ts tangent
8 The cosine of an angle i s
1 1 J (tan
1 ) to the values
9 Apply the test cos
given for tan 3 2 and c os
Calculat e i ts cosine
1 0 The tangent of an angle is g
11
Apply the test sin
tan /
1 ) to the
values given for tan 66 and si n
C a l c ulate the sine
1 2 The tange n t of an angle is
3
4

u.

(1

Prove by a gure that (i) tan


sin / C OS
cos tan (iii ) cos
sin / tan
(ii ) s i n
tan ) s i n / (cos
sin
1 4 Prove that tan / (l
Verify by substituting the values given in the tables for
Why does this formula apply only to a ngles less than
13

a.

a.

1 20

EX ERC I SE

XX I

1 21

Does it hold good for 45 itself ? How must the formul a be


wri tten for a ngles greater than
1
ta r
cos
si n
1 5 Pro v e that
for angles less
?
1
tan
008
Sl
than
Verify when
Rewrite the formula to
suit a ngles grea ter than
z
1 6 Prov e in two ways that 0 0 8
Deduc e
1
s in d
formula for c alc ul ating (i) cos when si n is known ; (ii)
s in
when cos is known
1 7 Prove th a t c os
2 sin 2
sin
1
2 Co s
1
2
n
i
1 8 Prove tha t (cos
2
s
sin
1
i
n
cos
s
)
(
Verify by substitution when
Mod ify the for
mula to suit a ngles greater than
cos
sin
1 9 Pr ove th a t
sin 2
COS
cos
si n
1
tan
20 Prove th a t
cos
Verify when
1
tan
63
3 8 a n d (a fter modifying the formula ) when
21 De m onstra te the following equivalences
sin / J O sin
(1) ta n
c os
(ii) ta n
)2/ cos
tan
1 / J (1
(iii ) 00 8
tan /
(iv) sin
22 Calcul a te to three places of decimals the v a lues of the
sine c osine a n d tangent of
0

0.

n a

a.

a.

a.

a.

a.

a.

0.

a.

a.

0.

a.

EXE RCISE XX II

LI N EAR RELATI ONS

Nata

The expression (5 1 3 ) mea ns that the value of x


and the corresponding v a lue of y is 1 3

is

A
1 The following pairs of v a lues of x and y are connected
by linear rela tions Apply a test to e ac h pa ir to n d the
form of the relation
i ) (5
1 2 2 7)
i i)
(
(
9
(m ) (8
( ) (4
(r s 6)
( I0
2 Find the full form of the relation in each of the fore
going ex am p les Draw (ou one sheet of paper) the graphs
in (iii) and (iv)
3 Find the line a r relations connecting the following pairs
of va lues of x and y using the c om p os i ti on method and the
s u b s t i t u ti on method alternately
.

1v

. r 4)
(
3
(7. W )
()
(0 7
(8 7.

(i i )
(1v ) (5.

5 1 5)
s)

1 2 . zo

'

Two variables are connected by a relation of the form


When x = 2 y = 3 ; when x = 4 y = 2 1
Find the rela tion C a lcul a te the value of y when x 1 and
when x 1 0
5 Two variables are connected by a rel a tion of the form
25 3
b When x
4 y
w hen x = 25 y
y =a /x
Find the relation and the value of y when x 64
6 The relation between two va riables has the form
4

When x 1 y 5 ; when x 2 y 3 Find the relation


What is the value of y whe n x 3 ?
7 E x plain the tests which you a p ply to determine whether
a linea r relation i s of the form y bx y a bx y a bx
or y bx a
a
bx Describe
8 A linear relation i s of the form 3;
.

1 22

ALG EB RA

1 24

Your results should be tested in each case by substitution


1 4 Illustrate by graphs your answers to No 1 3 (i) and
(vii )
1 5 Solve NO 1 3 (ii ) (iv ) and (vii) by the substitution
method
When
1 6 Tw o delicate S piral springs hang side by side
they a r e loaded with weights of 5 gr m s their lengths are 3 1 3
When weights of 1 0 gr m s
c m s and 408 cms respe c tively
are substituted the lengths become 46 8 cms a n d 6 43 cms
Find by drawing a graph and (ii ) by a calculation whether
any weight will stretch them equally assuming a linear r e
lation between length and lo a d
1 7 A man said :
I am thinking of two numbers ; four
times the rst added to ve times the second gives 7 ; twi ce
the rst subtracted from s ix times the second lea ves
Is
it possible to nd two such numbers ?
1 8 Find the values of x and g which satisfy simultaneously
the following pairs of relations
2
6 5
6y
%y
(i )

( )

_ _
x

Z_

( )
(vi i i )

3y

35

y
6

3y
63 .

2x

2x

Eliminate the variable


pairs of relations :

from ea ch of the following

(i ) 3 x

7y

4. 4x

19

(ii )
(i i i) tz

3
3 17

sr

49.

m v

4x

917
zx y

4x

(i v ) 2
2
1
v
x
( )
x

2,

1 2

vi l

I
i

0,

y
1 11

= o

2x

0
x
1

If

x2

W hen y ou k n

of x a n d

= 16
o
th e

an d x

v lu
a

e of x

2y

3x
w

hat

an d x

is

th e

3; y ou

v lue
a

c an

of

n d th e

y ?

v lu
a

EX ERC I SE

XXII

1 25

From your answer to No 1 9 (i) nd (i ) the value of y


when x 2 ; (ii) the value of x w hen y 1 2 Find the
corresp onding values of 2 Do both relations give the same
value for z i each case ?
21 In No 1 9 (iii ) what value of x is associated with
Verify that these values of x and y are associated
y
with the same value of z
22 Eliminate
from the three relations
20

a.

From the following pairs of relations derive statements


involving x and y only
23

(i )
(ii )

(iii )

5 in a ,

a.

x s in a ,

y = 4
b
y

C OS a

n a

c os a

si
s
N/ (
y)
24 In No 23 (i ) nd the value of y associated with
x = 2
J 2 W hat value of is associated with these values
of x and y
4?
25 In No 23 (iii) what is the value of y when x
26 Elimin a te
from the relations :
1
J (3 x 2y) cos
J (2x 3 y) tan
27 In the last e x ample nd the value of as when y
Find the corresponding value of
y)

co

a.

a,

EXE RCISE

I NVERSE

XX III

T ION

P RO P OR

A man an d his s on both determine to sav e money regu


the former to bu y a motor bicyc le c osting 40 the
latter to buy an ordin ar y bicycle co sting 1 0 Draw on the
sa me sheet two gr aphs ex hi biting the av era ge savings in
shil lings per week nec ess ary to prov ide the required sums
in a given num ber of weeks (Choose your sc ales so a s to
include a saving by the boy of six penc e a week )
2 L et the formul a c orrespondi ng to the gr a phs in No 1
be S
and S kz/ t What will be the va lue of k and k2
if S represents the sa v ings (i ) in shillings per week (ii) in
pounds per month of four weeks (iii) in pence per day ?
When
3 Two v ar i abl es x and y are in inv erse proport ion
27 y
108
Write down the rela tion between them
a:
What is the value of y when x 0 01 8 a n d the value of a:
when y 0 0002
4 If the gr a ph of the relation of No 3 were drawn wha t
would be (i) the c o or dinate s of the ver tex (ii) the length of
the ax is
5 What p a ir of v a lues of x and 3; s a tises simultaneously
(i) the relations 3; 2x and xy 200 ; (ii) the relations 3;
8 00 ?
3 x and xy
6 Illustrate your a n s wer to No 5 by dr a wing across the
gr a phs of No 1 the stra ight lines corresponding to y 2x and
1
l ar ly
.

30

Show tha t the pair of values (p/ q p g) is c ommon to the


relations xy p 2 a n d y qzx At wha t point would the
co r responding graphs c ross one another ?
8 Prove by a lgebr a tha t tw o inverse propor t ion curv e s ca n
never interse ct [Take xy a and x y b as the corre
a n d show that they a llow n o common
sp on di n g formul a
values of x a n d y ]
7

1 26

ALG EB RA

1 28

(i )
(iii)

xy

ox y

5x
4x

2y

20

9y

(ii)
(iv)

32

3x

xy

5x y

'

121

7y
2y

1 00 x

o
In (iii)
.

In No 1 6 (i) nd the value of y when x 3


nd at when y 1 0 In (iv) nd x when y 3 0
1 8 What pair of v a lues of the variable s is c ommon to the
rela tions y x 2 and x y 8 ? [After s ubstitution use
the method of Ex XVI No
1 9 Find the v a lues of x and y which satisfy simultaneously
the rela tions 3] 4x 4 and x y 8
20 Illustra te your answers to Nos 1 8 a n d 1 9 by draw
ing on on e sheet the gr aphs corresponding to y x 2
17

=
4x
y

4,

a n d xy

= 8

EXE RCISE XXIV

TIO N

TO SQ UARE S AND C U B E S

P ROP O R

Obtain a graph showing the breaking load of a hem p en


rope (Ex IV No 1 9) by r s t drawing the straight line y O M
and then transforming it into the curve y 0 6x
(Gradu
ate the x a x is from 0 to
From the gra p h determine (i)
the brea king load when the circumference of the rope i s
inches (ii) the c ircumference of the rope that will j ust
support 7 8 tons
2 Obtain a graph showing the distances visible from a
given height (Ex IV No 6) by transforming the strai ght
line y l 22x into the curve 3;
(Graduate as
before ) Use it to nd (i ) the distance visible from a height
of 2000 feet (ii) the height at which you can see 50 miles
3 Describe in words the relation between p and L in Ex
IV No 5 Obtain a graph of the relation by transforming
the line y 0 1 x into the curve y 0 1 x 3 From the graph
nd p when L 2 8 (ii) L when p 2
4 The diameter in centimetres of a certain kin d of sph er i
cal bul lets is given by the formula d 08 / w i t) being the
weight of the bullet in grammes Obtain a ready reckoner
of the diameters of these bullets b y transformin g the line
= 0 8 x into the curve y
08 i/ x
Find
the diameter
31
of a bullet weighing 3 5 gr m s and (ii) the weight of the
bu llet with a diameter of 1 7 c m
5 Write formula descrip tive of the following relations :
f
d wh n
th sq u r
is
d
r
ly
p
r
p
or ti n l t
t
i
1
() y
1

'

'

'

(i i )

y is

ec

7 y

49 ;

th e

dir etly pr p rti n l


o

= 0, 3;

w h en x

(i i i ) y

3 is
w hen

20, y

a e

a e

28 ;

18

sq u r r t

t o t he

dir tly pr p rti n l t


ec

th e

oo

ub e r t
oo

an

of x

an d

of x

an

i
f urs a h r t ned
urv y
pressi n f
rr p nding t th r la ti n 3) 0 6 1
curve

The

s, o

co

es

co

e,

1 29

ex

x2

or

ALG EB RA

130

Na ta

Suppose you have two statements such as

16 =

j (3 0

(i)
(ii )

b)

They can be reduced to a single statement containing b but


not a by dividing the two sides of (i) by the corresponding
sides of
2
(iii )
J (3 0 b)/ J (20 b)
From (iii) b ca n be calculated w hile a ca n then be found
from (ii) or (i)
6 It is kno w n that in a cert a in rel a tion y i s directly propor
that when x 1 0 y 6
ti on a l to the square root of x
a
and that when x 1 7 y 8 Fi nd the relation
7 A variable y i s dire ctly proportional to the square of
x + a
When x = 0 y = 3 6 w hen x = l y = 6 4 Find
the relation
8 What simultaneous values of x and y are common
and y 3
06
(i ) to th r l ti ns y
08 i / and y
02
(i i ) t th rel tions 3]
3 J5
d y
2J(
1 0)
_
(ii i ) t th relati
y
2(
d y
2(
(iv) t th rel ti n 3;
Illustra te your answers to (i ) a n d (ii) by means of the
graphs of Nos 1 and 4
9 Draw a graph to illustra te your answer to No 8 (iii)
,

e a

'

on s

an

o s

an

1 0 Describe in words the relation of

No 3 0 Construct a rea dy re ckoner

P and D in Ex IV
for the formula by
transforming the c u rve x y 1 8 into the curve y 1 8 /
Find the loss of steam pressure w ith a cylinder 20 inches
in diameter and (ii) the dia meter of cylinder that gives a loss
of 3 6 lb / in
1 1 When a long strai ght magnet is held vertic a lly above
a piece of iro n (e g a nail on a table ) its lifting power is i n
v er s el y proportional to the square of the distance between
the iron and the bottom of the magnet A certain magnet
can just lift a nail weighing 1 2 gr m s a t a distance of 1 cm
Write down the relation between 1 0 and d
1 2 E x hi b it the relation of No 1 1 in a graph obtained by
1 2 into the curve 3;
tr a nsforming the cur ve xy
l 2/ x
1 3 Ex press in formul a the following relations
.

EXE RC I SE XX V
J OI

NT VARIATI ON

Describe in words the relations between the variables in


the following exa mples from Ex IV :
No 1 7 (ii) No 1 8
(iii) No 22 (iv) No 25 (i) (v) No 3 2
t for
2 Ex press the following rela tions in formula putting I
the unknown c onsta nt
d inversely as y ;
(i ) varies direct ly as
(i i ) v ri s di rectly as th sq u re r t of an d inver ely
y ;
(iii ) is dire ctly p roporti nal t {/ w h n y is cons t n t d i n
is cons tant
er sel y p rop or ti on l t
y when
(iv) is invers ely p rop or ti nal t x when 3; is con t nt d t
is con stant
the cub e ro t of y w h n
3 Supply the v a lues of k in No 2 fro m the following i n
formation
an d
72 ;
y
(i ) when
1

an

as

an

oo

an

s a

(ii )
(iii)
(iv)

w h en x

= 4

an

= 15 ;

hen x
1 a d
y
4 The east an d west distance between tw o points on a
globe which a r e situ a ted on the same p a r a llel of latitude i s
directly propor tional to their di er en c e of longitude (l ) to the
cosin e of the la titude (A) a n d to the radius (r ) of the globe
Two poi nts on the ear th s surface w hose la titude i s 52 and
whose di er en ce of longitude i s 1 3 are 553 m i les apa rt How
far apart are tw o points on the surfa ce of the moon whose
The
l a titude is 3 7 an d whose di fferen ce of longitude is
radius of the earth is 3 95 9 miles of th e moon 1 08 0 miles
5 To measure the strength of a bar m a gnet the el ec trician
lays it on a line ea st a n d west pointing to the m iddle of a small
He then no tes the number of degrees ( )
c o mpa s s n eedl e
w

132

EX ERC I SE

XX V

13 3

through which the needle is deected and the distance (d) of


the middle of the bar magnet from the middle of th e needle
The rule is that the strength of th e magnet (M) varies directly
a s the cube of the distance and directly a s the tan ent of the
g
angle of deection
W hen a magnet of strength 6 444 is p laced with its mid
point 80 cms from a needle the deec tion is
What is the
strength of a magnet whi ch w hen placed 6 0 cms from the
needle produces a de ection Of
6 K epler (c 1 6 1 0) discovered tha t the square of the tim e
(T) taken by a p lanet to revolve a b out the s u n varies as the cub e
of its distance (d) from the sun The earth (whose revolution
takes of course a year) is distant from the s u a b out 93
millions of miles Find (i) the distance from the sun of
J u p iter whose revolution takes twelve years and (ii) the time
of revolution of Neptune whose distance is about 27 8 0 millons
of miles (Take a million miles a s unit )
7 A variable y i s the sum O f two parts of which the rst
is directly proportional to x and the second is inversely pr o
p ortional to the square of x Give a formula for y using a
and b as symbols of the tw o constants needed
8 Replace a and b in No 7 by their numerical values
obtained from the knowledge that when x 4 y 5 and
when x 1 0 y
9 A vari able y is the di fference between t w o other quantities
Of these the rst varies directly a s sin and inversely as
x
1
the second varies directly a s cos and x conjointly and
inversely as (x
E x press the relation in a formula
1 0 Replace the symbols of the constants in No 9 b y their
numerical values given that when
26 and x
y and
4 y
3 3 and x
28 9
that when
1 1 If a current of elec tricity i s owin g round a circular
coil of wire x ed vertically with its plane north and south and
a small compass needle is brought near to it along the a x is of
the coil the needle is de ected from its usual north and south
posi tion The tangent of the deection ( ) varies directly as
the strength of the current (C) the area of the coil (A ) and
the num b er of turns of wire (i t) in the coil conjointly It also
varies inversely as the cube of the distance of the needle from
the plane of the coil When a cu r rent of 5 units amperes
ows round a coil containi ng 1 00 turns and offering an area
of 3 00 sq cms a needle at a distance of 3 0 c m s is de ected
.

a.

a.

a.

a.

ALGEB RA

134

Wh a t deection w ill be produc ed at a distance


of 60 cms by a current of 8 amperes owing in a coil con
t aining 3 00 turns a n d ha ving an area of 200 sq cms 9
1 2 Write proofs of the following propositions
my ;
y ( con stant) then
(i ) I f
(y cons ta n t) an d
My (x cons ta nt) the
(i i ) I f
(y con sta nt ) a d
.

2 as

2 at

2 at:

z at

2 00

n 2 at

A LGEB RA

136

When
has been subtracted fr om a certain number
the square root of the residue i s 3 What is the number
7 The sides of an oblong table are (1 feet and b feet long
In damp weather the wood swells but u nevenly in the tw o
directions Each inch in the longer side of the table becomes
inch and each inch in the shorter side (1 q ) p and
(1
W rite down an ex pression
q being of course very small
for the increase of area of the table to a rst approx imation
8 Find the linear relations between x and g which are
satised (i) by the values (4 5 ) and (5 7) (ii ) by the values
Have the relations a common pair of values
(0 3 ) and (1
of x and y ? Illustrate your answer by graphs
9 The road from one village A to a n other B bears 27 E
of S for 2% mil es It then turns 1 2 furth er to the east and
continues in this direction for 2 miles Find the direction
from A to B as the crow ies
1 0 A ship in latitude 5 4 N longitude 1 7 W received
by wireless telegraphy a message of distress from a ship in
longitude 20 W on the same parallel How far i s the
distressed ship due west of the other
6

B TEs r PAPE R 2
1 When a submarine mine e x plodes near a ship it pro
duces a tremendous pressure on i ts side (To produce a fatal
injury to an ironclad the p ressure should be
lb in )
The following formula shows how to calculate the pressure
produced at a point A on the side
ship the centre of the
ch a rge being at a point B L et d E di s ta n ce AB E the in
c li n a ti on of the line AB to the hori z ontal C E the weight of
the charge in lb K a n d k are constant s (or coef cients) which
depend on the e x plosive used For No 1 dynamite (the
1 00 k
20 (a lso for gun
b est e x plosive for the purpose) K
25 k
cotton) For gunpowder K
35
'

9K C

P
(i ) What

d s

(i i i )

kc

e co

zo

an

ec

t he

25

f rmula b m e w h n th p ints A d B
t h sam l vel 7
I f AB i h ri nta l wh t numb r f p unds f gu np wder
is as ff tive as 1 l b f dyn m i t ?
l ss
W uld this q u nti ty f gunp w d r p r du e great er
pr ssur th n th 1 l b f dyn ami t w h n th p int A is
t a hi gh r l v l th n B
oe

a r e on

(i i )

or

EX ERC ISE

(iv) A

h rge
w rshi p

XXVI

13 7

yna i
e l ded ne r
ure a n
sa l v l
y
il
su i nt

a
a
1 00 l b o f No 1 d
m t e i s xp o
a
F
poi t on t he me e e
th e p es s
at
a s th e m
an d 5 e e t a w a
W l i t b e f c e to do a
i
to the s p 2
C a cu a te t h e p e
p o ce b y the s a m c a ge a t a
po t 1 0 e e w a a n d 20 ab o e th e e e of t he c a ge
c

of

ind

ine
f
vital nj ury
hi
l l
r ssure r du d
e hr
(v)
in
f ta y
v
lvl
hr
2 The following form ul a is taken from a n electrical
engi neer s pocket book Change the subject (i) to C l (ii) to
How ca n you determine the third formula
(iii) to C
w hen you know the se cond
.

Bl

2C l

The Egyptians used the fact that 3 2 42 5 2 as a


means of drawing a right angle Show that if a 4n and
b
b2 i s
4x 2
1 (n b eing any whole number) then a 2
alw ays the squa re of a whole number U s e your proof to
construc t a table of th e rst four tria ds which have the same
proper ty a s 3 4 and 5
4 Tra nsform each of the following ex pression s into a sha p e
more c onvenient for computation
3

6) (
(m )
5

p
qa

(i i ) (3 9
1
(1 v ) a

b
3 )

2a

q
b

pa

Find va lues
(i ) 3 (

of rt

(zq
2a

6a + 8

'

which t the following statements

(In d

+ 2

+ a

24

11

On a windy da y a boy cycled to a place 24 m iles a way


and returned by the sa me road He estimated that the wind
added 2 miles an hour to hi s speed on the outw a rd journ ey
and reta rded him by the same amount on the w a y home
He took an hour longer to return tha n to go At wha t rate
does b e normally ride ?
5 and y
1
9/ x include a
3x
7 The relations y
common pair of values of x and
Fi nd it Ill ustra te your
6

ALG EB RA

13 8

result by drawing the graphs of the relations (from


x 5 ) on one sheet
8 Show that

to

(r

xx

qx

this equivalence to nd a formula for the value O f

Us e

4
0$

(r
1

to the second approx im a tion when x is a small fra ction


9 The relation between two variables i s known to be of the
30
form y a b s i n x When x
8 ; w hen x
6
Find the relation and calculate (i ) the greatest value
y
of y (ii ) the least value of y (iii ) the value of y when
.

56

Illustrate your answer by s ketchi n g the graph of the rela


tion
1 0 A church spire i s in the form of a pyramid 24 feet high
standing on a square base which measures 1 4 feet each way
Calculate to the nearest degree the angles (i ) between tw o
O pposite faces ; (ii ) between the two sloping edges of one of
the triangular faces ; (iii ) between two opposite sloping
edges of the pyramid
[Either construct a paper model or draw sections of the
pyramid to help you in your reasoning ]
.

C T ES T P APE R 3
1 The speed with which water i s carried along a pipe
depends partly on the si z e and length of the pipe and partly
on the head of the water By the head is meant the
vertical height above the pipe of the water surface in the
cistern or reservoir The number of gallons discharged per
minute is given by the formula :
.

294

H E head in feet d E diameter of pipe in in ches l E length of


pipe i n feet
(i ) C l ulate th r t f dis h r g fr m 2 in h pip 3 200 feet
fr m th r s rv i r und r hea d f 1 00 f t
(i i ) Th s m w i th an 8 in h m in 5 m iles l ng d he d f
13 2 f t
.

a c

ee

e,
.

a e o

ee

an

ALG EB RA

1 40

I h av e

wooden rectangular box 1 2 inches long 9 inches


wide a n d 5 inches deep A sheet of glass i s x ed inside it s o
tha t one edge lies a long the bottom edge of one end of the box
and the other a long th e top edge of the other end of the box
Find the a ngle betwee n the plane of the glass an d the bottom
of the box Find a lso the angle between a dia gon a l of the
glass shee t a n d the bottom of the box
1 0 The di ameter of the circular tower of a ca stle i s 40 feet
Sta rting from the w a ll the roof rises at an angle of 3 53 w ith
the hor iz onta l plane until it encloses a circle 1 2 feet in dia
meter It now r ises at a steeper Slope to a level 20 feet above
the top of the w a ll Finally it is capped by a cone 5 feet
hi gh w ith a semi a ngle of
Sketch a vertical sec tion of
the roof C a lc ula te (i) the slope of the middle se ction ; (ii )
the slope of the edges of the co ne (ii i ) the verti ca l height of
the middle section (iv ) the diameter of the base of the c one
(v ) the tota l ver tica l height of the roof
9

D STAT IS T C S
I

The following numbers give the heights in in ches of seven


boys measured in each case on the fourteenth bir thda y
1

62, 5 8 , 59, 63 , 5 8 , 5 95

605

Arra nge the heights in a column in order of m a gnitude and


indicate the middle numbe r of the series Thi s i s c alled the
Calc ulate al so the ari thmetic a verage or mea n of
m e di a n
the heights
2 Set beside the co lumn of No 1 a s ec ond colu mn showing
how mu c h gr ea ter or less ea ch height is tha n the m edi an
height Ta ke the average of these differenc es [Note tha t
you must divide the sum by 7 n ot
This a verage is call ed
the mea n dev i a t i on fr om th e media n
3 Add a thi rd column giving the di fferen c e between ea c h
height a n d the ar ithmetic m ean of the heights Obta in the
avera ge of the di fferences Thi s number is the mea n dev ia
Which of th e two mea n devia tions is
ti on fr om th e m ea n
the less
4 Find (a ) the median (b) the arithmeti c m ean (0) the
mea n devia tion from the m edia n (d) the mean deviation from
the a rithmetic mean in the case of each of the following sets
of nu m ber s
,

EX ERC ISE

(j )

XX V I

1 41

4, 1 3 , 1 0, 6 , 7 ;
20, 1 6 , 1 8 , 9, 1 7 , 1 1 , 1 7 , s , 1 5 ;
1 7 , 1 4,
21 , 1 7, 1 0,
1 2, 1 5 , 1 4,

(n)

(11 1 )

Note

The results of Nos 2 4 illustr ate the followi n g


facts (i) the median may either be equa l to greater than o
less than the mean
whether the median i s greater or less
than the mean the mean deviation fro m the median is always
less than the mean deviation from the mean It is in fact
less than the mean deviation from a n y other of the measure
ments For this reason when we speak of the mean devia
tion witho ut further speci ca tion the mean devia tion from
the media n i s the number intended
The terms media n and mean devi ation are often
a group of mea surements
used to ex press the general result of _
The media n xes the position of the middle of the grou p
the mean deviation me a sures the de gree of di s p er s i on of the
measurements on either side of the middle one
5 Two m ar ks man A and B r e ve rounds each at a
target The following gures give the distance in inches of
each hit from the c entre of the bull s eye Express nu
m e i ca l l y the va lue of ea ch performance by means of the medi an
and mea n devia tion Which do you think is the better shot ?

A
B

1 5,
1 0 5,

8,

1 7 5 , 1 0 5, 1 5 ;
9,
6
-

When there is an even number of mea surements there


is strictly spea king no median
The name is however
genera lly gi v en to the number half way between the two
middle mea surements Wha t is the medi an of the followi ng
mea surements
Prove w i thou t ca l cula ti on th a t the mean
deviation would be the same if 1 3 or 1 4 were assumed as the
median Calcula te the mean deviation using on e of these
numbers in stea d of the number which you give a s the
median
6

1 6 , 1 2,

5 , 1 9,

Fin d the a rithmetic mean of the mea surements given in


No 6 and the mean deviation from the m e a n Is it greater
or less tha n the mean deviation from the media n
8 Out of a certain form eleven pupils suc c eeded in solv ing
one of the more dif cult problem s in this book Their ages
(i n ye ars an d months) were
7

ALGEB RA

1 42

Describe the general position and dispersion of this group


Note In the foregoing group of measurements 1 3 (which
i s a quarter of the way up the series ) and 1 4 2 (a quarter of
the way down the series ) are called the l ow er and u pp er
The di er en ce between them (1 : 2) is called the
q u a rt il e s
The s em i i n te r q u a rt i le r a n g e
i n te r q u a r ti l e r a n g e
here
is often taken instead of the mean deviation as a
measure of the dispersion of the measurements It may be
called more briey but less accura tely the q u a r ti le dev i a
.

t i on

Obser ve that if there were 1 2 measurement s the quartiles


would be taken to lie half way between the third and fourth
terms from each end of the series
9 Find the median the quartiles and the quartile devia
tion in the case of each of the following groups of measure
ments
7
(i ) 3 8
-

(ii )

1 3 7 , 1 42 , 1 4 2 ,
1 8 7 , 1 8 8 , 1 9 2 , 201

18 2 ,

176

1 5 9 , 1 6 3 , 1 6 6 , 1 7, 1 7 1 ,
20 7 , 21 2 , 22 8 , 23
'

Two sets of measurements of a quantity were made


each set containing a doz en me a surements The median was
in each case 248 The dispersion of the measurements a s
measured by the mean dev iation w a s 48 for the on e set and
Which set w a s the more trustworthy and
2 3 for the other
10

W hy
11

The medians of t w o sets of twenty me a surements of a


length were 3 07 cm s and 25 6 cms respe ctively while the
qua rtile dev iation was in each case 42 cms Which w a s the
better set of measurement s ?
1 2 Tw o surveyors A and B determined each the same
number of times the height of a certain hill The median of
A s results was 8 24 feet and the mean deviation 2 3 feet
The median of B s results was 822 feet and the mean devia
tion 21 feet Which surveyor o btained the most consistent
results
1 3 Measurements of a number of wooden di scs were made
in order to nd the ratio of the circumference of a cir cle to
the dia meter The results are s hown in the t able Plot on
.

A LGEB RA

1 44

Draw on a sin gle sheet the inverse proportion curve


corresponding to the median value of k in No 1 5 and a l So
the curves corresponding to the quartile values Draw the
median curve with a rm line and the quartile curves with
dotted lines
1 7 A variable P i s known to vary directly as the square of
a second v a riable Q The table gives a series of correspond
ing measurements of the variables Plot P to Q 2 i n order to
ex hibit the values which the measurements give for k in the
formul a P kQZ Calculate the median and the quartile
values
16

Q 10

1 5

20 25

0 95

1 8

6 0

3 5

3 0

3 78 6 6 2

2 91

1 42 3

1 0 4 2 1 26

Dra w a s in No 1 6 the median and quartile curves


which correspond directly to the measurem ents of P and Q
giv en in the table of No 1 7
1 9 The relation between two variables i s kno w n to be
given by the formula P k
E xhibit graphically the
values of k derived from the following measurements i n dicat
ing a s i n No 1 4 the media n and quartile values
18

PI

20 0

'

'

'

0 3 1 0 3 5 5 40
85 8 1 5 9 1 1 0 1 5

05

'

Draw as in No 1 6 the me dian and quartile curves


which correspond directly to the measurements given in No
20

19

E S URD S
.

N0 tc

carrying out cal culations with surds it is generally


best to follow the opposite plan to that of Ex s V and VI
Instead of replacing an ex pression by its factors the factors
should be replaced by their product before the va lues of the
su r ds are substituted In this way troublesome multiplica
tions and di visions are avoided
1 4 1 4 J3
Assume in these e x amples that
17 32
.

In

J6

3 1 62

2 449,

Find to three decimal places the value


(i

(ii i (I

(1

i i)

( v)

J3
J3

of

EXERC I SE XX V I
2

Find to three decimal places the value of

(i )
3

~/ 2

XI

si /

# 1
(i v )
2

(i i)

#2

3
i
3) (m 315
2

iii

)
2

(i i ) (2

(i i i )

( J3

J )

3
~

Find the value of the following products

(i ) ( J 5
(i i i ) ( J 1 7
(v ) (7
6

Evaluate

( i ) (I
5

'

Evaluate

(i ) (I
4

1 45

J2)
J2)

(i i )
(i v )
(v i )

J3 )

ds
3 J 5)

);
(2 ~/ 8X3 J 5)

(2 J S)

Complete the identities :


Q)

g
N
J

/ b)

x a

(1 1 1 ) (
(i v )

ab

M2

)( / a b

I
s

3 ~/ b )

Jr )

ar e )
( a w a
(
/
J )(

(v i i a
(viii (a

Na ta

The fr acti on

b\
3 ~/ b )

J b ) (a

J5

J2

J5

J5

J2

J5

J2

J2
J2

J 2)

This form of the fraction is much e a sier to evaluate than the


original form The ex pressions ( J 5 J 2) and ( J 5 J 2)
are said to be c onj ug a te b i n omia l s u r ds We have
therefore the rule that the binomial surd in the den om i
nator of a fraction may b e removed by mul tip lying both
numerator a n d denominator by the conj ugate surd
7 Convert the following fractions into the form most
suita b le for evaluation
.

10

ALG EB RA

1 46
I

(I )

(u )

J2
I

(1 V )

J5

(m )

47

(V I)

r.

(m )

(In )

(V )

5 J1 !

4J3

Simpl ify the fol lowing practi ca l e x pressions giving the


na l denominator in a ra tional form
8

g
1
() a

(i i i )

da

J5

a ~/ 5

Find va lues of
m ents
9

(i ) (a2
(iii ) n

6n

N3

I
3

(ii ) n (I
(i v ) n
I)
J5

length
Show that

s z

which accord with the following state

A stra ight
2
AH
AB B E
( )
.

p ~/ 3

J2

(iv)

(v) an
lin e A B at

10

AH =

+
n

'

is divid ed at

so that

( J5

Calcul a te the position of H when the line is


Verify the corre c tness of your calcula tion

20

cms long
.

F T E S T PAPE R 4
1 If the co urse of a river is obstru c ted (e g by a sudden
narrowing of i ts bed as at the Strid nea r Bolton Abbey)
the level of the w a ter in front of the obstr uction i s higher than
it would other w ise h av e been The rise in feet is given by the
formula
.

"

'

the river (in feet per second) before the obs tr uc


tion is reached p E c ross section of river befor e the obstruction
divided by cross sec tion at obstruction
(i ) A riv r ow ing with vel i ty of 4 feet p se nd has
sudden ly to pas s b etween r ks where the cr ss secti n
f th e b ed is reduced t i
f its am ount j ust b ef re th
b structi on
How m u h w ill the water rise at this p int 2
(ii ) Rep eat sub stituting 6 feet p s cond and f r th nu mb ers
g v n

v E v el oc ity of
'

er

oc

oc

co

er

ALGEB RA

1 48

which rises at an a ngle of 1 0 with the hori z ontal The alti


tude of the top of the tree is now
Calculate the vertical
distance of the tree top above the level of the eye and the
hori z ontal distance between the vertical through the tree top
and the vertic al through the eye

G T E S T PAPER 5
.

The ra te of movement
formula
1

of

1 000

coal

ga s

is described by the

Hd5
gl

Q 5 qu a ntity of gas in cubic feet per hour ; l E length of pipe


in y a r ds (1 5 diameter of pipe in inches ; 9 5 the S pecic
gravity of the gas i e the w eight of any bulk of it divided
by the weight of a n equal bulk of air ; H E pressure of ga s
supply measured by the water gauge as a hea d of water
(in inches)
b supp lied b y a 3 inch main 3 00
g
(i ) At w h t r t
yards l ng und r pr ssur f E in h f w t Z (Th
spe i gr vi ty f the g m y b e tak en
(i i ) Th s me t h p i p b ing 1 000 y rds l ng d 4 inches in
dia meter d th head b eing
in h f water
2 From the formula of No I obtain form ul a for nding
(i ) the pressure of the ga s supply (ii ) the diameter of the
supply pipe
may be taken a s
[The fth root of
3 A and B are to c hoose any tw o numbers with the con
dition th a t on e is to be even and the other odd A s number
i s multiplied by 2 and B s by 3 and the products are added
Show that if A s choice w a s an even number the s u m w ill be
even if an odd number the sum will be odd
Show also th a t these consequences will follow if A s choice
be multiplied by any even number and B s by any odd
number
4 Find the factors of
b ;
3 621 b
(i) 6a
x
(i i i ) p
q + 2q
(ii )
.

as

a e ca n

an

e o

as

a er

'
.

as

an

'

EXERCISE

Given that
value of
5

2 J3

x
6

Show th a t the ex pressions

2 + l

Find va lues of

tions

b3

I
)

b3

b3

an

+ b

Find their va lue when

an d

always have the same va lue

(1 0 ?
1
a

the

1 , n d

2 J3

1 49

and "

XXV I

hich satis fy the followin g condi

(i ) %n
5

4,

(iii )
(i v )

29
(v) (n
0 + ( +
8 I h a ve a l a rge number of match bo x es
I wish to set
them side by side on a table so that they sh a ll form a rect
angle i n whi ch the number of rows of box es is the sam e as
the number of box es in a row The rst time I a rra nge them
in this w a y there are 24 box es over I try to arra nge them
therefore with one more box in a row This time the nu mber
How many box es ar e there ?
i s 29 short of th a t required
9 Two sm a ll bodies are movi ng along the same stra i ght
line a n d ar e 3 000 feet apart Their velocities are such that
if they were going the same way the faster would catch the
slower up in thirty seconds while if they were moving
tow a rds one a nother they would meet in twenty v e seconds
Find the velocities
1 0 A hollow cone of paper rests on a geogr aphi ca l globe in
such a posit ion that it touches the globe along the 5 0th
para llel of la titude The radius of the globe is 20 cms
Calcula te (i ) the semi angle of the cone ;
the distance
between the a pex of the cone and the c entre of the sphere
2

A LGEB RA

1 50

H T E S T PAP E R 6
1 In a water supply a certain
head i s necessary merely
to overcome the fric tion of the pipes (i s if there were no
friction the water would be delivered more quickly) The
he a d (in feet ) used up in this way i s given by the formula
.

00 043

00 03 6

J;

2
'

32

speed of the wa ter ow in feet per second l E length of


pipe in feet d E diameter cf pipe in in ches
(i ) C l ulat th h ad req uired t v r m th fri ti n in a
2 in h p ip 1 000 fee t l ng in whi h t h w t r is r nning
4 feet p
nd
m
th length b ing
m il and half th diam et r
(i i ) Th
f th m in 6 in h s
p eed f th w t r 9 fee t p
d th
e ond
2 The following formul a: are cop ied from an electrical
engineer s pocket book Obtain from the rst of them a
formula for B and from the second a formula fo G
(Does your ignorance of the meaning o f the formul a cause
any dif culty

s 5

a c

o o

er s eco

e sa

o
s

e,

a e

e co

an

e s

er

a e

Gs

(I)
Gs

(u ) R

A person A having taken any number he pleases ou t


of a heap of counters another person B is told to take 19
times as many The person who conducts the game s p ecies
A is now
p b u t does not know how m any counters A took
told to hand to B a certain specied number q of the counters
which he holds and B is told to give in ex change to A 10
times as many counters as A ha s left Show that B will have
at the end (11 1 ) q counters Give a numerical illustration
4 The sine of a certain angle is
Find e x pres
1
sions for (i ) the cosine (ii ) the tangent of the same angle
5 For what value of p does the e x pression
3

"

+ zp

Find values
c ond i tions
6

zp

of

'

3
S

u p
-

3p

5?

which com ply with the following

I REC TED N U MB ERS

ALGEB RA

1 56

If his balance at the beginning of the year w a s 1 6


7 s 8d
48 7d , what was it at the end of the year ?
5 The following table gives the time by the clock when
the sundial registers noonday at different periods of the
year Make a table of directed numbers that will Show the
corre c tion necessary to turn sundia l time into clock tim e at
.

those periods
J an

Fe b

'

1
15

Ma r

1
15

1
14

J
1
15

Apl

uly

Au g

1
15
.

1
15

15

ne

1
15

Nov

1
15

1
15

Oct

Sep
1 1 2 0w

May

D ec

1
15

1
15

Ma ke up two ex amples like any two of the foregoing


Work them both ou t
6

B
7 Find the total value of each of the following sets of
directed numbers :
9
24
(i )
47
28
28
12
97
3 2
(ii)
23
18
0 03
5 43
81 8
73
(iii)
.

(iv)

3 1 4s
7 1 2s 4d
7 2} lb
.

(v)

(vi )

6 7 5 5d

3 0s 7 d

1 6s

8d

4% l b

glb

lb

2 hr s 1 4 mins
3 hrs 7 mins
1 hr 2% mins
4 3 mins

2
06
64
.

(vii)

1 2 lb

hrs

37

mins

Make up problems to t one of the foregoing sets of


numbers
Na ta The numbers 3 8 and 26 can be written 3 2 6 and
The number
6 respectively or more con cisely 3 2 i 6
32
3 2 i s in this case called the a r i th m eti c a l m ea n of 3 8 and
8

26

9 E x press each of the following pa irs of


i ts .m ea n as in the foregoing e x ample
(i ) 27 and 1 3 (ii) 94 and 66 (iii ) 8 1
an d
an d
(v)
.

of

numbers in terms

and 3 8 (iv ) 1 2 6

EX ERC I SE X X VII

(i ) 1 3 6

10

and
s and

ii

1 57

and 64 1 3 s
iv
cwt 1 7 l b and
mins and 1 1 hrs

1 2s
7 9 6 s ; ( ) 23 7 s
1 1 4s 8 d
( ) 8 1 5
( ) 2
4 c w t 5 1b ; ( ) 1 4 hr s 4 5

iii

mins
1 1 The rst of each of the following pairs of numbers is
the mean between the second and another number not given
Find in each case the other number
and
(i) 3 1 and 1 8 ; (ii)
(iii) 1 5 4 6 s and 1 3 7
15s
cubic feet (v)
(iv ) 1 4% cubic feet and
and 5 3 2
1 2 Use a diagram to nd the mean of the following pairs
of directed numbers When you have discovered the rule for
calculating the mean you can use it instead of the diagram
1 7 ; (ii )
7 and
1 2 and
4 and
6 ; (iii )
(i )
1 0 ; (iv)
and
27 ;
(v) 1 3 and
and
and 46 3
(vi)
(vii )
1 3 The rst of each of the followin g p airs of directed
numbers i s the mean between the second number and another
number not given Find the other number in each case
using a diagram to obtain or to check your results
6 and
1 6 ; (ii)
41 ; (iii )
and
3 and
(i )
and
and
(v)
(iv )
1 4 7 ; (vi)
41 and
and
5 3 ; (vii )
9

C
Note Suppose that the max imum (i e the highest) tem
p er a tu r e on a certain day was 7 0 F and the minimum (t e
the lowest) tempera ture was
s o that the mean temperature
We ca n conveniently ex press these facts by writing
w as
that the ex treme temperatures w ere 60 i 1 0 (which i s read
6 0 p l u s or mi n u s 1 0
1 4 The c oldest weeks of 1 907 were the fourth week in
Janua ry and the second in February ; the hottest w a s the
third in July The following table gives the max imum and
minimum readings of the thermometer for each day in those
weeks E x press the daily temperature in terms of the mean
dai ly temperature as in the above e x ample
M
in
Mi
J uly M
M
F b
Mi
M
J
E
.

an

20
21
22

ax

38 1
'

36 8
'

31 7
3 42
26 8

'

ax

3
4
5

36 0
'

3 01
31 0
'

X.

14
15
16

71 9

57 3

77 0

54 6

'

'

'

ALG EB RA

1 58

J an

Max

23
24
25
26

27 2
3 07
3 41
'

Min

23 6
22 4
'

Fe b

Ma x

23 3

3 03
23 5
23 6
27 0

3 90
38 8

'

41 2

'

'

Mn

uly M

ax .

17
18
19
20

'

'

8
9

'

Mi n

52 6

75 8
78 9
73 3

'

'

50 9

'

What facts about the temperatures are brought out by this


way of writing them
1 5 During a week in J une I found the temperature in a
shady corner of my ga rden daily at ten o clock a m The
readings were
and 5 2 r esp ec
ti v el y
L ooking at these numbers I guessed that the average
temperature was
E x press the given temperatures in
terms of this guessed (or trial a verage and use the results
a s a quick way of nding out whether I was right
1 6 D u ring ano t her week the tempera tures were
45 and
I guessed the average or mean
temperature for the week to be
Wa s I right ?
1 7 Duri n g yet another week the temperatures were
What do you guess the avera ge
to be ? Test your guess If you were wrong u s e your test to
nd the correct mean in the quic kest way
1 8 The following table gives the times of departure and
arrival of trains from L ondon (Paddington ) to Gloucester
Calculate how many minutes each train takes a n d de
termine by the use of a trial a verage the mean length of
the journey
D p rt
90
5
15
3 15
Arrive
12 4
1 43
3 2 5 54
9 D 40
D e part
A rive
1 9 Find by use of a tri a l average the mean of the follow
ing numbers
.

(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)

1 1 5 , 1 1 2 , 1 04, 1 01 , 1 09, 8 7 , 7 9, 93
+ 11, +

7 , + 1 9, + 9
5
+ 4, + 3 , + 2, 0,

3,
11,

7
9,

results of your answer to No 1 4 to nd the mean


temperature during each of the three weeks mentioned in
that question Which w a s the coolest week in 1 907
21 Find the mean daily variation in temperature during
each of the same weeks
20

U se the

ALG EBRA

1 60

Where will he be after the mov ement marked


and at the end ? Che c k your calc ula tion b y a dia gram
of th e ma z e
29 A dirigi ble balloon begins a testing ight b y rising
vertically through 1 20 feet It subsequently carries out the
following movements 1 5 6 0 feet N 7 8 0 feet W 1 47 0 feet S
1 40 feet
8 40 feet E 90 feet upwards 900 feet E 6 50 feet
downwards 700 feet W 6 40 feet N W here will it now be
with regard to its original position ?
3 0 Invent another problem like No 1 5 and solve it
3 1 Invent another problem li k e No 1 6 and solve it
5 3 S , 23
.

EXE RCISE XXVIII


ALG EB RAI C AD D ITI ON AND

I N

S B TR C T O

The following statements have reference to the move


ments of a lift in a large hotel a m ovement from one oor to
the ne xt bein g taken as unit The symbol n stands for
number of oors
State in words what problem is meant
in each case and solve it
1

3)

5)

5)

3)

4)

5)
5)
5)
5)

3)

(x ii )
(x 1 1 1 )
(x w )
(X v )

n
n

7
7)

3)

3)

(
2

Notc

4)

E x amples Nos 2 9 are to be set down in such a


way as to Show whether the problem is one of calculating an
unknown resultant from given components or of calculatin g
an unknown component given the resultant and the other
component (or components) U s e the symbol R for an n u
known resultant and the symbol p for an un k nown com
ponent
2 A lift s tarts with a passenger from the ground oor of
a hotel and carries him up to the seventh oor There he
nds that his roo m i s three oors lower down so the lift
descends with h m to that l evel On which oor is hi s
room

1 61

11

ALG EB RA

1 62

visitor in an hotel left hi s room and e n tered the lift in


order to descend to the dining room on the ground oor
He thought of course that the lift was about to go dow but
it w a s actually going up and Carried him u p three oors and
then descended seven oors to the din i ng room level On
which oor was his room
4 A motorist is about to star t from the village of X in
order to go northwards to Y Noting that hi s supply of
p etrol is insufcient he drives south 5 miles to the nearest
town Z obtains additional petrol and then travels 5 2 miles
to reach Y through X What i s the direct distance from X
to Y
5 A motoris t starts from X to go to Y
Twelve miles
from X b e overtakes a friend who is cycling to a farm house
some distance beyond Y He takes hi s friend and the bicycle
into the motor car and the two drive on for 3 8 miles till they
reach the village of Z On making inquiries here they nd
that they p assed the farm house 4 miles before entering Z
They drive bac k to it and the cyclist leaves the car The
m otori st n ow has to drive 6 m iles back to Y
How far i s it
from X to Y
6 A cyclist starts for a distant place
Five m iles from
home he has to stop to mend a puncture Having ridden
1 1 miles farther on he d isc overs that he has missed a turning
which he should have taken He rides back 3 miles to the
sign post and nds that he has now 4 miles to go to hi s
destination How long would the ride have been if he ha d
n ot made the mistake ?
7 A party of people start from a seaside town A to sail
to another town B 9 miles away The tide carries their boat
past this town to a place C 3 miles farther on They e ffect
a landing here and sail back to their original destination when
the tide turns How many miles did they sail from A to C ?
8 A cyclist started for a place 1 9 miles away
He stopped
to buy a rep air outt at a town 6 miles from h ome and stopped
again for tea 9 miles farther on He was told here that he
ough t to have taken a turning some di stance bac k He rode
back to this turning and found that he has still 7 miles from
his destination How many miles had b e gone beyond the
turning ?
9 A cyclist starting from A to ride to B w a s told th a t the
distan c e w a s 1 4 miles a n d th a t he mus t look out for a narrow
3

ALG EB RA

1 64

How will you arrange your graph s o as to distinguish times


before the present moment from times after
[It will be convenient to take 20 hours to the inch for the
time scale and 200 tons to the inch for the c oal scale ]
U s e the graph to check the calculations you made with
the form ula and also to answer the following questions
l w ill the li n r b urn in 40 h urs 7
(i H w m u h
(i i ) W h n w ill he h ve 5 00 tons l ft
(iii) W h n did he h ve 8 00 t ns
H w l ng h
(iv) Sh h d 8 1 2 t ns w hen h l ft Liverp l
-

'

s he

b e en

oo

as

out

will r h N w Y rk w i th 23 6 to ns H w l ng d s
r sing t k h
1 6 A cricket club b egins the year with a balance of 3 3
but the subscriptions have for several years been 7 less than
the annual ex penses Give a formula for the nancial posi
tion of the club at the beginning of each year and use it to
nd what the position w a s four years ago and (ii) what it
will be in s i x years time if the present conditions continue
(B t)
1 7 A rival club to the on e in the last question begins the
year with a decit of 8 but its subscriptions have for several
years ex ceeded the year s ex p enses by 4 Determine by
the use of a formula the nancial position of the club (i) ve
years ago (ii) ve years hence if the present conditions
continue
1 8 A ba k er w ho opened a new shop some years ago esti
mates that i t has returned him hi s capital a n d in addition
has yielded a total prot of 1 44 The receipts have always
e x ceeded the ex penses by 1 6 a month W rite a formula
showing the na ncial position of the enterprise at the end of
each month What was it (i) two years ago (ii) what will it
be in four and a half months (P t)
1 9 The sa m e baker estimates that another shop has still to
bring him in 1 20 prot before it will have returned the whole
of the capital originally invested in it but that the receipts
ex ceed the ex penses at the rate of 24 a month Write a
formula showing the na ncial p osition of the shop at the end
of each month
(ii) What wi ll
(i) What was it a year ago
it be in three years time
20 Illustrate the last tw o questions by drawing on the
sa me p i ece of s qu a r ed p ap er two graphs one for e a ch of the
(v)

c oa

She
th e

ea c

c os

oe

er

EX ERC I SE

XXV III

1 65

shop s U s e the graphs to nd (i) when each of the shop s


had just paid or will j ust have paid back the whole of the
capital e x pended on it (ii ) when they will both h ave earned
the same total prots
Check each of these results b y the formulae
21 The s hOp of No 1 8 was opened three years ago that
of No 1 9 tw o and a half years a go Find by the gra phs how
much capital was invested in each Check the results by the
formulae
22 Wh y i s it im p ossible to i llustrate Nos 1 6 and 1 7 by
gra p hs similar to those j ust employed What kind of graphs
would be suitable ?
23 A railway rises for several miles at a regu lar rate of 6
feet for every 1 00 feet of the s10 pe Just out side a certain
station it is 3 00 feet a b ove sea level Use a formula to nd
i ts hei ght above sea level (i ) 7 5 0 fee t far ther up the slope
(ii) 45 0 feet farther down (h d)
24 A long gallery in a coal mine benea th the sea slopes
downwards from the foot of the shaft at a uniform rate of 1
in 7 When a certain side gallery branches off it is ex ac tly
1 000 feet beneath the sea
W rite a formula that shall give
the depth (D) of points at a given distance (d) from this
place Use it to nd the depth at a place (i) 490 yards before
you reach the place in question from the shaf t (ii) 1 400
yards farther on
25 It is said that af ter a certain de p th the temperature
of the earth beneath England increases 1 F for every 5 0
feet that you descend towards the centre of the earth At a
depth of 3 000 feet i t is
Write a single formula which
shall give the temperature (T) at a p oint distant d feet below
or above this point
Use the formula to calculate the temperature at a dep th of
(i) 4000 feet (ii ) 1 8 00 feet bel ow the s u rfa ce
26 Write another formula e x pressing the temperature at a
depth d below the surface
Use this formula to calculate the temperature at the depths
mentioned in the la st question Do your results agree ?
27 Write a third formula by which the depth from the
surface
can be calculated when the temperature (T) is
gi ven
U s e it to calculate the depth wh ere the temperature is (i)
(ii )
.

