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ESSENTIALS OF CIVIL

ENGINEERING
[ ELEME NTS O F CIVIL E NG I NEER I NG ]

By
Ketki Rangwala Dalal
Edition : 1st Edition : 2012
ISBN : 978-93-80358-44-4
Size : 170 mm 240 mm
Binding : Paperback with 4 Color Jacket Cover
Pages : 766 + 16

About the book

This book aims at presenting the topics of Elements of Civil Engineering written in a simple
manner. The subject-matter is characterized by comprehension as well as methodical and
easy-to-follow style. The book contains total Six Sections as mentioned below:
Section I : Scope of Civil Engineering . . . . . . . . . . (Chapter 1)
Section II : Surveying . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (Chapter 2 to Chapter 12)
Section III : Construction Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . (Chapter 13 to Chapter 28)
Section IV : Elements of Building Construction . . . . (Chapter 29 to Chapter 30)
Section V : Water Resources Development . . . . . . (Chapter 31 to Chapter 33)
Section VI : Transportation Engineering. . . . . . . . . . (Chapter 34 to Chapter 36).
Every topic in this text book is explained in very simple and lucid language. All 36 chapters
contain sufficient self explanatory matter, neat sketches, solved and unsolved examples and
questions asked in G.T.U. Exams. The students will be able to prepare themselves by solving
typical questions given at the end of each chapter. Previous years examination papers (with
solution) of G.T.U. are given at the end of book for better preparation.
Salient features of this book are:
* 588 Self-explanatory and neatly drawn sketches;
* 87 Illustrative problems;
* 85 Useful tables;
* 640 Typical questions at the end of the chapters;
* 176 Questions asked in G.T.U. Exams.
The text-matter has been arranged systematically according to the curriculum developed by the
Gujarat Technological University (G.T.U.) for the subject ELEMENTS OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
[Subject code 110004 (Revised)] for the First year Degree Engineering students [Common to All
Branches] and also it should prove to be extremely useful to the Engineering students preparing
for the Degree Examinations of all the Indian Universities, Diploma Examinations conducted by
various Boards of Technical Education, Certificate Courses as well as for the A.M.I.E., U.P.S.C.,
G.A.T.E., I.E.S. and other similar competitive and professional examinations. It should also
prove great of interest and practical use to the practising professionals.

` 275.00
CONTENT
Section I : SCOPE OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
1 : SCOPE OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
Section II : SURVEYING
2 : INTRODUCTION TO SURVEYING
3 : SCALES
4 : LINEAR MEASUREMENTS OF DISTANCES
5 : CHAIN SURVEYING AND RANGING
6 : CROSS-STAFF CHAIN SURVEYING AND
INSTRUMENTS
7 : COMPASS SURVEY
8 : LEVELLING
9 : CONTOURING
10 : COMPUTATION OF AREAS
11 : COMPUTATION OF VOLUMES
12 : MODERN TECHNIQUES OF SURVEYING
Section III : CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS
13 : PROPERTIES OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS
14 : STONES
15 : CERAMIC MATERIALS
16 : BRICKS
17 : LIME
18 : CEMENT
19 : SAND
20 : MORTAR
21 : CEMENT CONCRETE
22 : TIMBER
23 : FERROUS METALS
24 : STEEL
25 : NONFERROUS METALS AND ALLOYS
26 : GLASS
27 : PAINTS, VARNISHES AND DISTEMPERS
28 : PLASTICS
Section IV : ELEMENTS OF BUILDING CONSTRUCTION
29 : BUILDING PLANNING
30 : BUILDING CONSTRUCTION
Section V : WATER RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT
31 : ELEMENTARY HYDROLOGY
32 : WATER REQUIREMENTS AND ITS CONSERVATION
33 : SOURCES OF WATER
Section VI : TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING
34 : INTRODUCTION TO TRANSPORTATION
ENGINEERING
35 : TRAFFIC ENGINEERING
36 : TYPICAL TRAFFIC SIGNS
appendix A : gtu examination papers
index

Checklist
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ESSENTIALS OF CIVIL ENGINEERING


Detailed Contents

SECTION I : SCOPE OF CIVIL ENGINEERING


Chapter 1 SCOPE OF CIVIL ENGINEERING

1-1. Introduction
1-2. Scope of civil engineering
1-3. Main branches of civil engineering
1-4. Aspects of Civil Engineering
1-5. Role of civil engineers
1-6. Role of civil contractors
1-7. Infrastructural development of a country
1-8. Operations Management for Infrastructural Development
1-9. Construction management
1-10. Planning of the project
1-11. Supervision of the project
1-12. Scheduling or Network Planning
1-13. Features of scheduling or network planning
1-14. Rules for network diagram
1-15. Techniques of scheduling
1-16. Critical Path Method (CPM)
1-17. Procedure for CPM
1-18. Advantages of CPM
1-19. Uses of CPM
1-20. Timegrid diagram method
1-21. Programme Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT)
1-22. Terminology Used in PERT
1-23. Bar charts or Gantt charts
1-24. Mile-stone charts
1-25. Selection of technique

Questions 1

Questions asked in GTU exams

Section II : SURVEYING
Chapter 2 INTRODUCTION TO SURVEYING
2-1. General
2-2. Object of survey
2-3. Purposes of survey
2-4. Classification of surveys
2-4-1. Engineering surveys
2-4-2. Geodetic surveys
2-4-3. Plane surveys
2-4-4. Miscellaneous surveys
2-4-5. Difference between plane and geodetic surveying
2-5. Principles of surveying
2-6. Uses of survey
2-7. Measurements and their units
2-8. Role of surveyor
2-9. Precision and accuracy in surveying

Questions 2

Questions asked in GTU exams

Chapter 3 SCALES

3-1. General
3-2. Requirements of a scale
3-3. Classification of scales
3-3-1. Plain scale
3-3-2. Diagonal scale
3-3-3. Vernier scale
3-3-4. Miscellaneous scales
3-4. Plans and maps
3-5. Scale for survey maps and plans
3-6. Correction due to use of wrong scale

Questions 3

Questions asked in GTU exams

Chapter 4 LINEAR MEASUREMENTS OF DISTANCES


4-1. General
4-2. Direct methods of linear measurements
4-2-1. Direct methods without instruments
4-2-2. Direct methods with instruments
4-3. Types of chains
4-4. Testing and adjusting of chain

4-5.
4-6.

Instruments for marking stations


Types of tapes
Questions 4
Questions asked in GTU exams

Chapter 5 CHAIN SURVEYING AND RANGING


5-1. General
5-2. Principle of chain survey
5-3. Survey stations
5-