ALG EB RA

1 66

Draw a graph corresponding to the formula of No 27


Show how you ca n use it to answer the questio s of No 25
How would the graphs corresponding to the formul a of
Nos 25 and 26 di ffer from this on e
29 It may be taken that the barometer falls practica l ly
in c h for every 1 00 feet you rise s o long as the total ascent
does not much e x ceed 2000 feet At a village on the side
of a Welsh mountain 7 50 feet above the sea the barometer
stands to day at
inches Write a formu la giving the
heights of the barometer (B ) at places on the mountain d feet
higher or lower than the village
Use the formula to calculate the height of the barome ter
(i ) at the sea level (ii ) at the top of the mountain which is
1 8 20 feet high
3 0 Write a formula giving the height of the barometer (B)
at different heights (h) above sea level
Calculate (i) and (ii) of the preceding question by this
formula
3 1 W rite a formula giving the height above sea level (h)
corresponding to a given height of the barometer (B) Use
it to nd the heigh t where the b arometer records (i) 291
inches (ii)
inches
28

C
3 2 Find the val ue of P a s given by each of the following
formul a : (1 ) by direct subs ti tution ; (2) by rst simplifying
the formula and substituting afterwards Take a
2
The meaning of the original formula i s
b
5 c
7
to be ex plained i n each case and also the me a ning of the
simpler formula to which it i s reduced
2b)
b)
(3
(i ) p
(
b)
(ii ) P
(3
(2 b
)
.

(i i i )
(iv)
(v)
(vi )

4b )

(a
(5b

(3 a

2b

2a

(a

oh)
6b )

3 c)

(4a

(2 3

3 c)

2b

each of the following formul a to the form most


suitable for substitution Find the value of the subject when
33

Reduce

(i
,

( )
111

1 0, q =

A =
C =

zp

(3 p

6,

+ r

q)

3 q + 4r )
2 q)
4(p
2 (p
3 (q
q)
-

(p

4(r

p)

EXE RC I SE XXIX
DIREC TED

U CT S

P RO D

York station is 3 2 miles to the north of Doncaster


station on the Great Northern Railway Write a formula for
calculating the distance (d) of a train from Doncaster given
the time (t) since it left York The t rain may be supposed
to travel with a constant velocity
U s e the formula to nd the distance of the train from
Doncaster in the following circumstances
d l ft
(i ) Th tr in is tr v lling t th n r th t 3 5
Y r k tw
d
half h ur g
m
pt th t th tr in i travelli ng uth
(ii ) Th
(iii) Th tr in s v l i ty i 46 ml /h t w rd th n rth b t i t
w ill
t r
h Y rk f
d h lf h urs
d will
(iv) Th tr in is m in g fr m S tl d t 44
r a h Y rk in thr q u r ters f h ur
d lef t
(v) Th tr in is tr v lling s uthw rds at 40
Y rk f r ty ight m inut s g
2 A steamer w hich trades between Cape Town and
Melbourne sails for many days along the 3 9th parallel (S )
at a uniform rate of v m l s / hr At a certain moment it i s
reported (by wireless telegraphy) to be a t a given number of
miles (do) from the island of St Paul which is on the same
parallel Writ e a formula for i ts position with regard to St
Paul
a given number of days (t) after or before this
moment
Find the position of the steamer
st f
(i ) T hr d ys f t r i t is r p r t d t b 250 m iles t th
i ts w estw rd j urney d trav lli g t 1 2
St P ul
1

o an

no

e oc

an

an

an

so

co

an

or on e a n

ee -

co

s a

ea c

e , ex c e

e sa

an

ee
.

on

m l s / hr
.

(ii ) F i ftee n

an

e ea

h u s ft r i t is 1 20 m il s t th w st f St P ul
pursuing w stw rd urs t 1 5 m l s /h
in (ii )
(iii ) T h urs b f r i t is r p r t d
3 The water in a reservoir ha s a depth of do feet which
is increasing h feet per day Find the depth (d) after t days
o

en

e a

co

e o e

as

r.

1 68

EXERC I SE

XX IX

1 69

Use the formula to calculate the dep th twelve days ago


given tha t the surface is sin king 3 inches daily and that the
present depth is 1 3 ft
4 A ship taking soundings in a bay nds that the depth of
the sea at a certain point is do fathoms and that it increases
regularly by i fathoms for every quarter of a mile towards the
west Write a formula giving the depth d m miles west of
the given p oin t
Use the formula to calculate the depth 4 miles to the east
of a p oint where the depth i s 400 fathoms assuming that the
soundings decrease in this direction at the rate of
fathom s
per quarter of a mile
5 A road climbs up a valley at a uniform slope of
A
certain inn on the roadside is ho feet above sea level Write
a formula giving the height
above sea level at a point m
miles along the road farther up the valley
U s e the formula to nd the height above sea level at a
2% miles before (ii) 3 miles after the inn is reached
p oint
when you are walking downhill at a constant slop e of
and
the inn is 25 00 feet above the s ea
6 A farm house A is situated on a road that runs east and
west Another hou se B lies p miles due north of A on a
straight road that crosses the former at an angle of some
distance to the west of A A third house C lies on the
second road q miles from B in the opposite direction to the
crossing How far is C north of the road through A 2
Given that the two roads cross at an angle of
that B is
m iles from B in
1 % miles to the south of A and tha t C i s
the direction of the crossing nd by the above formula the
distance of C from the road through A
Illustrate your solution by a diagram
7 A charitable society has a balance of B 0 at the bank
Its revenue ex ceeds the ex penses by an annual amount p
What will be the balance B after t years ?
Suppose that the society ha s overdrawn its ban k ing account
to the amount of 1 3 0 but that it may be assumed that its
regular income always ex ceeds the ex penses by 20 per
annum Find by your formula the balance (1) 5 years hence
(ii) 6 years ago
and
8 A motor car is going with a velocity of u
this velocity is increasing regularly at such a rate that at the
end of every minute the ca r goes a m l s / hr faster than at the
,

a.

ALG EB RA

1 70

beginning of that minute Give a formula for v its velocity


after t minutes
At the moment a motor ca r p a ssed me it was travelling at
27
but its speed had been diminishing and continued
afterwards to diminish Assuming tha t the rate of diminution
of speed may be taken as 3 m ls / hr every minute use the
foregoing formula to calculate the speed of the car (i) in ve
minutes time ; (ii) four minutes ago ; (iii) in nine min utes
time ; (iv) in eleven minutes ti m e What i s the meaning of
the last result
9 Tw o mo tor cars start in the same direction at the same
moment and travel with uniform velocities v 1 and v
The
rst reaches a place X after t1 hours the sec ond a place Y
after t hours Give a formula for d the distance between
X and Y
Two motor cars pass on e another on the road at ex actly
twelve o clock One is travelling at 24
the other at 20
m l s / hr in the o p posite direction
The rst car left X at
the second reached Y at
Assuming that the
speeds were cons tant throughout nd the distance between
X and Y by means of the foregoing formula
1 0 A motor c a r is travelling at u
but i ts speed is
increasing a m l s / hr every minute In how many minutes
will i t be 1)
bu t i ts s p eed is
(i) A motor car is travelling at 28
diminishing 4 m l s / hr every minute Apply the foregoing
formula to nd how long it will be before its speed will be
reduced to 8 m 1s / hr
(ii) Assuming that the conditions remain consta nt in how
many minutes will it be travelling at 1 4 ml s / hr in the
opposite direction
.

2.

B
1 1 What laws of succession are e x hibited by the terms of
the following s eq u e n ces of directed numbers
.

( i)
i

4
1 8,
8,

7'
1

4,

3,
0,

8,

3,
p

Continue each sequence three terms to the right and three


terms to the left
1 2 Write a formula for the term in No 1 1 (i ) which lies
.

ALG EB RA

1 72

Calculate in the case of (i ) a n d (ii) the 1 00th term to the


left of the start in g term and in the case of (iii) and (iv) the
1 000th term after the starting term
20 Write the generating formul a of the arithmetic sequences
in which the common di fferences are respectively (i) 1 8
and the starting terms are
(ii )
(iv)
(iii)
respectively
3 (ii ) 0 (iii)
(iv)
21 Give a gene r ating formula that will apply to a n y
arithmetic sequence (Let TO E the starting term and d 5 the
common difference )
22 Counting to the right of the starti g ter m the 2oth
term of an A S i s 1 7 and the 3 oth term 8 4 Find the
common difference the star ting term and the generating
formula
23 In an arithmetic sequence TIZ
8 T2O
32
Find the generating formula
24 The 1 4th term to the right of the starting term of an
a s
is
the 6 th term to the left i s
Find the
generating formula
25 The 1 7 th term before the starting term of an A S is
the 1 3 th term after it i s
What i s the gener
a ting formu la
26 Find the generating formula of an A S in which T_24
1 9 and T 3 7
58
27 In a certain
E x press d To
T
0
u and T
and the generating formula in terms of u v p and q Do
your formula hold good for all possible values of p and q u
and v
,

'

],

'

'

C
Nol a

Select any term from an unlimited arithme tical


sequence The series made u p of this term and any number
limited or unlimited of consecutive terms which immediately
follow it is called an a r i thm eti c a l p r og r es s i on
The series composed of this term and any number of con s e
c u tiv e terms which immediately
precede it i s called an
arithmetic r eg r es s i on
Thus a progression always
has a rst term but may have no last term ; while a regres
sion always ha s a last term but may have no rst term
The numbers which constitute an A P are often said to be
The terms which lie between
i n arithmetical progression

EX ERC I SE

XXI X

1 73

the rs t and last terms of an A P are called the a r i thm e t i c


m ea n s between those terms Thus if an A P has 1 2 terms
there are 1 0 arithmetic means
28 T here are 8 numbers in arithmetic progression the rst
being 3 and the last 3 1 What is the common di fference ?
What are the arithmetic means
29 The rst term of an A P is
21 and
3 the last
there are 5 arithmetic means between them Wha t are they
3 0 Given that the rst and last terms of an A P containing
n terms are respectively a and l write a formula for d the
common difference
3 1 There are n arithmetic means between two terms a and
l
What i s the common di fference
3 2 An A P contains n terms altogether
The rst term is
a and the common di fference is d
Write e pressions for the
2n d 3 r d p th a n d last (i e n th) terms
(Note the important
di fference between the rst of a number of terms in A P and
the starting term of an endless A S In counting the
terms the former i s included the latter is n ot )
3 3 The rst of 21 numbers in A P is
and the
common diff erence is
Find the last term the rst
mean but on e and the last mean but tw o
3 4 The third of 1 6 numbers in A P is 1 4 the thirteenth
is 44 What are the rst and last terms ?
3
The rst
3 5 The comm on di fference of an A P is
and last terms are respectively 23 and 25 How many
means are there
13
20
1
5 0
3 6 Are any of the numbers
among the means in No 3 5 ? If 8 0 state their positions
If so which
3 7 Is 7 2 a term of t he A P 1 3 i
term is i t ? If not between which term s does it lie 9
3 8 I make a series by taking the 2n d 5 th 8 th etc term s
Will the new series be in A P ? If s o what will
of an A P
be the common di er en c e ?
Show that the numbers obtained by taking every p th term
of an A P are themselves in A P
3 9 Between each p air of t erms of an A P p arithmetic
means are inserted Show that the whole series forms an
If there were originally n terms how many terms are
A P
there in the new series
40 Taking a series of numbers in A P (i ) I add the same
number to ea ch ; (ii) I s ubtract the same number from
.

ALG EB RA

1 74

each (iii ) I m u ltiply each by the same number ; (iv ) I divide


ea c h by the same nu mber ; (v ) I mul tiply ea c h by the same
number and ta ke another constant number a way from the
product ; (vi) l sq uare each ; (vii ) I take the square root of
each In which of these cases will the resulting numbers
be in A P ? Give full reasons When the n ew series is in
AP
what will its c ommon difference be ?
.

A LGEB RA

1 76

In a block ra c e the rst block is 3 yard s from the


starting (and nishing) line ; the others follow at regular
distances of 5 feet There a r e six teen blocks altogether
What is the total distance tha t the blocks are ca rried ?
9 The rst week a restaur a nt is opened the proprietor s
e x penses ex ceeded his t akings by 5 1 2s the second week
the loss w a s 3 48
If the improvement were maintained at
the same rate how much prot would the propr ietor m ake
a ltogether in 1 3 weeks ?
8

Three boys A B and C are apprenticed each for si x


A is to receive no
y ears under the following conditions
thing during the rst year 1 0 the secon d year 20 the
third year etc and 5 0 the last year B is to receive nothing
during the rst s ix months His wages are then to rise by
e q ual half yearly ste p s s o that during the last s i x months he
will be p aid li k e A at the rat e of 5 0 a year C is to serve
for nothing during the rst three months His wages will
the n be increased uniformly every three months by such an
amount that during the last q uarter of the six th year he also
will be p aid at the rate of 5 0 a year
Draw (to the same scale) column graphs ex hibiting
the wages received by A B and C respectively at di fferent
periods Write out a proof by means of the graphs that dur
ing the ve years each app rentice will receive the same total
amount in wages What i s this amount ? What were B s
half yearly and C s quarterly increments
1 1 For a minute after a tap delivering into a tank i s
turned on n o water ows It then pours out at the ra te
At the end of a minute the tap is suddenly
of 2 ga l s / m i n
turned on farther so that it now delivers 4 gals / min After
another minute the tap is again turned and the ow in creases
After one more minute the ow is increased
to 6 gals / min
to 8 ga l s / mi n At the end of the fth minute the tap i s
suddenly turned off completely Draw a rectangle gra p h
ex hibiting the q uantity of water sup plied in each minute
W
1
i
ake
each
rec
t
an
le
inch
wide
hat
s the total
M
)
g
(
quantity of water delivered
1 2 On another occasion the tap was turned on farther
ever y s i x s e c onds for ve minutes in su c h a way t hat th e
10

EX ERC ISE

XXX

1 77

increased by eq ual steps The rate of delivery during


the last s ix seconds was 8 gal s /m i n During the rst s ix
seconds n o water was delivered Erect upon the base line
of the former graph a column graph ex hi biting the new con
di ti on s of ow
What is the total quantity of water del ivered ?
1 3 On a third occasion the tap w a s turned on gradually
and without a break so that the ow increased constantly
and uniformly At the end of ve minutes when the tap was
suddenly turned off the rate of delivery had reached 8 gals / min
Using the same b ase line as i n Nos 1 2 and 1 3 draw a graph
ex hibiting the conditions of ow How much water was de
livered in ve minutes ? How much did th e rate of ow
increase in the course of each minute
1 4 In Nos 1 0 1 1 1 2 1 3 what line measures the rate of
wages or the rate of ow a t a given moment ?
1 5 Show that in No 1 3 the rate of ow at any moment
i s given by the formula
ow

being the rate of ow i n gallons per minute and t the time


in minutes (and fractions of a minute) since the tap was turned
on What was the rate of ow after
mi n utes ?
1 6 Show that in No 1 3 the number of gallons (Q) de
livered in t minutes i s given by the formula
Q 08 t
How much was in the tank at the end of 3 3 minutes ?
1 7 For a considerable time o e morning the state of the
crowd passing over London Bridge was given by the
formula
r

1 80 t

being the rate of movement of the crowd m e a sured b y


the number of persons p er hou r who would have p assed a
certain point if the rate had been maintained ; t being the
time in mi n u tes since the observations began Show that the
total number w ho passed a certain point in the rst t minutes
is given by the formula
r

t2

The speed of a marble permitted to roll from rest down


a smooth slope increases uniformly After ten seconds it i s
Draw a graph showing the speed at
3 feet per second
di fferent times What does a unit of area in this grap h
represent ? Find from the graph the distance the marble
rolls (i) in ve seconds (ii) in ten seconds Write formul a
18

12

ALGEB RA

1 78

for the speed acquired


and the distan c e rolled (s) in t
seconds
1 9 A railway train starts from rest and increases its speed
uniformly until after twelve minutes it i s going at 60 miles an
hour Draw a graph showing the S peed and the distance
travelled in a given time What di stance i s represented in
this graph by the unit of are a ? Write formula for v the
speed in miles per hour after t minutes and for 8 the distance
in miles travelled in t minutes What is the speed after eight
minutes and how far ha s the train then travelled ?
20 The speed of a moving body in feet per second is given
by the formula
.

at

'

the time in seconds since it began to move What


formula gives the distance in feet travelled in t seconds
What does this formula become if t i s measured in seconds
but 0 in feet p er minute ?
21 A motor car is moving at the rate of 1 5 m l s / hr when
it reaches a descent down which i ts speed increases regularly
at the rate of 3 m l s / hr per minute Draw a graph showing
i ts speed at any time measured from the moment when it
began to i ncrease Write formula for the values of (i ) 0
(measured in m il es / hou r ) (ii) 7) (measured in m il es / m in u te s)
and (iii) 3 (measured in miles) after a given time t (measured
in minutes)
22 The S peed of a moving body i s given by the formula
t bei n g

'

'

at

and 1) being measured in feet per second and t in seconds


Write a formula for the distance moved in t seconds What
does the formula become if u en d s are measured in miles per
hour and t in minutes ?
2 3 Show by a diagra m that if v
u
a t then s
ut
2
W the same unit of time being used in mea suring u v
and t
24 A train is travelling at 40 m l s / hr when the brakes are
put on The Speed n ow decreases uniformly and in ve
minutes the train is at res t Draw a graph ex hibiting its
speed and the distance travelled from the m oment when the
brakes are put on Give formul a for v and s t being
measured in minutes
25 A boy rolls a ball up a smooth slope with a speed of
It gets uniformly slo w er stops and then rolls
1 8 ft / sec

'

'

'

ALGEBRA

1 80

33

FIG

35

F IG

34

F IG

FIG

36

37

EXERC I SE

F IG

XXX

38

E C} 3 9
.

1 81

ALGEB RA

1 82

Determine by measurements taken at random whether


equidista nt lines dra wn across g 3 3 are in A P If they are
E
x XX I X
See
c al c ul a te the a re a of the gure in sq c m s
[
31

No

Do the same with g 3 4


A number of square slabs 2 inches thick a r e piled on
top of one another so a s to produce the solid gure shown in
elevation in g 3 5 A pin 2 inches hi gh but of negligible
volume surmounts the pile The squares in g 3 6 are the
outlines of the successive blocks as seen from above Cal
c ulate the di f
feren ces between the areas of successive squa res
Hence c alcula te the
c ounting the pin as ha v ing z ero area
volume of the solid
3 4 Fig 3 7 shows an elevation of a pointed solid stan ding
on a square b a se Fig 3 6 may be regarded as a contour
ma p of this solid the squares being con tour lines t a ken at
interva ls of 2 inches measured vertically Wh a t is the prob
a ble volume of the solid ?
Upon what assumpti on i s your
ca lcul a tion b a sed ?
E a ch
3 5 Fig 3 8 i s a contour plan of a hea p of gr a v el
small square in the pl an represents an a rea of 1 square foot
The contours a r e taken at distances of 1 foot measured
vertica lly The height of the heap i s 7 feet Calc ulate its
proba ble volume
3 6 Fig 3 9 is the side outline of the re ec tor of a searc h
light drawn on e fourth of the actual linear siz e Its cross
sec tion is everywhere circular On AB choose at r a ndom
Mea sure the ra dii of the
a n y number of equidistant points
Find by
c ir cul a r c ross sections at the points so deter min ed
If they are cal
c alc ul a tion whether their areas are in A P
c ulate the volume enclosed by the reector
32
33

ALGEB RA

1 84

odd numbers What ex pression will describe the


product of tw o consecutive odd numbers ?
1 0 a n d when
Test the validity of the expression when n
s e c u ti v e

Prove that the product is itself alwa ys a n odd number


1 1 Prove that the product of any two odd numbers
1 and 2g
positive or negative i s always odd (Take
1
as ex pressions for the tw o odd numbers )
1 2 Tw o numb ers M
and N2 have respectively the forms
1
2
n
n
1
What i s the form of their product ?
1 and n
Make a table of the values of N1 and N2 when n
3
2
1
2
Do the products
3 respec tively
follow the calculated law
1 3 Tw o numbers are respectively of the forms n
n + 1
and n
1
What i s the form of their product ? Test the
result by putting n
1 4 What is the form of the product of two numbers which
have respectively the forms n 2 n 1 and n 2 n 1 ?
Conrm in the cases when n O
10
3 and
2
2
1 5 Show that
c
b) 2
b
c
a
(
(
}
)
)
2
2
a
b2
0
ab
bc
ca
Test by putting a
2
b
3 c
1
Select any three values you please for
a b and c and test again
2
1 6 Why must a n u m ber of the form a
b2
ab
c
bc
ca always be positive ?
Test the statement by sub
.

s ti tu ti on

17
a

and N2 have respectively the forms


ca a n d a
b
c
Fi n d the for m
Prove that the si gn of the product is the

Tw o numbers, N1
2
b2
0
ab
bc

of their product
same a s the sign of N2
1 8 Prove that a b (a
.

(b
1,

b)

be (I
)
b) 3 }

ca

(0

Test when

1,

C
Note The meaning of a number of several digits suc h as
243 7 can be ex pressed as follows
.

243 7 = 2

1 00 + 3

2i s

4t2. + 3 t

the symbol t being substituted


ne s s
.

7
for 1 0

10 + 7

for the sake

of

concise

EXERC I SE
19

XX XI

1 85

Write in ordinary notation the following numbers :

r
6t
3t
(ii ) at
9t
i
as
(m )
(iv) t
2t
r
t + t
t + t
( )
s
(vi ) t
20 Find the form of the product of two numbers whose
forms ar e t2 2t 3 a n d 3 t 2 respe ctively Compare the
process with that of multiplying 1 23 by 3 2
21 Show that 1 23 may be ex pressed as 2 t
3 and
8i
3 2 as 4t
Find the form of the product of the numbers
8
ex pre ssed thus and nd whether it ex presses the a rithmetical
result c orre c tly
22 Find the forms of the produc ts of the pairs of numbe rs
whose forms are given by the following ex pressions
V

a
t
7
3
t
5
2
t
+
3

a
3t

t
a
t

6
6

5t

?
I

I.

2t

4
s
2
t
t
t
1 an d 3 t
+ 4
+ 2t
3
3
2 t + r a n d t2
2t + 3
2t + r
8 t3 + 4t2

2
t
3

r 6t

2t

3
t
+ r
3

an d

gt

2.

zt

Conrm (iv) and (v ) by arithmetic


23
Obtain the a lgebraic produ ct of the following
pressions
.

(i )

(ii)
(iii)
(1 V)

b
a
a b

a.

a3

b
b3

an d n

an d a

b3

xz

9q

I
2

I and

29

49

a 2

"

ss

9q

+ L
29

an d

ex

sq

+ 1

number ha s the form a b c Wh a t is the form


of its squa re ? Test in the case when a
2
3 b
24

3
Us e

the res ult of No 24 to write do w n without


mul tiplic ation the squares of the foll o w i ng ex pressions
25

(i )

(iii )

( )
(vii )
v

2a

b + c
+ 3b +

2q +

sp

2a +

c.

+ h

(viii )

a2

5
( )
x

c.

3b
2q +

3
q

ta
-

c.

3'

ALG EB RA

1 86

26 Complete Stifel s Table as far a s the r ow giving the


coef cients of (a b)1 0
7
Deduce from
b
f
a
o
Wri
t
e
down
the
e
x
pansion
27
)
(
it the ex pansion of (a b)7
6
and 0 f 219
28 Write down the ex pansion of 1 +
2
29 Demonstrate the follow ing prope r ties of the binomial

coei c i en ts :

(i ) The sum

of

the coef cients of (a

b
l)
(Put a
(ii ) The sum of the

odd

b)

"

is

always

coef cients is always equal to the

sum of the even coef cients ;


(iii ) The coe f cients succeed in the same order counting
either from the rst or from the last
(iv) If n is even there is on e greatest coe f cient if odd
there are tw o equal gr ea test coef cients
3 0 Calculate :
(i) The fourth term in the e x pa nsion of (3 a
(ii ) The third term in the ex pansion of 1
s
9
b
iii
The
term
involving
in
the
e
pansion
a
3
x
o
f
a
( )
) ;
( 6
2
iv
The
middle
term
in
t
he
e
x
pansion
of
( )
(p
qr )
(v ) The term containing no variable in the ex pansion of
,

<

1
vi
The
terms
containing
and
in the ex pansion
0
( )
1

of

ALGEB RA

1 88

B
5 L ight travels at the ra te of about
miles per
second and takes about two and a half years to reach the
neare st x ed star Calculate the appro ximate distance of that
star
6 The Atlantic Ocean covers about
square
miles and has an average depth of about
feet A cubic
foot of sea water weighs
1b
Fi n d the approx imate weight
of the ocean in pounds
7 The average population of the British Isles during the
las t ten years may be taken to be
Each person
on the average breathes about 1 6 times a minute and at each
breath draws in about 25 cubic inches of air Find roughly
how many cubic inches of air have passed in and out of British
lungs during the last ten years
8 E x p ress each of the factors of the following products in
the stand a rd form and obtain the valu e of the products to
three signicant g ures E x press the products also in the
standard form
.

(i )
(ii)
(i i i )
(iv)
(v)

2 83

32
136

10
x

10

10

1 0

6
.

10

8
.

C
9 The distance of the earth from th e sun i s about
miles Ho w many minutes does the sun s light
take to reach us ? (See No
1 0 Cal c ulate roughly from the result of No 6 the number
of t ons in the Atlantic Ocean
1 1 Calculate roughly from the result of No 7 the number
of cubic miles of air breathed by the inhabitants of the
British Isles during the last ten years
1 2 Throw the numbers in the following e x pressions into
the standard form and nd the value of each ex pression to
three signicant gures giving it in the standard form
.

(i )

83 2 4

92 7 x 3 49 1
1 70 2 4 x 8 1 8 9 x 2 1
2
1 82 x 1 0 4 X 9 6 x 1 0

'

'

60

(ii i )

x 10

1 2 09 x
x

40 0

10

10
3

56 5

10
x

10

"

10

EX ERC I SE

XXXII

1 89

D
Si mplify the following ex pressions
.

13

(i )

b3

b e

y
}
( ) b3 x

mi 2

ti p

bc 3

p q

a bz

'

bc q r

c a p

b c r a

b ga

i'

Simplify the following ex p ressions

14

)
9
(11 1 )

WWW

i
if
m v
( )
)

15

( )( f
(El
a b p

(iii )

a spsq

b3
x

2!

a e

b q fl

(ii )
(i v )

( ) 7

"

mew /(i m

cm )

(i x)

f f

Si mplify the following ex pressions

(i )

a 2b l

( ) (
1 11

ca

cm

(i i )

c) m (c

2
b
(

i:

()

( )

(xx )

1v

l
U
(v) (a )

:i

> (

16

Find the va lue of the following e x pressions


x

(i )

3 00 0

(ii )
(iii )

1 03

E x press ea ch number in the following ex pressions as


the produc t of powers of i ts prime fac tors Redu c e e ac h ex
pression to i ts simplest form as a product or ratio of su c h
powers
17

(i )
(ii)

(i ii )

8 90 x 2 450 0 x 50 4
1 8 x 1 1 8 3 x 5 2 0 x 86 70
2 5 5 x 6 63 x 7 6 50
2 2 99 x 2 53 x 3 96

2 47 x

47 2

1 1

3 62

AL GEB RA

1 90

Write out in full a j us tica tion of each of the f ollowing


e qui v a l e nc es
(Th e s ym b ols m a n d n repr es e nt integers
W ithout si gn )
18

(i i )
(iii )
(i v )

'

m
an

ap

m if p i s

a n ex a c

t multi ple

of n

ALGEB RA

1 92

E x press ea ch
of pri m e num b er s
7

9
81

(i )

of

powers

51

'

1 1

Rewrite the following ex pres s ion s wit h pos itive indic es

(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)

63

a product

as

4 x 867
2 3 x 3 2 x 65
3 3 8 x 598 x 2 56 x
88 x 1 43 x 50 7 1
2 2 99 x 92 2 x 64

(1 1 1 )
8

the following

of

4a
1

4 2

5
2

5p q

6a b
i'

gq
b

w r p

'

ab

b)

Give the l a s t a n s wer in a s i mpli ed form


9 E x pr ess ea ch of the foll owing ex pr es s i on s in th e form
Aa m b o
(All s ym b ols used a s indices repr es ent w hol e
nu mb er s)
(ii) 1 / N/
(i )
.

( )

m I

10

Writ e ou t a j us ti c a ti on
i
(i)
'

of

ll

b eing a p ositi ve whol e nu m b er

th e

(ii)

"

(a
2

6.

e
o

qui va l ences
1

XXXIV

EXE RC I S E

I N

FAC TOR Z AT O

E a ch of the f oll owing expres s ion s gi ves a a l gebra i c


product and on e of i ts fa ct or s Find the other fa ct or
1

it)

(1 1 (

m/(Sp

( ) (
(ii i )

(iv)

m)

mu

2 59
2

3 b)

6a h
2 4mn

in 2

3 n)

I li

3)

( f?
) (p
7p
2

2
3
3
51
(1 2
a
4
v
1
u
x
z
a
}
c
a
( ) ( 4
2
x
i
2
:
a
m
x
( ) (
2

(x vii)
(

vii i)

'

2
2

q
b3
b3

26

q
+ 3

2 71

1 03

( ) (p
(x x )
3
x
x
a
( i) ( 3
(X X II) (x
x ix

(v)

3r

02

2ab

z bc

12

2 pq

2 qr

c3
s

o
2

b
b

)
c)

Fa ct oriz e the foll owing ex pres s ions


20
9
(i )
20
9
(ii)
1s b
56b
(iii) a
a

1 93

13

AL G EB RA

1 94

(iv) p
(v) 2
(vi) 6
(vii ) 6
(v ii i ) 8

2x 4

2 3 px 2

21 2

2
i
x
x
( ) 4

(x i )
(x i i )
(x iii )
(xi v )
(x v )

vi ii)

(x xx )

xx

gf

Pq

6a 2
.

(H i )

iv)

2 8.
.

q
6

6b

23

20.

4p

z 1 p

46x 2

39

6 4b

z 7a s

(x x v 1 )

125

2 7a

b6

vii) x
vi i i) :
75

xx

(x x

a.

(x x v )

12

(x x iii )
xx

25

2 8 q 2.

5x
5a b

gpg
3 ap
a

21

8
8

z oa 2

2a

a.

35
49

2a

oi

xv n

40 x

6x 4

p
6b

1 2b

3ab
i 7a h
3 8x
2 8x

a2
x

px

30

(
)
(x x x )
x x ix

8p3

i
.

81
1

6 3 93

B
3 Writ e d own by in s p e cti o n the a lgebra ic s qua re r oot
ea ch of th e foll o wing ex pr e s s i on s
2 b
b
z
b
(i )
2 bc
z
b
b
(ii)
xz q
6pq
4 12
9q
(iii ) 1
zo
25
i z b
3 ob
gh
(iv) 4
.

a
3

"
1

b9

"

( ) 5p
4

v ii

ca

25

9
4

2. s

1 q4

ea

9 2
b
4 c

I6

3 p2q 2
3

ca

bc +

IS

ab

vi

2a

'

"

ca

5
2

+ q r

4a b c

3 r 2p2

4
2
1 6b c a

8 ca 2b

of

EXE RC I SE XXX V
AL GEB RAIC DIV I SI ON
A
Obt a in the a l gebr a ic qu oti e nt s in the fo ll o w ing c a s e s :
o
(i ) (
.

6 4a b2

2 9a 2b +

( )
(iv)
(it)
(v i )
(vii )
(vi i i )
(i x )
(X )

(
4
a
(
(2

za

in

1 9a x

7
1

a3

5x

93

5p

39

( 4
(a 5
(6 21
(I

2 5x

21

3 p)

4x )

4x

3a

23 a

7)

2
0
a
4

3 a)

213

(i v )

2a

Iz

9a

1 2a

3 13

( )
(vii )
(V i n )

62

vi

za
a

2a

32

3p

3 by
by p2

1 1a

10
1

1 2x

+ 3x

4a
1

3a

e.

3x

4m

3p

3 by

92.

I x

+ n + 1
1 1a

b y 3 9

3
a
7

+ 3a + 3

aq

as

+ 1 by n

by

14

p q
r1

by

z a "l

3a

3a
2 1

2a

by

by

9x

3 11

3
.

Find the inte gra l equi va l ent s of th e foll owing fra cti on s
a

(I)

Ve rify th e
1

in

(n )

(w )
a

3ax

2a

3
i
6
( i) 9

Divide

(i)

6b )

(V )

b
b

a
1

in (i )

I
1

(w )

r es ult s by putting a
(v)

(m )

"

1
,

ls

a.

in (i i i)

Find out w hy ther e a r e n o int egra l equiva l ent s of the


l/ (l
a ) (1
fra cti on s (a 4
ai
(1
a
5 E x pl a in (i) w hy (1
) h a s a n int egra l
e quiv a l ent whe n n i s odd but n ot whe n n i s e v e n
(ii ) w hy
h
n int egra l equi v a l ent whe n n i s ev e n
1
a
a
a
s
1
W
(
)
(
4

1 96

EX ERC I SE

but

XXXV

1 97

when it i s odd ; (iii) w hy (1


a
) a lwa y s
ha s a n int e gr a l eq uiva l ent ; (i v) w hy (1
a ) n e v er
ha s a n int e gr a l equiv a l e nt
(I t i s a s s u m ed t h a t n i s a
p os itive whol e nu m b er ) Writ e down the equiva l ent s wh ere
t hey ex i s t
n ot

B
Na ta

The ex pr es s i o n a 4 ?
)
i s s a id to be o f
3 a 2b3
th e fou r t h d e g r e e in a of the t hi r d d e g r ee in b a n d of the
the degree being m ea s ured by the
s ec on d d eg r ee in c
h ighes t p o we r of the v a ri a b l e n a m ed
The ex pr es s i o n i s a l s o
s a id to b e of the ft h d e r e e in a a n d
s inc e in t er m s in
g
wh ich b oth t hes e va ria bl es occur together the s u m of their
p o w e r s i s v e
6 Find the va lu e s of P a n d Q in t h e fol l owing id entiti es
wit h the res trictio n t ha t the d e gree of Q i s to be a s l ow a s

p os s ib l e :

(i )
(ii)

(i ii )

za2 +
a

3a

3a
2

(a

+ 2a

5) P
Q
(iv) 4
3
7
(2
=
v
+
)
g
(
(
4
7) P + Q
+
+
(vi)
7 Fr om y our r es ult in No 6 (i ) ll in the va lu es
Q in the id entity
a
40
7
Q
P
3 3

a4

a.

za

of

an d

In

ther word s writ e d ow n the i n teg r a l e x p r es s i on a n d the


prop er fra cti on (or c omp l e m e n t) w h ich a e t ogether eq u i v a
l e nt to the fra cti on (a
4a
8 U s e the res ult s of No 6 to ex pr es s ea ch of the f oll owing
fra cti on s a s e qui va l ent to a n int egra l ex p r es s i on together
with a c om pl em ent a ry pr op er fra ctio n
o

(I )
.

a3

3a
a

+ 2a

(1 1 1 )

a4

(1 1 )
.

+ za s

4a

2a

7a + 3
5

+ 1

Wha t i s the va l u e (i ) of (a 3 ) P whe n a 3 ; (ii) of


5 ) P wh e n a
2) P whe n a
2 ; (iii) of (2a
5?
(a
D o the a n s wer s d ep end a t a l l o th e va l u e of P ?
9

AL GEB RA

1 98

y our w orking of No 6 (i ) Wha t i s the va lu e


right ha nd s ide when a
2 ? W ha t t h e n s h o u l d
r es ult of s ub s tituting 2 for a in the l eft ha nd side
Find if it i s s o
1 1 W ha t rul e wo uld y ou giv e for nding Q w i thou t
?
r ev i ou s l
n
di
n
P
in
pr
o
bl
e
m
lik
e
t
h
s
e
f
6
Tes t
s
N
o
o
o
p
y
g
th e rul e by s eeing w he ther it giv es y ou th e v a lu es for Q wh ic h
y o u h a v e a l r ea dy o bt a in ed in (ii) (iii ) a n d (v)
1 2 Find the c om p l em e nt a ry prop er fr a cti o n in the f oll ow i n g
c a s e s w it hout nding the qu otient
6
(i ) (
4
13
7
4)
(ii ) (
10
of the
be the
.

T urn

to

a3
at

(m )

( 5
(i v ) (a

2
a
V
( ) (
a4

2 61

3a

5a

)
3)

Find the va lue s of P a n d Q in the foll owing c a s e s the


degree of Q being a s l ow a s p os s ibl e
(i)
2
+ 5
+ 1 )P + Q
(ii) 3 +
z b
oh
Q
(iii ) 6
s b
s b
4 b
(
(iv)
)P + Q
1 4 U s e the r es ult s of No 1 3 to ex h ibit ea ch of the f ol l ow ing
fr a cti on s a s equiva l ent to a n integra l ex pr e s s ion t ogether w ith
a pr op er fra ctio n
13

a
2

"

32

ii
2
1
( ) (3 5
(iii ) (a
a

Arra nge a

22

5a

52

2a

a
4

2a 2

For

a.

is

in

pa
1 )P

3a

wha t va lu e of p i s a
di v is ibl e by a 2 3 a 1 ?
1 7 For wh a t v a lu e of p
divi s ibl e by a 2 a 2
.

2a

16

(i )

15

the

for m

2a.2
a

pa

pa

ex a

ctly

ex a

ctly

C
Na ta W hen th e int egra l p a r t of the equi va lent of a
fra ction i s c a l cul a t ed in a s c e nding p ow er s of the va ria bl e
e tc
20
3a
) th e c om pl e m ent ca nn ot be
(e g 1
a pr op e r fr a cti on ; for th e d egr ee of th e nu m e ra t or wi l l be
h igh er th e gr ea t e r th e nu m b er of ter m s in t h e inte g a l p a rt
The i n t egr a l p a r t i s in t h es e c a s es o ft e n c a ll e d th e e x p a n s i on
of th e fr a cti on in a s c e nding p ow er s of th e v a ri a bl e
.

ALGEB RA

200

(v
(vi
(vii )
(viii)

Na ta

We

) to
2 a ) to 5 terms
3 a ) to 7 terms
a ) to 4 t erms

(1
(1
(1
(1

ha v e

a.

a
2

a.

a.

Al s o

i a)

i1
26 Gi v e th e s p eci ed
a n d th e c om pl em e nt
.

27

nu mb er

of

'

t er m s

t
t

3 a ) to 4 er ms
3 a ) to 5 er ms

a ) to 6 ter ms

(i )
(ii)
(i i i )
(iv)
(v ) ( 1
(v i ) (1

of

the

ex

p a n s i on

to 4 ter ms
a ) to 5 er ms
3 a ) to 4 ter ms
gag/ (4
22

S h ow t h a t
1

l +

+ a

'

E x pa nd
2a
a s fa r a s th e fourt h t er m a n d
2
2a
a )
s how t h a t th e c om pl em ent i s (29a
29 Find th e r s t four t er m s of the ex p a n s i on of
.

(1

c om pl em e nt a ft er the ex pa n s i on
3 0 Find the rs t v e t er m s of th e ex p a n s ion of
Wha t i s the c om plem e nt a ry fra ction

an d

th e
.

EXE RC I SE XXX VI

G EOMETRIC SERIES

A l a m p ha nging a t the en d of a cha in i s p ul led to the right


1 m e tr e ou t of the v ertic a l a n d i s t hen r el ea s e d
I t s wing s
to a p oint 09 m to th e l eft of the ve rtica l t h en to a point
08 1 m to the righ t of the vertica l
Th e s ucc eeding s win gs
di m ini sh in a cc orda nc e w ith the s a m e l a w Find th e grea tes t
di s t a nc e the l a m p could tra vel befor e c om ing to r es t (i ) i n
c l uding the rs t m ovem ent of 1 m to the right (ii) ex cl uding
t hi s m ov em ent a n d counting o nly the free s w inging of th e
la m p Show in ca s e
tha t when the la m p p a s s es t hrough
th e v e rtic a l for th e s i x t h ti m e a ft er b eing w it hdr a w n it h a s
a cc om pli s hed m or e t h a n ha lf i t s gr ea t es t t ot a l m o v em e nt
I llu s tr a t e by a di a gra m s howing the t ot a l s p a ce tr a velled a ft er
s ucc e s s i v e s wi ng s
2 A b a ll i s lift e d 1 0 f ee t fr om th e oor a d i s t h e n dr opp ed
I t b ounc es to a height of 8 f eet E a c h s ub s equ ent b ounce
c a rries it f our fths a s h igh a s the prec eding on e Find the
grea t es t di s ta nc e the ba ll c oul d tra v el b efore c oming to r es t
(i ) including an d (ii ) ex cluding the di s t a nc e t hrough wh ich
it w a s lift ed in the r s t in sta nc e After how m a ny b ounc es
will the ba ll ha ve tra velled a lt oge ther on e ha l f of the m a x i
m u mdi s t a nc e ? Aft er h ow m a ny b ounc es t h r ee qu a rter s of
t h e m a x i m u m di s t a nc e ?
3 A w eigh t i s ha nging a t th e en d of a ve rtic a l rubber
c ord I pull it d own 1 0 i nch es a n d r el ea se it I t s wings
up a n d d own for a c on s id era ble p eriod the a m p l itud e of ea c h
s em i v ibr a ti on b eing 0 7 of th e pr e c eding on e
(Th e a m pli
tude i s the ex tr em e di s t a nc e the weight ri s es or s ink s a bove
E a ch v ibra tion includes tw o
o b el ow the p os iti o n of r es t
Ca lcula t e the di s
on e b e l ow a d o n e a b o v e )
a m plitudes
t a nc e the we ight would tra vel if it v ibr a t ed a cc ording to t hi s
S ho w t ha t a fter three s em i v ibra ti o n s it ha s
l a w fo r ev e r
c ent of t h i s di s t a nc e
a ctu a l ly tr a v e l l e d m or e than 7 5 p e
1

201

ALGEB RA

202

W he n wi ll it h a ve com p l e t e d 90 p er c e nt I l lus tra t e your


s o l uti on by a di a gr a m
4 A ma
undertook to p a y 1 000 to a cha rity on e y ea r
7 5 0 n ex t y ea r t h ree qu a rt er s of th i s s u m in th e t h ird yea r
Wha t i s the out s ide l i m it of the
a n d s o on unti l hi s d ea t h
ex p e ct a ti o n s of the c ha rity ?
I f the m a n di e d a ft er m a king
twenty d ona ti on s how m uch w ould their t ot a l fa l l s hort of
thi s s u m ? [() 0
5 An ot h er s ub s crib e r to the s a m e ch a rity pr om i s ed to gi ve
1 00 the r s t y ea r a d to increa s e hi s do n a ti o n by o n e t e nth
ev ery y ea r a s l ong a s he l i ved
W ha t wou l d be the tot a l of
hi s d o n a ti o n s if h e a l s o li ved for t w e nty y ea r s
W ha t w ould
b e the a m o unt o f hi s l a s t d on a ti o n ?
I l lu s tra t e Nos 4 a n d 5 by tw o p a ra l le l s tri p s in wh ich the
r s t a n d l a s t d ona tion s a r e m a r ke d o ff on the s a m e s ca l e
a n d the l i m itin g s u m i s indic a t ed
.

B
Na ta A
m ultip l ying

ri es of t erm s ea ch of w hich i s obt a in ed by


i ts pre d ec es s or by a c o n s ta nt f a ct o r i s ca ll ed a
Th e c o n s t a nt fa ct o r i s c a ll ed the
g e o m et r i c s eq u e n c e
c o mm on r a t i o of the s e qu enc e
I t i s evid ent t ha t un l ik e a n
a rit hm etic s eque nce a geom e tric s e que nc e ca n be c ontinu e d
without en d bot h wa ys eve n if the te rm s a r e n o dire ct ed
nu m b ers
A s eries of nu m b ers m a d e by ta king a n y term of a
ge om etric s equ ence a n d a n y num b er li m ited or unlim ited of
con s ecutive ter m s w h ic h i m m edia tely fol low it i s s a id to be
in or to f orm a g e ometr i c p r og r es s i on (o r ) [ Cf Ex
XX I X C Not e ]
We ha ve s een t ha t wh en th e comm on ra tio i s p os iti ve a n d
nu m erica lly l es s tha n unity the s u m of a
n ever goes
bey ond a c ert a in va l ue ho wever ma ny term s a r e t a k en a l
t hough i t ca n be m a d e by increa s ing the nu m be r of t erm s
to a ppr oa c h a d t he rea ft e r to k ee p a s n ea r to t ha t va lu e a s
Thi s va l u e i s b es t c a ll ed the l i m i ti n g s u m of
w e pl e a s e
t he G P
but i s m ore ge n era lly kn o w n a s the s m to i n
n ity
Whe n the ra tio
[ See Ex XXX V No s 22
i s n eg a ti v e a n d nu m e ric a ll y l es s th a n unity the s u m of n
ter m s a ls o c o ns ta ntl y a pp roa ch es n ea re r to the li m iti g s u m
a s 72 i cr ea s es but s w ing s a l t e rn a t el y a b ov e a n d b e l ow it
se

'

ALGEB RA

204

Let S
the s u m of n t er m s of a G P
sum
I t i s oft en conv e ni e nt to writ e

13

ing

SE

an d

th e

lim it

S
IcS
1 1 (i ) , (i ii ) , a n d (v i)
the s u m of n t erm s

Find the va lue of k in No


1 4 Writ e a for m ul a for
foll o wing s eri es :
.

(ii )
(iii )

(IV )

1 02

( )

1 040
1

81

13 +

'

8;

of ea

ch of the

'

lq l]

[9 >
2

l et a : th e r s t t erm , r a t h e c omm on r a ti o,
n = th e nu m b er of t er m s
Write form ul a for
th e n th
t erm ; (ii) the s u m of n t er m s , r being grea t er tha n unity ;
(iii ) the s a m e , 7 b eing l es s t ha n unity ; (i v) th e li m iting s u m
in th e la s t c a s e
1 6 Writ e ou t full pr oof s of th e for m ula of No 1 5 (ii) a n d
(i v) Prove by m ea n s of your form ul a th e properti es de
s cribe d i n th e third pa ra gr a ph of the n ot e to No 6
15

In

1 00

,,

a G P
.

C
1 7 A s u m of P p ounds i s in v es t ed a t c om p ound int er es t
for n y ea r s th e r a t e of int er es t b eing 3 p er c e nt p er a nnu m
S how tha t i ts a m ount A i s gi ven by the form ula
A Px
Cha nge the s ubj e ct of th i s form u l a to P u s ing a n ega tive index
for the s a k e of c onci s e nes s
How will you des crib e P a s
u s ed in the se c ond form ul a ?
1 8 C om p ound int er es t i s gi v en a t th e ra t e of 73 p er p ou n d
Writ e for m ula for A the a m ount to wh ic h a
p er a nnu m
s u m P would a ccu m u la t e in n y ea r s a n d for P the s u m wh ic h
would by a ccu m ul a tion produc e A in n y ea r s (Not e tha t
P i s c a ll ed the p r es e n t v a l u e of A A th e a m ou n t of P )
1 9 On 1 J a nu a ry 1 905 a m a n X d et e r m in e d to s a v e 20
e very y ea r for th e n ex t v e y e a r s a n d t o in v e s t it a t th e e n d
of ea c h y ea r in a bu s in e s s t ha t p r om i s e d hi m 3 p e r c e nt
p er
a nnu m c o m p ound int e r es t
Accordi ngly he in ves t ed 20 on
1 J a nua ry 1 906 1 907 1 908 1 909 1 91 0
Show tha t the
t ot a l s u m s t a nding to hi s credit i m m edia t ely a ft er he p a id
in the la s t 20 w a s
.

EX ERC I SE

XXX V I

(1

20

205

(1 03 )

(1

Acc ording to th e C om p ound I nt eres t T a bl es 9 1 will a t 3 p er


c ent c om pound int eres t a ccu m ul a t e in v e yea r s to 1 1 5 93
U s e t hi s nu m b er to c a lcul a t e the v a lu e of A
Y in ves t ed in th e s a m e bu s in es s on 1
20 An oth er m a
Ja nua ry 1 905 a s ingl e s u m w h ic h by 1 Ja nu a ry 1 91 0 ha d
a ccu m u l a t ed t o ex a ct l y the s a m e a m ount a s X s s ucc es s i v e
inv es t m e nt s in No 1 9 Show t ha t t hi s s ingle s u m w a s
.

2000

1
X

unt to the n ea res t t ent h of a pound


Na ta Su pp os e t h a t Y in s t ea d of in ves tin g 91 6 in the
bus in es s on 1 Ja nu a ry 1 905 ha d o tha t da t e l e nt thi s s u m
Supp os e further tha t X undertook to return the l oa n
to X
w it h int e r e s t by p a ying Y 20 o n 1 J a nu a ry 1 906 1 907
Fin a l ly s upp ose t ha t Y on the da ys w h en
1 908 1 909 1 91 0
h e r e c e i v ed ea c h in s t a l m e nt in v e s t ed it a s X did in No 1 9
T hen th e a n s w er s to Nos 1 9 a n d 20 s how t ha t o 1 Ja nu a r y
1 9 1 0 Y woul d h a v e b een in exa ct l y th e s a m e p os iti on a s h e
wou l d ha v e been if he h a d inv es t ed hi s m on e y a s in No 20
I n ot her w ords to l end 91 6 a n d to r ec eiv e in re turn v e
a nnu a l p a y m e nt s of 20 i s n a nci a lly equi va l e nt to in v es ting
91 6 for v e y ea r s a t 3 p er c e nt
A nu mb er of e qu a l p a ym ent s m a de a t r egula r int erva l s in
con s ider a ti on of a lu m p su m pr ev iou s l y r ec eiv ed i s ca l l ed a
Th e lu m p s u m i s ca ll e d the p r es e n t v a l u e or the
a n n u i ty
Th e s u m p a id p eri odic a lly i s c a ll ed the
c os t of th e a nnuity
Th e r el a ti on b etween the r ent a n d the
r e n t of th e a nnuity
c os t i s x ed n ot only by the nu m ber of p a y m ent s (the te r m
of the a nnuity but a l s o by the r a t e of int er es t ex p e ct ed by
)
the p er s o n w h o buy s th e a nnuity or m a k es the l oa n wh ic h
i s to be r ep a id by th e a nnuity
2 1 Let P = the pr e s ent va lu e A = th e a m ount a s the
re nt n E the ter m of a n a nnuity a n d l et i E the int eres t to
b e ea rn e d by 1 in the int er va l b etwee n tw o p a y me nt s
Show tha t
C a lcu l a t e

i ts

am o

ALGEB RA

206

t ha t

an d

1
a

C on vert the l a s t tw o form ul a int o f orm ul a for nding


the re nt of a n a nnuity gi ve n t he pr e s ent va lu e etc
23 A m a n b orr ow s 500 fr om a building s o ci ety in o rd e r
to buy a h ou s e
The l oa n i s to be return ed w it h int e res t a t
4 p e ce nt by ten e qu a l a nnu a l p a y m ent s
Th e r s t p a ym ent
i s to be m a d e o n th e r s t a nniver s a ry of th e l oa n
C a l cula t e
the a nnu a l p a y m e nt
[The a m ount of 1 in ten y ea r s a t
4 p er c e nt c om p ound int er es t i s
24 An o th e r m a n b orr ows 5 00 u p o n the s a m e t erm s ex
c ep t t ha t the re p a ym e nt i s to be s p rea d ov er ft een yea r s
C a lcul a t e the a m ount to be pa id a nnu a lly [I n ftee n y ea r s
1 b e c om es 1 8 009 a t 4 p er c e nt c om p o und int er es t ]
25 Th e U rba n Di s trict C o uncil of a s ea s id e to wn in v it e
for the c on s tructi o n of a
s u b s cripti on s t o a l oa n of
n ew p i er
The l oa n i s to be di s cha rged by s ev en equ a l a nnu a l
a m o unt s p a id ou t of the r a t es int e r e s t a t 3 %
p er c e nt b e ing
W ha t a nnu a l cha rge upon the ra tes w ill be r e
a l l o w ed
quired ? [The a m ount of 1 for s eve n yea rs a t
p er c e nt
c om p ound int eres t i s 1 2 7 23 ]
26 A m a n buy s for 800 a h ou s e of which the l ea s e ha s
forty three y ea rs to run The p roperty i s s ubj e ct to a gr ound
re nt of 1 0 p er a nnum (Thi s m ea ns tha t for the n ex t f orty
three yea r s the m a n or hi s s ucces s or s will recei ve the rent of
th e h o u s e but m u s t p a y ou t of it 1 0 to the own e r of the
l a nd ) By a s p e cia l a rra ngem ent the rent a n d ground rent
t he a nni v e r s a ry of th e purc ha s e
a r e p a id o nc e a y ea r o
C a lcul a t e the a m ount of the r ent if the in ves t m e nt i s to yi eld
5 p er c e nt
[A m ount of 1 for forty th r ee y ea r s a t 5 p er
c ent c om p ound interes t
27 S h o w by m ea n s of th e l a s t f orm ul a of No 21 t h a t n o
m a tt e r how l ong a n a nnuity run s i ts c os t c a nn ot ex c eed a
li m iting va l u e give n by the form ul a
P d /c
22

EXE RC I SE XXXVII
THE COMPLETE NU MB ER SC ALE
Na ta The s ca le required in s om e of the exa mples i s a
long s tra ight line gra dua ted uniform ly with p lus or mi n u s
nu mb ers from a n origin in the m id dl e of i ts length The
gra dua tion shoul d be ca rried to i 5 0
A
1 Show on a s c a le the va riou s p os ition s of a p oint P wh ich
represents in turn the va lues of a a b a b a b a l b
2
rs t wh en a
2 b
5
an d
when
ab
sec ondly
5
a
2 b
(The s ucc ess i ve pos ition s should b e
ma rk ed P 0 P 1 P e tc )
2 S how on a s c a l e the m o v em ents of a p oint P wh ich
m a rks the s ucc es s i ve va lues ofa b (i) w hen a
1 b
2;
20 b
a n d (ii) when a
5 w hil e n a s su mes in s uc
1
2
c ess ion the va lu es 0
5 in ea ch c ase
3 Rep ea t the tw o in v es tiga tion s of No 2 gi v ing n in su c
1
ces s ion the va l ues 0
2
5 in ea ch case
4 Ma rk on a s c a le (whe re p os s ibl e) the p os ition s of a p oint
which regis ter s the va lues of
5 b
p c ) w he n a
4 c
9 a n d n a s s u m es i n s ucc ession the
l p
2
va lues
4
3
Wh a t
+ 4
+ 1
wil l ha ppen a s the va lue of n continua lly r i s es Wha t would
ha pp e n if the va lu e of n we re continua l ly lo wered
10
5 A p oint P occupies in s ucce s s io n th e points 0
20
La b el thes e point s P0 P I etc upon you r
50
th e a pproxi ma te
etc
s c a l e a n d l a b el w ith the l etter s Q 0 Q 1 Q
pos itions of al l the squa re root s of these num bers
6 I ndic a te with s uita ble l a b el s the nu m b e rs
50
40
a n d th e a pp r ox i ma t e p os iti on of
10
0
30
their cu b e roots
Nata The s y mb ol on i s u sed to de note a very l a rge n um
tha t i s on e whos e re cipro c a l i s very n ea rly z ero
b er
7 I ndic a te on a s c a l e the r a nge of va lu es a s s umed by the
as :
1 : m ove s from
3 0x ) / (1
expr ess i on (1 5
00
.

2,

"

2,

208

EX ERC I SE

XXX V II

209

Move your p e ncil poin t a long the


through z ero to
00
r a nge in the w ay i n wh ich the rep res enta tive p oint would
m ove a s a: p ass e s th r ough i ts va ri ou s v a lu es
(B efore ca l
l a r g va lues tra ns for m th e ex pr es s i on a s in Ex XXX V
t
.

;p g
o

res ul ts of No 7 h a ve b een di er en t if
the ex press ion ha d b ee n (1 5
3 93 )
9 Repea t the in ves tiga tion of No 7 upon the va l ues of
co
co to
as :
1 : m ov es fr om
(1 5
1 0 The point P m a r k s the va lue s of the ex press ion
Show th a t it wil l tra ve rse the whol e s ca le of nu m b ers twice
1n
the n ega ti ve dire ction w h i l e a; tra ve rs es it once in the
positi ve direction
8

How

uld

wo

th e

B
Find the va lue of the a b s tra ct va ria b l e a: gi ve n that
.

11

(2x

7 = 10

+ 1 7)

point s P a n d Q re cord o pa ra ll el s ca les the va lues


I ndica t e (by
of the l eft a n d righ t ha nd s id es of th i s r el a ti on
the l etter s P 0 P I e tc a d Q Q etc ) the p os iti on s of P a n d
Q a t the dier en t s ta ges of the s ol ution a n d s o j us tify it
J us tify the
5
o
va rious s ta ges of the soluti on by the m ethod of No 1 1
1 3 S ol ve the foll o wing equ a tio n s
Let t w o

0,

,,

(i ) i (2

(i i )

(w
(v)
(vi )

(vii )
(vii i )
(l x )
(5 )
(m )
(x i i )
14

(ii i (2 x

(0 7

10

1
2

) (2 x

(x

{ 5x

7)
7)

6
6

0.

0
8)
2/ (5x
3
0
8)
3
2/ (5x
2x
I ) (x
J {(4x
2
o
I
x
)
(x
3
x (x
x
4) (x
2
1)
1
x
2
x
4x
(
) (4
.

E xpr es s

the

s um

of

of

14

4(x

th e tw

2) a s a s ing l e fr a cti o n
1 5 Wh a t i s the nu m era tor
l 4 if P = + 3 a n d Q = _ 1

Q / (a:

7)

(4x

3)

the

) (

2x

fra ction s P/ (a:

4)

1)

an d

fra ction obta ined in No

AL G EB RA

21 0

Wha t m u s t be the va lues of P a n d Q in ord er tha t the


3
nu mera tor m ay b e
1 (ii ) at (iii ) 23:
1 7 U s e the res ult s of No 1 6 to c a lcul a te the v a lue of
a:
22;
3
an d
2
3w + 2
x
w
3
0 (ii )
(i ) w hen x
(iii ) a:
2) a r e c a lled the
Na ta The fra ctions l / (x
p a r ti a l fr a c ti on s of the fr a cti on
16

Sim ila rly

(2a:
1)

l (a:

of

(1 )

2/ (a:

an d

3 51:
1 8 U s e the m e thod of
fra ctions of the following

Nos

x
x

7
2x

14

(1 1 )

:
2

3 56
2)

p a rtia l fra ction s


pa rtia l

1 6 to n d the

an d

5x

the

52

9x

(N )

ar e

1 2x

'

14

3x

your res ults to n d the va lue of whe n so


of ii ) wh e n a:
8 of (iii) whe n a:
7 an d
(
13
w he n a:
20 Find va lu es of P a n d Q to s a tis fy the rel a tion
P
1
Q
+
19

Us e

4,

of

(iv)

your res ult by putting a:


4 a n d a:
9
21 An a ly s e the foll ow ing into p a rtia l fra ction s a fter
pa ttern of No 20

the

n
t

(x

V erify

2x

(x

va lue for

2 x

(W ) (x

(3 x
ea

9x

Verify

2X

ch a n s wer by s ub stituting

pos itive or negative

E x pres s ea ch of the fol lowing fra ction s a s the s u m


integra l expres s ion a n d a s eri es of pa rtia l fra ctions

22

of

an

(1 )
(iii)

V erify
23

an y

6x

1 0x +
2

2x

4(

4x

Reduc e to

9x

2x
1 2 11

2 9x +

38
10

+ 3x

tw o

3)
9

(iv)

4x

9x

8)

(x

your a n s wers by s ub s titution


1
s ingl e fr a cti on s
10
a,
x

of

an

ALGEB RA

21 2

3 0 Find th e va lu es of dire ct ed nu m b er s
s i m ult a n eou s ly the foll owing s et s of co nditio n s
.

(i )

(i i )

5m
3m
1

+ 1 9n = 1 8 , 1 9m + r su
6n
4n + 2 = 5m
-

(i n ) m

(v) (m

(v i ) m
(vii i )

50

+ 1

2 mn

+ 10

3 m + sn

2n

=
-

(2 m
z
2
n
m
3,
4
21
4, m n =
2 5 , 4m
4n = mn
z

12

(x)

which

sa

tis fy

EXE RC I SE XXX VIII


FU RTHER EXAMPLES ON D IRECTED NU MB ERS
A
W
V 2a
1 G i ven tha t
t
1
w
W
v
a
ca lcul ate t w hen W 1 90 w 2 V
4 v
.

<

'

1 00

C a lcul a te

the

va lue
(1

of

(i) w hen x
(iv) w hen x
3

Find

co

v a lu e

t ha t
4

E va lua t e

1+

a +

5,

<

a +

a;

+ 2b p

(iii) whe n a:
i q
,

S in

a.

6 00 8

0.

h e n a;
= + 4

4,

gi ven

a.

>

(
ii w

70

.
.

+ 2b
q
p
= 0,
= + 2,
=
h
1
w
e
n
w
q
p
()
2, i ii ) w hen x
3, q
p
=
=
2
en
t
h
a
t
a
b
i
v
,
g
a

1 0,

(ii)

0 a
= + lo b =
,

of
a'

w hen x

r2

; gi v en tha t p

(i)

9
196

(ii ) when x

0
the

(1

(1

3,

a. +

2+

n+

( )

l op =
,

2b
he

a
m
_

q
p
n x = 10
2;
3, q =
,

I n the

f o rm u l a

ta n

(a

2m:

pz

Find the va lu e of a (i) when a: 0


20 a n d p
Pr ove a l so (iii ) tha t when as i s p os itive
10
(ii) when a:
a n d l a rg e a i s pra ctic a lly c o n s t a nt wit h a v a lu e of 6 5

E xpres s

at

ALGEB RA

21 4

ingl e a lgebra ic fra ction


tion tha t the ex press ion

as a s

Show without further ca lcula

1
a

ex

va lue

a.

Verify
5 (iii )

ha s the s a m e
0. (ii )
(i) a

3 a.

your c onclus ion by s ub s tituting


7 in ea c h of th e ori gi n a l
,

pres s i ons
7 Si m plify the pr oduct
.

1
x

Wha t n ew ide ntity


s ub s tituting a:
1 for

a:

as

deduc ed from y our r es u l t by


Verify b oth id entiti e s by p utt i ng

be

ca n

6
:

(i )

(1 1 )

(iii )
(iv)

)
a
zh)

(
(a

2b

(
(a

a +

2b

2x
x

S how tha t
pres s i on
.

'

+ 1
x

4a h

x
4

+ x

+ 1
X

ddition

im
p

+ I

4x

th e

S i ngl e

8b z

1 +

2b

to

zb

pr es s io n s

1
2

2b

ex

ea

a:

c h of the following
a lgebr a ic fr a cti on in its l o w es t te r m s
8

Reduc e

a;

of

1)

the

'

term (10

to the

1)

(210

produces the sa m e res ult a s the su b s tituti on


6
Verify by putting (i) p
9 (ii) p
1 0 S how t ha t th e a dditi on of the lter m (p
pres s ion

of p

to the

tu

produc es the s a m e res ul t


Ve rify by putting
p
1 1 S how t ha t

as

1 for p

WP

the s ub s tituti on
2 (ii ) p
,

a l a:

a 2x

ex

1 for p

of p

11

(1

ex

{i

ALGEB RA

21 6

Find va lu es of l m
rela tion s s imult a n eou sly
(i ) 41
19

an

which

7l

l + m + 3n

9 =

sa

ti s fy

foll owing

o.

+ n = 28 ;
n + l = 12

(iii)

3l
51
l

(iv )

9m

s1 + 7 m
l

ea

2n

ch

11

+ n

gra ph

_ 3

22

5 ;

the

1
n

th e

foll ow ing a s a s u m of p a rti a l


s i m p l es t p os s ib l e nu m e ra t or s a n d de
of

mo (
Sketch

2a

E x pres s
fra cti on s w ith
nom in a t ors

of

(11 )

'

+
n

(ii) from

) (1
n

z
s +
1

+ 6

6n

'

3 to

EXE RC I SE XXX I X
LINEAR FUNC TION S
Na ta A line whe n m ov ed i s s upp os ed a lwa ys
pa ra l l el to i ts ori gin a l dire ction
.

to

rem a in

1 D es cribe in word s th e p os itio n s of the


which correspond to the fol lo wing re la ti on s

(i )
(ii i )

y
y

6x

'

'

(ii ) y
(iv) y

6x

'

tra igh t lin es

6x
2

'

5x

43

Writ e d own the rela tion s w h ic h corres pond to lin es in


the f oll owing p os iti on s
i d r i d units
(i) I ncli n d t 3 1 t th
d r i e d 22 unit s
(ii ) Inc l in d t 1 1 6 t th w i
i d l w r d 1 23 units
(iii ) I cl ined t 42 t th
i d l w ered 1 1 u its
(iv) I n cl in ed at 1 5 8 to t h
3 T hrow the following equ a ti ons into the form 31
b
as:
a n d gi ve the p os iti on s of the co rres p onding s tra ight lin es
1 0y
0
26
o
(i ) 7x
(ii)
4y + 1 0
2

e sic a x s an

a se

ax s a n

a s

e x ax s an

e x a x s an

e e

(i i i )
(v)

(iv )
(vi)

3x

3y

24

4x + 3 y
3x
5 4y

2o

'

o.

62

Dra w on the s a m e s hee t the s ix lines of No 3 How


could you h ave foreseen (i) tha t the r s t p a ir of lin es would
b e p a r a ll el ; (ii) t ha t the lin es in th e s ec ond and th ird p a ir s
w o uld be mutua lly p erpe ndicu l a r ?
5 Sh ow tha t the lin es c orres p onding to tw o e qu a ti on s of the
for m a x by 01 0 a n d bar a y 02 0 m u s t a lwa ys
be a t r ight a ngl es to on e a n o th er
6 Find the lin ea r rela ti on s tha t a r e s a ti s ed by th e f oll ow
ing pa ir s of va lues of th e va ria b l es Ex press them in the
s t a nd a rd e qu a ti on a l for m
4

( i)

(m )
(v )

4.
7)
3.
I 47 .

ii)

2.

(w )

7.

2.

5.

4 s)
'

3 )

1 4
2

3)

4.

7.

ALGEB RA

21 8

Ca lcula te (i ) the cros s ing point of the lines cor res ponding
to th e r el a ti o s in No 6
a n d (ii ) ; (ii ) the inclin a tio n of
ea ch of t hes e lines to the x a x i s ; (iii
) the a ngle b etween t hem
Verify by dra w ing the lin e s a n d m a king the n ec es sa ry m e a s ure
m ent s
D ecide without dra w ing a gure wha t a r e the p os i
tion s of the lines c orresp onding to the rel a ti ons in No 6 (iv)
a n d (v)
Verify by dra w ing
8 Find the va lue of a; for wh ic h th e func ti on s
7

7x

an d

5 a: + 6

h a ve the s a m e va lu e
Wha t i s th a t va lue ? Illu s tra te you r
a n s w er by m ea n s of the gra p h s of the functi on s
9 Is it poss ibl e to n d a v a lue of x for w h ich the t hree
1 6 ha ve the s a m e
functi on s 2x 4, 3 x 1 7 a n d
va lue
I f s o wha t i s tha t v a lu e ? I llu s tra t e by m ea n s of the
gra p hs of the function s
1 0 For wha t va lue of a. do the t h ree functio n s
.

an d a x

+ 4

a c omm on va lue Wha t i s tha t va lue a n d wha t va lue


produces it ? I llus tra te by gra phs
B
1 1 Dra w the gra ph of ta n
from
0 to
Nol a Ta k e a l ine t hrough th e origin for ex a m pl e y 2x
T he n y
8 des cribes the s a m e li ne r a i s ed through 8
unit s A gure wi ll s how tha t the line could ha ve b een
tra n sferred to the s a m e pos ition by m oving it 4 units to the
l eft Thus 3; 2 (m 4) im p lies tha t the lin e y 2a: ha s
b een s hifted 4 unit s to the left Sim il a rly y 2 (a: 4) i s
equi va l e nt to y
2m
8 a n d im pli es t ha t the line ha s been
m ov ed to the ri ght
Since y 2x 8 ca n be written a s
= 2m a nd
= 2x
= 2x w e ha ve th e fol
8
8
a
s
8
+
y
y
y
l owing rules
Subs titute y 8 for y a n d the l in e i s moved up 8 uni ts
Sub stitute y 8 for y a n d it i s m oved dow n 8 units
Sub s titute a: 4 for a: a n d the lin e i s m oved 4 units to the

h a ve
of a:

a.

a.

a.

i gh t

Sub s titute a: 4 for a: a n d it i s m oved 4 uni ts to the l eft


1 2 Wha t hori z onta l m ovem e nts would p r oduc e th e sa m e
res ults a s the foll owing vertica l m ovem ents ? Write ea ch
rela tion in the form s corres ponding to both kind s of move
m ent
.

ALGEB RA

220

Show tha t (m, m ) p 6 1 02


1 9 A th ird l i ne 3;
0
wh e n
msa; be c omes 3;
M3 56
3
m oved s o th a t it a l so p a s s es through the point (p q)
Use
the r es ult of No 1 8 to prove tha t when a n y three lin es
1

pa ss thro ugh the s a m e point


m2)

Apply the tes t


f oll owing se ts of lines
20

of

is

No

(6 1

1 9 to

concurre nt

l / (cs

cz

deter min e whic h


3x

(1 11_
ii

( )

zy

y = 3x

7, y =

5 =
-

C on rm y our c onclus i on s by dra wing

o, 2x

3y

5x + 9

th e

lin es

of

the

23

EXE RCI SE
DIREC TED

XL

L RATIOS

TRIG ONOMETRICA

A
1 Dra w the grap h of s i n
from
0 to
2 Dire ctly b elow the for m er gra ph a n d with th e
s c a l es dra w the gra p h of c os
for the s a me va lues of
3 By c om pa ring the gra p hs s ho w tha t s i n (
b eing le s s tha n
Com p l e te the identity
.

a.

a.

same

c os a

u.

b eing le s s tha n
4 Find equi va l en t s for s i
a n d cos
(
(
wh e n 1 8 0
5 Fr om t he r es ult s of Nos 3 a n d 4 n d eq u iva l e nt s for
ta n (
a d tan (
(
D o th e r es ults a gree wi th the gra p h of Ex XXX I X No 1 1
Nol a The reciproc al of th e ta nge nt of a n a ngle i s c a lled
the c ota n g en t of t ha t a ngle
I n s ym b ol s
c ot
l / tan
co s
/ s in
6 Show by a gure tha t ta n (90
cot
a d t ha t
)
cot (90
wh e n
ta n
)
a n d c ot
7 Find S i m il a r equi va l enc es for ta n (
when 90
(
8 Sk e tc h r oughly for c om pa ri s on the gr a p hs of ta n
a d
Find equiva lenc es fo ta
cot
from
0 to
D o the r es ul t s a gr ee wi th th os e of
c ot (
(
a

a.

0.

a.

a.

a.

a.

a.

a.

a,

a.

a.

a.

a.

a.

a.

a.

a.

No

An of cer in a ba ttery o a n i s la nd determ ines by h i s


ra nge n der tha t tw o s h ip s ar e res pectively 1 200 a n d 1 800
ya rd s dis ta nt He a l s o ob s e rves tha t the a ngl e betwee n them
How fa r a r e t h e y from on e a nother ?
is
1 0 Ha lf a n hour l a t e r th e of c e r ob s er ves t ha t the s hi p s
a r e a t th e s a m e di s t a nc es a s b efor e from hi s b a tt ery but t h a t
9

221

A GEB R

222

ngle b etwee n them i s


Wha t i s n ow the di s ta nc e
b etwee n the s hip s ?
1 1 The roa d from a c erta in v ill a ge X run s pra ctic a lly
s tr a ig ht for 2 m il es
I t the n cha n ges its dir ecti on by
The villa ge of Y li es 1 3 m il es from the turning
Wh a t i s
th e direct di s t a nc e from X to Y ? Wh a t a ngl e does th e lin e
j oining the villa ges m a ke wit h the roa d ou t of X ?
1 2 The di ffere nce in dire cti on b e twee n t w o ve ctor s i s 8 a n d
their lengths a r e res pe cti vely a a n d b S how tha t the l e ngth
z
2
o f t heir r es ult a nt i s
2a b cos
I f the r es ulta nt
a
b
J(
m a kes a n a ngle of B wit h th e v e ctor a s how tha t
th e

si n

b2

b sin

[3

2a b

cos

1 3 Th e s id es of a tri a ngl e a r e prop orti on a l to th e nu m b er s


9, 1 2, 20
C a lcula te the a ngles
1 4 Th ree c h urch s pires m a rk a tri a n gl e w hos e S ides a r e
2 m il es , 3 m il es , a n d 4 m il es l ong
Ca lcula te the a ngle s ub
te nded by ea ch pa ir of s p ires a s s een from the rema ining on e
1 5 The b a s e of a tri a ngl e i s 1 20 ya rd s long ; a n d the

a ngl es a t the b a s e a r e r es p e cti vely 2 7


an d
Ca lcul a te
the third a ngle a n d the l engths of the other tw o s id es
1 6 C a lcula t e the a rea of the tri a ngle of No 1 5
1 7 The l ength of the b a s e of a tri a ngl e i s c a n d the b a s e
a ng l es ar e r es p ecti vely a a n d ,8
Show tha t the a rea i s gi ven
by the form ula
.

18

C a lcul a te

19

go

ta n

ngl e

Show tha t the a ltitude of


2
a n d t ha t i ts a r ea i s 1 0
1
a ,

of

the

t ha t

8 111

Henc e

in

an

ta n

i s os celes tri a ngle i s


being the ba s e

20 Th e m a gnitude

tri a ngle in which

of a

a ea

[3

C.

the

ngle A in a tria ngle i s


b2

Show

a.

2bc

w t ha t

s ho

) (a

) (b

) (c +

EXE RC I SE X LI
SU RV EYING PROBLEM S
A
Na ta Surve yors in m a ki ng a m a p of a di s trict b egin by
x ing the r el a ti ve pos iti ons of p rom in ent p oints (e g a a g
on a c hurch t ower a s olit a ry tr e e o n a hil l by m ea n s of a
)
s eri es of tri a ngl es
Fig 40 i l lus tra tes su ch a tr i a n g u l a ti on
.

FIG

40

length of a b a s e AB i s d et er m ined (on l evel ground) wi th


2 3
1 4 a r e m ea s ur ed
ex tr em e c a r e a d the a n gl e s 1
with a t h eodol i te By the t heodolite the a ngle of eleva tion
or d epr es s i on of ea c h s ta ti on a s v i e wed fr om th e pre c eding
From thes e m ea s urem ents the
s t a ti on i s a l s o de t er m in e d
l engths of the s ides of the tri a ngles a n d th e heigh t s or depth s
Fina lly
of e a ch s t a ti on a b ov e or b el ow A ca n be c a lcu l a t ed
th e c o ordin a t es of the s t a ti on s B C D et c ar e c a lcul a t ed
with reference to the north a n d s outh a n d ea s t a n d wes t line s
th rough A
The

224

EX ERC I SE X LI

225

I n No 1 the ca lcu la ti on i s to be divid ed a mong the cl a ss


Group I a r e to c a l cu l a te AC a n d BC Group II ar e to a s s um e
.

AC b a n d to ca l cu l a te CD a n d AD ; Group III a r e to a s
s u m e CD
c a n d to ca lcul a t e DE a n d D F ; a n d so on with
the other gr oup s
W he n Group I ha ve ca lcula ted AC Group
II a r e to s ub s titute i ts va lue in th eir exp res s ion for CD Group
III a r e to s ub s titute Group Il s r es u l t for CD in th eir ex pres
s i on for DE a n d so on
Whi le a group ar e wa iting for the
res ult of the previous group they m a y solve Nos 2 3 a n d 4
1 The length o f the ba s e AB i s exa ctly 1 m ile
The
a ngl es ar e a s foll ow s :
1
2
N um b e r
3
5
6
8
7
Angl
83
63
48
72
52
74
67
51
9
N um b e r
10
11
12
13
14
Angl
56
49
60
55
76
72
C a l cul a te the l e ngth s n e c es s a ry for a ca reful dra wing of the
tria ngles by gra dua ted rul e r a n d c om pa s ses
2 Th e s t a ti on s C a n d D a r e o th e cr es t of a ridge
At
A the a ngl e of el eva ti on of C i s
Ca lcul a te the height of
C a b ove A in feet
3 The a ngl e of e l e v a ti on of D fr om C i s
Ca lcula t e
the height of D a b ov e A
4 The a ngle of el ev a ti on of D from A i s 4
Ca lcul a te
the heigh t of D a b ove A
D oes the ca lcula tion a gree wit h
the res ult of No 3 ?
5 E i s on the ea s tern s id e of the rid ge CD
The a ngle
of depr ess i on of E from C i s 2 3 6 a n d from D 4
Ca l cu
la te from b oth ob s er va tion s the he igh t of E a bove A
Ca l cul a te the bea rings of (i)
6 The a n gl e BAS i s
C from A (ii) D from C (iii) E from D
(vii) K fr om H
E s ti m a te a ll the b ea rings in de grees from th e n ort h round by
the eas t
(Thus a line bea ring 3 0 E of S i s to be gi ven a s
bea ring 1 50 fr om the north )
Nata In No 7 the work i s to b e divid ed a s in No 1
Group I a r e to n d the dis ta nce s of C from the NS an d EW
li n es through A ; Group II the di s ta nces of D from the NS
Gr oup V II the di sta nc es of K
a n d EW lin es t hr ough C etc
from the NS a n d EW lines t hrough E The r esult s ar e to
be expr es s ed in dire cted nu m b er s
7 C a lcul a te the co ordin a tes of ea c h of the point s C D
E G H K with r es pect to NS a n d EW lines through A C
D E G H res pecti vel y From the re sults d etermin e the
.

'

15

LGEB RA

226

rdin a tes of a l l the points w ith res pe ct to NS a n d EW lines


throu gh A
K ar e in
8 Ma k e a m a p in whic h the p oints A B
s er ted i n th e ir c orr e ct p os iti on s
B
Note An a lt ern a tive les s el a b ora t e m ethod of s urveying
i s by m a k ing a t r a v e r s e
The de ta i l s of the c ountry with in
Th e m e thod con
a tri a ngul a ti on a r e oft e n x ed in t h i s w a y
s i s t s in d et er m ining th e l ength s a d th e b ea rings of th e lin es
l ea ding from e a ch of the s ta tion s A B C D etc (g 41 ) to

co o
-

FIG

41

l e ngth s a r e m ea s ured w ith a cha in or a s tee l


ta p e the b ea rin gs with a p r i s ma t i c c om pa s s for ra pid work
I n the for m e r c a s e the
or a t h eod olit e in c a r eful s ur veying
GA
a ngl e b etw ee n ea ch of the dir e cti on s AB BC CD
From these
m a y b e m ea s ur ed a d a l so th e b ea ring of AB
m ea s ur em e nt s th e b ea r ings of the other lin es a r e c a l cul a t ed
the s ec ond c a s e the a n gl es 1 2 3
l
a r e a ccu r a t ely
determ in ed The m a p i s m a de e ithe r by dra wi ng vector s
or in m or e a ccur a t e work by c a lcul a ting the co ordin a t e s of
I f the l e ngths
th e s t a ti on s w it h r es p e ct to a x es t hrough A
a n d a ngl e s h a v e b ee n c orr ectly m e as ured the tr a v er s e ough t
tha t i s the l a s t line GA s hould m a ke w ith the
to c l os e
ot he r s a cl os ed p olygon
Bea rings a r e a lwa ys ta ke n c ontinuou s l y from the north
round by th e ea s t Thu s a p oint 1 0 E of S i s ta ken to
a p oint 1 0 W of S on e of
h a ve a b ea ring of
a p oint
I n ord er to ca lcul a t e ea s ily the
40 W of N o e of
c o ordin a t es of th e p oint s in th e tr a v er s e e v e ry a ngl e from
0 to 3 60 i s s up p osed to ha v e i ts ow n s in e a n d c os in e
9 D ra w a li n e NOS to represent the meridi a n
From 0
th e

n ex t

The

AL GEB RA

228

Ca lcul a te the dif er en ce of b ea ring between ea ch of the lin es


FG a n d AG
AB BC
(Th a t i s if G were du e n orth
of A wh a t would b e th e b ea ring s of the lin es AB BC etc
1 5 The l engt hs of th e li n es in th e tra v er s e of No 1 4 ar e
a s foll ows
Ca l cula te the co ordina te s of the p oints B C D
E F G w ith referenc e to a x es throu gh A re s p ecti vely p a ra ll el
a d p er p e ndicul a r to AG
BC
FG
AB
DE
EF
CD
3 62
3 89
21 2
1 80 y r d
470
409
1 6 Sk etch rough ly the gra ph s of s i n
a n d ta n
from
co s
0 to
D o th e id e ntiti e s of Ex X L Nos 3
a n d 8 h ol d good for a ll a ngl es b e t w een 0 a n d
Do
thos e of Nos 4 a n d 7 hol d good for a l l a ngles b e tween 90
'

an d

C
Na ta

E x cept in s urv e ying a n a ngl e i s re ck oned pos itive


if m ea s ured in the a nti clockwis e a n d nega tiv e if m ea s ured in
the clockwi s e direction
1 7 T a k e a lin e of l ength OP m a ki n g
48 with the x a x i s
Fr om 0 dra w P M P N perpendicula r to OX a n d OY Wha t
a n d s in
va l u es m us t be a ss igned to cos
1 cos
m a y be
so t h a t th e rul es P M
a n d PN
l sin
ob se r v ed
1 8 D eterm ine by the s a m e princi p l e th e S in es a n d c os in es
of : (i )
(ii)
(iii)
1 9 Find the t a nge nts of : (i )
(iii)
(ii)
(i v)
20 Ma k e a t a bl e s h owing th e s ign s of (i ) p os iti ve a n d (ii )
nega ti ve a ngl es in ea ch of the four q ua dra nts

(1

u.

EXE RCISE X L II
HYP ERB OLIC

UNCTIONS

AND P ARAB OLI C F

A
1 Dra w on tr a cing pa per in a cc ord a nce w ith in s tructio n s
th e r e cta ngul a r hyp erb ol a x y
k o y
k/x including i ts
a s y m p tot es
Either c hoos e y our ow va lue for k (s ele cting
s o m e p os iti v e nu m b er o w or k wit h t he on e a ss ign ed to y o
)
In Nos 2 a n d 3 you a r e s up p os ed to s ta rt w ith the a s y m p to tes
of y o ur curv e c oincid e nt w it h a es of a: a n d y dr a w n on a
s he e t of s qu a red p a p er lyin
g be nea t h the tr a cing p a p er
2 Ca rry o t th e foll ow ing m ov em e nt s wit h y our curv e a n d
give in e a c h c as e the form ula w h ich d es cribes it in i ts n ew
pos ition
Move the curv e y k/m (i) 6 units upw a rds (ii) 1 4 units
to the le ft (iii) 1 7 unit s to th e l eft ; (iv ) 1 5 unit s d own w a rd s
(v) 23 unit s dow nwa rd s a d 1 0 unit s to the righ t ; (vi ) 1 6
units to the l eft a d 9 units up w a rds (vii) s o tha t the cros s
1 2) (viii )
ing p oint of the a s ym p to tes i s a t the p oint
8
18
s o t ha t it i s a t the p oint
3 Move y o ur cur ve s ucces s i ve ly int o th e p os iti on s c orr e
Des cri b e the m ov em e nts
s p o di n g to the fol l owing r el a ti on s
in w ord s
k/
ii
y
8
1) y
k/ (
)
(
(
.

(1 1 i )

y +

II

(N ) y

k / (x

k/ (x

I6

Pl a c e your tra cing pa p er upo n the s qua red p aper s o


t ha t the curv e on it corresp onds s ucces s ivel y to the foll owin g
rel a ti on s
I3
k/
k/
(ii ) y
(i ) y
k/ (
22
k/ (
(iv ) y
(ii i ) y
II
I I k/(
k/ (
(vi ) y
(v ) y
5 T h row ea ch of the f oll owing e qua tion s int o th e form
4

22

x i
229

AL GE B RA

23 0
xy

3x

I2

xv

58

(V ii )
6 I n the

7X

i i)

(i v

0.
0

( )

3x y

4y

(viii )

3xy

2x

3y

I2

3y

xy

6y

o.

ca s e of ea ch of the curv es of No 5 s ta te : (a )
wha t tw o recta ng ula r m ovement s would b ring i ts a s ym ptotes
int o coincidence with the a x es of w a n d y ; (5) wha t rel a ti on
would c orrespond to the curve in this pos ition
7 Find the p os ition s of the tw o vertic es of No 5 (i) (iv )
(v iii) [Find their pos iti ons whe n the a s ym pt otes a r e co
incid ent w ith the a x es of x a d y Then s upp os e the curve
t o b e res t ored to the p os iti on in which it w a s giv e n ]
8 Find the hy p e rbolic r el a tion s wh ich a e s a ti s ed by the
foll owing s et s of va lues of w a n d y :
8
0
5
(i )
.

3)

6)

2 2:

(l n ) (o

5,

2 0'

Ill u s tr a t e

your s olution by gra ph s


Note A s s um e y b k/ (az a ) a n d d et erm in e th e va lues
of the c o s t a nt s
To dra w the gr a p hs ea sily r s t x the
position of the a sy m ptotes then re ga rd them a s if they were
a e s of a: a n d
k/ ac
y a n d pl ot th e curve y
B
9 Dra w on tra cing p a p er a s in No 1 the p a ra b ol a
.

being a pos itive nu m b er chos en by you o a s signed to you


Let your dra wing include th e a x i s a n d the t a ngent a t th e
vert ex
1 0 Move y our curv e s ucce ss ive ly from th e p os i tion in
whic h i ts a x i s coincid es w ith the y a x i s a n d th e ta ngent a t the
v ert ex c oincides wit h the x a x i s int o th e pos iti ons wh ich
corres pond to the follow ing rel a ti ons Sta te in ea ch c a s e
a d
hea d up
or
h ea d d own
w he t h er th e p a r a b ol a i s
gi ve the co ordin a tes of the vert ex
k
(ii ) y
7
(i) y k
k
2
k
7
(iv) y
(i i i ) y
0
kx
k(
( i) y
4)
(v) y
2
k(
k(
I6 )
( ii y
4)
( iii ) y
It

"
a

(i x y

it

k(x

(x ) y

5 5

I.

k<x

Give the rel a tion s corres ponding to your pa r a bola when


d in the fo llowing pos iti on s

11
i s h el
.

21

AL GE B RA

23 2

c a ses

the

iv el y ?

tra n sform a tion

(m

;
vii y
7

4x
3x

5x

6x
3 6x
1

2
2

34
27

7x

p os s ible

is

an d

(iv) y

( ) y
(vi i i ) y

im poss ible res pect

4x

12.

3x

V1

2x

3 6x

2 7.

6 4x

'

How

coul d you tell from the gra phs of the function s


of N
o 1 5 (a ) w h ich of t hem i s ca p a bl e of h a v ing th e v a lu e
0
wha t va l ues of a: m a k e the va lu e of the f u ncti on 0 ?
Na ta The ea s i es t w a y to ca lcula te wh er e th e pa ra b ola
8x
5 cr os s es th e 1 3 a x i s i s to ex pr es s th e qu a dra
y
tic f unction 493
8x
5 a s a pr oduct of tw o lin ea r functions
We t hen h a ve
16

8x
5 =
T h erefore eit her 21 :
tha t i s , either a:
4x 2

(2a2 + l ) (2x
1
0 or
or

5) = O
0
5

Find the va lu es of a: for w hich (where it i s p oss ibl e)


th e v a ri ou s function s of No 1 5 h a ve z e ro va lu e
1 8 The vertex of a p a ra b ol a i s a t th e p oint
4
7) a n d
pa s s es through the point
Find the form u la
5
1 9 An other p a ra b ol a ha s i ts ve rtex a t the s a m e p oint a n d
p a s s es th rough
Find the c or res p onding e
13
la tion
20 I ndic a te by a s k etc h the p os iti on s of th e p a ra b ol a s of
17

Nos

18

an d

19

W hen at
6 a c erta in p a ra b ol ic functi o n of x h a s
a
turning va l ue of 7 2 When a: 0 i ts va l ue i s z ero
Ex p res s th e function in the form p ct:2
r
Wha t k ind
qa:
of turning v a lu e ha s it
22 Find the p a ra b ol a whic h h a s the lin e a:
1 0 a s i ts
pa s ses through the point
4
40) a n d cross es the
axis
4
Wh ere i s i ts vert ex ?
x a x i s a t a:
23 The v a lues of a p a ra b olic f u nction of :1: a r e the s a m e
fo a l l va l u es of the v a ri a ble w h ic h a r e a t a n equa l dis ta nc e
Its va lu e i s z e r o w h e n w
1 and
a b ov e a n d b el ow
6
12
26 wh en w
Find the function a d give i ts turn
i g va lue
21

C
Na ta Th e b es t w a y to de t erm ine w het h er a give n curve
a p a r a b ol a i s t o m ea s ur e a nu m b er of ordin a t es e quidi s t a nt
.

is

EX ERC I SE

X L II

23 3

but ot herwi s e ta ken a t ra ndom As you ha ve s ee n if the


curve i s pa ra bol ic the s e cond differ ences of the ordin a t es w ill
b e c on s t a nt
Whe n y ou know t ha t the curv e i s a pa ra bol a the ea si es t
w a y to n d i ts for m ul a i s t o n ot e th e c o ordin a t es of i ts
.

(5

10

70

FIG

vertex

+ 15

+ 10
.

43

+2 5

+2 0

+3 0

ther point for ex a m p le where it cr oss es


The m et hod of Nos 1 8 1 9 s hould
the x a x i s or the y a x i s
t he n be a p pl i ed If the p os ition of the vertex i s ot s hown
n d the c c ordin a t es of a n y thr ee c on ve ni ent p oint s a d
u se th e v a lu e s of x a n d y t o det er m in e th e c o n s ta nt s in
a n d of som e o
-

px

+ qac +

7x

AL GE B RA

23 4

D eterm in e whether the curve A in g 43 i s a p a ra


bol a If it i s n d i ts form ula
2 5 Rep ea t wi t h curve B
26 Repea t wit h curve C
27 D e te rm in e wh eth er curv e D i s a p orti on of a p a ra b ol a
I f s o n d th e form ul a a n d s ta te the p os ition of th e v ert ex
28 Roll a n oil ed b a ll di a gon a lly up a s loping dra wing
b oa rd a s ins tructed Show tha t the tra c e i s a pa r a b ola
Find i ts form ul a t a k ing a vertica l a n d a hori z onta l edge of
you r p a per a s a x es Wha t i s the connex ion bet w ee n the
vertic a l a n d hori z ont a l di s t a nc es of a p roj ecti l e from th e point
of pr oj e cti on
29 Arr a nge t ha t a n e j et of wa t er m a y be pr oj e ct ed h ori
z o ta ll
y with c o n s ta nt pr es s ur e a n d m a y fa l l int o a s ink som e
dis t a nc e a w a y from a n d b elow the n oz l e of the j et tube
Find whether the m iddle of the s trea m i s a pa ra b ol a
3 0 Rep ea t inc l ining th e j et tub e u p w a rd s
D ea l s epa ra tely
with the in mos t a n d out m os t por ti on s of the s tr ea m I f
t hey a r e p a ra bola s c a lcul a te the p os ition s of their turning
p oint s Al s o det erm in e by ca l cula tion w hether they p a s s
through the m outh of the n oz z le
3 1 The f ol lo w ing t a bl e gi v es th e va l u es of a c erta in
function for given va l ues of ac Find wh et her the function
i s p a ra b olic
If so d et er m in e i ts p r eci s e for m a n d i ts turning
va lue
24

w z

4
+ 98

32

ri

79

Rep ea t the

4
+ 13

2
+ 62

3
+ 6

1
+ 4 7

0
+ 34

in ves tiga tion upon


2
+ 2

1
+ 0

0
1

+ 1

2
+ 1 4

+ 2

the
+ 1

3
+ 07

4
+ 02

f oll owing da t a
+

2
4

+ 3

4
15

ALGEB RA

23 6

3,
4,

(III

i i)

(Iv

vi)
(
viii

I o.

Io.

(
a

( )
xv

J2
.

1 3

'

I o.

Io,

(x i i )
(x i v )
(x v i )

7,

3 i

J3
J5 4

'

b
q

2
a
p

J7

J5 i

roots of a q ua dra tic equa tion a r e of the form


a
Show tha t the coef cient of a: a n d the cons ta nt
t erm a r e b oth ra tiona l Is this the c a se if the roots ar e of
t he form J 0 i b ?
6 The roots of a qua dr a tic equa tion a r e of the form
J a i J b Show tha t the cons ta nt term i s ra tiona l but th a t
the coei c i en t of :
Is t hi s the c a s e if the roo ts a r e
1 : i s n ot
of th e for m
Ja i b
7 Sta te the su m of the root s a n d the pr odu ct of the roo ts
of ea c h of the following qua dr a tic e qu a ti on s
5

The
Jb

5)

(m )

5x
a
a ex

i i)

8 4x

(1 v

I
'

(V) (a

(a

I,

(Iv)

5
b

q tion s
2 n
(i)

2,

No

of

to

the

J3

p
,

lve

the

so

qu a dra tic
I

(v1)

0.

(iii )
.

o.

fra ction s

(v)

res ults

9 U se the

ab

7 3x
'

pac

of

< >
b )x

Write down in a form cl ear


e qu a ti on whose r oot s a r e
a
2
(i )
i
(ii )
8

2x

following

e ua

x2

(ii i )

(v)

x2
x

2 ~II3 x
2 J ax +

b =

(ii )

(i v )

x 2
x 2

(vi )

J 5}:
2 4 x5

b) =

(a

o.

o
1 0 I f y ou ar e gi ven o n e r oot of a qua dr a tic equ ation how
c a n y ou c a lc ul a t e the ot her
(ii )
(i ) fro m the coefcient of
from the cons ta nt ter m ? U se on e of these method s a l ter
na t aly to n d the s ec ond roots in the foll owing in s t a nces
U s e the other method to ch eck the r es ult in ea ch c ase
o g iven root
77
44
x
o
52
74
g i v n root
0 ; g i v en r oot
46 I I
0 ; g i ven
oot
77
4 62
r ot
; gi v
33
7
22
1
0 ; gi
root 9
(

v ii

x2

J7

2:

J I 4x

'

'

x2
2
x

'

'

'

'

Io

en

v en

X L III

EX ERC I SE

23 7

B
foll ow ing pa r a b ol a s cros s es
.

11

Find which

of

th e

the

x ax s :
-

i)

4x

(i i )

(I v) y

4x

2
2
(v) y
3
5
( ) y
3
1 2 D es cribe in s y m b ol s the s t ep s by w hic h the probl em s
of No 1 1 a r e sol v e d
U s e 19 q a n d r a s s y m b ol s for the
coefcie nt of the coef cient of a: a n d the cons ta nt term r e
s pec tiv el
He nce s how th a t (whe the r the pa r a b ol a i s h ea d
y
d own or hea d up it w i ll cross the w a xi s provided tha t
2
i s p os itive a n d t h a t it w i l l t ouc h the x a x i s if
Q
x

v1

I x

12

4p m

13

Wri te dow n

the

conditi on (i) t ha t
ax

bx

the

function

c a p a bl e of ha ving z ero va lue ; (ii ) tha t it m a y b e


represe nted a s the p roduct of tw o lin ea r function s ; (iii) tha t
it m a y be a perfect s qua re ; (iv) tha t the qua dra tic equa tion
m ay be

bx

m a y ha ve roots (v ) t ha t the root s m a y be id e ntic a l


1 4 Apply the t es ts of No 1 3 to cl a s s ify the f ollow ing
equ a tio n s into t hos e w h ich h a v e at id e ntic a l roo ts , b un equa l
()
( )
.

root s (0) n o roots


2
+ 9 = o
7 + 4 = o
(i ) 4
(i i ) 3
0
6
8
o
(iii)
p
p
(iv) 5
I 0
O 8
o
7
(v ) 0 6
(vi ) 3
4
1 5 D e term in e wh ic h of the foll owing equ a tion s h a ve r oots
D eterm ine the root s whe re they exis t by e pres sing the left
h a nd s id e of th e e qua ti on a s the differe nc e be tw een tw o s qua res
Lea ve the r oot s if the y a r e n ot
a n d then fa ctori z ing it
ra tion a l in the form of a p a ir of con j uga te s urds
2
II
12
o
0
(i )
(ii )
,

x 2

x 2

'

(iii )

(v)
(vii)
'

(i x )

4x
2x
x

I Ix

+
2
2

4x
+

7 = o

4x
3x

J 7x

5 =

~ I5

(i v )

2x

( )

2x

VI

(viii )

(x )

5x _+

2 ~ I Ix

J I 8x

20

0
I

The r oots of a qu a dr a tic equ a ti on a r e a an d ,8


dow n the equa tion wh os e root s a r e ma a n d m3
1 7 Gi v e the equ a ti on s whos e root s a r e r es pe ctively
16

Write

ALGEB RA

23 8

(i)

r ti
t

2
0
t
u ti
3
0
t
u ti
3
(ii )
0
t
t
50
5
(iii )
Verify the tr a n sfor ma tion in ea ch ca s e
1 8 U s e th e res ult of No 1 6 to d eri ve fr om ea ch of the
2
e
o
f
x
h
t
h
e
oe
f

following equa ti on s a nother in w hic (a )


c
ci nt
i s unity (b) the c oef ci ent of x a n d the c on s ta nt t er m a e
both w hol e num b er s Find the root s of the tra n s form ed
e qu a ti on s a n d deduc e fr om t hem the r oot s of the orig i n a l
e qu a ti ons
Verify y our res u l t s
o
ii
6
0
14
9
7
4
3
)
(I V
o
Io
II
6
0
9
( ) I7
( ) 19
1 9 Sh ow h ow to c a lcu la te the va lu e s of a va ri a ble a; de ned
by rela tions of the following types :
b = o
b)
(i )
(

Fou
mes hos e of the eq a on x 2
T en i me s h os e of the eq a on x 2
2
q
n
e
f
t
h
o
f
h
os
f
t
h
e
a
i
n
x
O
e o
e
u
o

'

11 1

x2

ax

(i i

p(

pq x

(p2
(a 2
b )(x

q)

<1

q )x
b 2 )x

b
o
(Iv) b
b) (
b)
(v ) 2 (
z
b
(vi )
2(
b
b)
b )x
b)
(vii ) (
(
b)
o
b )
b(
+ b )
(viii ) (
(
20 Find w he r e p os s ible va lu es of a: for whic h the foll ow
ing p a irs of function s ha ve the s a m e va lu e
i( ) 3
d
3
42
5
58
a

ax

a9

x 2

an

2x

(1 1 1 )
(iv)
(v)
(vi)
(v i i )
(VIII)

an d

4x
3
2x 2
1 0 an d
2x
3x
7
2
2
x
2x
n
2
x
a
d
10
7
3x
2
2
x
2x + 7 a n d x + x + 3
2
z
x
x
x
+ 2x + 7 and
g
3
2
2x 2
x
1
0
a
n
d
x
x
3
3
3

2x 2
x
I
0
a
n
d
x
x
3

3
.

E x pla in the res ult in (i) by a s k etch Verify the res ult s
in (ii) (viii) by dra w ing gra phs of the functions a ll up on the
sa m e p a p er
.

ALG EB RA

240
x

(iii )

2x

2x

2x

1 2x

( )

1 1

2x

2x

1v

5
0f

E x pla in

3x

'

4x + 3

re s ult

th e

1)

?
!

2x

No

of

1 / a2 fr om

+ 2

(i ) by pl otting
4 to

a:

a;

gra ph

the
.

B
lowe s t p os s ibl e de gree with the
.

Form e qua tions


foll ow ing s ets of roots
6

of

the

(I)

(iii )
(v )
(v i i )
(i x )

Verify
7

2 , o,
2,

3,

2,

yo

3x

36

I 7x
'

o, 0

o, +

2,

35

+ 2x

4x

1 2x

3x

40 x
3

0
2

1 2x

Find

4x

36

2 x

ch

8x 2

ea

7
l

1x

x3

6,
2
tion th e va lue s
in ea ch c ase
,

of

of

4x

5
24

8)

3x

o.

3 (x

foll owing equa tion s

the

1 1x

2
-

On e root of
the ot her s
x

(i )
(ii )
(iii ) 4
(iv) 9
The root s

o.

4
0

za

( ) 4
(53 x
(x i i ) x 2 + x
(x i i i ) (x 2
(x i v ) (x 2 3 x
x
(x v ) 2 (x
xi

(ii )

2,

(i i ) x 2
(iii ) x
(i v ) x
3
v
x
( )
3
vi
x
( ) 3
(vii ) x
(viii ) x

4,
3,
3,

ur res ult in (ii) a n d (v)


Find the roots of the follow ing equa tion s by fa ctori

ti on :
(i )

(iv)
(vi)
(viii )
(x )

28

gi
; gi

0 ;
0

v
v

en r oo

3
2
of x
.

t
t

en r oo

cubic e qua ti on

4 ; (iii ) 0,
3,
of t he coef
cient

t
r t

gi v en r oo ,
g iv en oo ,

20

(i )

is

given

2.

3
g
.

5,
3 ;
D eterm ine by i n sp ec
a n d the con s t a nt t e rm
are

8,

EX ERC I SE
10

tha t p

XL I V

cubic equa ti on ha s the form x 3


2

2
a ,8 (a
8
B an d q
,
ar e an
T e s t the
y t w o of i ts t hree r oot s
ing it to either No 9
or No 9
(ii )
(iii) or No 8 (iv )
1 1 The gr a p h of the functi on
a

241

p a:
8
, )

S how

O
q
w h er e a
.

and

)8

c onclu sion b y a ppl y


8
o
a n d to e ithe r N
.

= w3 +

Z
x
4x
12
3
y
i s m oved on e unit to th e r i ght
Show tha t the form ula c or
res p onding to the n ew gra ph conta in s n o t erm invol ving 2 2
1 2 Sta t e th e rel a ti on b e tw ee n the root s of the equ a ti on s
2
3
x
$
3
4x
+
3
an d
2
6 = O
7a:
1 3 Dr a w on th e s a m e s heet of s qu a r e d p a p e r the gra ph s
3
of y
x
a n d of
De duc e the v a lu es of the
6
7m
y
roots of the e qu a ti on
a
2
x
x
3
+
1 4 Find how th e gr a ph of th e functi on
x3
y
3
m u s t be m ove d in ord er t ha t it m a y c orr es pond to a for m u l a
3
of th e ty p e
93
3;
pa
q
U s e y our res ult to n d th e root s of th e cubic equ a ti on
2 5 3:
1 5 ar;2
3
O
by the gra phic m e thod of No 3 3 [ U s e the s a m e gra ph of

"

'

by m ea n s of the gra ph
foll owin g cubic e qua tion s :
(i )
3 5
7
15

I in d

(i i )

72 x

16

of

20

5 76

th e

root s

of

the

EXE RCI SE
INV ERSE

X LV

L IC FUNCTIONS (I)

P ARAB O

i s rol l ed s ever a l ti m e s u p a
ping b oa rd 2
The s l op e of the b oa rd i s a ltered for ea ch ex
m e tres l ong
p er i m en t, a n d in the s eve ra l exp eri m ent s the m a rb le s ta rts
with a different vel oc ity a n d from a d ifferent point of the
b oa rd From the foll owing da ta O bta in form u la for the dis
ta nce (S) of the m a rbl e from the upper en d of the b oa rd t
D eterm in e in ea ch ca s e the highes t
se c ond s a fte r pr oj e cti on
p oint r ea che d by the m a rb le a n d the m om ent when it rea ches
tha t p oint The vel ocity i s m ea s ured in centi m etres p er
1

A m a rbl e
.

c nd
2t
d;
20
(i ) St t i ng p int 40 m fr m l w r
21
3t
(ii ) St rting p int t h mi d dl
48
6t
(iii) St ar ting p int 8 m fr m l w r d
40
5t
(iv) St rting p int 5 0 m fr m l w r d ;
Wha t i s the interpreta tion of the l a s t res ult ?
How could the m om ents of turning be for etold fr om the
form ul a for the velocity
2 C h a nge th e s ubj ect to t in e a ch of th e for m u l a for S
in NO 1 Use the f orm u l a to determ ine in ea c h c a s e the
m om e nts (i ) w he n the m a rbl e cross es the m id dl e lin e of the
b oa rd ; (ii ) w h en the m a rb le fa ll s over the lower or upp er
e n d of the b o a rd
Ho w c a n the highes t p oint s rea c hed by th e m a rbl e b e
d educed from thes e form ul a ?
3 Th e l e ngth of a crick et pitc h i s 22 ya rd s
Th e pa th
followed by the centre of a ba ll from a c ert a in b owl er s h a nd
i s d es crib ed by the for m ul a

se o

ar

1:

en

en

'

en

it

b eing

th e

h.
height

71 6 8
of the

o l 6d
'

b a ll a b ove
242

O O2d2
the gr ound
'

in inches

AL GEB RA

244

following s eries ca nnot ris e W ha t i s a c tua l ly the high es t


va lu e of the su m a n d wha t i s the num b er of term s which
gives it ? E x pl a in the res ult

th e

19

16

13

Find how m a ny term s of the foregoing s eri es will


yi eld (i) 3 0 (ii) 22 A e a ll your res ults va l id ? If n ot
which m us t be r ej ected an d for w ha t rea s on s ?
1 3 Find in the ea s i es t w a y y ou k now the nu m b e r of t e rm s
for which the s u m of the s eries
12

81

77
73
rea ches i ts lowes t va lue Wha t i s tha t va lu e ?
1 4 Writ e a for m ul a for th e nu m b er of te r m s of th e p r e
c eding s eries w hic h m u s t be ta ke n in order to yield a given
Find w hether the following num b er s a r e p os sible
su m
va lues of the s u m a n d, w here t hey a r e poss ib l e, n d the c or
res ponding num ber of t erm s E x pla in w hy som e of the r e
s u l ts a r e i m p os s ib l e
i( ) S
23 1 , (ii ) S =
690, (iii ) S = + 42, (iv) S = + 1 7 4
1 5 Cha nge the s ubj ect of the for m ula
S 3 11 {2a (n 1 )d}to
2
2
a
d
Show tha t S >
(
) /8 d
.

Write dow n rel a tion s ex press ing function s of x which


a r e r es p ecti v ely in ver s e to the functi on s gi v en in the f oll owing
rel a ti on s
16

(i ) y

(iii )

(i i ) y
(i v ) 3 x +

7x

(v )
(vii )

(2 x

( )
Vl

_ 2

4)

5)(3 y

1
I

(viii)
(X )

7x

I zy

8x y
y

'

2x

2x

20y
2

Find the inverse of the lin ea r fun ction a x b Show


tha t the gra phs of a l inea r function a n d i ts inverse will a lw a y s
inters ect on th e line through the origin w hic h bis ect s the
Verify by d ra wing on on e s heet th e
a ngl e b etw een the a x es
gra ph s of No 1 6 (i) (ii) a n d (iii) a n d their inver s e function s
1 8 Show th a t th e property des crib ed in No 1 7 holds good
b)
c a n d i ts
a l s o b etw een a n y h yp erb olic functi on a / (a:
inv ers e Verify by dra wing on the s a m e sheet th e gra p h s of
No 1 6 (v) a d (vi) a n d their inverse functi on s
17

EX ERC I SE X LV

245

Wha t (if a n y) a e the lim its to the poss ibl e v a l ue s of


v a ria bl e (b) the functi on in No 1 6 (ix ) a n d (x) ?
Ans wer the s a m e ques tion s wi th referenc e to the corres pond
ing inver s e functi on s
20 Find the i n ve r se of ea ch of th e following func ti on s
(i )
3
4
(ii ) 7
3
5
b
(i i i )
(iv) 2 /(3
(v)
/ (b
)
(vi ) 3 / (2
(vii) (
3
5)
(viii ) (
19
(a ) the

2x

ax

ax

2x

x x

(i x ) 2 x

(x )

x
.x

Show tha t the pr oduct 3 56 (2a: 5 ) i s p os itive if a: i s


a b ov e
2 5 or b el o w
but n ega ti ve if
ero
0
Sh ow a l s o tha t the product (3 x 2) (2x 5 ) i s p os iti ve only
if a: i s a b ove 25 or below
22 W h a t i s the ra nge of p os s ib l e va lues of the v a ria bl e in
e a c h of th e foll owing functi on s ? A e t h er e a n
y lim it s to the
va lue of the functio n
(i ) w
5
(ii )
)
(iii ) Nl z
)(
(iv) N/
21

( )
V

2x

((

2x

( )
vi

1 1x

Show tha t the function of No 20 (vi) has n o va lue s


be tw een 0 a n d 3 S how t ha t the function a s s um es these
va lues w he n a; O a n d a;
1 res p e ctivel y
24 D et erm in e the s i gn of the functi on 3 x / (2x
1 ) wh e n
x i s a very littl e b elow a n d a ga in wh en it i s a very little a b ove
z ero
Wha t peculi a rity of the va lue w hen a: 0 i s i m p lied
by your re s ults ? E x a m in e in a s i m i l a r w a y the s ign of the
f u nction for va lues of a: a l ittle below a n d a bove 1 Wha t
do you c onclud e a b out the va lu e w h en a:
1
25 Ske tc h th e gra p h of th e f u ncti on 3 x 2/ (2x
1 ) from
a:
1 to a:
3
(P a y c a reful a tte nti on to th e v a lu es of
th e functi on a littl e b el ow a n d a b ov e
26 S how tha t the functi on in No 20 (viii) ha s a turning
v a l u e of 02 5 Is this a higher or a l owe r turning va lu e ?
Wha t i s the c orresponding va lue of a ? W h a t s ta tem e nt s co
res ponding to these m a y be m a de a b out the in vers e function
Sk etch the gr a p h of the functi on from 7:
l to a:
2
a d th e c orr es p onding p a rt of th e in v er se functio n
2 7 Wh a t a r e t he turning va lu es of the functi on s in v er se to
Ske tch the tw o function s a n d the cor
No 22 (iii) a n d (i v)
res ponding invers e function s
23

ALG EB R

246

fu nction invers e to No 22 (v) Sketch the


Ha s either of them
of the dir ect an d in ver se functi on s
t u rning va lu es ?
29 Find the in ver se of th e fu n cti on in No 22 (vi)
Sketch
the gr a ph of the direct an d in v er s e functi on s
3 0 Find the t ur ni ng va lue of the function i n No 20 (v ii)
Sketch the gra ph of the fu nc tion a n d of i ts in verse
28
gra ph
.

Find

the

AL GEB RA

248

give n a n d the a ngle opp osi te to on e of them the l en gth of the


th ird s id e c a nno t a l w a y s b e ca lcula ted with c erta inty The
ca s e i s a mb i g u ou s
6 Sh ow from a c on s id er a ti on of the r es u l t of No 3 tha t
if A i s obtus e b has only on e p oss ible v a lue
92 c
7 Gi ve n a
1 20 A
3 6 c a lcul a te the pos s ibl e
va lues of b a n d of th e a ngl es B a n d C
,

2
functi on M
2bc c os ) b a n d c a r e
b?
0
S how
c on s ta nt a d n on directed but va ries f om 0 to
tha t the va lu e of the f u nction ra nges b etween b c a n d b c
I llu s tra te by the fol low ing gure : Dr a w b (a s s um ed to be
With 0 a s c entre
gr ea ter t h a n c) from 0 a lon g the {It a x i s
dra w a circl e of ra diu s 0 Let be the a ngle between b a n d
c in i ts v a riou s p os iti on s
Wha t lin es give the va riou s v a lues
of the functi on
9 Dra w a circl e of ra diu s 7 w ith c e ntr e G
T a ke a n y
p oint 0 outs ide the circle an d l et C C d Dra w from O a
s tr a igh t lin e O P cutting th e circl e a t P a n d m a king a n a ngl e
with 0 0 Show tha t l the l ength of O P i s given by the
qua dr a tic equ a ti on

the

In

a.

'

l2

2ld C O S a + d2
W ha t i s the product of the tw o va lues of OP w hich c orres pond
to a gi v en va lu e of a ? How d oes the equ a tio n s how t ha t
their product i s equ a l (for a l l p os s ible v a lu es of a ) to the
s qu a re of the t a nge nt to th e circl e from 0 ?
How does the
equ a ti on s h o w tha t s i n 0 c a n n o t b e grea t er t ha n r / d ?
1 0 T a k e the p oint 0 w it hin the circle
S how tha t the
product of the tw o va l ues of OP (corresp onding to a s ingl e
va lu e of a ) i s n ow n ega ti ve Wh a t i s the m ea nin g of thi s
res u l t ? W ha t geom etrica l truth d oes the equ a tion d em on
'

tra t e

tra ight lin e of l engt h a a point i s ta ke n a: from


o e en d
Wha t i s the product of the tw o s e gm ents of the
lin e ? S how tha t it ha s i ts grea tes t va l ue whe n the lin e is
bi s ected
1 2 Find the s u m of th e s q u a re s of the tw o s egm ents of the
l ine in No 1 1 S how th a t it ca n be ex pres s ed in the form
11

In

+ 2

<
x

XL V I

EX ERC I SE

Hence

249

w tha t the s u m of the s qua res i s l ea s t w hen the


line i s b i s e cte d
1 3 The s in e of a n a ngle i s T3
Show a lge bra ica ll y tha t
t w o c os in es a n d tw o ta nge nt s c orre s p ond to t hi s va lue
Ex
hi bi t in a gure th e p os s ib l e va lues of th e a ngl e
Find the corre
1 4 Th e ta n gent of a n a ngl e i s
s p on di n g v a l u e s of the s in e a d cos in e a n d ex h ibit in a gur e
th e p os s ibl e va l u es of the a ngl e
12
1 6 an d
1 5 The nu m b er s
1 5 a r e s a id to b e p r o
p ortion a l re spe cti vely to the s ine c Os i n e a n d ta nge nt of a
cert a in a ngl e Is thi s the c a s e a n d if so wha t i s the va lue
of th e a ngl e ?
s ho

EXE RC I SE X LVII

UNCTIONS

AREA F

A
1

the

Write down the a rea functi ons which c orrespond


following ordina te functions :
2
1
(1) y
(ii ) y
0 9
6 ~/
(ii i ) y
(iv) y
x

'

( ) y

'

to

S ~/

( ) y
vi

'

Ca lcul a te the a rea b etwe en the cur v e the w a x is a n d the


ordi n a t e s p eci ed in th e foll owing c a s es t a k e n from No 1
The ordin a t e s:
1 0 i n (iii) ; a;
6 in (i) ; a:
25
i n (iv) ; a:
1 00 in (v i) ; 2
8 in (ii)
3 I n No 1
ca lcula te the a rea b etwee n the curve the
x a x i s a n d the ordin a t es a:
2 a n d a:
9
4 I n No 1 (ii ) c a lcul a t e the a r ea b etw een the curve the
{v a x i s a n d th e ordin a t es a;
6 a n d a:
10
5 I n No 1 (v ) c a lcula t e the a r ea b etwee n the cur ve the
23 a x i s a n d t he ordin a t es a:
4 a n d a:
49
6 Fig 4 3 A a n d C (p
a r e p a r a b olic
C a lcul a t e the a rea
a b ov e th e x a x i s in ea c h gur e t a king a s m a ll s qu a re of th e
che quered ba ckground a s the unit
7 I n g 4 3 C c a lcu l a t e the a rea of the b a nd b etween
tw o hori z o nta l s tra igh t lin es r es p ecti vely 9 a n d 1 6 s ca l e units
below the vertex
8 I n g 43 B c a lcul a t e the a rea includ ed b e t w ee n tw o
h ori z ont a l s tra ight lin es dr a wn res pectively 5 a n d 1 0 s ca l e
uni ts a bov e the x a x i s
9 I n g 44 m ea s ure a num b er of vertic a l l en gth s s uc h a s
Show
p g int erc epted betw ee n the cur ve AB a n d the l ine AC
Am) a n d n d
tha t they fol l ow the l aw p g
(where a;
Wha t i s the a rea of the s pa c e included
the v a lue of I
t
between AB AC a n d BC ? (Com p a re Ex XXX Nos 3 1
2

25 0

ALGEB RA

25 2

Ca lcul a te the a rea under the cur ve in NO 1 2


from
5 to
m = 0 to az; = + 1 0 ; in No 1 2 (iii ) fr om a
3 6 ; in
x
5 ; i n No 1 2 (v iii) from a; = + 4 to w =
No 1 2 (ix ) from a:
16
9 to a:
Dra w gra phs to illus tra te the s ec ond a n d the l a s t of t hes e
p robl em s
1 4 Dr a w th e s m oot h curve p a s s ing through the p oint s
whos e co ordina tes a r e give n in the following t a ble Find by
th e m et hod of di fferenc es the for m ula of th e curve
C a lcul a te
th e a rea under it from a;
20
0 to a:
13

O
20

a;

4
32

16
2O

12
32

8
36

20
0

B
1 5 A s ol id g ure i s m a d e by t a king 71 circu l a r di s c s 1 inch
thick a n d res pective ly 1 2 3
Th e
77 inc hes in r a diu s
la rges t di s c i s pla ced on the t a ble the n ex t la rges t on top of
it a n d so on in ord er A pin i s driv en through the centres
of the di s c s to k eep t he m t oget her a n d proj e ct s 1 inc h a bov e
th e h igh es t
Another gure i s m a de by piling n 1 di s c s
ea c h 77 inc he s in r a diu s a n d 1 inc h t hic k s o t ha t t hey form a
cylinder 77 1 inches high Wha t f r a ction i s the volum e of
the for m er s olid of th e volu m e of the cy l ind er ? C a lcula t e the
10
a ctu a l v olu m e wh e n n
1 6 W ha t for m ul a in m e n s ur a ti on i s obta in ed by s upp os ing
th e di s cs in No 1 5 to be incr ea s ed in nu mb er without li m it ?
1 7 The a ngl e b e tween th e hyp othe nu s e a d th e p er pen
The tri a ngl e i s m a de
di cul a r of a righ t a ngl e d tri a ngle i s
to ge n er a t e a c o ne by r ev olving a b out the p e rp endicul a r
Wha t i s the a rea Of the circula r s e ction s itua ted a t di s ta nce h
from the vertex ? Wha t i s the vol u m e of the c on e a b ove this
s e cti on ?
1 8 I ha ve a w ood en m od e l in the form of a trunc a t ed
p yra m id upon a s q u a re b a se I t i s 1 0 inc hes hi gh the l ength
of th e s ide of the b a s e i s 2 3 inche s the l en gt h of the s id e of
Write form ula (i ) for the length of the
th e top 3 inc hes
s id e of a s qu a r e s ecti on a t a giv en di s t a nc e from th e tO
p ; (ii )
From the la tt er f orm ula d educe
fo th e a rea of tha t se cti on
a f orm u l a for th e v olu m e of the solid a b ov e a gi v e n s ecti on
By m ea ns of thi s form ula ca l cul a te the volu m e of th e model
.

EX ERC I SE X LV II

253

1 9 Th e b a se of a v ill a ge cros s c on s i s t s of m
1 s qu a re
sl a b s of s ton e ea c h 1 foot t h ic k
The s ide of th e t op s la b
m ea s ures a feet, a n d the s ide of e a c h of the other s i s b feet
longer tha n tha t of the on e a b ove it S how tha t the tota l
volum e i s given by the form u l a
.

(m

Dra w

20

%m (2m

ma b

1 ){a 2
.

pos iti ve bra nch 1

the

y = 12

of

the

1 ) b2 }
.

curve

f rom where it cr osses the y a x is to where it cros ses the x a x is


I m a gine it to gen er a t e a s olid by r evolutio n a b out th e w a x i s
Write f orm ula
for the a re a of the s ection of the s olid a t
the di s ta nc e a: from the origin ; (ii) for th e volu me of the s olid
from the b a s e up to this s e ction D educ e th e tota l volu m e of
the s olid
-

C
A num b er m of r ect a ngl es of equ a l br ea dth a r e s et s ide
by s ide T heir a rea s a r e 1 2 3
m3 E ac h l i es up on
a r ect a ngle w hich i s of the s a m e h eigh t a n d widt h a s t he on e
whos e a rea i s m3 An a ddition a l rect a ngle of th is s i z e i s
pl a c ed nex t b efore the recta ng l e und er the rs t of th e i n c r ea s
ing s eri es T hus the (m 1 ) u derlying recta ngles form
t ogeth er a r e ct a ngle of a rea (m l )ms Fi n d by co op era
tion with the res t of the cla s s w ha t fra ction of th is la s t r ect
a ngle i s c ov er e d by the increa s ing s e ri e s w he n m ha s t h e v a lu es
Wha t l a w s a r e followed by the nu m era tor s
1 2 3
10
a n d d en om in a t or s of t hes e fr a cti o n s ?
22 The increas ing r ec ta ngl e s a e m a d e so t hin a n d a t the
sam e ti m e s o nu mer ou s t ha t t he y b ec om e indi s tin gui s ha bl e
from the a rea under the cur ve y km Show th a t the
f orm ula fo th is a rea f rom the origin up to the ordina te a: from
W ha t a s s um ption ha ve you m a de in
the o rigin i s A
this proof ?
in the r s t qu a d
23 O P i s a p ortion of the curve y
ra nt 0 b eing the origin From P p erp endicul a r s a r e dra wn
P Mto the sic a x i s PA to the y a x i s
S how tha t the a r ea AOP
i s t hr ee fourth s of the re ct a ngl e AM
.

curv e b ta in d by t king only the p i tiv qu r e


ucc ss ive v l u f

Tha i s , the

ro t

o s of

the

es o

os

e s

AL EB R

254

From the r es ult of No 23 dedu ce the a rea fu nction of


k i/ x
the curve whos e ordin a t e function i s y
25 How ca n the result of No 24 b e br ough t u nder Wa llie s
24

La w ?

Writ e dow n th e a rea


following ordin a te fu nction s

functi on s

26

y
y

(iv y =
(v y

Jx
8 i/ x

2x

( ) y
(viii) y
(i x y
vi i

1 4x
12

S
/x

Draw

on

( ) fr om
xi

28

the
a:

Write

fr om x =
fr om
fr om
fr om
fr om
fr om

to

to

s a m e s h ee

va lues

30

all

1 0.
1 0.

5 to

4
5
5

of

No

(vi) (x)
,

va lues

an d

by r ec urre nce tha t


1

26

m2

the

fra cti on

6m

02

12

mg

32

22

Fi n d by the method of di ffere nces the form ula


Prove by the recur renc e m ethod t ha t
m

for

= + 6

of

Note 2fm2 2
29

t th e cur ves

5 to x =
ou t th e proo f

to x
4 to x =
5 to x =

2x 3 .

10

(m
a ll

'

fol lowing curve s in No

the

for

3x

C a lcula te the a rea s und er


(i )
(ii)
(iv)
(vi )
(x )
(x i)

7x

)
11 )
x)

'

(I;
(x1 )
(x ii) y

27
26

to th e

7 3

Iz
I

c orresp onding

of

(See

Ex

XXX V III No
,

for

?
m
23

ALGEB RA

25 6

(i ) y

6 Find th e
form ula
.

(i )
(ii )

Sa

2x

(iii) y

pr im iti ve

(ii ) y

3, g

5x

of ea

3x

2 x

ch of

th e

iv n th t

2
x
8
/

y
B 8

1 1

4x

it is

sa

ti

following differenti a l

se

d by

an d

5)

2,

o,

iv n t t it d ri b
cur w hi h
t u
t
I o) d
I
iv t
r ph p
thr ugh t h p int
(i )
I
I
(o o)
3)
kaz
7 Prove t h a t wh en y
ca n b e c a lc ul a t ed in
a cc ord a nc e wit h W a lli e s La w
8 Writ e d own the pri m iti ve for m ul a whic h c orr e s p ond
H

y/
p a s s es
83 y /8x 3

6x
2, g e
ha
h r o gh the p o in s
1 2 , g en
ha t its g

es c

es

an

ve

a s s es

to

(i)
(iii )

8y / 8x
83 y / 8x 3

ax

s
.

5x

2
2
i
i
8
8
x
( ) y/

8
8
x
( ) y/

2x

iv

B
function

3x

of a: of t he n th d e gr ee wher e
9 Giv en tha t y i s a
(
3 , or
s ho w
tha t the di ffere ntia l
n m a y b e e it h er 1 , 2
form ula of the n th order ex p res s es a n exa c t equ a lity for a l l
va lu es of 8x
1 0 A va ri a bl e y i s c onn ecte d w ith a: by the re l a ti on
Show tha t if the true va lue of Sy /Sw i s to differ by
37
les s tha n 0 001 p er c ent from the va lue ex p res s ed by the
differenti a l form ula 3 9: m u s t repres ent a nu m b er l es s tha n
l 2w l x
1 1 The ra nge of v a lu es ov e r whic h th e r el a ti on of No 1 0
1 upwa rd s ; (ii ) from a:
from a:
h ol d s good i s
u p w a rd s (iii) from x
up wa rds a n d from a:
downwa rd s (i v) from a:
upwa rd s a n d a:
d ownwa rd s Find in ea ch of thes e ca s es the la rges t
nu m eric a l va lu e of the incre m ent of :1: which c a n be ca lled

s m a ll
1 093 , d e riv e d from
1 2 The di ffer entia l for m ula
c a n (by t a king 8m s m a l l en ough) be r ega rd ed a s
y
true to a n y required d egree of a ccura cy for a ll va lu es of :1;

c
pt
J u stify thi s s ta t e m ent
a:
O
ex e
Na ta As a: a pproa ch e s z ero (eith er from the pos itive or
1 0w a l s o a p proa ch es z ero
By
th e n ega tive s id e)
m a y th us b e m a de nu m eri
ta kin g so ne a r e nough to z er o,
.

X LV III

EXERC I SE

25 7

ca l ly s ma ller tha n a n y num b er which ca n be n a m ed For


thi s r ea s on a lth ough (a s w a s shown in No 1 2) the di fferentia l
fo m ul a c a nn ot r ea lly be a ppli e d w he n a: 0 it i s u s ua l to
s a y t ha t
0
Sy / Sa:
0 w h e n a;
1 3 A va ri a bl e y i s c onn e ct ed w ith x by the r el a ti on
I n a c ert a in c al cu
3 51:
O u p wa rd s
7 fr om x
y
l a ti on it i s n e c es s a ry tha t th e tru e va l u e of
s h ou l d n ot
di Eer by m or e th a n o e t h ou s a ndth p a rt fr om the v a lue giv en
by the di ffe rentia l form u l a Wha t i s th e gr ea t es t va l ue O f the
incr em ent of a: which ca n be s ym boli ed by
1 4 Sh ow tha t wh en y
5x
3x
7 the di ffe r e nti a l
form ul a
3 m a y be m a d e to hold goo d to
an
y r equ i r e d d egree of a ccura cy for a l l v a l u es of :1: ex c ept
a:
E p l a in c a r efully w ha t i s m ea nt wh en it i s
s a id t ha t
0 fo thi s va lu e of a}
Note Th e inv es tiga tion covere d by Nos 1 1 1 4 w a s eces
s a ry to m a k e c l e a r w ha t i s m ea nt by th e s t a t em e nt t ha t
0 fo a c ert a in v a lu e of
When this s ta t em ent i s
und ers tood the v a l ue of a; in ques ti on i s m os t ea s il y d et er
m in e d by s ub s tituting ero for Sy / Sa: in th e di ffe r e nti a l form u l a
Henc e Ey / Bx
Thu s if y
2p x
q
gm
0 whe n 2793:
T ha t i s
0 th a t i s whe n a;
q /p
q
to s a y
m a y be br ought a s n ea r a s w e p l ea s e to er o by
bringing a s uf ci ently n ea r to q/p a lthough the di fferenti a l
for m ula s trictl y s p ea king fa ils when a:
g/p ex a ctl y
Nos 1 2 a n d 1 4 s how tha t it ca nn ot be a pp l i ed in thi s ca s e
beca us e the c ondition tha t th e f orm ula s ha ll be even a pp ox i
m a t ely true i s th a t th e incr em ent of a: s ha ll be ero a obvi ou s
c ontra diction of the m ea ning of the word increm ent
1 5 Find th e v a l u e s of a: (if th er e a r e a y ) for wh ich
0 in the foll o w ing c a s es
6
1
3
(i ) y
(i i ) y
3
4
12 3
3c
7
5
(iv ) y = _2
(iii ) y
4 5
15
(v ) y
1 6 Find t he va lu es of a: (wh ere t h ere a r e a n y ) fo w h ic h
82y/ 8m2
0 in the c a s e of the rel a tion s s pe ci e d in No 1 5
.

'

17

EXE RC I SE X LI X

GRADIENTS

A
Note

On the cur ve P T (g 45) ta k e a n y tw o p oint s


'
'
h
PP
T rough PP dra w th e s eca nt PS I t i s ev id ent tha t
P ' ca n al w a ys be t a k en s o n ea r to P tha t the cur ve b e tween
the tw o point s n owhe re depa rts from the lin e PS by more
tha n a c e rta in dis ta nce (s a y (1) w hich m a y be chos en a s s ma ll
.

FIG

45

pl ea se Another w a y of s ta ting thi s s a m e fa ct i s to


s a y tha t if p i s an y p oint on th e cur ve b etw een P a d P the
ra tio p g/ P g ca be ma de to di ffe r from the ra tio P Q / P Q by
l es s tha n a nu mber (s a y ) w hich ma y be t a k en a s s ma ll as
Th i s b eing th e ca se P Q or a n y pa rt of it
w e pl ea s e
a n d the corres p onding r s t
s uch a s P g m a y be ca ll ed
di fference of the ordina tes i e P Q or p g m a y be cal led
as w e

'

'

'

'

'

25 8

260

A GEB R

c a le The portion betwee n a:


0 m u s t be
1 a n d a:
dra wn with specia l ca r e At ea ch of the points s pe cied in
No 2 dra w a s tra ight l ine h a ving the ca lcula ted gra dient
m a king a llo wa nc e for the fa ct tha t th e hori z onta l a n d ve rtica l
s c a l es a r e di ffere n t
D ete rm ine whether the lin es s o dra wn
a p pea r to be t a ngents to the curv e
5 S how that a function of the form p a
gm 7 c a nn ot
ha ve turning va l ues un l es s
p a n d g a r e of oppos ite s ign s
6 Find the con dition t ha t a functi on of the f orm
s

px

gx

m +

m a y ha ve turning va lues
7 W hich of the fol lowing curves ha ve
W here they exi s t n d their co ordina tes
.

turning points ?
-

(i ) v =
(ii i) 1

ii

l bi z
i

+ 8 ;

9x

(v )

s;

B
Na ta

'

+ x

i; 4

'

6x ;
8*

'

"

cur ve in the n eighbou rhood of P i s


b e low the t a ngent or conca v e towa rd s the w a xis In thi s
c a se it i s evident tha t the di fferenc e s of y P Q P Q etc
m u s t d ecrea se t owa rd s th e
righ t of P a n d tha t the cor
re s pondin g dier en ce s to
wa r d s the left of P m us t
a l s o de crea s e
I n other
words 823/ m us t be n ega tive
for the v a lu e of m a t P
w hethe r the s m a ll di er
e n ces in a: a r e m ea s ured to
the righ t or l e ft
Now
s upp os e t ha t
R
wher e B ma y be e ither a
c on s ta nt numb er or a n ex
press i on (su ch as 52: 2)
whose va lue depend s upon
F G 46
3
:
Since it ca n be w ritte n
823/
R(8a:)2 th e s ign of 82y m u s t be th e sa me a s the s i gn of
R wh eth er 89; i s pos iti ve or ne ga tive l o w hether the e qui
di s ta nt ordina tes ar e dra wn to the right of P or to the l eft
I f then, the curve i s b el ow the t a ngent R an d th er efore

In g 45 the
.

'

'

"

"

'

'

EXERC I SE

XLI X

261

3 2y /8x 2, m us t be nega tiv e


Sim ila rly , if the curve i s a bove
the t a ng ent , a s a t T ,
w ill b e p os iti v e
Som e tim es it will ha pp en tha t the cu r ve lies a bove the
ta nge nt on on e s id e of P a n d be low it on the other a s in g
46
I n th is ca se 82y/ 8x 2 w i ll b e p os itiv e at a n y p oint cl os e
e n o ugh to P on th e on e s ide a n d n ega ti v e at a n
y p oint clos e
e n o ugh to P on th e othe r s id e
At P itself, therefore,
m a y be c ons id er ed a s b eing z er o in the s en se ex pl a in e d in the
n ot e on p 25 7 Such a p oint a s P in g 46 i s c all e d a
p oi n t o f i n fl e x i on
Thu s to n d the s itua ti on of th e cur v e w i th res p ect to the
ta nge nt a t a n y p oint it i s b es t to d et erm in e the va l ue of
I f t hi s i s p os itive the cur v e i s a b ov e th e ta ngent , if
n ega ti ve , b elow I f, a s give n b y the formula , 3 2y/8x 2 O w e
m u s t ex a m in e i ts va lu e for point s i m m edia t ely to the ri gh t
a n d l eft of the
I f the s ign s of thes e v a lues ar e
gi ven point
di fferent the point i s a point of i n ex ion
8 Ex a m in e the valu e of
a t ea ch of th e p oint s
m enti on e d in No l , a n d s o d et er min e whic h a r e turning
point s or p oint s of i n ex i on Com p a re the r es ul t s of your
c a lcul a tion with the gr a ph
9 Rep ea t thi s in v es tiga ti on up on the d a t a of No 3
11
1 0 Sh ow tha t the curv e y
3 6 2:
3x4
h a s tw o p oint s of i n exi on
1 1 E x a m in e the cur ves of No 7 for p oint s of i n ex i on
z
r ca n
1 2 Show th a t n o cur ve of th e typ e 3;
a
:
p
ga;
ha v e a point of i n exion
a
2
a
3
x
1 3 Sh o w th a t a ll cubic c u rv es of th e typ e 37
p
g
m
s ha v e on e p oint of i n ex i on
Show a l s o tha t in
thos e of the type y p a3 3 gm r the point of i n ex i on
a lwa y s li es on the y a x i s
(See th e gra ph of No
4
"
2
t ha s
1 4 Show tha t the cu r v e y
s et
a
z
w
m
p
g
eithe r tw o p oint s of i n ex i on or non e
Show tha t if g i s z ero
the p oin ts of i n ex ion (if th e y ex i s t) ar e eq uidi s t a nt from th e
.

'

'

ax i s

1 5 A rect a n gul a r concert h a ll AC (g 9, p 3 4) i s to b e tt ed


with a pla tform FH AD m us t be 5 0 feet , but the length
A B i s n ot x ed FG i s to be d oubl e of EF a n d EF i s to b e
.

AL GEB RA

26 2

t nth of the l ength (l ) of the ha ll Show tha t


covered by the pla tform i s gi ve n by the formula

on e - e

Henc e s how

the

a ea n ot

5 0l

tha t this a r ea will be grea tes t if the hall i s 1 25


fee t long Calcula te the a rea in this ca s e a n d verify tha t
1 20 a n d l
l
1 3 0 bo th gi ve s m a ll er va l ues
[ Apply the
m e tho ds e xpla in ed in th e n o t es b efore Nos 1 a n d 8 to n d
th e turn i n g v a lu e of th e fu ncti on 5 01
a n d t o s h ow th a t
it i s a m a x i mu m The
nd
of the n ot e s wi ll b e
rep la ced here by 8A/ 8l a n d B A/ S1 ]
1 6 Fig 1 7 (p 3 5 ) i s th e s urfa ce of a pl a t e whos e thickn es s
is c
Suppos ing tha t b i s a l w a ys twic e 0 s how tha t the volu m e
of the pl a t e i s gi ve n by the f or m ul a
.

4b)c2

(3 a

Sho w t ha t if a i s a x ed length but 6 ma y be va r ied t he


volum e i s grea tes t when 0
Ve ri fy (a s in No 1 5) by
a /2
m ea n s of num b ers chos en by yours elf
1 7 Fig 1 8 (p 3 5 ) i s the s ur fa c e of a pl a t e whos e th ickn es s
is b
Show tha t th e weigh t of th e pl a t e i s given by the form ul a
W (3 a 2b)b2w
where w i s the w eight of a unit cub e of the m a teria l Show
tha t if the length a i s x ed but b m a y be va ri ed the pl a t e will
get c on s ta ntly light er a s b increa s es from z ero to a
1 8 Fig 28 (p 94) r epr es ent s a r ect a ngu la r pla te from
w h ich tw o s em i circul a r pi ec es h a v e b ee n rem ove d
Show
tha t if a i s xed but b m a y be var ie d the a rea i s grea tes t whe n
.

I
)

3 d / 2r
1 9 Fig 28 m a y b e t a k en a s a c entra l s ecti on of a bl ock of
wood ou t of which tw o hem i s ph erical pie c es ha ve b een cu t
T h u s tw o
The heigh t of the bl ock i s 2(b
of r a diu s b
of the s id es p er p endicul a r to th e pl a n e of the p a p er a r e
recta ngles m easu ring a. by 2 (b a) but c ont a ining circula r
hol es of ra diu s b Show tha t the v olu me of the block i s gi ve n
.

by
a
6 a.b2
n b
6a cb
g
Show tha t if a. a n d c a r e xed but b i s va ria bl e the ma x im um
a n d m ini m u m v alues of the volu m e c orres p ond to th e v a lu e s
of b wh ich s a ti s fy the e qua tion
l 2a b
6a c = 0
472 b2
Henc e s how t ha t there wi ll be n eith er a m ax i m u m n or a
m ini m u m v a lu e unl es s
c< 3 a / 21r

EXE RC I SE
ALCULATION

THE C

OF

AND

1r

THE SINE TAB E


-

1 Let C
the l eng th of a n y chord , AB , of a
ra d ius (g 47) a n d C1 the le ngth of AB , the
bise cts the ar c AB Wri te ou t a proof tha t
.

circle of u nit
chord which

A2
4
2 Ta k e AB a s a di a met er of the circl e a n d use th e for mula
to c alcula t e the l e ngth of s id e of a n ins crib e d s qu a re
Prove
independe ntly tha t your resul t i s correct
3 Let E E t he l ength of P Q (g 48) a n d C E th e l ength
of AB
Writ e ou t a proof tha t
c.

20

0 2f

J (4

4 U s e the
.

FIG 47
.

form ula of No

3 to

bt ain a n

ex

press i on for the

48

l eng th of s ide of a s qua re circu ms cribed a bou t a circle


of
un i t ra dius (ii) of ra di u s r
5 Wha t Is the m ea ning o f the res ult o bta in e d fr
om the
form ula of No 3 by ta king AB a s the dia m e ter of the circl e
,

26 4

EXERC I SE

265

Ca lcula te to thr ee pl a c es of deci m a l s the p erim eter Of a


re gu l a r hex a go n c ir c u m s cr i bed a bou t a circ le of unit ra diu s
7 With in wha t lim it s i s the v a lue of x ed by c on sidera
tion of the in s crib ed a n d circum s cribed h ex a gon s
8 S ho w tha t th e p eri m e t er s of the r e gul a r l 2 gon s w hic h
a r e in s crib ed wit hin a d circu m s crib ed w it hou t a circl e of u nit
ra dius a r e respe ctivel y of l e ngth
6

7r

l2

J (2

J3)

an d

24

J3

9 Giv e n t ha t J 3
1 7 3 205 1 , c a lcul a te the l i m its within
wh ich the va lu e of 71 i s x ed by c on sid era tion of the ins cri bed
a n d circu m s cri bed 1 2 g on s
1 0 Give ex pre ss i o n s for ca lcu l a ting the l ength s of the
peri m e ter s of the regula r oc ta gon s in s cribed w ith in a n d cir
c u m s crib ed a b out a circl e of unit r a diu s
1 1 U s e th e se ex p res s i on s to det erm in e m a j or a n d m inor
l i m it s for
give n t h a t J 2 1 4 1 421 3
1 2 C h a nge th e s ub j ect of the for m u la of No 1 to C
1 3 U s e the n ew for m ul a to c a l cu l a t e the l e n gt h of s id e of
a n e qui l a t er a l tri a ngl e i n s cribed in a circl e of unit r a diu s
1 4 Ca lcul a te th e l e ngth of s id e of a n e qui l a ter a l tri a ngl e
circu m s cribed a bout a circ le of unit r a diu s W ha t li m it s ar e
de t er m ine d for 71 by th i s r e s ult an d t ha t of No 1 3 ?
1 5 Above ea ch of the p oint s 3 , 4 , 6 , 8 , 1 2 on the x a x i s
p lot a p a ir of points w hos e ordina t es a r e r es pe ctively the
upp er a n d lower lim its of the va l ue O f 71 de term ined by c on
s ider i n g the p eri m e t e r s of r egu l a r p ol ygon s of 3 4 , 6 , 8 , 1 2
s id e s
J oin the tw o s eries of p oint s by s m ooth curves
D eterm ine by ex tra p ola ti on the p roba b l e s ubs equent cours e
of th e curv es a n d the u l ti m a t e v a lu e of 71 s o fa r a s it ca n b e
rea d from your gra p h [Ta k e a s w ide a vertica l s ca le a s
.

'

'

pos s ible ]
.

B
1 6 Fr om the r es ult s u s ed in No 1 5 writ e down a ta bl e
giving to three d ecim a l pl a ces the va lues of s i n a d ta n w he n
Com pa re the r es u l t s w ith the
ta bl e on p 1 1 1
1 7 Cha ng e the formula O f No 1 int o a for m u l a for nding
si
h er e s in
w
i s known
E
.

a.

26 6

18

ALGEB RA

this for mula

Us e

c a lcul a te the v a lue of s i n


z
om No
T
fr
a k e the v a lue of s in
[

to

Show tha t y our va lu e for s i n


a pp rox i m a t el y t w ic e th a t
Th a t b eing
obt a in e d fr om s i n
the c a s e y ou m a y fr om the ot her
tw o s in e s c a l cu l a t e s i n 5 to t h r ee
pl a c es by prop ortion D o s o a n d
d e duc e from it the v a lue of c os 5
C om pa re the
a l s o to t hr e e p l a ces
re s u l t s with the ta b l e on p 1 1 1
20 U s e g 4 9 to p ro ve tha t
19

7 15 i s
.

FIG

'

49

'

s in

[Thi s p roof

(a

s in

)8 )

cos

c os

s in

8
W hy
,

be u s ed only if a
B
2 1 Prov e by the s a m e m et hod tha t
s i n (a
s i n 0 cos B
cos u s i n ,8
B)
then AOB 2(a
[ I n g 4 9 l et AOC 2a an d C OB
Produ c e AB a n d drop up on it from C a perpendicula r CD
Th en A B
AD B D ]
22 From th e kn own va lues of s i n
s in
s in
si n

5 a n d cos
ca lcula te the va lues (to t hree pl a c es) of si n
si n
sin
s in
Th e work i s to be
sin
si n
divid ed a m ong the cla s s , each m em b e r ca lcul a ting on e or tw o
s e ri es only
C oll ect the res ult s into a ta bl e gi ving the s in es
of e v ery v e d e grees from 25
C om p a re this ta bl e
to
with the on e on p 1 1 1 Of wha t cos ines m a y this a lso be
con s idered to be the ta bl e ?
2 3 I n g 4 7 l et L AOB
Prove
2a s o tha t L AOB
4a
by the m e thod of No 20 tha t
2 s i n a cos a
s i n 2a

t a king
24 U s e th e form u l a to c a lcul a te s i n 7 0 a n d s i n
y our da t a from the ta bl e c on s tructed in No 22 Wha t cos ines
h a ve y ou s i m ul t a neou s ly ca l cula t e d
25 Gi ve a c a reful s um m a ry of the m e thod by w hich a
c om pl et e ta ble of s in e s a n d cos in es ca n b e ca lcula ted for i n
te r v a l s of
ca n

EXE RC ISE

LI

G ROWTH FACTORS

AV ERAGE HEIG HTS

or

B or s

9;

1 0;

11%

48 8

50 0

51 9

53 6

49 7

51 7

53 8

T AB LE

OF

A ge

5%

6;

7%

B oys

41 7

43 9

46 0

G ls

ir

41 3

43 3

45 7

Age

1 2%

13 %

1 4;

1 6%

57 5

60 0

64 9

66 5

58 5

60 4

62 2

62 7

B oys

ir ls

56 1
'

'

8g

61 6
'

A
Nata

GIRLS

AND

1 8%

67 4
'

yea rs

inch

es

yea rs

inch

es

Im a gine a boy to grow

ra te th a t his heigh t
a t ea ch a ge i s ex a ctly equ a l to th e a ver a ge h eigh t of a ll b o ys
th a t a ge He m a y be c a ll ed in res p ect ofheight the a v er a g e

b oy

a t s u ch a

1 How m
an d 7
e
%

uch t a ller does th e a vera ge boy grow b etwee n 6 %


B twe en 1 2% an d 1 3 % How m uch doe s the a ve ra ge
girl grow betwee n 1 0% a n d
Find th e ra tio of the second of ea ch pa ir of heigh ts to th
Which nu m ber b es t m ea s ur es the growth of the ch ild
rs t
th e di ffe r enc e of the a nnu a l h eight s or t h e ir ra ti o ? W hy ?
Arra nge the three a nnu a l ra tes of growth in order of m a gni
tud e
Na ta The ra tio of the boy s height on hi s 1 1 th birthda y
.

269

A LG EB RA

270

hi s l 0th birth d a y m a y b e c a l l ed the g r ow t h


How w ou l d y ou
fa c tor of hi s he ig ht a t I O y ea r s o f a g e
n d the grow th fa ct or of hi s heigh t a t 1 2 yea rs of a ge
2 C a lcul a t e the grow th fa ct or of th e a v e ra ge b oy s h eigh t
at
1 2% a n d
I f the gr owth fa ct or ha d th e s a m e v a l u e a t
a t ii
how t a ll would the boy he a t 1 3 % a n d 1 5 % r es p ec
( )
tiv el y
D o th es e r es ult s a gr ee w i th thos e giv e n in the
to hi s he

ight on

ta ble

growth fa ctor of the heigh t of the a vera ge girl of


1 2% we re th e s a m e a s tha t of the a ve ra ge boy of th e s a m e a ge
how t a ll wou l d y o ex p ect h er to be a t 1 3 %
4 C a l cu l a t e th e growth fa ctor s for the a v era ge boy a d the
a v er a ge gir l a t
Wha t co
a n d 1 4% y ea r s of a ge
elu s i on s do
y o dra w from the r e s ul t s ?
5 Su p pos e the grow th f a cto r of th e a v e ra ge girl of 9% to
rem a in con s ta nt for the n ex t fe w y ea rs C a lcula te how ta ll
s h e w ould be a t
C om pa re your r es ult s
w ith the t a b l e
Wha t conclus ion do y ou dra w
6 A ss um ing the s a m e grow th fa ctor a s in No 5 c a lcul a t e
w ha t th e a v er a ge h eigh t w ould b e a t 6 % a d a t
Com pa re
the r es ul t s with th e nu m b e r s gi ve n in the t a b l e
7 The popula tion of a t ow n ha s b ee n increa s ing for s om e
y ea rs a t the ra te of 20 p er thou sa nd p er a nnum Wha t i s the
a nnu a l growth fa ct or of th e p op ul a ti o n ?
8 The p r e s ent p op ula tion of the tow n of No 7 i s
Wha t w il l it b e tw o y ea r s hence ? W ha t w a s it tw o y ea rs
3

I f th e

go ?
9 The p op u l a tion of a country p a ri s h i s f a ll ing 0 6 to the
Wha t i s i ts a n nua l
ex t ent of 1 0 p er t hou s a nd p er a nnu m
growth fa ctor
1 0 The p op ul a ti on of the pa ri s h of No 9 i s 45 20
W ha t
w ill it b e in t h r e e y ea r s ?
Wha t w a s it la s t y ea r ?
1 1 A qu a ntity i s cha nging in s uch a w a y tha t i ts m a gni
tudes a t equa l int e rva l s of ti m e form a geom etrica l prog res s i on
w it h a com m on ra tio r
(In oth er words , th e qu a ntity ha s for
th es e int erva l s a con s ta nt growth fa ctor of
Its p res ent
m a gnitud e i s Q0 Show th a t i ts m a gnitud e a t the en d of a n y
inte gra l nu m b e r of ti m e i n ter v a ls , pa s t or future, i s given by
th e f orm ula
a

'

Q
12

Wr ite for mul a

for th e

Q0?

popul a tion (P)

of

t he

pla c es

EXE RC ISE

LII

G ROWTH P ROB LE

MS

Plot gra phs for the s ol ution of problem s in w h ich the


grow th fa ctor i s
(ii) 1 2 5 (iii )
Five future a d v e p a s t m a gnitudes s hou ld be plotted i n
The nu m b er s n ee ded ca n be t a k e n fr om the r e
ea ch c a s e
s u l ts in Ex LI Nos 1 3 1 4
The tw o gra ph s m a y be p lotted
on the s a m e s heet of p a p er th e s a m e v erti ca l a n d h ori z ont a l
ea ch
T he se gr a p hs a n d the gra phs
s ca l e b eing u se d fo
dra wn in the prec eding l es s on a r e those u s ed to solve the
foll owing probl em s ; t hey m u s t therefore be executed wi th
grea t c a re a n d a ccura cy The y a r e s hown in g 5 0
2 The va lu e of the ord er s r e c ei v ed da ily by a ce rta in r m
W ha t a nnua l percenta ge ra te of
i s d oub l ed in 3 1 yea r s
increa se w ould l ea d to thi s res ult ?
3 The d a ily output of a gold m in e increa s ed from 5 5 oz
I f the ra t e of incr ea se rem a in ed
to 60% oz in a mont h
c on s ta nt wha t w ould be the d a i ly output (i) i tw o a n d a
h a lf m onths (ii ) in t hree a n d a qu a rt er m ont hs ? W ha t w a s
th e d a ily output four a n d a h a lf m onth s a go
4 O w ing to the increa se of m o t or v ehicles the num b er of
h or s es in a c er ta in town wh ich w a s 3 500 in 1 905 ha d f a llen
A s s um ing a con s ta nt a nnua l ra te of de
t o 2 1 7 3 in 1 91 0
crea s e d the nu mb er in 1 908
5 The c e n s us of th e popul a ti o n of the Briti s h I s l e s i s ta ken
yea rs The popula tion of a cert a in di strict in
every ten
in 1 8 91
Lond on w a s 8 4 3 0 in 1 8 6 1 a n d ha d ri s en to
Wha t w a s proba b l y the p opula tion in 1 8 8 5 ? Wh a t would
y ou ex pect it to be in 1 91 4 ?
6 Four tra d e s m e n on c om p a ring n ot es n d th a t for every
pound they took a yea r a go they ha ve ta ken to da y 1
1

27 2

ALGEB RA

274

res pectively A s s um ing these cha nges


to be due to con s t a nt gr owth fa ct or s n d
1

1 6s

an d

1 5s

(i)

t th ey m y ch e p t their t kin gs to b e in ei gh teen


m onths tim
w h t t h e y w e r t hr
m nth ag
w ha t they w r f ur
d qu rt er y
s
go
w hen th ta k i gs w i ll b
( w er ) 2 for ev ery 1 ta k en

w ha

ea

ec

"

e e

year

ee

an

ear

or

ago .

The soundings of a n Adm ira lty s ur veying s h ip pu rs uing


a s tr aigh t cour s e show tha t the de pt h of the s ea has b een
a n d i s increa s ing a t th e co n s t a nt ra t e of 3 0 er ce nt per m il e,
p
a n d tha t a t a certa in pl a ce it i s 1 00 f a th om s
Wha t will the
d epth be (i)
m il es ; (ii) 3 6 m il es ; (iii) 4 2 m il es a hea d ?
W hat w a s the depth (iv) 0 7 m iles ; (v) 1 8 miles ; (vi)
mi les as t ern of the present p os itio n of th e s h ip
8 Wh a t w ould be the depth of the s ea (i n the precedi n g
problem) a t a pla c e (i) 3 3 m iles a hea d , (ii) 48 miles as tern
of the pl a ce w here it i s 2 40 fa thom s ?
9 I t i s found tha t the a vera ge s c ore of a nu m b er of soldier s
w ho a r e pra c ti sing ri e s hooting fa l ls off by 1 0 per cent for
T hi s rule
every 1 00 y a r d s th a t t hey r ec ede fr om the t a rget
i s found to hold good for a l l di s t a nces from 5 0 to 1 000 y a rds
W ha t is it (i) a t 400
The a ver a ge s cor e a t 3 00 ya rds i s 24
y a rds (ii) a t 7 20 y a rd s (iii) a t 8 0 ya rd s ; (iv) a t 21 0 ya rds ?
1 0 The c os t p er y a rd of l a ying a r a ilwa y thr ou gh a mou n
t a in ra nge i ncreas es b etween tw o given p oint s a t the ra te of
At a c erta in pla c e it a mounts
25 p er c ent for ev ery 1 0 m iles
How m u ch i s it (i) 7 m iles ; (ii) 1 4
to 2 1 08 p er ya rd
m il es ; (iii ) 43 m iles fa rth er on ? Ho w mu ch i s it (iv) 1 7
m il es (v) 3 3 m iles fa rthe r b ac k ?
1 1 The nu mbe r of people p er da y w ho v i s it a c erta in
exhi biti on i s increa s ing a t the r a te of 1 0 per cent p er week
Yes t erda y (whic h w a s Monda y) 3 620 p a s sed
of s i x d a y s
How m a ny would you ha ve exp ected to n d
the turn s til es
(i ) on the previous Thurs da y ; (ii) on the previous Thu rsda y
fortnigh t ? How ma ny wou ld you ex pect to n d (iii) nex t
7

T ues da y
1 2 If

(iv) nex t Frida y week ?

da ily a ttenda nce a t the ex hibition be 11 from


the Frid a y mentioned in No 1 1 (i v) to fa ll off a t t e r a te of
25 per c ent p er wee k how m a ny v i s it or s m igh t be expect ed
(i ) ten da ys la t er (ii ) fteen d a ys l a ter
.

the

276

ALG EB RA

At the headquarters of the same r m (Opened fteen


years ago) there ha s been the same rate of increase in the
number of the s ta There are at present 63 6 engaged there
(i ) H w m y w r th r riginally
(ii ) H w m ny ye rs g
i i i ) H w m ny eight
d a half y rs g 2
D ivid 63 6 b y
numb r b i g n ugh t b ring th q u ti nt j ust
wi thin th li mi ts f th gr ph ]
1 9 The population of an Irish village in 1 8 41 was 1 020
Every census since that date has sho w n a decrease of one fth
of the population at the preceding census
What population
w ould you e x pec t the census of 1 91 1 to show ?
20 A11 rateable property (i e houses tramways etc ) in
L ondon is r e valued every ve years for the purpose of deter
mining the amount of rates to be paid At the last q u i q en
nial valuation in 1 91 0 two houses were both declared to have
a rateable value of 240 per annum At the rst valuation
(in 1 8 7 0) one of them was rated at 8 4 The other was not
then in e x istence but in 1 880 w a s rated at 1 23 Assuming
that the values of both houses have risen uniformly nd
how much each has increased every ve years
18

an

ve

an

e e o

ea

EXERCISE
THE GU

Na ta

NTER

LIII

ALE

SC

The e x amples are to be solved by means of the


curves and Gunter scale of g 5 0 p 27 3

A
1 Find in each of the curves A B and C the abscissa of
the point where the ordinate is
2 A quantity whose present magnitude i s 1 4 is increasin g
continuously with a growth factor of 1 4 W rite for m u l w
for the abscissa as of the ordinate which indicates its magni
tude at time t in curve A (ii ) in curve B (iii ) in curve C
3 Find the magnitude of this quantity when t
24
by means of cu r ve A
4 Find the magnitude of the same quantity when
using (i ) curve B (ii ) curve C
t
5 A quantity whose p resent magnitude is 8 4 is increasing
continuously with an hourly growth factor of 1 2
Use
cu rve C to nd
(i ) i ts m g i tud f t r 2; h ur
(ii ) i t m agnit ud 1 % h urs g
(iii) th ti m w h n i ts m gni tud w 4 2 ;
(iv) th ti m w h n i ts magnitud w ill b 1 2 6
6 Find the time in which the magnitude of the quantity
mentioned in No 5 will be trebled Obtain your answer
from each of two curves
7 A quantity whose present magnitude is 200 is decreasing
continuously with an annual grow t h factor of 09 5 Find i ts
magnitude
in three years from now (ii ) four years ago
using curve C
8 The total length of a bean plant (g 2 p 5 ) is to day
(Monday) 3 inches and has been increasing for some time
.

e a

as

277

278

ALGEB RA

with a constant weekly growth factor of


Supposing the
rate of growth to remain constant how long will it be at the
same hour (i ) to morrow (ii ) on Thursday ? (iii ) How long
w a s it at the same hour on Saturday last ?
9 Find (i ) the seventh root of 3 6 2 ; (ii ) the fth root of
26 ; (iii ) the cube root of
1 0 Find (i ) the cube root of the fth power of
using
cur ve A ; (ii ) the fth power of the cube root of the same
number using the same curv e Why must the results be the
same
1 1 Find the seventh root of the cube of
using curve
B How can you nd the same by means of curve C
1 2 In a certain growth cu r ve the ordinate w hose height is
a certain number n has an abscissa :3 Write down the
abscissa of the ordinates whose heights are :
(i ) th 8 th r t f t h 5 th p w er f
(i i ) th 5 th p w r f th 8th r t f ;
(i i i ) th 6 th r t f th 1 1 t h p w r f l /
(iv) th 1 th p w r f th q th r t o f ;
(v) th qth r t f th p t h p w r f 1 m
(vi ) th pth r t f th q th p w r f
-

oo

oo

oo

e 0

oo

oo

oo

B
1 3 By means of the Gunter scale (GG g
a centimetre rule nd the values of

(i ) (2
(V) J 3 1 ;
(i x ) w e ar
(11 1 1 1 )

(ii ) <2

78 1 ;
(V I) L
(x ) ( t e
(XIV )

i )
(i_
i!
(V I )
(x 1 )

5 0,

27 3 )

and

(i v )
(vi ii )
mm X ; P(xi i ) ( r m ) ;
( V ) M 5)

W
1 4 By means of the Gunter scale and an inch rule nd
the values of
.

(i i i )

(ii )

(i )

(V )

(i v )

(V I)

S Ie ;
x/

Take a narrow strip of paper rather more than three


times as long as GG Mark its leng th into three sections
each equal to GG leaving a margin at each end Graduate
the middle section a s a Gunter scale transferring from GG
the graduations for the units only and leaving the positions
of fractional graduations unmar ked By means of GG con
ti n u e the graduation of the scale to the right marking the
positions of the tens (20 3 0
Also continue
1 00) only
15

ALG EB RA

280

Use the method of No 1 8 to mark on the Gunter s ca le


of No 21 the positions of the graduations whose va lues are
Find these values numeri cally by me a ns
(i ) 1/ 1 0 (ii )
of the ordinates of curv e A
2 3 Write a full e x planation of the method whi ch you used
to complete the graduation of your Gunter scale in No 21
24 The gra duation
is at the distance a: from the
r
gradua tion l on a certain Gunter scale E x pla in carefully
why you expect the graduation dista nt mt from the gra dua
tion 1 to give the magnitude of a unit which va r ies con
ti n uou sl y with a c onstant growth factor
(Consider the ca se
when t i s fra c tional a s well as when it is integral )
22

E X E RCISE LIV

ANTILOG RITHMS

THMS AND

LOGARI

Na ta

The references are to


scale of g 5 0 p 27 3

the

growth curves and Gunter


-

A
1 Find by means of curve A the value of (i ) 2 2 x
2
2
1
6
ii
iii
22
; (iv )
)
(
( )
2 Find by means of curve B the values of (i )
(iii ) ( J
(ii )
3 Answer No 2 by means of cur ve C compa r ing t he
resul ts with those obtained by using curve B
4 O btai n by me a ns of either the Gunter scale or a slide
rule the values of (i )
(iii )
(ii )
x
6 8 ; (iv )
5 Obt a in by the same means the value of (i ) 2 7 x 3 40 ;
48 00
x
ii
iii
iv
2
00
8
;
)
(
)
(
)
(
6 O b ta in by means of the Gunter sc a le or (preferably ) by
x 28 ;
a slid e rule the v alue 0 f (i )
(ii ) 9 2
x
x
(iii )
7 State in words the sim p lest rule for nding by the slide
rule the result of a rithmetical Op erations like those Of No 6
8 Find the value of
.

H
u

(1 V )

4 75

.
o

(V )

(V I)

I x

Fin d the value of the following by a single Op eration


with the slide rule (or Gunter scale and paper strip) [Note
tha t the scale must be supp osed t6 be continued to the left of
the rst gra dua tion ]
9

(1 )

(n )

28 1

(m )

ALGEB RA

282

10

Find the value


3 70

(1 )

(ii )
12

(ii )
7 900

42 5

(u )
(N )

11

of

3 40

9,

37 s

76

'

2 40 0 x

(v)

(m )

50 5

Find the value of the following quotients : (i)


(iii)
(iv) 3 7 0 5 2 ; (v)

0 07 8

x
Find the value of the follow ing products : (i)
x
(iii ) 23 0 x 7 2 ; (iv) 00 058 x 00 6 3 ; (v )

81

B
Na ta

The work in Nos 1 3 and 1 4 may be divided among


the members of the class
1 3 By means of curve B construct a table of logarithms
to base
for numbers at intervals of
from 0 5 to
1 4 Construct a table of antilogarithms to base 1 2 5 for
logarithms at intervals of
from 3 to 3
1 5 By means of the method of prop ortional p arts calculate
from your table (i ) log 0 6 5 ; (ii ) l og 1 2 3 ; (iii ) log

16

(iii)

Calculate the value of (i )

a n til o

a n ti l o

(ii ) a n til og

a E

Use your tables of logarithms and antilogarithms to


calculate (i ) 1 8 x
(ii )
(iii )
1 8 U s e your tables to calculate
x
x
1 8 ; (iii)
(ii )
(iv )
Jl 9
1 9 Complete the following identi ties and show how they
follow from the properties of the growth curve
l g Q
(ii ) l g P
(i l g P l g Q
(iv) l g 3U P
(i i l g P
20 Complete the following identities and show how they
follow from the properties of the grow th curve
17

'

"

(i ) a n ti log P x a n til og Q
a n til og a Q
(i i ) a n ti l og a P
(i i i ) (a n til og P )n
(i v ) 2/ (a n ti l og P )
a

ALG EB RA

28 4

A Gunter scale is to be constructed in which graduations


1 cm apart are to have a ratio of
Calculate the gradua
tions at the points which are 1 2 3
1 0 cm s fro m the
beginning of the scale
8 Enter these graduations in p encil u p on a stri p of centi
metre squared paper Mark rst in pencil and afterwards in
ink the positions of the graduations
9 W hat would be the value of the graduation
1 5 cms
(ii ) 1 6 cms (iii ) 20 cms (iv) 21 cm s from the beginning
of the scale [Answers to three decimal places ]
1 0 A table of logarithms i s to be constructed in which
l og
What wil l be the base of these logarithms 9
02
[U s e the results of No
1 1 What will be the value in this table of (i ) log
(ii ) l og
(iii ) antilog
(iv ) antilog
(v ) antilog
7

3 2
12
'

Using the same base nd by the method of proportional


p arts the value of log
(ii ) l og 2 (iii ) log
1 3 A table of logarithms is to be constructed in which
l og
What i s the base
01
1 4 Find the value with this number as base of (i ) l og
(ii ) log
(v )
(iii ) l og 2 ; (iv ) antilog
antil og
Note
Since
the easiest way to nd
1
T5
x
is a s follows
.

'

05 9049

05 3 1 44 1

A table of logarithms i s to be constructed in which


while log 1 0 l og
What is the base ?
1 6 Calculate enough resul t s to carry this table as far a s
antilog
1 7 Find the value in this table of
log
(i i ) l og
(iii ) l og
1 8 Find the value in this table of (i ) antilog
(ii) antilog 2 ; (iii) antilog
1 9 A table of logarithms is constructed in which the base
15

an

I f this

in h
c

is

for

n ot a

vail b l
ti m t r

c en

e us e

in h
c

in N

os .

sq

uar d p p r
e

an d

an

r d
ea

h lf
a

EX ERC I SE LV

is

72 5 93 7
antilog
ii
l
o
( ) g
(iii ) antilog
(iv ) l og
[ Use the results of No
20 A table of logarithms is constructed in which the base
is
Find log
antilog 2
(ii) antilog
[ Use the results of Nos 1 5 and

2 1 43 6

Find

28 5

'

EXE RCISE LVI

CO MMO

N LOG ARITHMS

A
Notc

Nos

and 3 are to be answered by m eans Of a


Gunter scale and a sheet of squared paper It i s best to lay
the G unter scale on the paper so that the divisions 1 and
1 0 of the former are on two verticals of the squared paper
1 0 inches (or centimetres) a p art
The rst of these verticals
should be numbered 0 and the second 1
The inter
mediate verticals divide this uni t range into 1 00 equal p arts
Al l logarithms and antilogarithms mentioned in this ex ercise
are common logarithms and a ntilogarithms that is the
base i s 1 0
1 Find to three pl a ces the value of (i) l og 2 (ii ) log
(iv)
(iii)
(v)
2 From the results of No 1 write down the logarithms of
(i )
(ii )
(v)
(iv)
(iii )
(vi )
(vii ) 93 0
3 Find to three signicant gur es (i s tw o decimal places )
the value of (i) antilog
(iii) antilog
(ii) antilog
(iv) antilog
(v) antilog
4 From the results of No 3 write down the antilogarithms
of (i ) 2 4 (ii)
(iii)
(iv) 43 68 ; (v)
(vi)
(vii )
(viii )
5 From the logarithms of No 1 calculate the logarithms
of (i)
(iii)
(ii) f/ (3 4o)
(iv)
x 8 70 ;
93 ; (vii)
(v)
(vi) 1 05
J 93 00 ;
(viii) i / (93 0
6 Find what numbers are obtained bv the operations
indicated in No 5 (i) to (viii)
.

286

28 8

ALGEB RA
.

Calculate
(i )

(iv)

Calculate

(i i )

93 0 0

(iv )

3 40 0
x

Calculate
(i )

(n )

(iii )

'

(i)
(i i i )

(i i i )

(i i )

93 0

J(

O O S7

I
x

EXERCISE LVII
THE USE OF

Na ta

TAB LES

0F

LOGARITHMS

These ex am p les are to b e solved by means of a


ta ble of four gur e or v e gur e logarithms

Write down the logarithms of the following numbers


(iv) 203 5 ; (v)
(ii) 4283 0 ; (iii )
(i)
(viii) 1 007 (i x )
(vii)
(vi )
(x) 8 ;
1

'

(xii)

(xi )

(i )

Wr ite down the antilogarithms of the following numbers


(ii)
(i ii)
(iv )
(v)
(viii)
(vii)
(vi )
(ix ) 3 0006 ;

Use the logarithms of No 1 to nd the value of :


x
i( ) log
(ii ) log
(iii )
log
(iv) l og (1 0
(v) log
1
vi
log
1
(vi i) log
)
{
(
(
(i x ) log
(x ) l og
(viii) l og
(xi i ) l og
[ L ea ve a line bla nk
(x i) l og
below ea ch result ]
4 Complete the ca lculations of No 3 by lling in the
antiloga rithm of each result
5 Find to four signicant gur es the value of
3

(1 )

72 4

(n )

28 9

2 70 1

43

19

290

ALG EB RA

B
Nata

Assume
3 1 41 6 l og
3 to nd
6 Us e the formula V
w
(i) the volume of a

sphere of radius
em s
(ii) the radi us of a sphere whose
volume is 48 2 c ubic feet
7 Ca lc ul a te (i) the amount (ii) the present value of 3 40
for 1 6 years allowin g 4 per cent per annum compound
interest
8 How many yea rs w ill it ta ke for 1 7 60 to a mount to
3 1 7 9 28 at 3 per cent per annum compound interest ?
9 The pre s ent value of a sum of 1 5 1 0 1 6 s due in tw elve
ye ars time i s st a ted to be 8 90 What i s the ra te of
interest 7
1 0 Find (to four signicant gures) (i) the value of
(ii ) the sum of 20 terms of a G P of w hi c h the rst term
is
a n d the common ratio
1 1 Find (i) the sum of the rst 3 0 terms of the series
1
(ii ) the su m of the second 3 0 terms
of the same series ; (iii) the limiting value of the sum of all
the rem a ining terms of the series
1 2 What percentage of the max imum sum of terms of the
series 20 1 7 1 4 45
is included in (i) the rst 25
terms (ii) the rst 50 terms ?
1 digits
What
1 3 A whole number is com p osed of n
is the c haracteristic of its loga rithm
1 4 A c ertain number is a decimal fraction less th a n unity
There a r e n 1 noughts between the decimal point an d the
rst sign ica nt gure What is the characteristic of its
loga rithm
1 5 How m a ny digits are there i n
(ii)
(iii )
1 6 How many noughts are there before the sign ica nt
gures in 0 er ; an (a r m 2
1 7 Whi ch i s the rst power of 2 whose value i s above
1r

1r

'

1 000
18

19
00 01
20

Show that if P Z Q then l / Q l / P


Which is the rst power of 3 whose value is below
'

How many terms of the series

lie between

1 04

an d

"

'

1 05 ?

27

EXE RCISE LVIII


THE

LOGARITHMIC

AND

ANTILOGARITHMIC FUNC TIONS

Draw two p arallel and horiz ontal straight lines and


graduate them both ways from z ero to i 1 0 Imagine a
point P to traverse the lower line from left to right i ts di s
tance at any moment from the z ero p oint being calle d d Let
another point p move simultaneously along the upper line so
that its p osition always marks the value of a n til og d L etter
successive positions of the former point P P 2 P 3 etc and
the corres p onding positions of the latter
etc
p2 p
Choose the base yourself bu t let it be greater than unity
2 Below the lo w er scale in No l draw a third graduated
line Mark on it the positions P l P z P
which cor
respond to the positions marked P I P2 etc and 13 1 192 etc
in the case when the base is a number less than unity
3 W hat peculiarities in (i) the logarithmic function (ii )
the antilogarithmic function are illus trated by the movements
of the three points ?
permissible (ii) useful to
4 E x plain clearly why it is
write
a n ti l og w
a instead of y
y
n d (by means of curve A p 27 3 )
5 Given that y
the values of y w hen (i) m
(ii) a:
(iii )
1

3,

a:

Write do w n the values of (i)


(ii )
using the curves of g 5 0
(iii )
Na ta L et there b e a number k and two other numbers
b p and q being integers
a and h
a and 5 such that h
Also let k 1 /p and k 1 /q W ri te down rst the end
less geometric sequen ce
6

"

292

EXERC I SE
h

293

1 , h,

and underneath
3 k,

L V III

2k,

the

it

[b ]

[a ]

tw o

endless ari thmetical sequences

k,

[ I]
3 k,

2k,

k,

0, k , 2k,

[ I]

Then by the denition of logarithms the terms of (B) are


the logarithms of the corresponding terms of (A) to the base
a
while those of (C) are logarithms to base 5 Let a: h be
one of the n umbers in (A) then we have
log m No and l og ac 7 k
Suppose now that given l og cc we want to nd log s or
v i ce ver s a
We have
,

l ogbcc

s 73

I
[

log a

log m x 1
l og w log a
Prove by a modication of this argu ment that
b

l ogbx
1 0 the

l oga x /l oga b

Find to base
logarithms of the numbers whose
logarithms are
to base 2 (ii )
to base 5 (iii)
to base
Find also the numbers themselves
as log a
a then l og y
9 Prove that if y
1 0 Find by means of a table of common logarithms the
value of (i)
(ii) (1 0)
(iii) (1 00)
(iv)
(v)
(vi)
l og x y
l og cc and c
log a Then we
1 1 L et y
have proved that y
Show that
b
b
a and that a
and use the foregoing equivalence to prove that
8

'

'

(b
im

Note

Th e argument a p plies
This result is
i or ta n t
equally to all kinds of values of c and y integral and frac
ti on a l positive and negative
It proves therefore not only
that fractional indices may be added and subt r acted like
integral indices but also that the rule

294

ALG EB RA

(a y
rra

be used when m and n are both fractional


1 2 E xpress e a ch of the following as a single number with
a single power inde x a n d nd its value by the c urves of
g 5 0 : (i)
(iii )
(ii )
1 3 Fi nd by m eans of a ta ble of com mon logarith ms the
M
3
5
va lue of : (i)
2
ii
iii
7
W
)
( )
9 ( )
1 4 Prove th a t $
is a p ermissible way of ex pressing
m
m
a n d m ! a permissible way O f ex pressing both
U
U00 ) a n d
Ex press in the inde form :
2/
(ii )
s
i
n
( ) w a (i v) w a
ca n

B
m
1 5 Ex press the fol lowing relations in the form 3]
ax
3

16
i( ) y 2 9a:3 (ii ) 31 3
x
iii
l
6
(iv) xi yi
( ) y
1 0 an d
Find whenever possible the value of y when a:
when a:
10
1 6 The relation between tw o variables a: and y is of the
form
.

'

"

aw

Putting Y l og y X log a: and c l og


same rela tion may be ex pressed in the form
,

Y = mX +

a,

show tha t the

the logarithms being taken to any convenient base


1 7 A number of corresponding values of two v a riables
a: and y h a ve been determined by measurement
When l og y
Y ) is plotted aga inst l og a:
X ) the resulting graph
is a straight li ne cutting the Y ax is at a point 0 above the
or igin a n d in clined to the X ax is at an angle whose tangent
is m
Wha t is the relation between a: and y ?
1 8 In a pa rticular case the logarith ms a r e taken to base
1 0 the line c uts the Y a x is where Y
an d is in c lined
a t 1 3 4 to the X ax is
Fi nd the form ula giv ing y in terms of a)
1 9 Find the relation between a: and y in the follow ing
cases : (i ) the line cuts the Y ax is 0 8 a bove the origin an d
cuts the X a x is where X
4
(ii ) the line passes through
the points (0
and
20 In an ex perimen t the relation between the m a gnitudes
of two quanti ties d and H is believed to follow a law of the
form d
The following table gives a nu mber of pairs
.

ALGEB RA

296

(i )

a3

2
5

(1 1 )

Note

(i v )

z.

3)

The student should observe that there are tw o typi


c al ways of c a lcul a ting loga rithms
The r st which is the
ori ginal method of Napier (c 1 5 94) is the one described in
NO 2 3 and illustrated in Ex LV Nos 1 0 1 3 1 5 In this
method the value of the base can not be foreseen but has to
be determined by c alculation
The second typi cal method is that of Henry Briggs w ho
suggested to Napier (1 6 1 5) the a dvanta ge of t a king 1 0 as the
base of the logarithms In this method it i s obvious that we
must start from the base Briggs pro c edure is in essenc e
that i ll ustra ted in Nos 25 26 That is to say Briggs began
by repeated ex tra c tion of roots star ting from 1 0 Hav ing
reached a number a very little above unity he b uilt u p hi s
table by a method analogous to th a t of No 26 But the
number of root extrac tions instead of being three was fty
four ! The logarithms corresponding to ev en distances in the
scale of numbers were determined by proportion and not by
gra p hic interpola tion
The tables of c ommon logarithms in ac tu a l use are ulti
mately derived from those of Briggs

EXERCISE L IX
NOMINAL

AND EFFEC

TIVE
A

TH FACT ORS

GROW

Find the effective a u a 1 r a te of interest per pound and


per cent when the nominal rate is 5 per cent per annum the
interest being added to the principal : (i) twice a year ; (ii)
every quarter (iii) twelve t imes a year
2 Is it more protable to invest in a concern which o ffers
interest at 2} per cent per annum and adds it to the principal
every half year or in one which gives interest a t 2% per cent
per annum and adds it to the p rincipal every qu a rter ?
3 A and B invest 1 000 each A in the former B in the
latter of the con cerns mentioned in No 2 What is the dif
ference between the values of their investments after three
years
4 Interest at the no minal rate of
per 1 per annum
paid 19 times a yea r is equivalent to an e ffective rate of 12p er
Show
that
1 er annum
p
1

nn

'

1}

Use the formula of No 4 to nd the nominal rate equi


valent to a n effective rate of 21 per cent per a nnum the
interest being conver ted into p rincipa l every half year
6 1 000 is inv ested in a concern in which the i nterest
In ve years
earned i s added to the principal every qu a rter
the princi p al has amounted to 1 3 46 1 8 s Find the rate of
interest allowed per a nnum
7 W rite a formula for the p resent value (V) of a sum of
money (P) due in t yea rs interest being re ckoned at 7; per 1
per annum con v ertible p times a year
8 Show that the cost of an annuity of a per annum pay
5

297

ALGEB RA

298

able in equal instalments p times a year for n years interest


bei ng reckoned at j per 1 per annum is given by the formula
P 0b{1 (1
,

Note

Assume e
and log e
9 Interest at a nominal rate of
3 % p er cent p er annum
(ii ) 5 per cent p er annum i s converted into p rincipal every
moment Find t he equivalent effective rate in each c a se
1 0 Interest at the nominal rate j per 1 p er annum is
converted every moment into principal and is equivalent to an
effective annual rate of p er 1 Show tha t
log (1 i )
j =
1 1 What nominal rate of interest is equivalent to an eec
tive rate of
p er cent per annum when the interest i s
added to the princip al as fast as it is earned ?
1 2 Write a formula for the cost of an annuity payable
continuously the total amount payable in a year being a
Reckon interest at the nominal rate of i p er 1 per annum
[ See No
1 3 Interest at the nominal rate of 1 0 p er cent per annum
is paid in four di fferent cases (i) half yearly (ii ) quarterly
(iii) monthl y (iv ) weekly Calculate the e ffective annual
interest p er cent in each case using the following seven
gur e d logarithms

Nu m ber

Loga r i thm

1 001 923
'

1 025000
1 0 5 0000
1 1 025 00
1 1 03 8 1 3

'

0 0008 3 46
0 003 6043
0 01 0723 9
0 021 1 893
0 0423 78 6
'

'

'

'

1 1 05 093
1 1 05 1 70
2 71 8 28 2
'

'

0 043 3 992
0 043 4295
0 43 42945
'

Draw a rectangle about on e centimetre wide and of a


convenient length (as great as the p a p er allows) Mark off
areas to represent the resp ective values of the e ffective i nterest
calculated in No 1 3
1 5 A man invests a sum of money at com p ound interest the
interest earned bein g added to the princip al every week
14

ALGEB RA

3 04

numbers must be repla ced in logarithmic calculations by the


corresponding positive numbers The correct sign of the
n al result m ust be determined separately
5 Find the v alues of a sin cos 8 for each set of va lues
of the v aria bles given in the follow ing table
.

6)

(i i i )

13 1

25

1 27

76
1 23

27

62

6 Given that a
(i) l og see % (a
B)
a / sin ,8
) (iv) l og {s in
.

248

1 06

and 8
(ii) log sin (2

29

0.

(2a

B)/

cos

3 07

1 42

22

(v )

(i v )

(ii )

(1

nd the value of
(iii) log (23 7 s in

(a

Given the a ngles and 8 and the side a of a triangle


show that the side I) can be calculated by the loga rithmi c
formula
log a log sin )8 l og s i n
l og 5
8 Cal c ulate the angle y and the sides 6 a n d c in the
triangles in which the following values of
8 a n d a ar e
g iven
7

(i)

)8

41

(i i )
(i i i)

1 1 5 45 '

1 07

62
'

53 1 2

20 1 5 '

(i v)

Use logarithmic tables to calcul ate the remaini ng parts


of the triangles in which (i) A
B 7 and c 427
yards ; (ii) A
B
and c 1 000 feet ;
B
1 5 8 2 yards
b
C 57
1 08
Note A formula can be ex pressed in loga rithmic form
only when it c onsists entir ely of products quo ti ents powers
or roots Thus the formula 6 a sin B/ sin ca n be turned
into a loga rithmic for m the formul a
9

a.

cos

2
b
(

)/260

cannot To obtain a logarithmic formula to replac e the


latter we must turn to relations of the kind suggested in
Ex X L Nos 20 22
1 0 Show by me a n s of the equivalenc e
.

EX ERC ISE LX

cos
that
a nd

(30 3

hence that

00 3

Show that if
formula becomes
11

3 05

) then the foregoing

cos

s s

50

E x press this formula in the logari thmic form


1 2 The sides of a triangle are res p ectively 1 20
1 80 feet long
C a lculate the an gles
1 3 Demonstrate by means of the equivalence
.

240,

and

COS

= 1

sm

the formula
(s

sin 2

b)

(8

50

Deduce from the results Of Nos 1 1 and 1 3 formulae


s uitable for calculating (i) tan E (ii) sin b y means of log
14

(1

a r i th m s

Show that the area of a triangle whose sides are given


can be calculated by the formula
15

u e

Note

> (s

b)

(s

For calculating the angles of a triangle given its


sides any one of the formulae for cos sin g and tan will
suf ce The rst i s the easiest to remember
1 6 Calculate the angles and the a rea of each of the tri
angles whose sides are given in the following table

0.

o.

(i)
(ii )
(iii )

(iv)

47
1 96

53
21 2

20

82
1 83

ALGEB RA

3 06

C
Note It will be seen that the formula of No 1 1 m a kes it
a n e a sy m a tter to calculate
w hen a b and c are known
bu t th a t the formul a cannot be used with logarithms to cal cul ate
are known To obtain a log ari thmic
a when b c a n d
formul a suitable for dealing w ith thi s c a s e w e h av e to ma ke
u se of the r a ther c omplica ted relation
.

a.

u.

tan

cot 2

'

Given 6 c a n d this formula enables us to ca l c ul a te B 7


But sin c e B y 1 8 0
it i s easy to deduc e the v a lues
of B a n d 7 When the s e are known a can be ca lcula ted by
the loga r ithmic formul a of No 7
Nos 1 7 to 20 show how the formula for tan (B y ) c a n
be demonstr ated It is assumed that b c
,

a.

'

a.

F IG

51

In the trian gle ABC (g 5 1 ) take AD c on AC a n d


J oin B D BE
In th e tr ia ngle
c on CA produced
L AD E
BAD show that L AB D
90
In the tri
4
L ABE
Hen ce show
a ngl e ABE sh ow that L AEB
i( ) tha t LD B C } (B y ) and (ii ) that LEB C 90
; (
B
(B
[Remember that 90
1 8 In the triangle BCD prove that

17
AB

a.

'

b
si n

} (B
1

a.

7)

cos f }
a

EXE RCISE L XI
L

PO AR C O ORD

Note

INATES

L et P be any point whose

ordi nates are x y


L et OP
Then r and are
r and the angle POX
called the p ol a r c o or di n a t es of P When it is necessary
to distingu ish a: and y from the p olar co ordinates they are
called the C a r tes i a n c o or di n a t es after the great French
phil osoph er and mathematician Descartes (1 5 96 1 650) w ho
invented their use
1 If x y are the Cartesian and r
the polar co ordinates
in
of a point P show that as r cos
r
and
s
y

co

a,

f
i

a,

r2

When Halley s comet returned in 1 909 1 0 it followed


a path which is most conveniently described by the follow
ing p ola r for m u la the origin being the s u n The symbol
d E the comet s least dis tance from the sun (about 1 4 x 1 0
miles ) Determine the values of r corresponding to values
Of
for every 1 5 from 0 to 3 60 and s o plot the path of the
comet
2

'

1 97d
'

'

cos

Draw the graph correspondi ng to the pol a r formula

(l

c os

a.

assigning any con venient value to a


The curve is called
the c a r di oid
4 Draw the l i m a con whose pol a r formula i s
r
b
a cos
[D i Her en t members of the class should choose di fferent values
for a and b ] What does this curve become when a b
whose
5 Draw on e of the two
t hr ee [ c a v e d r os es
polar formulae are
an d r
a cos 3
r
a sin 3
.

3 08

LX I

EXERC I SE

3 09

Draw one of the fou r l ea v ed r os es


r
a sin 2
and r
a cos 2
7 State and account for the di fferences between the mem
bers of each pair Of roses
8 Draw the l e m n i s ca te or gu r e oi eight whose polar
formula i s
6,

c os

2a

E x plain its relation to the four leaved rose


9 Draw the c on c h oid whose polar formula
-

is

r
or r

=
=

+ b

/ cos a

+ b

a s ec
a

is well known a properly thrown boomerang if it


does n ot hit i ts object wil l return through the air towards the
thrower E x periments have been made b y Mr G T Walker
to trace i ts path The following table gives the results Of
on e such ex periment
A B C
W are points on the
path of the boomerang ; r are the p olar co ordi nates of the
p oints on the ground immediately below A B C etc r
being measured in feet h i s the height of the boomerang in
feet (i) Draw a plan showing a bird s eye view of the
boomerang s ight (ii) J oin up the origin A with on e of the
more distant points on the plan by a straight line Draw a
graph showing the elevation of the boomerang s path as
viewed from a distant point along a p erpendicular to that
straight line
B
C
D
F
H
G
J
10

As

a.

0
5

1 00
1 29
43
U

50
62
15

10
26 5
10

20
65 5
20

'

1 10
115
33

40
41

'

1 15
1 00
27

W
0
0

30
1 03
26

N
115
72
19

40
1 24

110
65
18

70

50
132
30

60
134
42

134
51

P
1 00
59
18

90
59
17

80
62

70

17

18

80
13 4
57

90
13 0
55

60
65
19

EXE RCISE L XII


SOME

Note

IMP ORTANT TRIGONOMETRICAL ID ENTITIES

E x cept in taking bearings in surveying it may always


be assumed that angles are measured by the anti clockwise
rotation of a line about a x ed point

A
1 In g 5 2 OP and P Q are both vectors of length r
The
Wh at i s
inclination of OP to the x ax is i s B that of P Q
.

F IG

52

their difference of direction AP Q W hat i s the an gle AQ Q


The magnitu de of the resultant vector O Q ? Its inclination
to the w ax is
2 Find the c o ordinates of Q (i) by projecting OP and P Q
upon OX and C Y (ii) by p rojecting O Q upon OX and O Y
Hence complete the identities
-

cO S

eos

Sl n

3 10

SI
D

ALG EB RA

3 12

In g 5 6 0 Q is a resultant of tw o vectors OP a n d P Q
The length of 0 Q and OP is in each case r while their i n
cl i n a ti on s to the x ax is are respectively
and B Show that
the length of P Q i s 2r sin 1 (
B) and that i ts inclination
to the w ax is i s 90
B)
}(
4

a.

a.

FIG

56

Find the length of the proj ection of P Q upon the cit ax is


(i ) by taking the di fference between the projections of OP and
0 Q (ii ) by projecting P Q directly using the results of No
4
Obtain simila rly two equivalent ex pressions for the pro
j ecti on of P Q upon the y ax is Hence complete the identities
c os B
cos =
s in B
; sin
5

What products involving angles less than 90 are equ iv a


lent to
6

(i )

(iii )
(v)
(vii )

c os 2 3

cos
c os
cos

72

34

2
34

cos
cos
c os

c os

(ii )
(iv)
(vi )
(vii i )

s in 2 3

s in

1 23

s in
s in

Verify any two results from the tables

s in

s in

1 64

s in

3 42

s in

EXERC I SE

E x press

LXII

3 13

following products as sums or di ffer

th e

en ces :

(i )
(i i i )

2 c os 1

(i i )

cos

2 s in

87

s in

28
i
43
(iv) 2
23 7
i
(v)
(vi ) 8 i 7 i
8 Show that t he following e x p ressions are equivalent each
to the tangent or c O tangent of a certain angle
.

2 s in

cos

cos

c os

s n

s n

s n

s n

s in

(i )

(m )

43

s in

61

cos

43

s in

s in

5a

c os

3a

cos

5a

3
v
( ) s in z +
B

that

$111

56

= 2

81

c os

81

s in

5 in a

c os

5a

cos a

cos

(v i )

s in 2 a

cos
and

(i v )

cos 2 a

Draw a gure like g

s in

(i i )

c os

c os 2

s in a

s in 2 4
cos

c os

s in

but let B
c os

Use it to p rove

a.

a.

8 1 11

a.

c os

Do the equivalences hold good for all values of

3 60
10

from

to

Draw a gure like g 5 6 but let B


W hat
equivalences appear when P Q is p rojected up on the ax es of x
and y ? Do they a gree with those of No 9
1 1 Find the simplest ex pressions by which the following
may be replaced in a formula :
.

(1 )
(m )
(v )

(v i i )

c os

sm

(1 1 )

a.

s in a
1

(N )

cos a

tan

ta n

I
I

sin a
I

c os 2 a

c os
2

cos a

'

c os 2 a

(viii )

I + C OS Z a

ta n

o
$111

s in a

a
a

5 111 2 a

+ c os

+ c0 5 2 a

Show that the equivalences of Nos 9 and 1 0 ca n be


deduced from those of Nos 2 and 5 by substituting 0 for B
12

B
1 3 In g 57 OP is a vector of length r making an an gle
of B w ith a straight line 0 A which is inclined to the w a x is
0 Q and Q P are the vectors along and at
at an angle
.

ALG EB RA

3 14

right a ngles to OA by which OP may be replaced Wh a t


a r e the leng ths of 0 Q a nd Q P ?
Find two ex pressions for
the abs ciss a of P rst by projectin g OP direc tly on to the
w ax is se c ondl y by proj ecting its component vec tors 0 Q an d
Q P on to the x a x is Hence prove that
cos (
B) cos cos B sin sin B
1 4 Find in a simil ar manner two ex pressions for the
ordinate of P Hence prove that
.

a.

a.

0.

s in

s in

B+

c os

OO S

si n

B
.

Test the general validity of these equivalence s by m eans


of gures in which 0 A and OP fall in various positions in the
four qu a dr a nts
1 6 Dra w a gure sim i lar to g 5 7 but let OP lie within
the a ngle XOA the a n gle AOP b eing B as be fore Use this
gure to prove tha t
cos (
B) cos cos B s i n sin B
an d
si n (
B) sin cos B cos s i n B
15

a.

(1.

u.

a.

0.

a.

FIG
17

tha t

Us e

the equivalences

57

of

Nos

1 3 , 1 4, 1 6

to prov e

A LG EB RA

3 16
0

Establish

following identities
ta n

ta n

(n )
(iii )

ta n

ta n

ta n

ta n

ta n

ta n

ta n

S ho w how the identities of

ta n

(a

ta n

(a

ta n 2 a

B)

ca n

be deduced from these

EX ERCISE L XIII

LIC FUNCTION

THE PARAB O

A bal l is t hro w n i n to the air Its ver tical height in fee t


a bove the po int of proj ection is given b v the fo mula
1

7 2t

distance it has travelled hori ontally from that point by


the for m ula d 1 2t i hs ing the number of seconds since it
left the thrower s hand Sho w by eliminating t that its pa th
through the air is a parab ola Assumin g that the ball was
p roj ected from a point 5 feet above the ground and t hat it
falls o the roof of a ho u se 3 5 feet above the level of the
g ound a t the p lace where it was thrown n d the hori ontal
range of the b all and i ts time of igh t Find the hori ontal
range and time of ight if the ball fa ll s into a hollow where
the ground is 1 4 feet below the level of the ground at the place
Find also the greatest height reached
of proj ection
2 Suppose the ball in the previous question to be thrown
straight up a b ill which has a uniform slope of 6 Taking
as origin the p oint where the ball leaves the thrower s hand
(5 fee t above the ground) write the formula w hic h describes
the li n e of greatest slope Find the co ordinates of the point
w here the b all strikes the ground and ca l culate the range
that is the distance measured along the slope from the las t
point to the foot of the vertical through the point of projection
Note Square roo ts may be calc u lated by the a pp r ox i m a
tion method or tak en from tables
3 The ball in No 2 i s n o w thrown straight down the hill
Calcula te t he ran ge and the time of ight
If
4 A b all is hit across a cricke t eld by a b atsman
another ball had been thrown vertically with such speed as
the

317

ALGEB RA

3 18

to be throughout its ight on the sa me horiz onta l lev el


former its v elo city would be given by the formul a
'

= 80

as

the

3 2t

If a third b all ha d been rolled along the ground a t a consta nt


velocity of 20 feet/s ee it would h ave kep t directly under ne a th
the rst b a ll thr oughout its i ght Give formula for the
height (h) of the ball above the gr ound and its hori z onta l
dista nce (d) from the point of proj ection at the different mo
ments of its i ght Find the formula for h in term s of (1
Find when a n d where the ball rea ches its highest poin t a n d
c a l c ula te i ts hori z onta l r ange
(It may be a ssumed tha t the
b all w as struc k when on the gr ound and that the eld w a s
level )
5 If the b all had been hit a s in No 4 but str aight up a hill
of slope
nd (i) how far up the hill it would travel a n d
(ii) its time of ight
6 Answer the questions of No 5 in the case when the b a ll
is hit down the hill
ct
at
bt2 a n d a:
7 Eliminate t fr om the relations y
Find the turning value of the resulting function and the v a lues
of a: a n d t to which it corresponds
Find the values com mon
to the resulting relation and the relation 3) p a: q Show
that the va lues of t which correspond with these common
v alues of a: and y can be obtained either from y a t bta
or from a: ct
8 Two v ariables a: and y are connected wi th a third v a ri a ble
1
22
Show
2 by the rela tions a
3 2 and y
1
tha t y can be ex pressed as a parabolic f unction of a: a n d nd
i ts turn ing v al ue
9 E x press 31 a s a fu nction of at given tha t
.

y _ 1

42 2
3z

and that

Find the va lues of a: and 2 when

22

'

a:

3;

B
13 /p c a n a l s o be des cribed
1 0 Show th at the parabola y
by the rel ation r p tan sec
4 tan see
1 1 Verify No 1 0 by drawing the graph of r
giv ing v alues from 0 to
.

a.

a,

EXE RCISE

LX IV

IMPLICIT Q UAD RATIC FUNCT IONS

A
relation of polar
.

What

i s the

$2

where a
rela tion

is

co
a

y
ha

ordinates equivalent

constant ? W t curve

to

is

described

by

th i s

relation such a s
a
is s aid to e x press y
Na ta
y
Thi s means tha t substitution
i m p l i c i t ly a s a functio of w
of some value for a: will not sufce to give the value of y
To ex press the function e x p l i c i t l y we must write
A

37

31

S bstitu tion of a value for a: n ow su i ces to gi v e the value of


the function
2 Th e centre of the circle m
1 6 is moved to the
y
p oint
3
To w h a t implicit relation bet w een a: and y
does it now correspond ?
3 The centre of the circle w hic h corresponds to the r e
lation x 2 y 2 a 2 is moved to the point (g f) Show that
it n ow cor responds to the relation 502 y 2 2ga: 2fy + c = 0
where c g2 + f2 a 2
4 What are the graphs co r responding to the following
implicit fun ctions
'

(i )

(ii )

iii
(

vi

3x

(Note

y2

+ y

1
x

2 4y

i z

= o

2y

6 =
+ 6

+ o

3y
2

25

2x
V 11 1

+ y
2
2
x
+
9
y
2
2
+

5y
2ax

+ 2 by

When the graph of a function is a circle


and position of i ts centre should be specied )

3 20

i ts

radius

EXERC I SE LX I V

Show that No 4 (iii)


ex plicit functions e p ressed by
5

3 21

equivalent to

is

pair of

the

3 : N/ {25
(a:
possi ble values of y

m}
2

Hence prove that all


are included in the
range from 8 to 2 and those of x in the range from 3
7
to
Show also t ha t the values of the funct ion are
symmetrical about 3 that is tha t for every value of the
function a bove 3 there is a corresp onding value an equal
distance below
How does the gra p h of the function ex hibit the tru th of the
foregoing conclusions
6 E x press No 4 (i ) and (vii ) a s e x p licit functions of :11
Use the results to determine the limits within w hich the
values of so and 3; must lie Conrm your results by drawing
th e graphs of the functions
7 Show (i) alge braically (ii) by considering w hat the
corresponding grap h should be that no values of a: and y can
satisfy the relation 73
9
0
y
8 Apply alternately the two methods of No 7 to nd
whether any values of a; and y can satisfy the follo w ing r e
.

l a ti on s
(i )
(i i )

(iii )
(iv)

x
at

2
2

+ y

2
2

y
7x
2
y
2
+ y + 8x

8y

1 00

4y

29

0.
0

1 zy +

Find the values of a; and y (if there are any) w hich


satisfy simultaneously the relation x 2 31 2 25 and the
following linear rela tions :
9

0) y
(iii )

3 (x
4y

(ivi )

25

(i )

4x
9x

6y

I3

7y

49

Illustrate your answers by the correspondin g graphs paying


particular attention to (iii)
451;
6 3;
12
0
1 0 Find whether the relation
y
h a s any values in common with the linear relations
13
Illustr ate by
1 ) and (ii)
6y
O
y
graphs drawn on the same sheet as those of No 9
4y
25
O and
1 1 Show t h a t the relations 3 a:
,

25 y 2

1 0051:

1 503/

1 5 24

have only one pair of values of a: and y in common (or tw o


identical pairs) Illustrate by a graph drawn on the same
s h eet a s those of No 9
.

21

A L G EB RA

3 22

How

foretold by c onside ing the


c ould you have
functions No 4 (i) a n d (iii) tha t the straight line
12

456

13

6y

would p as s throu gh t he intersections of their gr a phs ? W ha t


line will p a ss throu gh the inter s ections of th e gr aph s pf No
4 (iii) a n d (iv) ? Verify graphically
1 3 Write down th e linear relations w h ic h a r e satised by
the values of x a n d y (if there are any) which are common
to the following pairs of relations
.

(iii )

and x

zy

+ y

4 =

+ 2y +

results of No 1 3 to nd the ac tua l values oi


a: and y where they ex ist w h ich are common to the various
(
)
pairs of rela tions
14

U s e the

B
1 5 What connex ion between a: and y i s obt a ined by
eliminating from the relations a: 0 cos y b sin ?
1 6 Use the result s of No 1 5 to plot the gra ph of the
2

Here a: 3 cos y 2
impli ci t function 5 i
(
f
9
With 0 as centre draw a circle of radius 3 Take
s in
a n y point p on i t s circumference ; j oin Op a n d draw the
3
ordin a te p M Then if p OX
an d p M
OM
3 c os
Now if P i s th e point o the required graph which
sin
its abscissa should be 3 cos
c orresponds to this value of
th a t i s equal to C M but i ts ordinate sh ould be 2 s i n th a t
is of p M To obtain the graph therefore it i s s u i cien t to
draw a number of ordinates of the circle to m a rk points
two thirds of the way up or down them from the w axis and
to dra w a smooth curve through these points )
2

z
2
1
The
graph
f
a
relation
of
the
form
a
b
Nata
o
w /
31 /
i s called an e ll i p s e
It i s obvious from No 1 6 tha t its
These
greatest length i s 2a and i ts greatest bre a dth 2b
length s measure its maj or and m i n or a x es No 1 6 also
shows that a n y chord P OP which passes through 0 is
bisected at O For this reason 0 i s called the cen tr e and
the c hords throu gh 0 d ia m eter s of the ellipse The c ir c le
of ra dius a by the aid of which the graph i s dra wn i s ca lled
the a ux i li a r y ci r c le a d the ec cen tr i c a n g l e
.

a.

a .

a.

0.

a ,

u.

ALGEB RA

3 24

Determine whether the following rela tions are capable


of being satised by a n y val u es of a: a n d y
25

(i )

2x9 +

3 y + 8x
+ 3 y2 + l a x

6y +

(ii) 5x
26 Find the v a lues of a: and y (if there are any) which are
common to the following pairs of rela tions
a

4x
4x

(i n ) No

3y = 6

+ 9y 9 = 3 6 a n d z x
+ 9 2 = 3 6 a n d 2x

38

y
(1 )

and x

2y

y + 5 =

o.

Illustrate the results by graphs dra wn on the same sheet

EXE RCISE L XV
I MPLIC IT QUAD RATIC FUNC TIONS (II)

Note

Consider a n y point P at a distance r from the


origin 0 L et O P revolve in the a ti clockwise direction
a bout 0 through an angle and so carry P to a new p osition
P
L et the angle P OX be 8 Then the new cc ordinates
7 cos 8 and y
7 sin 8 while the old ones
of the p oint are a:
were r c os
) and r sin
) But since

'

'

an

(,8

r c os

)
a
)

r s in

c os

'

'

'

si n

B cO S a
B C OS a

r s in

c os

sin
sin

a
u

the old c c ordinates can be written


x C OS
a d y cos
w si
+ g ein
L et P be one of the points of a graph wh ich corresponds to
a given relation between as and y L et the whole gure be
rotated anti clockwise about 0 through an angle
Then the
relation between a: and g which corres p onds to the graph in
i ts new position may evidently be obtained by substituting
a: C os
for y in th e
for m and y 00 8
m sin
+ y sin
original relation
1 A gra p h is rotated th r ough an an gle
in the clockwise
direction a bout 0
Show that the relation to which it
corresponds in i ts new position can be derived from the
relation to wh ich i t corresp onded in the for m er position by
substituting :1: cos
for a: and y cos
:6 sin
y s in
for y
2
i s rotated e ith e r way a b out
2 1 f the circle :3 2
a
y
i ts centre 0 its appearance remains unchanged
The fore
going su b stitutions ought therefore to make no di fference
to the relation Show by actual substitution that th is i s the
case
a is obviously a hori z ontal tan
3 The straight line y
-

(L.

0.

u.

u.

3 25

3 26

ALGEB RA

2
to the Circle 032 y
Show by rotating the gure
a
(an ti clockwise ) throu gh any angle tha t all tangents to the
circle come under the general descri p tion

Sen

y =

ta n

a s ec

where may be any angle from 0 to


4 Show by means of No 3 tha t the line

p a:

J1

a tangent to the circle 96 2 y


for all val u es of p
a
is
5 Th e rectangular hyperbola corresp onding to x y
g
Sh ow that
rotated in the clockwise direction through
2
i t n ow correspo n ds to th e relation 58 2
a
(Remember
y
t ha t sin 45
1/
cos
6 Show tha t the same hyperbola w hen rotated throu gh
45 in the anti clockwise direction corresponds to the relation
2

is

2
.

E x press the im p l icit hyperbolic function x


9
y
as an ex plicit function of to Show that while the va u s of
the function ha s no limits 9: can have no val ue s between 3
and 3 Compare these results with those obtained in the
case of the func tion
9
y
2
8 Draw on one sheet the circle :3
9 and the
y
2
rectangular hyperbola x
9
y
(The easiest way to
obtain the latter i s to draw the asymptotes making 45 with
th e a x es to regard them a s a x es and to draw 13 3/
g wit h
regard to them See No
9 Draw any line O P P to cut the circle of No 8 in P and
t he hyperbola in P
L et th e angle P OX
Prove that
the c o ordinates of P are 3 cos /
sin ) and
3 sin / J (oos 2
Com p are these wit h the co
sin
)
ordinates of the corresponding point P upo n the circle
What limits are there to the value of
1 0 Dra w a series of double ordinates of the circle
2
9
and
f
t
he
rectangular
hy
p
erbola
9
o
x
y
y
Ta k e points on them (a s in Ex L XIV No 1 6 ) tw o thirds up
or down each ordinate from the m ax is Draw smooth curves
through the poi n ts The curve derived from the circle i s of
course the ellipse
1
Use the ex pressions in
y /4
No 9 to show that the curve derived from the hyperbola is
the gra p h of the relation
1
y /4
1 1 Ta k e points on the same ordina tes (p ro duced) four
7

'

'

ALGEB RA

3 28

form a ct 2 by2 i 2gx i 2fy i c O can always be th rown


into one of the forms in No 1 4 and hence will always b e
satised by some values of a: and y
.

The pa r a bol a y p 253 i s revolved (i) clockw ise thr ou gh


(ii) anti clockwise throu gh
(iii) anti clockwise through
A pp ly the substitution formulae to determine the rela
tions describing it in each of these positions Do they agree
with former results
The line
1 7 The cc ordi nates of a point P are p and q
Show t ha t
OP is rotated anti clockwise throu gh an angle
the new co ordinates of P are
an d
S
+ p sin
q si n
c
p C OS
Find the n e w c o ordi nates of a point P originally a t 5 1 0)
after OP has been rotated anti clockwise through the a n gle
whose tangen t i s
1 8 The line joining O to the centre of t h e circle
16

1 0m + 20y +

is rotated anti clockwise through the angle whose tan gent i s


Find (by the substitution of the Note to No 1 ) the
relation corresponding to the circle in its new position Sta te
the old and new positions of the centre of the circle Com
pare the results with those of No 1 7 D o t h ey agree ? Is
the radius of the circle unaltered (a s of course it shoul d
be) by th e rotation
1 9 Find the relation corresponding to the parabola
after it ha s been (i) rotated anti clockwise through
y
3 0 and (ii) afterwards moved parallel to itself until i ts verte x
i s at the point
3
20 Give a formula descriptive of the ellipse
4
after it ha s been (i) turned clockwise through
and (ii)
moved parallel to itself until i ts centre i s at the point
-

Findthe implicit function of :1: whose graph is the


hyperbola
3y
2 (i) rotated anti clockwise through
the angle whose tangent is and (ii) moved parallel to itself
1
until its centre is a t the p oin t
22 Find the relation between x and y the graph of which
is a rectangular hyperbola whose ax is i s 5 and i s inclined to
the x ax is at an angle whose tangent i s
4,
21

L XV

EX ERC I SE

Na ta

Nos

3 29

taken with earlier ex amples bring out


the fol l ow mg facts about functions in which both a: and y are
p r es en t in the second degree (and possibly in the rst degree
al so)
d
b
i i t f my
(i ) I f the gr ph is ir l th r
th
i i t
f m and y m ust b id nt i l
p r b la
llips a hyp rb l y w ill
(i i ) I f th gr ph i
b pr
nt unl s th a i i p r ll l i ther t th
is
is
th y
i par b li t h thr
t r m f th
nd
(iii ) I f th fun ti
d gre w ill f m p rf t sq u r
d y w i ll
f
f i t
(iv) I f t h fun ti n i elli pt i t h
b un q u l (unl ss
b t b th f t h s m si gn
f
r t ngul r hyp rb l t h
i i t
(v) I f th gr p h i
d y w ill b
q ual b t pp i t i s ign
i i t
r tangul r hy b b l t h
(vi) I f t h gr ph i
f
d y w ill b
pp si t i i gn d un q u l
l w ys b f und w h i h w i ll s t i fy
dy
(vii) V lu s f
a giv n f n ti n i f it i p b li
hyp rb li i f rm b t
lli pti i f rm
t lw ys i f i t i
ir l r
23 State what you can determine by inspection about the
character of the following functions
II 0
8y
7
6 ) (3
4y )

1 6 22,
-

a c

e co e

c en

c e

e e c an

s o

e n o cc e

c en

an

ca

'

s a

ese

or

e or

a a

e co e

o a , an

ee

e tic a x

s c

os

er

n s

an

ar a

cu a

c en

e cc e
-

e co e

o a

c or

c en

or e

an

o a

s o

can a

ec

c en

e s e co

s o

e o

an

ec

ec a

s a n on

no

e e

an

s a

x s

an

or

es

on

an e

ax

a a

2
2
i
i
x
0
+
( ) 3 2 3 y 2 4x + 6y + I
r
0
(i i i ) 3 x 2
3y
4x
7y
2
i
x
x
v
+
8 x + sy + 3 =
+
( ) 9
4 y
7y
2
2
x
+
y + 7x
( ) 5
2
x
2x
18
( )
5 y
3y
7y
:

v
vi

o
Note If the term involving my ha s b een brought into the
formula of a curve by rotatin g the curve anti cloc k wise a b out
the origin it can o bviously be removed by rotating it back
through an equal angle
4933/
5 describes
24 Show that the relation
an ellipse which ha s been rotated anti clockwise t hro u gh the
angle whose tangent i s 2
25 Show that the gra p h of the function
.

3 6mg

1 4m2

13

a hyperbola which if rotated clockwise through the an gle


whose tangent i s would have i ts ax is coincident with the

is

a x 1s

1 0 is
Ba g
The rectan gular hy p erbola
rotated backwards (i e cloc kwise) until i ts axis i s coinciden t
with the :r ax is Show that th e an gle i s given by the

26

eq u a non

A LGEB RA

330

4(cos 2

sin

a.

0
sin cos
be written in the form
6

a.

it

Show that this equatio n ca n


3 sin 2
4 00 8 2
Hence show that
2 7 Find the angle through wh ich the ellipse
0.

0.

u.

1 8 mg
tha t i ts

3 7 r:2
/
.

1 3 y2

10

must be turned back s o


major a x is may coincide w ith
t he r ax is
28 Show that the graph of the f unction
:

w il l have i ts ax is parallel to th e cc ax is if it i s rotated clock


b)
wise through an angle
such that tan 2
and 2fy a ffect only the position of
(Note that the terms
the centre no t the inclination of the ax is )
29 Show that the relation
-

a.

6x + 1 8 y + 1 1 = 0
e x plicit function of x in either

5 x 2 + 2x y + 5 y 2

may be ex pressed as an
forms
3;
31

01

T 3:

% J (5 J 2

How

9)

4
t tv
1

of

the

i % J {5 O

9)

2 J 6x )

2 J6

6
J
fro m

can you deduce


these e pressions (i ) that the line
y
(a: 9) bisects all vertical chords of the ellipse ;
(ii ) that it meets the curve at the points
x

t J&
(iii ) that the tangents

at
and
1
1
g
% j 3) ;
these points are ve rtical (iv ) that the tangents a t the points
1
2
1
2
are parallel to the
J 2) and
line y
Use these results to draw with rough
accu acy the graph of the function
2
7
r epr e
3 0 As we have seen the relation p 2az
gg
/
sents a hyperbola with its centre at the origi n Sh ow that
the grap h of p 1 9 q y
0 i s a pair of straight lines t hrough
the origin
What is the conne x ion between this p air of
lines and the hyperbola
Find by converti ng it into an ex plicit function of at whether
the relation
,

"

2x 2 +

wy

6 y2 + 7 y

2 = 0

co r re sponds to a hyperbola or a pair of straight lines

ALGEB RA

332

m ea n pos i tion

the hits It is called the c en tr oi d of the


points where the shots hit the target
5 What i s the distance of the centroid from the centre of
the t a rget in No 4
of

FI G
-

5 9.

When another marksman shot at the same target the


ordinates of the p oints at which he hi t it were :
2 1
12
(0
08 O) (O
0 3 1011 13 158
(0 l
(0 O)

6
co

'

the cc ordinates of
centre of the target
-

t he

centroid and

i ts

'

distance from the

EXERC I SE

LXV I

333

Take any tria n gle OAB a n d from O draw a p er p en di c u


lar OP meeting AB in P L et OP h and AB kit
Imagine the surface of the triangle to consist of a very large
number of very small sq u a r es arranged in rows p arallel to
AB Let there be n squares in each unit of length How
many squares will there be in the row AB ? How many in
a row distant a: from 0 ? How many in the whole triangle ?
8 Assuming that the squares are so small t ha t they may
be treated a s points s how that the centroids of all the rows
lie on a certain straight line
9 On the same assumpt ion show that the mean distance
of the surface of the trian gle from a line through 0 p arallel
to AB i s
1 0 What i s (from Nos 8 and 9) the e x act position of the
centroid of a triangle ?
1 1 Find the centroid of a triangle by calculating the mean
distance of the elements of its surface from the base
1 2 Ap p ly the me thods of Nos 7 1 0 to nd the centroid
of a hollow cone without a base
1 3 Find the centroid of a solid cone
[ The cone must be
thought of a s built up of a vast num b er of very small cubes
or elements of volu me
1 4 Show t ha t the centroid of a p yramid on a square base
is three quarters of the distance from the vertex to the cent
roid of the base along the line joining them
1 5 A c a p is cut off from a thin india rubber or metal b all
Where i s the centroid of the residue ?
1 6 A conical shell (without a base ) i s fashioned from a
bloc k of material in such a way that the thickness of the shell
a t any point is proportional t o i ts distance from the vertex
W here i s the centroid
1 7 Two sides AB CD of a quadrilateral are parallel and
are respectively 8 inches and 3 5 inches long The p er p en di
W ha t is the length
c u l a r distance between them i s 9 inches
of a line :12 inches from AB
Where is the centroid
1 8 On a sheet of p a p er outline any two gures of area A
and A2 Mark two p oints C l and C2 to rep resent their cent
roids L et the c o ordinates of C l and 0 2 be respectively
and
L
et
C
be
the
cent
oid
of
all
the
elements
5
5
r
(
2
( 1 91 )
of area included in the two gures and let i ts co ordinates b e
7

ALG EB RA

334

X Y
,

Show tha t X

(Al f/ 1

'

'

A2)

(A1 513 1
'

'

and t ha t

A2)

Supp osin g that you k now X Y and $6 y l by what for


mul ae wo uld you calculate :2
20 Find the centroid of a gure which consists of an
isosceles triangle of height h standin g on one side of a sq u are
measuring a each way
21 Instead of standing o n the side of the square the
isosceles triangle ha s been cut out of the square (h bei n g
Where is the centroid of the remaining area
22 A gure is compos ed of two circles wh ich touch one
another ex ternally their radii being 5 inches and 1 2 inches
respectively W here i s the centroid
23 In another g ure the smaller circle h a s been drawn so
a s to touch the larger internally and has then been c ut out
Where is the centroid of the remaining area ?
24 A portion of a cone has been removed by a section
p arallel to the base The radius of the top i s 1 0 c m s that
of the base 24 cms
while the line joining their centres i s 42
cms long Write a formula for the area of a section distant
a; from t he top
Hence calculate the position of the cent
roid
25 Find by measurement and calculation the position of
the centroid i n gs 1 1 and 1 2 (p
19

1,

2,

C
Note

The Greek mathematician Papp us (c 3 50 AD )


and in modern times the Swiss Guldi n u s (c 1 6 3 5 ) demon
s tr a ted two impor tant theorems of mensuration
Imagine the curve P (g 60) to revolve in space about
the e x ternal ax is YY so as to mark out a solid rin g like
gure
Let l he the p erimeter of the curve and A i ts a rea
Also let C be the centroid of the p er i meter of the curve and
Then we have
0 the centroid o f i ts su rfa ce
surface of ring solid l x circumference of circle traced
o ut by C
(I)
volume of ring solid A x circumference of c i rcle traced
out by C
(II)
Nos 26 28 give the argument leading up to I Nos 293 1
th at lea din g up to II

336

ALGEB RA

p a r al l el to,
s ol id
35
27

its b a se

Calcul a te the area and volume

of

the

Fig
(p 94) is identica l with the cross section of
t he rim of a wheel The mean radius of the whee l i s
Wr ite a formul a for calculating i ts area and i ts volume
3 6 An anchor ring ha s an elliptic al c ross sec tion the maj or
ax is being 4 inches a n d the minor 3 in c hes long The m ean
radius of the ring is 6 inches Find its weight given that
1 cubic inch of iron weighs 02 8 lb
[ See Ex L XIV No
.

EXE RCISE L XVII

T MEAN SQUARE

ROO

VIATION

DE

A
Note If a measure is req uired of the inacc uracy of the
shoo tin g in Ex L XVI No 1 it must b e noted (a ) that a devia
tion (s a y) of 1 foot to the right of the centre of t h e target and a
deviation of 1 foot to the left have ex actly the same im p ortance
and (b) that a deviation of 1 foot is more than 1 2 ti m es as
serious a s a deviation of 1 inch that is the badness of a shot
must not be measured simply by the distance of the p oint hit
from the point aimed at For b oth these reasons it is usual
in estimating the de parture of the h it s from perfec t accuracy
(i ) to square their actual distances from the point aimed a t
(ii ) to n d the mean of the squares and (iii ) to take the square
root of the mean For by squaring the distances a negative
distance i s rendered of the same im p ortance a s a p ositive dis
tance of the same ma gnitude and larger deviations acquire
relatively more in uence up on th e estimate than smaller
deviations The resul t i s called t h e s q u a r e r oot of t h e
m ea n s q u a r e o f t he dev i a t i on s o more concisely the
.

,
,

r,

r oot

m ea n

s q ua r e

d ev i a ti on

Calculate the square root of the m ean square of the


deviations from CC in g 5 8
2 In g 5 9 nd the s q uare root of th e mean square of
the distances of the points hit from XX (ii) from YY
3 Show that the mean square of the distances of a number
of points from the origin is the s u m of the mean sq uares of
their distances from the ax es A p ply this principle to calculate
the square root of the mean square of the distances of the h it s
from the centre of the target in g 5 9
4 Calculate the square root of th e mean sq uare of the
distances from the centre of the hits recorded in Ex L XVI
1

No

337

22

ALGEB RA

338

5 In a n ex amin a tion in arithmetic ten questions were set


Right or Wrong
a n d the a nswer s were marked as e ither
The c l a ss was divided into two divisions , A a n d B , ea ch c on
t aining 1 5 pupils The followin g table gives the number of
0 c orrec t
pupils in e a ch division w ho obtained 1 0 9 8
.

answers Ca lculate (i) the mean number of corre c t a nswers


i n eac h division (ii) the square root of the m ea n squ a re of
the deviations from perfect accuracy in ea ch division Whi ch
division did best Why do you think s o 7
.

No

cor r ect

10

1
3

9
0
0

8
1

3
2
0

4
0

5
4
3

6
5
2

7
1
2

1
1
1

0
3

0
0
O

B
Note In studying the behaviour of rotating bodies a n d
in other problems it is often necessary to answer questions
like Nos 6 20
1 equal spherica l
6 On a line 1 cm s long are s tr u n g m
bea ds touching one another Their centres are d cm s a pa rt
tha t is l md Show that the root mea n square of the
distan c es of the centres of the beads from the c entre of the
end on e is

V<3

6m

Wha t is the root mean s quare of the dista nces of the


points of a str a ight line of length 2 from one of its ends ?
8 Fi n d the root mean square of the dista n c es of the
points of a line of length 2 from its mid point
9 Calcula te the root mean square of the distanc es of all
the points of the rectangle AB (g 5 8) from the line
1 0 Ca lculate the root mean square of the dist a n ce s of the
supercial elements of a soap bubble (i) from a ta ngent
plane (ii) from a plane through i ts centre
The p erpendicular distance
1 1 OAB i s any triangle
betwee n 0 and AB is h A number of equidistant lines are
dra wn a cross the triangle parallel to AB
In cluding AB
and the line of z ero length through 0 there ar e m 1 of them
Show that the root mean squ are of the distan ces
a ltogether
of all the points on these lines from a line through 0 p a r a llel
to AB i s
7

EXE RCISE LXVIII

L THEOREM

THE B I OMIA

Note

If we want to
P will amount to

know ex actly how much a sum of


money
in n years at 73 per p ound p er annum
com p ound interest we must use the formula A P (1 i )
and evaluate the second factor either by direct calculation or
by the aid of logarithms But if an approx imate value will
suf ce it can be obtained by ex p anding (1 t) in a o
t)
c or da n ce with Stifel s table (Ex XXXI ) and replacin g (l
by a s many terms of the ex pansion as will sufce for the degree
Thus suppose tha t w e wa nt to know
of accuracy in view
the amount of 1 00 for 6 years at 3 per cent compound
interest By Sti fel s ta ble w e have

"

"

'

i)

(1

whence

6 i + 1 5 t2

20733

6
1 5 154 + 61J5 + 7L

0 03 x 6
x 20
(0
1
0 18
00 1 3 5
1 1 9404
1 1 9404 x 1 00
1 1 9 8 s
1

(1

15

00 005 4

The last gure of the approx imate factor i s ignored because


the nex t term of the series might a ffect it (This term is in
a number w hich a ffects the ultimate r e
fact
sult to the ex tent of rather more than a farthing )
Th i s method of approx imation can always be used provided
(i ) that t 1 and (ii ) that n is a positive integer If i were
1 the approx imation would be impossible because the terms
would as a rule increase successively instead of decreasing
If n i s not a positive integer Sti fel s table will n ot enable us
to determine the coefcients of the terms
.

'

'

'

3 40

LXV III

EXERC I SE

3 41

In de a ling wit h a long term of years Sti fel s method of


nding the c oefcients required for the ex pansion of (1 t)
is in co nvenient Fortunately Si r Is a a c New ton discovered
(abou t 1 665 ) a formula by which the coefficients req uired for
a given value of n can be determined without reference to
those needed for other va lues His rule is that the c o
ci en ts of the terms (including the r st) are
ef

1, 1

Thus when

etc .

are 1 1 x 4 6 x g
1 5 x g 20 x g
x
The law of the de creasing
numera tors and increasing denominators of the su cc essive
mul tipliers is obvious
The products whic h constitute the denominators of these
Thus the produ ct 1 2 3
coe f cients ar e c alled fa ct or i a l s
r is c a lled fa ct or i a l
It i s generally ex pressed by
the symbolism r or r !
In honour of t eir discoverer the above expressions w ill be
ca lled the New t on i a n coe f c i e n t s
It i s m os t convenient
to refer to the rst (whic h is always unity) a s the z eroth
Newtonian cc
a n d the others a s the rst
second
ef c ients
n

6 , the
15 x
6

3
coefficients

i
1
iii
E xpand (i) (1 Q (i i) (1 t ) ( ) (
1
) by
me ans of Newton s rule and comp are the results with those
obta ined by Stifel s table
2 Write down the formulae for (i) the r Newtonia n cc
x pansion of
ii
the
term
of
the
e
r
ef
c i en t
(
( )

'

'

q:

1
3

how that
S
n

n l/r

c,

Which other

ci
c oef

ent is desc ribed by the s a me ex pression


4 Find by algebraic multiplication the product oi
.

1 + m +

by (1

1)

n n

2!

n u

1)

(n

2)

3 !

is

rranging the res ult in ord er of the powers of


Note No 4 i s very important for it shows that if Newton s
formula holds good for the e x pansion of (1 t) it a lso holds
t) ,

"

3 42

ALGEB RA

good for the ex pansion of (1 t) 1 But we know by dire c t


multiplication that it holds good for (1
Hence i t h ol ds
g ood for a l l p os it i v e i n te g r a l v a l u es of n
5 Write ou t from memory the argument of No 4 and the
p receding note a s a proof by recurrence (or mathematical
induction ) that Newton s e x p ansion of (1 t) i s tr ue for
all positive integral values of n
6 U s e No 3 to p rove that when n i s a positiv e integer
contains n 1 terms ; (ii) if n
(i) the e x pansion of (1
is even there i s a middle term and the Newtonian coefci
ents of the terms at equal distances on each side of it are the
same ; (iii) if n i s odd there are tw o middle terms whose
Newtonian coef cients are the same
7 Calculate to the nearest shilling how much 1 000 will
amount to a t compound interest in ten years a t 4 p er cent
per annum paid annually ; (ii ) in twenty years at 3 per
cent per annum paid annually (iii) in thirty years at 4 per
cent per annum when the interest is added to the principa l a t
half ye a rly interv als
8 Find to the nearest pound the compound interest on
1 00 for 1 00 years at 2 per cent per annum when the interest
is added to the principal every quarter
9 Write down the rst ve t erms of t he ex pansion of
8
6
1
2
x
iii
4
x
3
a
(
(
) ; ( ) (
) ; (iv) (1
"

on ex

3r

Write down (i ) the fourth term in the ex pansion of


(2
(ii) the midd l e term in the expansion of
1
2 8
iv)
bx ) ; the term independent of a: in 2x
(
(a
zw)
the term independent of a: in (a ce
(v) the middle
terms of (2a 3 bx ) 1
10

<

B
Note L et V be the present value of a s u m of P for i t
years a t com p ound interest 73 per p ound paid annually then
we know t ha t
.

P (I

73

calculate present values approx imately we need there


fore a r ule for ex p anding (1 t)
when i t i s a positive
whole number
A suggestion towards such a rule will be found in Ex

To

AL GEB RA

3 44

= 1

(1

mJ +

Assuming that the foregoin g ex p ansion holds good for


given va lue of n show by ap p lying the rules
14

A1 = 1

A1 +

a 2,

A3 = A2 +

a 3 , etc .,

th a t it holds good also for n 1


by
1 5 Obta in a n a p prox imation ex p ansion for (1
substituting i for i in the ex p ansion of No 1 3
No te There is an ex tr emely imp ortant di er en c e between
the ex pa nsions of Nos 4 and 1 5 The ex pa nsion of (1 i i )
h a s a denite number of t erms namely 91
1
It ca n
therefore be used n ot only for approxi m a tions but also for
c a lcul ating the ex a ct value of (1 i t) w hatever he the value
of 13 On the other ha nd th e ex pansion of (1 i t) ha s no
denite number of terms but i s endless Thus i t ca n b e
Moreover it ca n be used
u s e d for a p p r ox i ma t i on s on ly
for this purpose only on condition that a denite number of
t erms is suffi cient to give the result to the required degree of
acc uracy and th a t a l l the subsequent terms may be ignored
The best way to make sure that this con dition i s fullled
i s to c a l cul a te the value of the complement a ry fr ac tion (see
p 1 97) a fter a given numbe r of ter ms Thus we know
1
x pansion of 1
p
in
the
ase
of
the
e
w
that a fter
c
1
99
(
(
)
)
the term x has been calculated there i s a c om plementa r y
fr ac tion w
Since t he value of this c om ple ment
can e a sily be c al c ulated we c an tell in any given ca se how
much the va lue of the ap p rox imation i s affected by ignoring
it Aga in we found (p 21 5) that in the ex pansion of
2 this
1
c omplementary fracti on i s
x
(
)
.

'

'

"

'

'

1)

r
w + i

(1

1:

+ i

a:

which ca n again be calculated but not so ea sily Simila rly


the complementary fraction could be found for other v alues of
n
It is to be obser ved however that this method of nding
the degree of a ccuracy of an approx ima tion ex pansion is n ot
only troublesome in practice bu t also theoretica lly unsound
For a s will be seen from the tw o ex amples just considered
the complementary fraction contains the very ex pression
.

L X V III

EX ERC I SE

3 45

which it i s required to ex pand It i s better therefore to


make u s e of a simpler though indirect method
1 6 Suppose in a given c a s e that th e ex p ansion of (1
73
)
has been calculated by the formula of No 1 5 a s far a s the
term containi n g
Show that the ne x t term is derived
from this one by multiplying by the factor
.

1 +

and tha t this factor decreases as 7 increases


1 7 The e x p ression (1
has been ex p anded a s
far as the fth term (i e the term containing the fourth p ower
of
What is the fa ctor for calculating the six th
term
1 8 Show that the sum of a ll the terms after the fth i s less
than the sum of the series

0 00001 7 5 x {1
0 08
i s less t ha n 00 0001 91
1 9 Show that the error involved in using th e rst ve terms
4
of the ex p ansion of 1
as an a p prox imation formula
(
i s less t h a n 0 0 0001 6 3
20 W hat sum of mo n ey invested at 5 p er ce nt per annum
.

compound interest p aid annually will amount in four years to


1 000
Use enough terms of the ex pansion to give the
answer correctly to the nearest Six pence
21 Find the up per limit of th e error involved in neglecting
5
all terms after the third in the ex p ansion of (i) (1
5
ii
1
( ) (
22 I wan t to know approx imately the present value of
1 00 due in ve years at 3 per cent compound interest p aid
annually Calcula te it by usin g three terms of the ex pansion
of (1 0 03 )
and determin e within wha t amount the
answer i s correct
6
23 Calculate the height of the ordinates wh ere so
in each of the curves of g 50 (p
[It is of course
useless to carry the approx imation beyond th e point at which
th e term s cease to yield results measurable in the gra ph ]
24 Write down
,

'

(i )
(i i )

(iii )

r
r in
r in

the 4th te m i n t he
the
th e 8 t h te m
t he
the 5 th te m

p a ns i on of (1
ex p a nsi on of (a
ex p a nsi on of (1 0

ex

2x )
bx )
3 m)

7
5
3

A LGEB RA

3 46

C
Note The p r eceding disc u ssion has shown tha t if n i s a
whole number we may always ma k e use of the a pp r ox i m a
tion formul a
.

= 1 + mJ+

(n

1)

n a

n u

2)

(I)

(II)

It c a n easily be shown that these tw o formul a may be r e


garded as special cases of a single formula
(

o
n

mi +

(III)

in which m may be either a positive integer


or a negative
integer
25 Prove t h i s sta tement by substituting
n for m in
formula III
26 The formula y
which describes the ex ponential
r
curves of g 5 0 (p 27 3 ) can also be written
.

' "

i)

(1

9
is

where r 1 73 If r less than 2 i is less tha n 1 It is


p ossible therefore to calculate y approx imately by means of
formula III for all integral values of as positive and negative
B u t if the e x pansion gives the ordinates of th e curves when
'

1,

it

s eem s

p ro bable t ha t it will also give them when a: has fractional


values such as 1 3
L et each student
42
06 etc
,

select in on e of the three curves of g 5 0 any two ordinates


whose abscissa are fractional numbers Substitute the chosen
values of 13 and x in the formula
.

2)

x x

i3

l
carrying the calculation out until the terms cease to be of
measurable magnitude Compare the values thus obta i ned
wit h the measured ordinates of the curves They will be
found to agree perfectly
Note The investigation of No 26 canno t of course be
called a p roof A s trict proof is in fact too dif cult to be
considered a t this stage Nevertheless the agreement be
tween the lengths of measured ordinates selected a t random
3

It i s

gi

v nt
e

ow a

rds th

e en

of

Pa

r t II

of

this

wo

rk

A LG EB RA

3 48

D
3 3 In Ex L IX it w as shown that a s i t in cr eases the
va lue of (1 1 M) approaches a certain number e which
it never q uite reaches It was shown by a graphi c method
that e 2 7 1
By writing ou t the rst few terms of the
ex pa nsions of the following ex pressions you should be able to
nd a very sim ple ex p ansion which can obviously be rega rded
Carry out the s u bs e
as a n appro x imation form u la for e
quent lines of your work upon the model shown in the rst
line
.

"

10

F)

3 !

F)

4!

1
1
34

0
0

Ca lcula te
e xpa nsion
.

35

(1
(1

F)

In

to three decimal pla c es by

= l + 1 +

Ex LIX
.

it

m e a ns

of the

proved that as 77 increa ses


a
pp roaches e
g

w as

Find by the method indicated in No 3 4 a n a pproxi ma ti on


formula for ca lcul ating the value of e
3 6 U se the formula of No 3 5 to calculate appro x im a te
a nswers to Ex L IX No 9
.

EXE RCISE L XIX


N

LI Z ATI ON

THE GE ERA

WALLIS S i LAW

OF

P ove by the Binomial Theorem that if y

"

then

"

n ew

3 a:

ax

a
77.

being any p ositive whole number


2 Prove similarly th a t if y
a re
.

then

83?
ca:

Show that the two p receding results are included in the


m being
s tatement that if y a x then 8y l8x ma x
any whole number p ositive or ne gative
4 Write down the value of Sy ldx in the following cases
I/
4
(i ) y
(i i i ) y
(i i ) y
3

(i v ) y
( ) y

5/

(4 )
v

y
5
2
x
3
4
x

1 2x

2x

z/
vi
2
/
3/
5 Write down th e value of Eg/ 3x in the case of No 4
(v ) and (vi)
6 Write down the value of 83 y / 3x 3 in th e use of No 4
(i ) to (iv )
Note The foregoing results are ex tremely important
because they show tha t Walli e s L aw holds good for all i n
tegr a l values of m i n y
Thi s conclusion follows from
ax
the fact that the binomial ex pansion has been p r oved in the
preceding ex ercise to hold good a s an a p proximation form ula
whenever m i s integral We also saw good reason to think
tha t it holds good when m i s fractional If thi s were proved
to be the case Wallie s L aw would be proved to be true for
all values of m Fortunately in order to derive a differ
a re it i s sufcient to k now the rst
en ti a l formula from y
x

I x

3 49

ALGEB RA

3 50

term a n d the c oefcient of x We need not know the c c


e fcients of the higher powers of a if as usual these
higher powers ma y be neglected in forming the differentia l
formula Now it i s easy to prove (w i th a cer ta i n a ssu mp ti on )
tha t the rst two terms of the ex pansion of (1
are
.

11%

1 +

That i s th a t th ey follow the law of the Binomial Theorem


The proof i s a s follows

L et
13
a
s
1
1
(
)
then
as
)
(1
(1
Since p an d q a r e both integers positive or negative it
follows that
.

'

1 + p x + R = 1 + qx + R

R symboli z e the rem a ining terms of the tw o


Assum i n g, then , that (as on p 3 48) w hen a: is

when R and
ex p ansions
small enough these remainders are negligible
.

pa:

or

c
c

we

have

qw
13 x
9

whence
1
x
(1
1 holds good
h
Prove
t
t
the
form
la
a
u
x
m
a
7
when m p /q p an d q being integers of either sign
8 Write down the va lue of Sp i i t when

(i )

*;

(iv)

(ii )

i/

(v)

(iii ) y

/ /

Show th a t

where R i s a series of terms in each of which It occurs a s


a factor in a power a bove the rst Hen ce prove tha t if
1
Write down th e cor
a
w
m
a
a
s
d
S
(
yl
,
(
y
responding result when y (a
when
1 0 Write down a for mula for
.

y
(m ) y
(V) y

(IH) y
( ?) y

4 (x

(V! ) y

(ax

(2 x
I/
i / (sx

B
Note Tu g 61 the whole sp ace under the curve i s su p
posed to b e di vided into strips of equa l width Some of the
.

ALGEB RA

3 52

Assuming that we h ave additional information suf cient to


determine the constants we have now a formula ex pressing A
as a function of at
As was shown in the discussion preceding
Ex X LVII values of A obtained from this formula cannot
be more tha n 20 per cen t in error Moreover since the
ordinates may be supposed as close together as we please
20 may be considered smaller than any number that can be
na m ed In other words the primi tive deduced from 8A
y dw may be regarded as the area function of the curve
Fig 6 1 illustrates this conclusion Across the column
gra p h composed of the rectangles a bro k en cur ve i s drawn
in such a way that the area under it b etween any two
bounding ordinates of the rectangles i s ex actly the same as
the total area of the rectangles between those same ordin
a tes
L et A be the area function of this curve Then the
successive rectangles are the exa c t rst differences of the
successive values of A at intervals of
Now by hy p o
thesis the curve whose area function is the p rimitive of
SA/ Sx
3; may in any part of the gure include anything
up to e per cent more or 0 p er c e nt less than the dotted curve
includes T ha t is the curve calculated from the dier e n tia l
formula ma y run like the rm curve or like the curve mark ed
bu t in o region
o ut by alternate dots and dashes in g 6 1
of the gure will the space between i ts ex treme possible
positions he mo r e than 20 per cent of the area of the corre
But even in the most unfavourable
s pon di n g rectangles
case by making 8a: small enough 20 may be made as s mall as
we please That is the added curves may be made to close
up to the given curve s o as to become indistinguishable from
it This is of course simply another way of saying th a t the
primitive dedu ced from the formula 8A/8w y may b e r e
garded as the area fu n ction of the curve
1 1 Find the area function when the ordinate function i s
i( ) y 3 32 (ii) y :6 3 (iii ) 3;
[Find the primitive
of 8A x by Wallis e L aw and determine the constant by
the consideration that when a: i s z ero A i s z er o ]
1 2 Find the area between the x a x is the curve
,

'

'

= 3 ct 1
p

2x 3 +

2 and a:
and the ordinates where m
10
1 3 Find the area fu n ctions of the curves whose ordin a te
functions are
.

LX I X

EX ERC I SE

(i i i )
14
for a l l
.

d ow n

Wa l l i s

/(

3x

(i i ) y =
(i v ) 7

La w giv es the
va lue s of m ex cept m
for thi s va l ue ?

Na ta

I m a gine

[ (3

I
I

ing with va ri a ble s p eed


a l ong a s tra ight li n e
At ti m e t l et i ts dis t a nce from a ed
origin
0 b e 3 t b eing m ea s ured from the m om ent w h e n it
pa s ses t hrough 0
Supp os e it to tra vel in tim e h from a
cer ta in poin t P to a nother p oint P Then w e ha v e
a ve ra ge vel ocity b e tw ee n P a d P
PP / h
Sinc e the point i s m oving with va ria b l e s p eed the va l ue of
P P / h wi l l d ep e nd up on the l e ngth of PP
Let P be x ed
but let P b e ta ke n s uccess ive ly n ea rer a n d nea rer to it
T he n th e a v era ge v el ocity will b e di fferent for ea c h of t hes e
di ffere nt pos itio ns of P I t i s obvi ous however tha t w hen
PP
a n d t her efore h
a r e s m a ll
e n ough the s ub sequ e nt
v a lues of the a vera ge va lues will n ot di ffer by m ore th a n 0
T ha t
per c e nt whe re c i s a y num b er a s s m a ll a s w e pl ea s e
i s equ a l di s t a nc es wit hin th e r a nge PP wil l b e c ove r e d in
tim es which a e equa l to th e s p ecied degree of ex a ctne ss
ho weve r h igh t ha t d egr ee m a y be
I f v be t hi s na l va lu e of
the a vera ge vel ocity w e c a n writ e 813 for h a d 88 for P P a n d
w e ha v e the di ffer e nt ia l for m u l a

p oint

3 (

2x

pri m itive of Sy/Sx


Why d oes the l a w brea k

3 53

to be m ov

'

'

'

'

33

oSt

6 1 l et t b e m ea s ured a l ong th e b a s e a n d l et the


ordin a t es a t e u a l di s t a nc es 816 h a v e for t h eir h ei gh t s the
q
corres ponding va lues of 0 T he n the a rea s of the s ucces s i ve
'
recta ngles , s uch a s P NNQ , w i ll b e the s ucc ess ive va l u es of
I t fol lows th a t the t ota l a rea of the c ol um n gr a p h
0 3 or 88
up to the ordina te t will dier by l es s tha n 0 p er c ent of i ts
v a lue from the a rea wh ich m ea s ures the a ctua l di s ta nce
c overed by the m oving point in tim e t Tha t i s to s a y , thi s
dis ta nc e will be m ea s ured by the a rea under the d otted curve
in the gure But (a s in the Note before No 1 1 ) if 82) i s
ta ken s m a ll enough thi s a rea will a l s o diffe r b y less tha n
0 p er c ent from t ha t und e r the curv e corr es p onding to th e
prim itive of Ss/St 0 , when for v w e s ub s titute the function
by whic h it ca n be c a lcula ted from t I n the m os t unfa vour
23
In g

'

'

ALGEB RA

3 54

bl e c a s e the curve giving the true va lues of s a n d th a t which


c orres ponds to the primitive of 88 / 8t 1) m a y li e on O ppos ite
s id es of th e d ott ed curv e but th ey will include b etween t hem
a
a rea w h ic h i s l ess tha n 20
p er ce nt of th e a rea of the
colum n gr a ph T hu s the prim itive of Ss/St 1) e na bles u s to
ca lcula te the a ctua l dis ta nce covered by the m oving point to
a d egr ee of a ccur a cy li m it ed on l y by th e de gr ee of exa ctn es s
a d op t ed in m ea s uring
Th e prop e r w a y to des crib e 1) i s to ca l l it th e a v e r a g e
v e l oc i ty of the p oi n t du r i n g a s h or t ti m e 8t a ft er i t
This de nition wa rn s u s tha t it i s n ot
p a s s es a p oi n t P
a n a b s olut ely x ed v a lu e b ut on l y on e whos e v a ri a ti on i s
li m ited with in a ra nge of give n m inutenes s For brevity it
m a y b e ca l l ed t h e v e l oc i ty o i t h e mov i n g p oi n t a t P but
the full m e a ning of t h i s ex p res s i o n s hou l d be b orne in m ind
1 5 A p oint m ov es a l ong a s tr a ight l ine in s uc h a w a y tha t
i ts di s ta nc e 3 fr om a x e d point 0 i s gi ven by the re l a ti on
a

(i )

/(t

(ii )
(i v )

t
s

;
3 )i

ot
;
4t
/(z t
(iii )
Writ e down a form ula gi vin g the velocity (v SS/St) a t ti me
t i n ea ch c a s e
Find the v e locity of the p oint in ea ch ca se
w h e n t 0 a n d wh e n t 1
1 6 Th e v el ocity of a p oint m ov ing in a s tra igh t line i s
give n a t di er en t ti m e s b y on e of th e fol lowing f orm ulae I n
ea ch c a s e i ts p os iti on i s m ea s ured by i t s di s t a nc e
(8 ) fr om
the p oint wh ic h it o ccup i es w h en t
Find the pos ition
0
form ul ae

Io

(ii )
(i v )

39 ;
3 t)

v l oo/ J 0 5t) ;
v
z /
i / (z
C a lcula te in ea ch c a s e the p os iti on of the point a fter it ha s
been m oving for 1 unit of ti m e
Na ta If a point i s m oving a l ong a line the nu mb er V s/ t
m ea s ures w ha t s hou ld s trictly s p ea k ing b e c a l l ed the a v er a g e
a c c e l e r a ti on o f i ts v e l oc i ty du r i n g a s h or t t i m e 3 t a fter
it pa s ses a n y given p oint s itua ted 3 from the or i gin Les s
correctly this nu m ber i s s om e ti m es c a l l ed the a ccel er a ti on
(ii i )

at
1

It

thr ugh
o

uld

s ho

t he

n t d th t n ith r
rn r f th
t ngl

be

co

o e

e s

e r ec a

es

of
as

th e

se

urv

i n g 61
.

es

n ed p
e

ass

AL G EB RA

3 56

Show t hat the s ubta ngent a t a n y point i s bisected by the


vert ex
1
27 Pr ove th a t the l in es 3;
n: a r e at
mm a n d y
a
right a ngles for all va lues of m S how tha t it follow s th a t
.

the l i n es y

m(a;

an d

:
k
n

'

ar e

ri ght a ngles wha tever he the va lues of a a b b


28 The s tra i gh t li n e dra wn a t righ t a ngles to th e t a nge nt
to a c u rve at i ts p oint of co nta ct i s c a lled a n or ma l of the
cur ve Wr ite down the form u la of th e norm a ls in the ca se
of each of the t a ngent s of No 2 3
29 Let the n orm a l a t a p oint P m ee t the az axi s in the
p oint Q Then NQ i s c a lled the s u b n or m a l C alcul a t e the
length of the s ubn orm a l in ea c h ca s e of No 28
3 0 Show tha t in th e c a s e of a pa ra b ola in the p os ition
corresponding to y a cz:2 the s u b n orm a l i s proportional to
the c u b e of the a b s cis sa
Show tha t in the p os ition corre
1
spon di n g to y
i t i s c on s t a nt

a so a t

ANSW ERS TO THE EX AMP LE S

I
r

li dus n ota tion for divis i on i s us e d throughout the s e


a n s w e s for c on v en i e n c e in p rint i n g
The pupi l s hou ld b e ta ugh t
both to rea d an d to us e i t fr e e ly b ut it s hould b e rem emb ere d tha t
th e fra ction a l nota tion i s oft en m ore a pprop ri a t e
2
The a ns w er s t o trigon o m e tri ca l probl em s i n Se c tions I a n d
II a r e t hos e w h i c h a r e ob t a in ed by us ing the thr ee gur e t a bles on
Th e

so

pp

1 07 a n d 1 1 1
s om e c a s e s
p oble m s a r e
3 Th e a s w e s t o gr a ph
g e to
a h gh e d eg e e of a pp ox ma
o
ha
t he a e a ge p p l i s l ke ly
to e a h
I o he r ca s es s l gh ly d fe e t a n s w e s m gh b e ob
ta i n ed by e q a lly om p e e
d a ghts m en
4 The e e e ces a b o e ea h s e t of a n s w e s ar e to the ha p e s
The Tea chi n g of Al gebr a
.

n r
i r r
r c
n t
u
c
rfr n
.

in

ic r
in
iv n
r i ti n t n
vr
u i
i
i t if r n
r i t
t nt r u
v c
r
c tr
.

24

ALGEB RA

3 60

C
22

25

(i
(i
(v )

(ii )

a c es

161

a c es

(iii )

8 6 80 ; (ii ) 7480 ;
1 2t h w eek

(iv)

1 3 40 ;

Se e ch

w ee

Iv

See

2 9.

EXE RC I SE

I (i)
(iv)

9th

D
2 8.

W
l

Se e

c h.

= b + 3 7m ;
8 t1

(ii)

III

ch

III

VI

ch

Iv

1, 2

W = b + n m ; (iii) W = b
1
11 1 51
1
an )
%n 2 ;
n ah
(vi ii) P nl p l 2u zs

Vi ;

1 1 252

;
3 0n 3 h

(v i i ) W n l p n zs
2
(i) S 5 0 + 5 t ; (i i ) S So + i t
=
s
1
4
3
s
i
ii
+
t
s o + it
;
(
(
)
)
3
= 35
2t ; (ii ) S = So
rt
4 (i ) S

l 0t ; (ii ) V = V o
rt ; (ii i ) V = V ,l r 1 t1 + r 2t2
(i ) V = 45
n gr ; (ii ) R = n 2r
f
nlm
6 (i ) R = f + n 1 m
= HB
h
i
A
H
B
b
ii
A
HB
3 hb ; (iii ) A
n hb
;
(
)
)
7
i) V 40 1 7t ; (ii) V 40
8
(iii) V 40 2 1 t ;
(iv) V = V o + s t ; V = V 0 + 2s t ; V = V 0 w t
9 In (i ) 2 i s a dde d t o ea ch t er m to ob t a in t h e nex t t erm
Hen ce
To ob ta in t h e rs t t erm 2 mus t b e a dded to 1

'

'

TI,

t n

in

2n
th

The for mu l as for T,n ob a i e d


s w ay ar e
5 n ; (i ii ) 1 7;
3 n ; ( )
0 7u ; ( )
(ii ) 3
(v i ) 1 00 6 n ; ( ) 2O 1 8n
40, 2
Io 21 , 5 3 ,
V /s ; ( )
V / 2s ; ( ) 13
V / (2s
w)
()
4o)/s ; ( )
12
(V
(V 40)] 2s ;
()
w)
(V
( )
lb ; ( ) 1 A/b ; ( ) b A/l ; ( ) W Alw ;
I3
()
W/ l b ; (v i i )
W /w ; ( ) w
bh ;
( )
b h (x ) h
W / 1 7b
( ) W gw b h ; (i x ) W
V / (n
V /n ; ( ) a
I4 ( ) a
( ) a V /(2n
( ) a V /(2n
(i v ) a V / (n
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5 () s
(w 1
(w , W 2) /n

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t
t
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20 .

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(ii)

N/2 ; (iii )

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/1 2
A/3 n
A/ 22n

np

11

(N1

N2)/2

A N SW ERS TO

THE EX
B

2 I.

V
22

v v

V o(v o
V o/

25
26.

S1

2 4.

27

(i )
(i ii )
(i)
(i ii )
(V)

2 8.

)/v l

VI
V 1 (v 2
r i )R2/1 2 3 (ii ) RI
Raf i / 1 2
t/n ; (b ) S
(l t )/n
b /n ; (b) l
(h b)/ n
d/n ; (b ) S
(P d )/ n
n o ; So
En g/(n 1
n o)
)
d ) t ; ( ) P = P o + (b
d )t ;
(d b ) t
s 2) t ;
( ) d do (8 1 s o)t ;
s o) t ; (
do
s 2 )t ;
(s 1
) 6
o or

h /n

P/n

En l / (n 1

i =
P

d
d

(b

Po

(s o
(s o

'

'

l /n

3 61

(a ) S
(a ) l
(a ) S

23

v1

A M P L ES

ii

ii
iv

(3 1

do

)t

Sg

R/ (m z
R/528 0(m2
mi ) ;
(i i ) 1
(ii i ) r E/52 8 (m2 m o)
r
R/ (d. d1 ) ; (i i ) r
R/ 1 2(d. d1 )
30
n (r
Ja ne g) ;
3 1 ( 3) I
g) ; (i i ) T
R
n
r
1
1
1
I
c
i
T
v

on a
( )
(
g )/ ; ( )
g)/c
d:
d1 ) T/ b ; (i i ) d
3 2 (i ) i = (da
(d2 d i ) T/t ;
(i i i ) d d1
(di d2)T/t ; (i v ) T ti l t /(d 1 d2)
6w /5 ; (ii ) n
3 w /2
3 3 (i ) n
2 9

'

'

(i) n
(iii ) n
3 5 (i ) n
3 6 (i ) C
(iv ) n
34

37

(i) b

(Hi )
38

(i )
(i ii )

or

39
40

(ii ) 11
(iv) n
3 A/ 2l ; (ii ) n
4A/3 l
2n ; (i i ) 0
30
2;

1 2O T

11
11 1

n
n

(i ) P
(i ) d
(iii) d

24
do

()

(i i )

no

os

)/a

(s

rt

)/r

I (i)
.

1,
4,
4,
4,
1a
e

) or
nos )/a
no

4OT

no;

EXE RC I SE I V
1 3
h VI
S
ee c

W )/ n
t) ;

(P

(C

11

2(20T
(20T

no

(i i ) w
Jot ; (ii) T
rt ; T (d o
nw

m);

no

6 A/5l

8O T

(i v )
n

(ii i )

on ; (i i i )

(i i ) m

1 20 T

2(2OT
(2OT
{201

iii

3 , 5 , 7, 1 9 ; (ii ) 1 , 5 , 9, 1 3 , 3 7 ; ( ) 94, 88 , 8 2, 76 , 40
1 1 , 27 ; (vi ) 0, 1 , 4, 9, 8 1 ;
1 6 , 28 , 40, 1 1 2 ; ( ) 3 , 5 33
1 5 , 3 0, 4 9, 247 ( i ii ) 6 , 7, 1 0, 1 5 , 8 7 ;
2, 1 2,
44 , 1 5 6 , 3 76 , 598 0 ; (x )
1
2
43
1
9 1 5 I 8 7
3:
T1)
h es ; (b ) 6 %
h es
h d , 23 5
3 (i i ) (a ) 71 i

v
v

"

ir

nc

inc

ALG EB R

3 62
4
6

ii) 1 0 23 to
5 (i)
m il
mi l
ii) 1 95 2 mil
(
(i ii )
f t ; (ii )
f t
1
(ii )
(i i i ) 1 00 ft /m i
mi l
(iii) 1 05 7 m i l
(ii) 9 1 3 mil
1 7 2 5 mi l
(v) 3 3 8 6 m i l
61 28 f t
2
(i i )
(i)
(i ) 1 1 7 f t ; (ii ) 1 4 1 f t LI 5 245 k f t ; 1 1 5 f t
ee

es

ee

es .

ee

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es

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ns.

ee

;
;

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I7

c wt

ii

t n
in
t n ii
in

24

27

3 07

ii

cw t

(iii )

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t
in
tn

iii

3
32

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(i
(i
(i )

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f t

0
30

8 22 8 ga llo s
ga ll o s
( )
05 1 2 ton ; ( ) 7 2 o s
( ) 7 2 on s ( ) Yes
1 81 2 o s
2 8 1 3 on s
3 16
ch es ;
c h es
10 o s ; ( ) 3 7 o s
n c h es
i c hes ; (i i i )
ch es ; (ii
hes
ton
25
r al
26
oo ; ( ) 4
()
oo t
2592 lb
2 8 1 50 04 e e
29

23

(ii )

i
ii

inc

20, 1 6 0 1b ; (i i ) 27, 3 3 7 5 1 b
4 5 1b ; (ii ) 3 75 1b
( ) 2 85 lb
749 8 ( ) 1 075 2
3 3 (i ) 5040 ;
'

iii

'

'

ii

(i i)

1 296 0

EXE RC I SE V
h VI
4 ; h V II A
S
I Squ f t (i ) 5 20 ; (ii ) 1 280 ; (iii) 990 ; (i ) 5 8 0
2
Sq u r f t (i) 1 5 00 (ii ) 6 8 0 ; (iii ) 3 96 ; (iv) 6 3 0 ;
(v ) 1 040 ; (vi) 1 825
3 Sq u r f t (i ) 1 5 00 ; (ii ) 2600 ; (iii ) 1 6 00 ; (iv) 1 5 40 ;
(v ) 6 000 ; ( i ) 2200
+ b ) ; (ii )
5 A = (i)
(h + c) ;
2b ) d ; (iv) (3
b)
v) (2b c)
(
.

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ar e

ee

ee

a e

ee

8.

(b

(ii )
a (b
= a (b
a (b

7
8
9
10

I3

I 4.
I s.

1 75

A
s

Sq u

(i ii ) 6 5
c)
(ii ) C

(v)

zg5g

A =

e et :

(i ) (2a
(i )

(2a
(v ii ) (a

8d

pa (b

)l 9

(i )

(i i )

qua re feet
e

40 ;

3 60 ;

iii

c /9
p a (b
( ) C
pa (b
)
b ) cl /9
(a b ) c 1 2 C
(a
2000 ; (i i ) 3 200 ; (i i i ) 45 60 ; ( ) 4600

II A
.

(v (a

(ii ) a (2b
(ii )

cb

iv

(i i i ) (3 a

b )c ;

2(a

b)c ;

) d ; (v) a (a
b )c ; (i x ) (3 a
c

2(a
3b )c
2b )
(v i )
2b ) b
.

or

a a

2b ) ;

ALG EB RA

3 64

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3v
2w ) (3 u
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3v
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(x i i ) (2b a b
2a
3 b (28.
b) ; (x i v ) (6a b ) (4a b
a
3 b) a
b ) (x v i ) (a 2b ) (a 4b )
4(5p
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2q ) (2
x i i
2q ) (5p
p
;
(
(
p
)
)
s
i

(2a b )b ;
(2p
q )q ; (11 1 ) 3 (2r
w) ;
WW 21
6 7 (2p
q) ;
s (y ) aq (2r
3 b (2&
3 b ) ; (V ) r t (2s
r t)
(i x ) pb 23. pb ) ;
a s (2p
as )
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2b )
I7
a (s
(23
4a (s
3 b)
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4p (p
3 q)
19
1 1 q ) (p
b)
2I
4 b (3 a.
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23
b )b
220 s q cm s
A
(r 1
r g ) (r 1
r 2) ;
W
1 r W (r 1
V
1 r 1w r ; 1 r
r g) (l l
W
(
n l

(3 n
a (s

vi

'

III

I6 .
1

24

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7

2 5.

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2b )

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1 r a) r 1

'

2h )(a

EXE RC I SE VII
S e h VI
5 ; h V III A
ya rd s ; (ii )
inch ; (ii i ) 9 7 m ; (iv)
mil es ; ( i ) 5 3 6 fe t (vii) 9 01 ya rd s ;
.

es

mi l e s

feet ;

iv

3 95 ; (ii i )
( ) 02 07 ; ( )
8 89 m
4 24 1 5 m l es
7 28 1 m i les
3
ft / mi n
1 8% s e o d s
:0
9 1 43 6 m l es
i n hes
0 76 1 oo
I3
:2 R
()
1 5 R
I 4 1 96 3 m l e s ; 1 3 6 3 mil e s
cm
I 7 0 076 cm
I6
18 7 ;

II

cn
f t

See ch

07 05 ,

2 4 2.

ii

8 ; ( )
(vi i ) 05 76 ;
6
5 aJ2
9

(i

(ii i

:0 .

97
'

ch . v

m, B
.

2.

VI

2 44 , 6 2 3 ,
21 3 5,

x.

i les

E X ERCI SE VIII

J{

J (p
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s,

(v ii i )
.

Ms

(i i i )

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M
v

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3 87 5 ; (i ii )
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8
7 a 10

e et ; (ii ) .J a
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c
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0 479,
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(vi)

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J3 )

A N SW ERS TO

THE EX

A M P L ES

EXE RC I SE IX
See ch

App

(i)
(i i )

a e e

ex

n tructed
3

on

20 s q

49

inch

cms

Io

II

I3

(i )

(i i i )
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f

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314

(i ii )
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23
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b)

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7

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29

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; (i i i )
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ms

53

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1 8 40

IS

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26.

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inch

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a
40
;
( ) 2
)3
1 4a + 49 ;
( ) a "+ 6a + 9 3 (V i ) a
2
6
2
25 a
12 ;
a
a
2
1
a
7
; (
(
)
2
2
2
2a
40 ;
a
i
x
21
a
3
x
1
5
5
0
; ( )
(

3
4
1 2a
9;
i
x
i
a
x
i
a
.
0
1
8
8l
a
77 ( )
( )
4

1
a
2
x
2
3
x
i
v
0
5
a
.
60
a
6
( ) n
(
)
9a b
4b2
82 ( ) a
5a b
1 4b 2 ; ( ) 2a a
2
a

4
a
5
a
l
b
6
b
9
6
a
1
0
2
9
a
h
1
0
b
; ( )
(
2

2
2
2
6
S
a
V
i
a
l
b
3
5
b
0
2
a
b
1
2
b
a
;
; ( )
( 7s
2
2
3
2
8b
V
ii
a
6
a
b
1
a
b
(

2
3
b
l
2
a
b
a
b
6
(
3
a
2
2
2
b
i
x
8
a
3
6
a
b
5
4
a
b
7 ;
( )
27b 3
l 44a 2 b
1 08 a b 2
6 4aa
n + 4 ;
1 ; ( ) a + 4;
( ) a
( ) 2a + 3 ; (v i ) 5 a + 4 ;
2a
3 b ; ( i ) 2a
5 b ; (i x ) 3 3
7b ;
2b
7a
)
6 Xp + 1 ) 3
1 2) (a
( ) a;
.

vr

(ii ) a (a

'

80

66

g
(R
R

(i

has "
aha}
21r 1 (1
h)

h)

AL GEERA

3 76

24 + 3 t / 2 ; t = (Q
16
Q
3 2 s e o ds
n
32
e mp y w h e
Q 24
=
= 24 + 3 x 2
=
4x /3
=
32
12
x
1
6
2
4
x
4
3
;
y
y
/ ; y
/ ; y

I3
2 4W ; ( ) L
16
2 4W
()
I S (i ) Q
3t ; ( ) Q
1 4 ; (In ) 5 1 ga llo s
21
5t
5 (t
7)
16
I t :t> 1 5 , d 2t /5 ;
1 7t /6 0 ; 4 mi le s ;
12
t > 15, d
Io

nt

cn

i i
f

ii

'

ii

il

es

'

if

i ut
ii

60d/ 1 7
t = (3 o
14
Q

6 737 ; 7 5 m n e s
IS ( )
2 x 3
14 ;
2 ; ( ) Qo
20
2t
( )
19
N o e ( s g g a ph ) ha (3 0
an d
8)
17
1 3 x
he e y
66
1 3x
20
y 64 3 x
21
x 5
0%
8,
20 m
es
22
5 2, w h e e
t es ;
13 m
( ) 1 4 2t
)
3t
( ) Q 40 3 t ; ( ) 1
23
1 98 0 ; 1 80, 3 00 ;
1 80t ;
I
m n es
1 980
6 6,
8 25 > t >
es
n
3 960
48 0t
792 ; a e 7 m
2 4 W hen x = 1 0 ; y = 5
8x ; y
135
5 x ; W hen x = 27
1:

I7

i
iii

t u in r

t t

'

nc

ii
iii

inut

iv

i ut

if

nc t

inu

ft

n
ft r

'

inut

EXE RC I SE XVI II
See

5
7

10

12

89

(i )

f et
e

cm s

ch . x 1

(i )
; (ii )

(ii )
c

ee

ee

ms

ee

ee

f t
(ii )
ee

ee t .

ee

26

f t
ee

ee

(1)

f t
f t

ee

f t;
f t
8
429 f t
I I 1 73 3 f t ;
f t;
f t
I3
ee

c h. x

2;

B
I4
I5

3.

I S.

20 .

22

24
26

28

t n

p ( e a t a n B)
l
p ta n a , b
p ta a
i /( a a
ta n B)
I6
p l /( a a t a n B)
h t a n a / (ta n a
ta n B)
d h ( a n a ta n
19
d ta n a tan B/ ( a m a
ya ds
2I
t a u B)
ya d s
23
ee ; 99 8

t n

r
f t;
1 90 4 f t
f t
ee

27

f t

f t
(i ) N A

2 5.

il

m
es

il

es

e e

ch

mi les

il

x1

es

X IX

ch

X III

n a

il N
es

il

f t b v y
d t n B/ta
; (ii ) h
ee

d/ta n

B)

See

EXE RC I SE
I

ee

t n

ee

ee

es

ANS W ERS

TO THE

EX A MP LE S

o f N (ii ) 24 7 m i l s
m 5 4 W o f S 1 05 m i l s
mi l s
u 1 45 mi l s
5 20 mi l s
mi l es N 28 4 m i l s E
p
7 75 E
1 9 E o f S 43 3 m i l s
N

72

W as ti n g

n or

thi n g

mi le

1 6 1 m i l es
1 0 mi l e
t an a
1 0/ co s 58
1 8 9 mil e

6 s i n 60
6 cos 60

o f N Di s ta

of

i
4
0
17 Bn

1 7 cos 40

s is 58

cour e

mi l es

3 77

n ce

Was ti n g 1 4 s i n 40
10
6 s i n 45
1 4 c os 40
s outhin g 6 cos 45
o si n a ;
11
c oos a ; (ii )
(i ) b
(i v ) 0 a / si n a
a l ta n a
12
b ta n a ; (ii ) b
(i ) a
13
b /c ; (ii ) s i n
a/o
(i ) cos a

or
.

d
(iii )

a.

8 m i l es
c
b / c0 8
.

B
14
:6
1

AB

42 2 yar d

Dr ew p er p en di
AD

c u l ar

c ms

7 cm s
i n ches, 1 1 7

CD

i n ch e s

BA C

i n ches

2 5.

(i ) 7 E

12
12

'

2 ;

XL ,

73 6 mi l es
27 90 mi l es

20
7 56
4 63 40 m i l e

'

cos

XX

ch

x rv

296 6 m i l e
3 929 x cos 41

5 049 m i l e
601 8 cos 3 3
0 1 765 mi l es S , 65 7 mi l e E
10
3 1 5 5 mi l e S , 271 6 m i l e W
.

1 2

l 3 4 m i l es

See ch

H 34 6

60

mi l e

(ii )

EXE RCISE

'

NE,

1 645

s
s

of

mil e
27
5023 yar d
28
See ch v , 5 1 2
4693 yar ds
m il e
2 9 6 891 yar d s
30
m i l e , 1 25 m i l e
3 2 1 2 2 mi l e
31
m i le
33
3 4 ha l f a m i l e
.

1 8 0 co s 24

C
26.

ya r d s

72 9

BD

28 9 i n ches
Se e ch v ,
1 8 6 cm s
22
See ch v
24
1 8 20 1 cms
20

1 5 0 cos

1 1 55

/b

26 65 6 ya r d

4
5
4
co
s
3
5
42 c os 7

: 5.

(iii ) ta n a

Hen ce

53

A LG E B RA

3 78

B
u

'
1 8 9 mi l e
19 N
l at
54 1 9 N
'
'

1 4 78/ cos 5 4
25 W
l n g 3 4 41 W
o
40 mi l es
E f S , 43 2 mil es
1 9 m il e E , 251}
23 40' E of N , 66 ; m i l e

id l a t
50 a ppr x
u thi n g
1 8 2 mi l eS, Ea s ti n g

di st
3 00 c os 50
1 93 mi l e
C ur e 47 E f
267 m i l e s
'

5
b
mi d
47
200 x cos 6 7
in a l l a t
1
78 m i l e

=
Lon g
t
47
200 x s i n 6 7
cos
vv
'

'

l on g 20 5 5 w
5 1 E 0 }s
lat
N , m i d la t
'
'

W
44
47 3 0 W of N , 3 54 m i l e , m i d l a t
l ng , 3 1

'

43 20 E
f N , 85 3 8 ' E

'

:2 .
:3

r 4.

So
o s

..

{g

NO

'

Io

Sg
'

Se e

ch

Se e ch x v , A , 5
(i ) y a b x ; (ii )
a.
b x ; (i v ) y = b x
y =a
= 3 x ; (ii i ) y = 5 1
=
2
x ; (ii
3
+
y
) y
y = l 1x
3x
13 2 ;
y
1 7x ; ii ) y
y 0 69 1 3 x ; i v) y 26 1:
= 6 6 ; y = 1 848
I
y
.

ch . x v .

XL ,

IZ

'

EXE RCISE XXII

bx ;

3x ;

'

'

'

'

V
n

J 1:

5 6
1
xv

(Q

x
,

A 5
,

; 42 1
-

p) ;

P)

(P q

2, y
3 ; (ii ) 2:
1 0, y I 1 6 6 ; (i v ) x
(iii 1
24, y I 1 5
(v x
After 1 ; h u r ,
m i l e fr m
In 4 da ys ; 4 f ee t 8 i n c h e
1 25 gms , 3 2 cm s

);

B
9

I
I

10

11

1 2.

o s

s o Ch i
s
.

c h . X IV

XL,

ar n g

Se e ch

E X ERCISE XXI

o S

C r oss

A LGE B RA

3 80

EXE RCISE XXIV


See c h
x

x1

;
A ss

y
s (i )
(i v)

(i ) y
x an d y

me

c ur

(i i i ) y

e tc

4,

3
.

an

Hx

s b st i t t

u e

50

ve o f y

2(x

= 8, y = 1 6 ;

(iii )

2 J (x

1 0) m u

st

o b t i d by

be

pl

a ne

oss o f s t
oot of

otti

ng

pr ess ur e i s i n v er s el y pr op or ti on a l to the
t he di a m et er o f t he c yl i n de r
lb
(i )

ea m

25 i n
1 2/d2
y 1 2/ (x

(i )
(i i ) y _4 ZH O!
3
/
2
i
4
x
iii
y
i
v
y
24
;
( )
/
/ x
( )
r5
3
(i ) The x a x i s a n d the or din a te at x
(ii ) The l in e
l el to t he x a x i s wher e y
4 a n d th e or di n a te wher e x
i ) y 48/ (x
:6
(ii ) y 21 / N/ (2x
i ) x = 4 y = 6 ; (ii ) x = l 0 y = 6 ; (iii ) x = 26 y
17
1

ua r e

(ii )

(ii)

2,

oi t s

sq

b e o f ha l f thi ck n e ss

4 ;

(ii ) y

kx ,

The l

cu

The
p

to

n al

1 00
50

wh en d

16 8

5 h

20

when

o o o

B C

for

h
1 6 80 fee t
C ha r ge i dir ectl y p r p r ti
(i 2 2 1b ; (ii ) 2 7 fe e t
(i y =

10

x vr

ch

1 ;

i n che s
Fr om gr a ph when h 20 d
d 5 45
Si m i la r l y wh en d
tn s

3
4

par a l
10
.

EXE RCISE
See ch
2

3
4

(i v ) 2
(i ) k

5
6

/y
; (ii ) k

k/x

'

da

48 9 m i ll i

(ii )
7

9
10

xx

12.

T2

ax

g,

48 ; (iii ) k
3 6 1 mi l e
6 1 58
d 93 3 4 1712

k3J x /y

J2
?)
b /x

pp r o x
14

1)

/(x

bx

ta n 8

07

0 02
2

93 3J 5 3

93

19

(i v ) k

ION/ 1 6 !
( y

1 8 n C A/ d3
ch x v r , D ,

21 ;

o s of mil s

b 8
si n a / (x
.

ch . x v r

(iii )

k J i /y 2

See

1 ;

x r. ,

1
0 01 75 r 1 c os A
0 1 8 d3 ta n a
3
9
93
T
; (i )
( )

(ii )

kx z/y

XX V

c os c

270

1 00

1 65

yea r s

A NSW ERS

T HE EX A M P LE S

TO

3 81

EX ERC I SE X X V I

See

ch . X L ,

4;

an

D)

d (for

c h . IV

3 2 2d ; (iii )
i v) 3 4 i t
;
J
(
2
d a2/3 2 2 3 h ; 26 2 fee t
3
(a 2) (b
(u ) (p + 3 q ) (x
(p q p q ) ; 1 ; (1 v) (5
p ) (1
p)
1 8 6 ; (u ) 4 ; (m )
4
(i v ) 8
q)
6 113
7 a b (p
2x
2x ;
8 (i ) y
3 ; (ii ) y
3
0) i c m mon

3
2
2
0
E of
9
1 05 m il e s
10
r

Hi gh

(ii )

'

] s ec

'

s o

9K 0

( iE
)
i

1
4 1b
; (ii )
(i ) P
i
T
iii ) gr eat er for ka /90 i s gr ea t er for gu n p o wder
iv
lb
lb
y es
(v )
2 (1
1 xc.
R)
Cs ;
(i i ) 0 2 20 1 R/ (R1
(iii3) In ter chan g2 e 0 2 an d C3
Tr i a d s a r e 4 3 5 ; 8
b
3 a
(4n
r.

3 7 ; 1 6 , 63 , 6 5
4c ) (2a
3b
3b
4c) ;
4 (i ) (23.
3p
5 ) (3 p
2q
2q
5)
_
b
b
qa
3 a
5 (i )
(i i ) 6 ; (i ii )
(1V ) 2:
6 1 0 mi l es / hr
7 3,
8
1
p
(p ( x
ii ) 2 (iii) 3 3 6 8
si n x ; i ) 1 0
9 y
(

r o (i ) 3 3
(ii )
(iii )

1 5, 1 7

1 2, 3 5 ,

C
29 4 ga l s /mi n
l
8 64 4 E di / G2

H
2

(ii)
(ii ) H

ga l s /m i n
0 001 1 5 7 Gil l / d5

7, 24, 25 ; 21 , 220, 221

3 3 , 4, 5

6
n
4
(3 n
.

Ex pr ess i on van i she s for n


0 an d n
s n ot
(i )
(ii ) a b ; (iii ) 7 a n d 2 (The v a l ue 2 d oe
It ac tu a ll y sa t i s e s
sa ti s fy t he gi v en con di ti o n a s i t sta n d s
(g

'

7
8
9
10

ea ,

(i )

(n

6d
2s
c offee , 1
16 ; w
kM/d ; k
mi l e
.

tan

(ii )

59

pp o
(iii )
r

0 13 3

10

fee t

t a n 21 a ppr x
(i v ) 6 f eet (v ) 25
.

feet

ALG E B RA

3 82

Mel ian

is

D
595 ; mean

60

F or mer

ass .

(i )

4
( ) 7. (b 1 0. (c) 2 6 . (d 3 2 ;
(ii ) (a ) 1 6 , b ) 1 5 , (c )
(iii ) (a ) 1 3 , (b) 1 3 , (c) ,
(d) 1 3 08
1 05 , b ut B
mea n d ev i a ti on
5 Medi a n i each cas e
le
than A s
B i , ther ef r e a b ett er shot
6 1 3 25
ea n dev i a t i n ,
.

ss

1 0.
.

1 2.
1

5
17
1

eca u e

a us e

r,

ca

n :

er

0 449 (ii )
(iii )
(i v )
23 3 1 9 ; (ii) 5 4 8 1 ; (iii) 24 1 79
5 8 28 ; (ii ) 0 072 (iii )
(v ) 75 944
(i v )
57 2
14 0
0 02 ;
7
(ii ) 26
29 404
38
3
(ii ) 4 ; (iii ) 1 (i v ) 1 9 (v ) 3 1 (v i ) 1 3
a
b ; (i i ) 4a 9b ; (i i i ) a b 1 ; (i v ) pq r ;
2
2
2
3
v
i
a
h
5
v
ii
a
b
iii
9b
v
a
1
/ ; ( )
q/ ; ( )
p/
; (
)
J3
J 2 ; (i i i ) (3
J 2 ; (i i ) J 3
7
(v ) (2 J 3
(v i ) (3 7 5
5 144 ;
2 6 J1 1
(v iii ) 1 4
(1 0
i i ) (3 p
J 26
(
4
2
2
b y law/5 4 5.1
b ) ; (W y / 2(s
p
(5 a
p)
1
1
1
2
1
1
2
1
v
1
0
1
6
1
1
1
8
0
v
( )
( )
( )
( ) 5 28

2.

E
r

(1 1 0 ) i s

Medi a n 1 3 year s 8 mo ths m i d v i ti o 7 mo ths


Medi n (i) 6 3 ; (ii ) 1 7 5 Q uar til s (i )
(ii ) 1 6 1 9 65 Qua r t il d v ia ti o
(i ) 1 25 ; (ii ) 1 825
Th la tter b
s l ss di spe s d
Th for mer b ec
r ti o o f di s p
si o to m di a i s l es s
Th la tte b e u s
Mi
Q D 0 0595 1 4 M i
Q D
Mi
Q D
Mi
1 9 Mi
Q D 0 099
QD
,

10.

ms

F
".

(i )
v

feet (ii ) 2 fe et n ea r l y

48

l)
a
The digi ts of t he di ffe r en ce ar e (a
c
9, (1 0
c
h es e r ev er e d gi v e the n u mb er (1 0
a
c) , 9, (a
The s u m of the t w n u m b er i a l wa y 1 089
2n
1)
4 (i ) (2n
2n
See C , No
(ii ) 2n (n
[

b
a
a
b
a
b
5
i ) 1 0/ (2a
6
(ii )
(iii 4
n

s s

a
c

8 (i )
1 1 0
.

(ii )

10

11

ya r ds

4 ; (iii )
.

1 09 6 5

< 1 /2 J 3

feet

1 88 4

ya r d s

SEC T IO N II

EXE RCISE XXVII


See

oo

3rd r
0 09,

ch

x vn

(i)

ch

x vn r . ,

(ii )

1 5 8s 3
.

0,

0,

0 1 4,
'

0,

B
7

(v
9 (i )
(iv )
10
(i )
(iii)
(v )
11
(i)
(v )
.

5 ;
2 1 5s
(i v)
(iii)
4?U 1b ; (v i )
4 hour 24% m i n u te ; (vii )
20 i 7 ; (ii ) 80 i 1 4 ; (ii i ) 5 9; i
1 0 1 5 1 2 45
(v ) 1 2 4 x
1 07 1 98
28 1 3 3
(ii) 44 20 13 8
5 4s 1 0d
3 1 08 2d
(i v) 3 cw t 1 1 1h 1 1 06 l b
1 2 hou r 5 7 mi n u te i 1 h u r 48 min u t e
44 ; (ii )
(i v) 7 % cu fee t ;
(iii ) 1 71

(ii )

3 ;

(v ii )

(iii )

3 ;

21 2 5

4 ; (ii)
47 ;
29 ; (v i i )

(i v )

158 ;

O
D

O
O

N
N
N
D q
N

r5

'

58

co

2
9
0
6
4
3

(iii)

27 ;

(i v)

12 2 ;

r r ec

7e
2v

319 5

311 5
30 9
3 41

t a v er age

(v)

(v i )
(i
(v i

5 ;
1

r r ea

3 84

1e
9e
11e
15 i
11 2
0 6 n
0

(v )

20 ;

A NS W ERS
1

(i )

20

3 h

1 00 ;

(ii )

ou s 5
r

m in u te

(iii )

15 3 ;

E XAMP LES

TO THE

23 .

o s
s
s o o
s
s
sS o s

5 ;

(i v )

3
u r th week i n J a n ua r y
24 h ur 51 m in u te

fo

o s

24 h ur 27 m in u t e
2 7 1 3 pa ce n r th
f th e tar tin g p in t
28
(i ) 5 9 yar d N an d 20 ya r d W f
f ta r ti n g p i n t
(ii ) 3 ya r d
2 9 8 0 f ee t N , 260 f ee t E , 5 0 fe e t d w n
25

s
o

EXE RCISE
ch

x v rr

o st

ar

tin g

poi n t

(or 70 fee t:a b ov e

XXVIII

2, 3 ;

See

3 85

ch . x v

gr

o d)
un

A
Or a l
9 R =
?

2
2

He

3
b a ck p =
The r t c m p n e n t
tu r n in g i 8 mi le ou t
r ode

o
s

1 4)

2)

B
.

12.

A
'

r
14 C
1 5 See c h
:3

7 5t ;

1 50
243
13 1 7
620

1 ;

20

21

23

24

25

29

o s
s
o s
o
o

o s
o s
s

s
o

o
o

o
s

D
T
T

'

'

'

'

30

(i ) 1 8 0 ; (ii) 1 05
(i ) 41 1 (ii) 3
(i ) 13 77 ; (ii ) 1 277

'

26
27

5 24 t n ;
7l 6 t n
X VII ,
1 60 ton
(i i ) 3 0 h ur h en c e
(v ) 6 da y
(iii ) 45 hou r a go (i v ) 48 h u r
B
b al an ce f 61 ; (ii) de ci t f 9
33
7t ;
B
deci t f 28 (ii ) b a l a n c e of 1 2
8
4t
240, i e 240 f c a p i ta l n ot
P
1 6t ;
1 44
21 6 , i e t ta l pr t f 21 6
(ii )
408 , i a 408 f ca p i ta l n o t
P
1 20
24t ; (i )
744, i e t ta l pr t f 744
(ii
(i 9 m n th a go, 5 m n th hen c e
(ii ) 2 ye ar 9 m n th hen c e
C l u mn gr a ph n e e d ed (ch I V ,
22
43 2, 840
3 45 f ee t ; (ii ) 273 fee t
h
3 00
0 06 d ;
1 000
}d ; (i ) 93 0 feet ; (ii ) 1 200 fee t
1 10
0 02d ; (i )
(ii)
50
0 02d
d 5 0(T 50) (i) 55 00 fee t ; (ii ) 2050 fe e t
B
i n c he ;
0 001 1 d ; (i )
i n ch e
(ii )
B 3 0 6 25 0 001 1 h
295 fee t
B ) (i ) 1 3 8 6 fe e t ;
h
.

19

1 2t ;
5c;
4t ;
2

10 ;

26

r e pa
re

id

pa id

3 86

ALG EB RA
C

32

(i

13 ;

(v )

57 ;
23 ; (ii ) + 1 1 ; (iii )
48 ; (iv )
1s
A = p + 2q
3 r = + 4 ; (i i ) C = 1 0p

B = p + %q
M= 10 3p
l 6 n ; (i i ) 9a
'

1 6p
6a
2l b
+ 65
'

35

(ii)

3a

3a

EXE RCISE
Se e ch

xvi r

(1

o S

4b + 4c ;

(iii)

37 ;

so t h of D o

an d

n ca

ste ]
r

6 1 4,

e.

3 45 ;
3 0, i

3 0 mil e

a.

ea

st

of

ch . x v

2, 4 ;

s o

2a

XXIX

3 2 + v t ; (i
(ii )
65 (v )
mean n r th
(i v )
2
d = d o + v t ; (i ) d = + 250 +
6 1 4 m il es we s t f t P a ul
(ii ) d =
1 0)
1 20
15
(iii) 6
t P a ul
ht ; d =
3
d =
4
1

1 2) = 1 6
2

feet

fms

+ 3 61

i
(ii
d

(iii)

q
m il e

= u
(ii ) 3 9

so th
u

at

ml s /hr
.

08 )
130

20)t ;

(ii)

ov e r

dr a ft of

27

(iii )

(i
(iv

3 )t ;

at

re

st

m l s / hr
.

V gtz

) /a

;
1 4)

(i) t

8)
4)

4)

1 0) m in u tes

1 70

3n ;

8
5n ;
4 + 4n ;
1 6,
1 9,
+

(i )
(iii) T =

3 0 ;

m in ut es ;

+ 1 60

r 7.

Tn =

Oppos ite

in

1 5.

(v

Or a l

B
.

(ii) t
11

fee t

Vl tg

8 76

er

mil es

1 0.

cos a

o v dr aft of 250

01 23 )

pt ; (i) B

di r ec tion

feet

4448

ha lf

5280(

2500

i
i

+ 68
+

3 996

13 ,
+ 38

590

ALG E B RA

3 88
28

50

29

se o ds ; (ii)

feet high (v)


feet high

3 20 ft

fe et ; (iii)

c n

7 2t
'

/se c

/s ec d o wn wa r d s
.

(ii)

960 ft

l ot

2
iii
l
8
t
( )
27 5
A
B
96 ; C
3 0 (i S p ee d i n ems /s ec
53 0 ; C
248 ; B
(ii Di s t fr o m or i gi n i n cms A
18 6 ; C
A
B
(iii) S pee d in
4 ; B
C
(i v ) Di s t fr om or igin i n c ms : A
ly
, s ec on ds a go a n d t hen m o ve d
(v ) A 1 2
B
secon d s he n ce an d will then m ov e 1y
C 2% s ec on d s ago an d th e n m o ve d
ly
'

95

sq

33

35

ms
u t 1 1 00
.

(a ppr ox )

32
34
in A

sq

cms

(a ppr ox )

Ab o
cu
i n c he s
As No 3 3 A r ea s o f
di s tan t s ec ti on s a ss umed
P
Abou t 245 0 cu fee t 3 6 Ab o u t 1 3 00 c c s
.

ch

qu i

X XX I

ch

ll

x v1 1 .,

EXE RC ISE
[ See

xx

A an d B

B
6

Ex pr

(
(i v)
(v)
(vi )
2
v
ii
x
( ) 3 2

6 11
2
abx
2
ab x
2
a bx

111

(i x

12

n
a

b3

5a h
23 x y

( 2
(a2
(a
a

5 /ab
6 /a

2
x
x
a
b
a
(
( a /
n
13
1
14
3
c
3 ab c

6 b2 ; (ii ) 8 p
1 8pq
20y ;
2
aby
b2 ) x y
3
aby
b2 ) x y
z
b 2 )x y
a by ;
2
1
x
v
iii
( )
(p b/a

6 / b ;
b 2 ) /x g
n

ab

/y

q a / b) x

pq ;

C
1

9q "I

(i ) 3 75 6 ; (ii)
9
(v3i ) 9090
2

2963 1

(iii )

(iv)

1 020201 ;

(v) 71 5

20

22

24
48 t2
13 t
6
21
8 ts
76 t
2;
6 t6
l 8t4
1 2t2
1 3 t5
7t
2
a
s
2
5
8
3
ii
iii
8
t
1
4
t
8
t
t
t
t
3
t
+
;
( )
(
i v 3 2175 1 ; (v) t 5 243 ;
vi ) 6t6 9ts 4t 3 t3 9ta 2t 3
3 3

1
2
b
a
h
a
i
ii
b
a
b
a
( ) 3
() 3

i
v
1
a
1 ;
iii
x
1
x
3
; ( )
/
(
y + y

9
8

9
1
1
4
1
6
8
v
p / q
(
p / q
2
2a h
2b c + 20a
a
b 2 + 02

2
2
2b c + 2ca ;
i
c
2a b
a
b
+
+
(
2
2
2
2b c
2ca ;
0
ii
a
b
+ 2a h
(

8t

3t

23

24

25

3 93 6
1 ;

ANS WE RS

T HE E X A M P LE S

TO

3 89

2
2

4
a
9
b
c
iii
1 2a b
6 bc
4ca ;
( )
2
2
b
i
v
4
3
9
c
l 2a b
6b c
40 a :
( ) 9
9
v
4
+
1 2q + 6p ;
( ) p 2 q 9+ 9 4p q
4q + 6p ;
(v i ) 92p 2+ 4q + 12 2 1 2p q
4 b la
4a / b
2
(vii) a 4/b 4 4 4b /a
" 2
2
c
v
iii
a
b
2
b
c
2
0
a ;
( ) 6
6

3
3
3 3
3 s

(i x )

2p q

2q

D
26 .

27
28

3o

2r p

1 , 1 0, 45 , 1 20, 21 0, 25 2, 21 0, 1 20, 45 , 1 0, 1
7

21 a b2 j ; 3 5a b 3
a i 7a b
3 5a 3 h j ; 21 a 2b 5
73 b i b ?
6
1
3 3.
5 a 3 /4
3 a5 /l 6
a /6 4 ;
s
4
2
2
2 3
3
4
i
r
p
q
i
3
2
80
80
r
4
0
r
1
0
/
( ) p
p q/
p q /
p q /
45 3 6a 4 ; (ii )
1 5 p uq 3 r 3
20p ; (iii )
2268 a 6 b3 ; (i v)
3 4
3
2
v
v
i
80
a
b
1
1
2
a
b /p
( )
( )
p,
.

EX ERCISE XXXII
Se e

ch

x vr 1

A
1

a c r ea ge

1
x 1 0 a er
i
()

x
ii
1
0
0
acr
7
( )
(iii) aver age a cr
.

Or a l

Or a l

e tc

p op 3 9 7 x
x 1 06
p op
x 1 06 p p ;
1 0 a n d

x 10
p
x
e tc

(iv) p o

ch . X X L ,

8 ;

l 0q

1 06

1 0 1

an d

21

of

1 0

an d

B
5
8

(i v)

1 01 3 m i l e
7
x 10 ;

(ii )
(v)

x
x

1 02 0 l b
7
1 01 3 ; (iii )
1 01 0
.

C
9
12

m in i

(i )

o s

(ii )

b3 c ;

2 3

b
/ pq ;

1 02
1 02

(i ii )

in c he s

cu

m il e

(iii )

(i v )

1 ;

8 p3 q 3 r 3 / 1 25 ;

(v)

(v)

a bc

(vi )

1
1

5
6

(iii

(i
(iii)

(iv

iii) 68 6
1 09 ; (ii)
2I x 3 5 x 5 4 x 74 ; (ii ) (2 x 7 x
2
2 x
x 13
x 19 x
3
(
x

b 1 + 2m

l z0
m
i
v
ii
v
ii
( ) p ; ( 2 ) p
3
x
iii
a
b
i
v
a ; (ii
a ; (
/ ; ( ) p /q
)
)
3 5
2
7
2
x
a
r
i
v
ii
v
iii
( ) p 2 ( 3 ) p /q ;1 ( 1) m b m
2l
m
+
+
+

(v i )

11

D
1

cu

3 x 1 01 7 t n
x 1 09 ;
1 0 ; (i i )
10

(v)

ALGEB RA

3 90

EXE RCISE XXXIII


See ch
I.

10

1 8 75
10
,
2
6 45 x 1 0
-

10

10

"

se c o n d s

10
1
61 1
,

10

'

1b

1 0 1,
x 1o
1 0 1,

ch . XX L ,

8 ;

6 7 81 x
3 72 x 1 0 4 ,
5
x 104
x
25
2
3
1
0
,
,
1
x 10
1 93 x 1 0
,

X V II ,

10

or

lb

B
4

(ii )

10
x
x

b
/ ;
2
b
c
b
{ (
3

a c

1v

21

3n

(ii

9
i
4
( ) p qr

( )
,

11

(ii)

13 x
2b5/3 a7 ;

(iii)

(
3
a
{ (3b
2

ca c

(ii )2 x

31

(iii )

3m

20r 5/

y
F
(

ab a

(ii i )
(v )

b(c
2a 3 b3
x

n)

x vu

A
r

(i
(v

(x ii )

EXERCISE XXXIV
See ch

(i v)

(m

(s

I)

Zu

ml

5 p + l 1 q ; (ii ) a l 3 b ; (iii) 4m
3 n ; (i v) a
2a
3 /b ; (vi ) p
4 ; (v i i ) p a
1 3 ; (v iii ) a x 2
3
x
Ba ; (x ) p / 3 q + 9 ; (x i )
2
2

2
a
4
x
iii
ab
b
4
3
; (
/p
1
)
q/ p
q /9 ;
4a 2
6a
9 ; (x v ) p9 / 1 6
p/4 + 1 ;
2 4
a
3 p
25 / 9r ;
ap q
q ; (x vii ) 1
5/3 r
a + b + c ; (x i x ) p
q + r ;
-

l /b ;
10 ;

(a

bc

+ yz

ca

zx .

4)

(iii (a

1 ) (4a
) (5 a
x vii ) (3 11:
2) (2x
3)
2
x
x
7
( i ) ( M
P
(X X I) (1 3
x /4
(x x iii) (1
) (1

7b ) ;

8 b ) (a

xv

4a / x 9)
x

/4

/1 6) ;

A LGE B RA

3 92
19
21

E r r or

25

20

(i)

is

(ii) 3 11 093

of

wh ol e

va l u e .

1
a + a
2

"
1
a
a
a
ls
2a ) ;
1 + 2a + 4 a +
+ 3 2a
10
"
3
a / 8 1 (3
1
a /81
a /9
a
7
G
l
a) ;
a
a
a / (I
a
1
3a
48a 5/ (1
6a.2
243
1 2a 3
7
9

3
a) ;
a
64
1
a/2
a
a /4
3 18
/ 64(2
/
a)
1
5 a /6
5 a / 5 4(3
5 a 3 /5 4
2
3 a)
6a
1 8 a a
1 6 2a 4/(1
54a a
a) ;
3
s it / 2
3 e 6 / 1 6 (2
3 a 4/1 6
3 a3 /8
12
2
n
a
4
a
/ 6 4(2
/
} 2a /9
a) ;
5 a /4
t

9
3
3 a)
3
5
a
5
a
1
6
4
1
1 5 a /6
45 a /256
l25 6
i
/
s

3a
23 2
a
a
a (5

5
x
2x
4x 3
x (6
a s
)
-

'

26

29

30

EXE RCISE
See

4
.

3
4

ch . x v n

ch . x x n

s
s

(i)

1 00
an d 7 th

mi

(ii )

(iii

26 3 7

/P

1 /a 3 (a
6 x

8
-

1 2.

"

b ) ;p

iil

9;

1 /a (a

21 3

x
s

) 4

1 3 ;

i:

Io

b )n

11

1 1

--

a r

+ 2 a

1
.

iii ) 1 44 ; (i v)
(i) 2 ; (ii
(
3
v
i
a
( ) (
) 1/ 2b (a
i ) (l /2)
(ii ) 125 x
l
a
a
h
(
)
9

25 ;

(v)

b / (a

iii

b)

'

iii
(v )

= i

ii

5
5
7q 1iv
2 74 3
2
)

97

1 2

3 ;

ll

/8 1

feet

ibr a tio n s

iv

90

feet ; (ii )

20 25 , 3 0 3 75 , 45 5 9 ;

B
6

20 min u te ; (ii ) 1 9 mi n u t e
2
3 3 in che
(ii ) b etwe en th e 6th
4000 1 2 1 3 3 8 d
5727 61 1 1 1 s n ear l y

(i)
(i )

XXX VI

n.

ANSW ERS
:5

(i ) T
(iii) S

(ii ) S

a r

(l

T HE

TO

17

P
in

ye ar s

3 93

th e

M P LE S

1)
a / (l

(iv )

EX A

whic h woul d

sum

o t to A

un

1 06 1 0s

x9

20

91 1 2s

i)
(ii ) a
(1) a
2 4 44 1 95 5 d
6 1 1 9s 2d
26
55 1 1 s 1 0d
3 063 6s 2d
3 0 7 20 3 % p er cen t

P i {1

22

23
25

ll

i)

(1

28

29

1 000

EXE RCISE
ch

See

x v1 1

XXX VII

10 ;

ch

XX III

o s o l ft o py i g 1
2
4
t
s f om ight t l ft l ft to ight t with d
i g s wi gs o
pyi g 20
10
5
t
1
1 t
(i) P m o v s i t o w d s O o py in g
g
si g s wi gs o pyi g 20
(ii) P vib t s wi t h i
P m ve t
P vib r a te

(i )
(ii )
n

ccu

etc

c cu

ar

e c

e c

e c

c cu

ecr e a s

e c

cc u

n cr ea

ra e

80,

ccu

40,

pie s

1 23 5 ,

3 625 ,

1 93

As

it r

i s es

d e cr ea s i n g swin gs
wi thou t l i m i t

s ta n tl y

Ex p =

1 55 ,

25 ,

3 5,

when

15,

vibr a te s a b o u t
20 wi t h con
A s 71 s i n k s the swin gs bec om e l ar ge
P

10 +

3 85 ,

1 + 3L
~

Ex p

10

33
0

o s t o ight

d m ve
t he l e ft

an

st t s f o m

ar

It

10

ven t ua l l y

r ea ch e

10

00

a ga n

fr om

Ex p
m

10

ov s t o w d s
t
st
10
ar

r e ur n

1
IO

1
th e

4x

ossi

3X
r i gh t

P s ta r ts

ng

co an d

15

r ea c h n g

i fx =

ao

w hen

A s x r i s es
B e tw een x

w he n x

tr a ver se s th e wh o l e n ega ti ve sca l e


tive P r ea pp ea r s a t 00 a n d a ga i n
Fr o m x
i n g O w hen x
9
a l on g th e n e ga t iv e sca l e
cr

1 0 w hen

at

It

th en

co

P m

o v s to
e

g an d

t he l e
x

ft

0, P

Di e tl y b e o me s p osi
m o ve s d o w n t h s l r
h
r

g to

ca e

co

ea c

P m ov e s

A LG E B RA

3 94

B
I

13

Se e No 1 1
+ 21 5
i
2; v
x3
2 44 ; ii + 1
iii
22
)
i
v i)
+
7 ; (v iii)
7 ; (i x )
+ 1 ;
+ 2 ; ( II )
1
I 4 {(P
3x
Q )x
(2P
15
2x
5
I6
1, Q = + 1 ;
1 ;
1 , Q = + 2 ; (i ii ) P = + 1 = Q
(i l ) P =
17
an d o ; (ii
3,
(i )
(iii )
)
18
2)
3 l(x
3)
2/(x
2)
(i ) 3 l(x
(ii ) 2/(x
5/ (4x
2)
3)
4/ (x
(iii ) 1 / (2x
(i v) 6 / (3 x
1 9 (i )
2 ; (ii)
(iii )
(i v )
20 P
2, Q
3
21
3)
3)
6/ (2x
5l (x
(i ) 2/ (x
(ii ) 1 / (2x
5 / (3 x
(iii) 3 /(3 ix 4)
2)
8 / (x
l 0/ (x
(iv) 2l(x
22
5 / (2x
1)
1 2/ (x
(i ) 3
12
5

'

'

(iii )
(iv )
23

2/ (2x
3/ x

1
4

(i ) (x

+ 2

3)

3 / (2x
2l(x

1)

l 0) (x

(ii )

7)

9)

(x

(x

1 0>

/(x
9)

6 X1
9)
l 0 ) (x
(x
7)
{1
1 0)
1 /(x
v

l / (x
1 / (x
{1
S imil a r l y wi th the othe r s ide
l
(i) 2 ; (ii ) 4 ; (iii )

w hen c e x

no:

H en ce x

as

b e for e

C
25

(x

7)

24

(i )

28.

(ii )

(v) (x
(v i) (3 x

3 )(x
2) (2x +
29 m =
3, n =
7
5,
3 ; (ii )
3 0 (i )
4 . + 4 ; 0
(
3,
3,
1 ;
(vii )
7 or
(i x ) + 3 ,
.

<

<

22l7

3 4 or

<

l,
2.

(viii )

1 ; (i i i )
2 ; (v i )

5,

2x
7;

20

0r

20,

ALGEB RA

3 96

3
n

(iii )

2(l +

1
n

(l

EXE RCISE XXXIX

ch .

See

Xx i v

2 ;

ch

xx v

No te T a n gen t s a r e giv en t o t wo d eci mal pl aces on l y


I (i ) T hr ou gh or i gin at 58 t o x a xi s ;
un i t s
un i t s
(ii ) ditt o r a i s ed
(iii ) di tt o l ower e d
un i t s
a x i s r a is e d
(i v ) thr o u gh or i gi n at 1 66 t o x
u n it s
a x i s l o wer e d
(v ) t hr o ugh or igi n at 1 02 t o x
2
0 6x
22
2 05 x ;
(i ) y
(ii ) y
11
0 4X
(m ) y 0 9X
(i v ) y
0 7x
i n cl in e d a t
l o wer ed
3 (i ) y
0 7x
2 5 di tt o r a i s e d 2 5 ;
(ii ) y
3 i n cl i n e d a t
O 75 x
r a i s ed 3
(iii ) y
9 i n cl i n e d
r a i s ed
3x
3
(i v ) y
l 8x
8 i n cl i n e d
r a i s ed 8
(v )
3 i n c l i n ed
r a i s ed 3
(v i ) y 3 x
6 (i ) 7x + 6y
(ii ) x
(iii ) 2 9x + y = 0 ; (i v ) x
(v ) y +
n ea r l y 1 8 4 n ea r l y ; (iii) 1 1 2 n ea r l y
(ii )
7
(0
a xi s
8 2
a x is
(i v ) par a l l el t o y
(v) par a l l el to X
8 ; gr a p hs a l l pa ss thr o ugh ( 6
6 fun ct i on (y)
9 x

'

'

'

'

'

'

'

'

'

Io

5,

B
ii

y = 3x + 12
y 2 4x

( )
(iii ) y
(i v ) y
1

(iii ) y
(i v ) y
(v i ) y

I 4.
1

1 4(x
=
1 4x
i}
3

2x

y
y

or

= 3 (x
y 2 4(x

'

to

'

'

(i )
(b) (i )

or

ix

3 1x
y = 4x + 5 ;

i (x

or

(ii )
5)

'

l e ft
3 t
20

S I(X

7
62

(v )

or

= 4x + 5 ;

3 ;

8,
4,
13
l 5x

(ii )
(ii )

1 5 , (Ii i )
5 , (iii )

9,
1 5,

(i v )
(i v )

28 ;
14
.

'

0 8 7x

0;

y
(i v ) y
(v i ) 5 X
n o.

1 4x

y =

o i ght ;
t o i ght ;
8 t o i ght

23X
l 6x
2y
'

'

ANS WERS

T HE EX AM P LES

TO

EXE RCISE
See c h

x x rv

8 ;

A
3
7

s in a .

10

yar d s

293 0

cos a

tan

cot a ,

c h. x x v . ,

tan

mi l es ,

B
13

XL

c ot a ,

I I.

sin a

3 97

B o th
a

l /t a n a
1 1 06 yar d

I4.
1 6.

23 .
24

yar ds n ear l y
s quar e yar d s

53 66
1 1 62

I5

'

1 97 6 , 1 05 8

69 1 5
36
21

n e ar l

sq

EXERCISE
.

xx1v

u ar e

1 0, 90

n ear l

XX IV

A
CD

feet

X LI

53

See ch

yar ds

AC

2 2 44 ;
2 315
EF
2 1 97
CE

23 48 , B0

DE

CE

3 068 ,

AD

DF
3 66 2, FE

FG
EG
3 589 ;
GK
HK
2 86 7 feet
3 1 43 2 fe et
4 1 43 6 fee t ; 4 feet di ffer en ce
5 3 1 2 feet 3 1 4 feet

C
r
f om A,
fr m C , 3 4 E fr m ,
6
F fr om E,
fr m , 1 6 1 H fr m G, 5 3 K fr m H ,
C, 1 8 ,
25 44 ,
,
7 Par t i a l r e u l t
E,
06 5 1 ;
0 5 94 ;
2 044,
Gr,
,
H , 2 204, 2 925 ; K , 3 2 8 5 , 0 403
i na l r e ul t : C , 1 8 ,
0 744,
,
E, 1 6 3 6 , 3 8 2 ; , 0 403 , 5 3 6 ; G , 1 4 82,
H,
0 722,
K ,
25 63 ,
.

D o

G o F
s s

o D
o
D

s s D
'

9 Si n 220

10
Si n 3 1 0
.

si n

cos

sin

cos

si
ta
si

1
80
(

n a

ta n

(iii ) s i n

(1 3 0

s in

n a

(a

s in

(3 6 0

tan (3 60
C o or di n a t es

G,
I3

474 8
6 26 1

Ab out 9 yar d s

220
3 1 0

cos
00 8

cos a

),

os

os

cos

ta n40
ta n

tan

(a

t an

(3 60

cos

) ta n
,

207 2 5 ; C ,
13 98 ,
45 4 3 ;
8 5 2 9,
80 ; E,
3 29 4
,

ta n 220

ta n 3 1 0

(1 80

cos

(a
a

s in

1 2.

3 1 86
,

43 08 ;
21 3 1 ;

ALG EB RA

3 98

AB 47

: 4.

BC 75 E of N , C D 3 4 W

W of N
of N , F G 5 8
111 1 ,
246 9 ; C :
960 ;
E:
1 279 3
1 1 71 2 ; G : 0,

W of N
E o f N EF 5 W

A
D
F

:
:
:

0, O ; B :
1 5 1 7,
+ 1 72 9,
-

of

0
1

cos

48
0 3 42 ;

sin

8 Sine s : (i )
0 98 5 ; (ii)
C os ine s (i )
01 74 ; (ii )
19
0 424 ; (ii)
1
(iii)
1

iii) 0 866 ;
(iii)
03 64
27 47 ; (iv)

EXE RCISE
ch

See

(iii

(i )

(i i i )

x x 1v . ,

9 t o r i gh t ; (ii ) 8 up ;
1 1 d own , 1 3 t o r i ght
12

y + 3 =

3 ;

(i v )

ch

up

3 ;

xx v 1 A B
,

to

l ft

16

(ii )

y =

(v ii ) y

3 5

(a )

(I)

up

(ii )

t o r i gh t

(iii)

5 do wn

(i v ) 1 1
(v )

up

(v i )

up

(vii )

(v iii )

3 5
-

r i gh t

to

to r i ght

t o r i ght

up

1 5
-

d o wn , 2

to r i gh t

t o left

g
5
:

_ 2

y =

y = 1 2/ x

0r

(vi )
(v u i )

X L II

E
5
D
7

A LGEB RA

400

( )
vi

2 I.
22

(vii)

y =
2x 2

24x
1 0V

4 ;

(viii )

1 0,

25

'

y
y

26

27

9;

are:

25 5

are:

(
{ x(x

1
1 12 X

(i )
(ii )
(iii )
(i v )
2
(i )
(iii )
3 (i )
(iii )
(v )
(v ii )
(i x )
(x i i )
(x i v )
(x v i )
4 (i )
(iii )
(v )
(v ii)
(i x )
(x i )
(x iii )
(x v )
7 (i )
.

(V )
8

32

Not p ar abo l i c

x x v1

'

'

x
x
x

4 6x +
2x
1

2
2

2a x

2 J 2x

0;
b2

( ) (I)

(J 3

2 6x
x

xvi

O;

'

2pa 9 x
2 J 5x

12

q v

p p

'

(ii )

5x

0;

ab

2 35 ;

1 56 ;

2 625 ,

xi i

0;

g ; (ii)

( 2)

(i ) 1 2x
2
1
5
x
iii
( ) ~/
(i v)
vi

ch

x x rv . ,

0 or 4, 3 or 1 , 3 29 or 0 7 1 ;
x
2 or
8,
or
3,
3 ;
x
3 7 4 or
or
or
1
x
O or
or
(ii ) i ma gina ry ;
or
(i v) i m a gina ry
1 ;
(ii ) + 5 ,
6,
6 ; (i v
5 ; (v i + 1 2, + 3 ;
+ 8,
0,
7 (v ii i ) 0,
0 5,
3 ; (x )
02 ,
(x iii )
2 ; (x v )
25
2
2
x
ii
x
2x
( ) 2+ x
2
12
0 ; (i v) x
20x
1 00 = 0 ;
x
7x
2
0 ; (v i ) x 2
2 7x
13
0;
x
1 00
2
x
2 4x
0 63
0 ; (viii ) x 2
6x
16
0;

(v)

(l 1 1

26

24x

20
3 6 3 5, 3 6

S ee ch
.

2x 2

{ a (x

23

EXE RCISE X L III

C
24

2( n w

J 5)x
b3
2(p

6 =0;

3 5x 2
1

0 ;

Mb

0;

b
q

0;

A NSWERS

TO THE EX A MP

0)
N/ 5 : 4 ;
(ii )
(i i i ) J 1 3 t 2 J 2 ; (i v)
J IB i 2 J 6 ;
b ; (v i )
(v ) J a : J a
J a + b i J 2b
(v i i ) N 7 i i (v iii ) W 1 4 ; J a
Io
7
7 7 ; (i v)
(i )
(i i )
(v)
(vi )

L ES

401

43 ;
-

B
n
1

(i) crosse s ; (i v) cross e s


b
4a c
(ii ) b
2

(i )
(iii )
(v )
1 5 (i )
(iii )
(v)
I v ii
( )
14

4a o

I9

(v1 1 )
20

4a o

(x )

x
x

2
2

x
x

2
2

[11

=0

0;

71 4

l 3x

3 ;
4x
1 9x +
l 1x
1 02 = 0, x = 1 7 or 6 ;
19 0r 1 0
1 90 = 0, x =
+ 9x
1
1
b
1 ;
iii x = or
or
a
P
q
b
+

48 = 0 ; (ii ) x 2
6
21 = 0, x = 7 or

8x

4J3

J 18 i J 18

xm a

0i

(i v )

(iii )
18
(i )
(ii )
(iii )
(i v)

is

x ax

4a o

1v

(i x ) n o roots
1

(vi ) t ouch e s

4a o (v) b
( ) b
Eq u a l root s (ii ) u ne q ua l root s ;
no root s ; (i v) une q ua l root s
e q ua l roots (v i ) u ne q ua l roots
1
1 ;
2
J 73 ; (ii ) 1 2 or
2 i J 1 1 ; (i v) n o roo t s
2 i 2 J 6 ; (v i ) n o root s ;
i J 1 93
(v iii ) J I1 i J 1 01

( ) b
111

or
a
a

ab

b2
r

43
(ii ) none ; (iii) no ne ; (i v ) x
(v ) none ; (v i ) n on e ; (vii) n one ; (v iii) n one
x

EXE RCISE X L IV
5
S ee ch x v
.

2b x

(i)

4a o

xr

(ii )

5 3 03

27

or

1 6 98 ;

02, 0 6 97 ;

A LG EB RA

402

(iii
(v
(v ii )

n ot

p oss i ble ; (i v)

or

i
(v i ) x
(viii ) n ot p oss i b le

2 3 09 ;

4 4 64

(iii )

{H (ii )

g,

or

=
03 9

%%

(iii )
(v)

(v ii )

(i x )

x
x
x
x

(i v)

1 3 x2
1 4x +
3 0x 2 = 0 ; (x )

2x 3

3
+ x

8 ) (x

x +

2,

6x 2

0,
x

3,
4,

3,
1 20 ;

7x

2,
2,

(iii )

(x i v )

1,

2 ;
5 ; (i x )

1 )2(x

1,

(ii )
6

0,

48 ;

12

2
I4
25 ;
.

Latt
to

2, + 5 ;

1 , + 4,
1,
1,
2,

(iii )

0, 0

er for me r
l e ft ;
12

0 8,

l i

(i v )
9 (i)

1 1x

6x = 0 ;
3
2 =
x
x
3
0;
v
iii
+
( )2
6x = 0

4x 3 +

l 0x

3,

3
15

(x ) (x

2,
8,

( )
(x iii ) i J 3 i3 J 1 3
(x v ) (x + 1 ) (2x
xi

3 x2

(i v )
(v i )
(v iii )

va lues

no

(ii )

2x 2

5 ;

or

B
6

1
1,
.

EXE RCISE X LV
h
x
6 ch xx v
.

See

rv

A
r.

(i)

(iii )

The

(ii )

1 60
1 92

S
S

2019
48t

t2 ;
3 t2

(ii ) S
(i v ) S

1 00
21 t
1 50
40t

W2 ;

5t9/ 2 ;
1 0, S
60
() t
(i v) t = 8 , S = 1 0 ;
bo rd wh il i n (i v) it

hi ghe s t p oint s r ea che d a r e gi ven b y i

I n (iii ) th e marb le j us t r ea ch e s t o p o f a
e
shoot s 0 6 t he board
0
At a tur nin g p oint v
10 i JS
60 ; (ii ) t
2
7 i [( J 6S
(i ) t
8 i ( J IOS
( i v) t
(iii ) t 8 i
The ma rbl e cross e s m i dd le p o int of board at t i me s g i v en in
se co nds by
2J 1 0 1
10
2 J IO ; (ii ) t 1
14 ;
0 t.
(i ) t. 1 0
8
t2
8
(iii ) t ,
2J 1 1
8
(i v) t
'

A LG EB RA

404

(v iii ) y

(2x
x

J1

l i

(i x )

4x )/ 2x

(x ) y
2x
22
(i x canno t li e bet w ee n 0 a nd 5
3 a nd
(ii x can not lie b et wee n
g
3
(i v) x c ann ot li e b etwee n
7 an d
7;
(v ) x > 3 or <
2 or 5
x 2 No lim its for val u es o f fu nc ti on
(v i) x
2 4 (i ) Nega t i ve in b ot h ca s e s
0 i s a n u pp er t ur nin g p oint
(i ) x
1 i s a lo w e r t ur ni n g p o int
(ii) x
1 gi ve s a lo w e r t ur nin g p oint
26 x
The invers e fun ct i o n
has n o nit e t u rnin g p oint s
27
0, y
3)
(i ) (X
(x 0 y a) a r e re s p ect i ve ly l ower
.

are tu rnin g p oi nts


inver s e f un ct ion h

28

30

Th e

29

t J 9x4

pp e r turni n g va l

as

t urnin g

3 2x 9

wh e n x

EXE RCISE X LVI


S ee ch x i v
6
x

A
s in a ) (ii) s i n
.

2
z
i
b
c
cos
a
a
c
i
J
(
3 ()
a /o
(iii ) t wo ; (i v ) s in a
4 1 48 % y ards , 29}y ards
5
.

or

1 29 6
B
7
l
9
O
P
0
P
d
9
cos a
13
1
J
{
'

1
4 1 5 or 1 94
14
.

4
9

13

'

01

:5

et c

3 23

miles a ppro

or

5 0

22 3 7

'

or

1 57

EXE RCISE X LVII


S ee ch xxxv
A
7 ch xx vn
.

3
.

(ii )

(i )

si

(iii )

3 x3 ;

'

i i i ; ( ) x i ; (v i )
1 44 ; 3 00 ; 5 00 ; 1 700 ; 3 07 2
2
5 335
4 7296
3 48 03
6 (A) 5 42 9 ; (B
(0 ) 41 3 2
so
s 76 J IO/3
17 2
7 296 J 3 /3

i
4
x
0
+ ;x
10
i
9 04 ;

(i v)

'

x.

or

not

( / )
a c

TO THE EX A MP

A N SW ERS
i

12.

(i v )

(ii )

1 0 8x

1 2x 2

'

(VI)

'

'

8x

'

I7
1

Volu me
g

of

'

8x3

7x ;

(v iii )

2x

2 ex
-

1 2x 2

3 X!

1 6x 3

'

'

2
t
}7r h an 3 5

cone

b t an 3 5
3
2b ; (3
w

3 857

x3

1 2x

405

1
:5

'

(iii)

4x i

3
g
i
x
5
x
x
8
; (x ) 6 x
( )
1 499 3 ; 1 00 ; 26 5 6 ; 1 3 47
13
9
x
20
4x
I4
i
; 53 3 i

3x

(v)

5x 3

(vii )

8x ;

'

L ES

2h)2

2h)2 (h

2023 5

20

7r

2
3
x
J )

(1 2

3k
24

26

(i )

(vi )

(1 44x

'

( )
xi

27

( if ;
x

(ii)

iii ) e x i
v ii ) 3 2x

(i v )

'

'

xii

w on/ 1 0

(iii )

(i v)
(v i )
(v iii )

(x )
(i )

'

'

ix

8x
4

8 x + 6 x2 + 6 x 3

; 1 3 6 ; 93

2 7

1 x

xv

3 h,
3 ; (ii) (a
h )h
h)
c
i
8y / 8x
a
(
/ x
4 1 (2x h
h ) 8y / 8x
8 2x
4 1 (2x h
3 7h ; 8y /8x
8 2x
he)
3 x h2
N) 8y/ 8x 21 x 2
7(3 x 2h
h/2x 2
1 / 2x 2
2b x ; 8y /8x
8y / 8x
5 4x
(iii ) 8y /8x
(ii ) 8y /8x
1 0x ;
8y / 8x
12
8y / 8x
8 6x
(
)
2
x
x
4
v
ii
8y / 8x
6 x2
8
8
3
(
y/
)
2
1 2x 2
i
x
x
3
1
3
x
8
8y / 6x
2x
8
7 ( ) y/
/
8y / 8x
5
7/ x 2
2
= 2x +
=
=
1
i
x
ii
x
p
i
4
+
+ p ;
i
; ( ) y
y
p ; ( ) y

'

'

(i )

(v)

% f3
1

777 6 ; 8 000

ex i ;
9x 3

EXE RCISE X LVIII


S ee ch xi v
u
7 ch x

3 84w

4x

(v i i i )

3 x2 )

48 x 7

'

'

'

406
3

ALG EB RA

(i v)

(vi

=
x
y
3
y = 2x

9
3 x + p ; (v ) y = 5 x
rx
i p ;
i
2x 9 + x + p ; (vii ) y =

- -

(v iii
4 (9 1 9 ; (i i ) 1 ; ii i ) 0 ; (i v )
(vi ) 0 ; (v ii ) 2 ; v ii i) 0
5 (i )
1 (ii) 8"y / 8x 2
i( ii ) iv y /3 x 2 1 2 (x
9
6 (i ) y =
x
i}
l 1 x9
(iii ) y 2x3
8 (i )
ii )
(
9
iii
x
+ qx + r
(
p
(1 v y =

(V )

5 ;

1 ;

3 0x

+ x

10

B
u

(i )
6

(ii )

10

(iii )

2,

3 ;

(i v)

(i v )

(1 V )

(V )

(V ) i}

x rv

A
9;
3 3
2

(ii ) 0, max ; (iii )


(ii ) 0 max 9 (iii )
m in (vii ) 3 1
.

10

1 1

m in

0,

iv)

(v )
(v )

36 ;

(ii)

22

(3

(V )

p oint (iii) p oint of infle x i on (i v ) turning p o int


(ii) Turning p oint ; (v i) t ur nin g p oi nt
W her e x
2
t x
1
E
(iii ) W h e re x
(i v ) W h er e x
Turnin g

No m ax
2 feet x

Mi n

foot

inche s

486 cub i c
1 f oot

10

I II

a nd

7
10

24 ;

1)

EX ERCISE L
9
S ee ch xx i v
ch X X V
2

25 . 7 3 6 75

C
1

B
8

3
"

3 ; (i v
36

0,
> 3 pr

10

EXE RCISE X L IX
S ee ch x
7

o
3 L

J2

1r

(i)

2 ;
1
.

(ii
1r

1 1 58

SEC T IO N III

EXERCISE L I
2
S ee ch xx Ix
.

A
1

in ch e s
rat io

t he

B oy
Girl

I3

es
8

inch e s

0 x

Ti me

26 8

'

'

'

620

(ii )

in che s

ar e

826

45 4

'

5 91

349

'

10

16

'

+ 1

'

+ 2

+ 3

+ 4

+ 5

1 6 10

1 3 00 1 6 90 2 1 97 2 856 3 7 1 2

769

'

800

'

64

512

'

'

409

'

327

e al inter a l s
v

S ee ch
.

43 86 ; 4566

909 1 0 00

EXE RCISE

'

'

4J 2
1 1 89
Gr owt h f ct or cons t a nt for al l q u
( ) 1 3 ; (i i ) 723 7 ; (ii i ) 3 3 71
63 0
20
in ch s
5 3 8 , 55 8 ,

J2

gi ve n in t he fo ll ow ing tabl e

7 51

6 83

1 0 40 ;

3 0 50 24 40 1 5 92 1 5 62

:5

1 0 48 ; 1 0 3 8 ;

in ch e s

63 1

5071 9 ; 46 85 7
P
P0

P P
and 1 4 Th fa ct ors

12.

in ch e s

1033 ,

i n ch

es .

inc

58 2

in ch e s

58 3

2.

3
4

inch e s

; 21

xx rx

ou nc s
25 / o 3
26 29
5 1 5 8 22 ; 3 3 8 6 1
.

(ii )

408

L II
2 ; ch xxx
.

ounc e s (iii ) 3 5 82 o unc e s


-

A NSW ERS
6

LES

409

1 5 9 3 d , 1 1 8 5 6 d , l 1 s 5 d , 1 1 4s 1 1 d
1 l s 6 d , 1 45 4d , 1 6 s 1 1 d , 1 3 s 8 d
1 4s 8 d , 8 s 6 d , 2 1 5 s 4d , 9s 8 d
y rs t i , 1 6 4 y ars t i ,
y rs go ,
.

(1 1 )
(iii )
(i v )

TO THE EX A MP

ea me
e
me
ea a
ye ars t i me
fatho m s (ii )
fa tho m s (iii )
fat ho m s ;
fatho m s ; (v) 62 3 7 fatho m s (v i )
fat hom s
fa t ho m s ; (ii )
fat hom s
.

(i v )
8 (i )

1 9 4 6 ; (i v ) 22 03
10
( ) 2 1 8s 5 d (ii ) 3 8s 3 d (iii ) 6 1 0s 6 d
(i v) 2 2s 8 d ( ) 1 3 s 1 1 d
II
3 45 1 ; (ii ) 28 5 2 ; (iii ) 4046 ; (i v) 4243
30
12
) 2925 ; (ii ) 24

y rs go , (b)
13
(ii ) 3 0 /o ; (iii ) (a )
()
1 4 ( ) 21 21 / o

5 l h rs t on e 3 0 /o , 25 /O

(ii )

(iii )

'

i
i
i

ea a

ye ars ago

'

B
1

74 3 6

(i )
(i )
(i )

iii ) 1 3 0 ; (i v) 7 y ears ago


iii )
ye ars ago
(iii) 283

51 ; (ii ) 72 ;
5 4 ; (ii ) 8 3 ;
1 5 2 ; (ii )

21 4 2 0 l 4 /o ;
.

EXE RCISE L III


3
ch xxi
ch xx i
.

See

A
I

1 26 ;

35
4

6
8

(ii )

<)
1

5
x
_
8

( )
u

1
1
1
1

7
8

2 0.

(i )
(1)
(i)
(i )

5x
.

(m

Eg

(M
.

(ii ) 7 3 ; (iii )
(v iii)
(v ii )
(x iii )
(x ii )
(iii )
(ii)
(ii )
(iii ) 3 2 ;
(ii ) 1 98 ; (iii )
; (ii)
(iii) 1 3 1
(iii )
(ii )
22
(i )
(ii ) 0 4 6

px

(i v ) 2 6 1
(i x )
(x i v )
(i v )
(i v ) 1 44
(i v)
.

'

( )
v

3 px

(v 1 )

'

2 1

(vi )
(xi )
.

3 5t
'

hrs a pp ro x
1 66 ; (ii ) 25 0
7
inch e s ; (ii )
inch e s ; (iii ) 2 6 7 in che s
(i )
IO
1 1
(ii )
(iii )

I4

B
1

(ii )
(iii )

:2

(i v )
.

'

36

(v)

28 6 ;
(x ) 1 79 ;
(x v ) 1 6 6
.

(v i )

ax

ALGEB RA

41 0

EXE RCISE
See ch

x x xx

ch .

4;

LIV

XX X II A
.

an

d B

I (i)
2
(i )
.

4
5
6
8
9
1 0

(i )
(i )
(i )
(i )
(i )
(i
(i
(1)

12

35 2;
1 25 ;

(ii )
(ii )

(i i i)
(iii)

(ii )
91 80 ; (ii )
ii)
3 71 ; ii )
-

0 422 ;

(iii)

1 3 75 ;

0 73 ;
-

(iii )

(iv )

L
l og

oga

rithm

l og

b as e

for

l og

l og

A ti l
n

a n ti l og

oga

rithm

an

for b a

ti l og l

an t il o g

o
o

a n t i l og

x7 .

(i )
(i )

(i )

11

20

08

1 28

(iii )
5 46 ; iii )
(i v) 6 5 8 ; (v ) 3 6 9 (v i)
ii
iii )
ii 498 ; (iii )
(i v ) 1 55 000 ; (v 43 1
v ) 0 08 21
(ii ) 0 442 ; (iii ) 0 6 63 ; (i v )
(v) 6 3 0900
(ii)
(iii ) 1 65 6 0 (i v)

0 33

(iv )

B
x3

(i v)

1 93 ;
-

(ii)

09 3

1 8 ; (ii ) 1 2 ;
1 1 7 ; (ii )
-

(iii )

2 43

(iii ) 07
(i i i) 0 1 4

AL G EB RA

41 2

EXE RCISE LVI


Se e ch m m,

6 ;

A
I

XXX II I

ch .

(ii ) 0 53 1 ; (iii ) 0 021 ; (i v )


(ii )
(iii ) 3 5 3 1 : (i v)
5 940 (v ii ) 2 968
(ii
(i v)
251 ; (ii ) 00 0251 ; iii ) 0 5 8 2 ; (i v )
0 0000023 3 ; (v i )
(v ii )
(ii ) 1 0 1 3 ; (iii )
(i v)
0 05 3 ; (v ii )
(viii) 0 3 43
(i v)
(ii) 1 0 3 0 ; ( iii )
(v ii) 11 9900 ; (vi ii )

2.

0 940 ;

23 3 00 ;

(v ii i ) 1 1 6
1 55 ; (v) 3 4 71
.

(v ) 2958

(ii)

(i v)
(iii)
(ii) 0 3 05 ; (iii) 0 622 ; (i v)
(v)
1 1 23 ; (ii ) 3 48 1 0 ; (iii )
(i v) 003 63
80 46 ; (ii ) 0 1 1 0 ; (iii) 7 5 9

3
9
9
0

(v) 0 968
(v) 1 0 21 ;

( v)

0 3 01 ;

'

EXE RCISE LVII


See

ch . x x xx . ,

(i)
(v)

ch .

XXX III

(ii) 4 6 3 1 75 ; (ii i ) 4 0 3 1 75 ; (i v)
(v i)
(v ii i) 3 0 0290 ;
(vii)
(i x ) 3 0 0290 ; (x ) 0 903 09 ; (x i ) 4 0 0000 ; (x i i ) 5 0 0000
2
(i v) 81 73 4 ;
(ii ) 1 7498 ; (iii)
(i)
(v iii )
(v ) 1 0 778 ; v i ) 0001 0778 ; (vii )
(i x ) 1 001 4 ; x ) 0 00001 5849
(iii) 6 0 9269 ; (i v) 3 9 971 0 ;
(ii)
3 (i )
(vi ) 0 551 1 2 ; (vi i )
(viii )
(v)
1 3 263 5 ;
(xi i)
(i x
4 (i 0 21 0475 ; (ii ) 00 2048 8 ; (iii ) 1 23 78 70 ; (i v) 993 3 5
(vi )
(vii )
(v)
(i x ) 8 4 401 ; (x ) 0 21 201 ;
(v iii )
(xii) 0 1 78 1 3
(xi)
5 (i ) 1 03 2 ; (ii ) 0 0 00003 474 ; (iii )
(v ) 01 721
(i v)
B
x

0 63 1 75 ;

'

7
8

()
i

IO .
1 1

i)

(i )
(i )

6 2801 73 3 c cs
63 6 1 48 1 0d
.

year s

(ii)
(ii ) 1 8 1

f et
e

118

0d

(ii )
(ii )

423 900000 ;

3 24200000

(iii )

0 00003 83 1

A NSW ERS
12

(i )

n
(i
(i

(ii )
1

10

(iii )

33

21

23

63 6 4 6
26
28
( ) 5 45 97

25

41 3

99

20

L ES

(ii ) 785
(ii ) 784

31 ;
30 ;

10

TO THE EXA MP

6 4 01 5
2 7 6 42 6
(ii ) 652 O5 5
.

16

24

'

EXE RCISE LVIII


h xx
7 ; h XX X I V
A
.

Se e

1x

(i )
6 (i )
8 (1)
(iii )
:0
(i )
(v)
:2
(i )
:3
(i )
14
(i )
5

(ii )
(ii )

'

0 54

783 68 , 6 077

(iii )
; (iii )
(ii )

5 9 3 5 42, 861 8 20
229 1 ; (ii ) 0 0001 91 ; (iii 0 000003 1 6
)
;
0 1 3 1 6 ; (v i ) 1 273 x
(ii) 1 3 8 (i ii ) 0 64
0 000007943 ; (ii ) 5 749 ; (iii ) 1 1 2 2
.

(ii )

(i ) y
(iii ) y

3x

I 7.

19

(iii )

(i v)

(ii ) y
(i v ) y
a nti log e

2x ,
w he e a
6 31X 0 2 ;
'

2 0 a.

'

21

(1

(iii )
28
(i )
.

24

27 1 6 ;

a3

3 xi

1 3 9 25 , 1 3 9 25 ;

25 6
'

3 02

1:

(i )

(ii )

(i v) 2 7 1 7
bi
; (ii )

'

C
.

25 611
1 8
70 8 x

(ii) y

111

23

1 959 4 ;

B
:5

(i v )

2 7 04 ;

(iii ) (x i

EXE RCISE L IX
Se e

ch

x x xx

ch

(i v )

XX

XV

A
1

0 0506 ,
(ii) 0 0 5 097 , 5 0 97 ; (iii) 00 51 1 1 , 5 1 1 1
of
The o m e , w h a n effe
e
e es
p er ce
Per
t he a e w h a n effec ti e
a
m i s m o e p o a ble ha
er ce
i n er es t of
p er a n m

(1)

nnu
t

fr r

it
r

ctiv int r t
r t
t n
l tt r it
nt
n u
p
,

nt

41 4

ALGEB RA
1 2 7 mo
'

re

B
a
8

(i i i )

1 04 7 1 8

(0

I3

1 0 5 093

ALG EB RA

41 6

(i )
(ii
(iii
(i v)

22.

Th r i s

no

e e

) Th r

25

33

.a

triangle sa tis fying the conditi on s

116
y

50
B
t w o po s b

298 9 2

c
a

s i l tr i ngl s

e e ar e

J3

11

22 J 3

EXE RCISE L XII


See ch

x xxvr

(ii)
cos 1 2
cos
(i v) 2 sin
sin
sin 24 (v i) 2 cos 70 s i n 5 4
sin
sin 73 (viii) 2 cos 55 s in
cos 47
cos 5 8
cos 1 7
(ii) c os 5 2
sin 70 sin 1 6 (i v) sin 1
sin
c os
sin
(sin 3 1
(v i ) 1 4(cos 3 7
ta n
(ii) cot
(iii) ta n 4a
(i v) ta n 2a ;
B) .0 1) ta n i ia
sin
cos 2a
(ii) t an 5a (iii ) cot azn ; (i v) cos a
sin 2a ; (v i ) tan 2a ; (v i i ) tan a ; (v iii ) ta n a
2 cos
2 c os
2
2

30

60

58

55

cos

EXERCISE L XIII
See ch

x x x vr

A
r

(i

f t
f t

48 42
8 1 ee
'

(iii
2

seconds

ee

5 7 feet,

e o

s c nds (ii)
(i i ) 5 4 5 3 f et
f t ; (ii)
s
ds
ee

econ

da

23

se nds at height
(i ii) Rang i s 1 00 feet
5 97 98 f e t 4 875 s eco ds
2%

co

'

(2c

'

(i )

(ii )

y = 2
x =

1 00 eet

of

'

1)

45 6

a
.

2(x

or x

1 03

feet

2ho

nds

eco

TO THE EX A MP ES

A NSWERS

EXE RCISE L XIV


Se
h
x v1
5
e c

+ y

41 7

+ 6x

ra dius 5
(i) C irc le centre
ra dius
(ii) C irc le centre
ra dius 5
(iii ) C irc le centre
ra dius 8
7
(i v) C irc le centre
ra dius 1 3
(v) C ircle ce ntre
radius (2
(vi) C ircle centre
3
e
e
i
v
ii
C
ir
c
l
e
c
n
t
r
r
a
d
u
s
2
)
(
g
v
iii
ir
c
l
e
c
e
n
t
r
e
a
b
r
a
dius
3
C
a
2a b
J
(
)
( )
5 y
2 (only)
No ; (ii ) No ; (iii ) x
8
4 y
6 (onl y)
(i v) x
2 45 or 65
y
or
9 (i ) x
or
y
or
(ii x
4 ;
3 y
(iii X
or
y
or
70
(i v) x

3 b2

'

'

IO

(ii)
(i)

35 ;

2x
x

(ii)

= 0 ;

= +

(iii) X

3 x + 4y = 0 ;

45

J5
1

20

21

22

(i )
(ii)
(iii )
(i v)
(v)
(vi )
(i )
(ii)
(iii2)

23 .

(i )

Ell i p se
Elli ps e
Ell i p se
Ellips e
Elli p se
Elli p se

y
y
y

1;

i
9y 2

2x 2

ce

ce

ce

cen

J
J1
J6

(i )

(ii)
(iii )

= 3

0r

3,

(0

2
1 0 an d 6
1 an d f;
2
i}

xe

9x 2

axe

an

ax e

J Q an
V

or

1,

ee

an

en

an d

5 ;

d
an d

24
0;
1 2y
0 (pa e t o g
6y
Le g s 4 an d 2 ;
1
2
Le gt 4 a_n d 6

J3

ss s hr u h th ri gin)

n th
n hs
L ngths 2 J 3
e

2 ;

0r

or

or

= 3

ee

0, y = 0

2x 2 ;

an d

s
a s and
s 2J 3 d 2J 2
d 2J
s 2J
li s b tw n 5
;
lies b t w n i
li s b twe
axe

1 6x

1,

x
x

s6

x es

1 2x
l 4x
3, x

26

axe

225

3 y2
3 y2

(ii ) 7 x
2 4 (i ) A x es y
(ii) Ax e s y
(iii) Ax es y
2

ntr
entr
ntr
ntr
ntr
tr

ce

or

g
.

an d

2J3

e o

ALG EB RA

41 8

EXE RCISE L XV
See

be

t w een

45

16

an d
x

_ 1 ;

ch . x x x

= 1

(ii i ) 6, 4 ; M i n
r 4 x n ot b et w een
y n ot be ee
.

2 J 2 , 2 J 3 ; 2 ta n

(i v)
p +

tw n

nd

a, a

b,

and

B
1

I 7.

(1 0,

: 8.

J3y

= P2y2 3

l 0y

2011
=

2 7.

30

0;

1 09

(5

J 3 (y

(1 0

+ 10

8 y2
28x y
1 3 x z
1 2x y
8 ya
8x 9
2a
2
S a g
e

tan
tr i ht lin s

feet

13
01 3 , 025
'

r.
'

'

xx x v n

12.
1

15

feet

0;
5 028
'

feet ;
fee t

73
6

f t
ee

.
'

13)

feet ;

'

17

feet

from ape al ng ax is
from ap e al ng axi
Mi d w y betwee p le f sph ri a l ur fa
4h from a p e al ong axi s
8 ) inch s
3x
f p ral lel sides
(ii ) n line j ining n tr
distance of
in hes fr m t h sh rte r
{; h
2h

ce a n

p la ne

of

sect ion

ce

es o

12

[%

ah

v rt
e

ai

at a

p er p endicular

i n kh (nh

20

; n kx ;

u kh

B
'

See c h

3
.

E XERCISE L XVI

x +

5 11 2 + y 2 + 3 6 x + 4y + 2x y
0
6 ; 1 3 x2
5 6x
28x y
1 00y
27
625

22.

y =

(J 3 x +
y
3)

[ J 3 (x
20

= P2y 2 3

ex ,

al ng p rp ndi ular t
o

ase

A LG EB RA

420

(m
3

cn

) (n
<

1 )n (n
l

1)

i"

)(

(i ) 1 48 0 4s ; (i i ) e 1 806 2ss (iii ) 4228 1 l s 8


296cx ;
20x
1 8ox
96Ox
9 (i ) 1
2
3
4
2
x
x
ii
5
1
024
x
1
9
1
92
1
1
2
x
2
6
0
7
7
( )
2

3 3
2
4
583
a
1
9440
3
3
456
a x
iii
9
2
a
0
7
( )
2
4
4
4
x
xg
i
v
2
x;
l
9o
1
0
8
0
x
1
0
1
;
( )
5
7
i
4
3
4
x
v
x
2
x
l
3
4
4
x
60
8
1
51
20
1
3
6
x
1
8
08
( )
4
3
8
94
4
2
x
0
3
i
ii
1 0
2
O
0
7
7
; (iii ) 70 ;
; ( )
()
5 5
2 4
2
v
1
95955
4
5 9
i
v
1
5
4
5
; ( )
( )
7

B
1 :

= 2

1, 3,
1 , 4,
1 , 5,
1 , 6,
1 , 7,
l oi z
28i 2

12

n
(i )

7
4i

1
1

(ii )

7i
n

ui +

6 , 1 0, 1 5 , 2 1 , 28
20, 3 5 , 56 , 8 4
1
1 5 , 3 5 , 70, 1 26 , 21 0
21 , 56 , 1 26 , 25 2, 462
28 , 8 4, 21 0, 462, 924
2oi 3
3 5i4
56i
8 4i 6
8 4i s
21 0i
462i 5
924i
.

1)

(u
2 !

20
0 08
8 22 1 4s
Max m m
22
8 6 78
3
2 4 (i ) 6 72x ; (ii ) 3 3 04
:7.

21

i u err r

l ) (n

n u

12

0 01 03 ; (ii ) 0 097
1 98 4 &d

x 10 7 x
iii
l
2
1
5
( )

(iii )
(i v)
3r

3 5 2x 2
1 3 92x 2
; (ii ) 22 l bs

3 2x
4 8x

1
1
5 1 1b s

'

(ii )

'

34

2 -71 8 .

1 2906x a
3 1 5 5 2x 3

3 2 202 C
'

'

'

D
.

C
28

is

(i)

2)

2)

63 5

THE EX AMP LES

A NSWERS TO

EXERCISE
See c h

x xx v m

(i)

v)
(v i)
5 (v)
(vi )
.

Io

(ii )

(ii )
(ii)

(v)

2 5)
'

'

(v i)

B
n

x2

( ii) A

3 x 5 /5

(i v )

(v)

7 2x
~

J (3 x

(iii )

63

x3 .

(i ii ) A

3 /5 x % ;
8y / 6x
(i v ) By /bx
1 /3

iii)
(

n)
(ii )

7 2(x

8y / 8x
m a (ax

(iii )

5 /x ; (iii ) 28 x ; (i v)
10 ;
+ 4x
8/x 5
6x
6 /x 7
4 ;
l S/x
6
42lx 8
21 0/x 3 ; (iii ) 8 40x ; (i v)

20x 3
3 61 3
6 x5
8x 3
6Ox I
72x

(i )
i
2
x
i
1
/
)
(

LXIX

421

(ii )

A
1 / 7 2(3 x

C
2
: 5 (i ) V
(ii )

10 0 ;
iii
v
l
0
b
1
0
;
( )

3
i
v
y
( )
J i 5 !8
=
2
i
s
t
1 6
g ; (ii )
; s =
g
()
4O[ J (I
(iii) 8
%
s
3
a
i
v
9
( )
:7
7 2t
(ii) a
(i) a
2
6t
(i v) a
(iii)

ii
v
5
b
t
1
06
i
v
t
18
g
i ; ( )
()
:

= 9i 8
-

3 ;

1)

0;

'

i.

(i v )

19
(i ) s
(iii) 8 = u
(i v) 8

(ii)

2ti )

t
a

6 i:
"

22

(i)
(i)

8y / 8x

1 21

(ii)

(i ) 3 ; (y
(iii) 3 ; (y

23

(ii)
(iii)

8y / 6x

3 ) = 1 2(x

(ii )

'

i
7 2(x
_)
i 3 3 ; (11 1 )

(iii )

7 2x
'

1 ; (y

(x
(1 ) 1 2(y
(x
(iii ) 7 2(y 3 )
2 9 (i ) 3 6 ; (ii ) i ; (iii )

1)

23

(u )

'

17

28

2t)

D
3

(1

1 !
,

(y

l) +

AB ERD EEN : THE U NIV ERSITY PRESS

(x

2-s

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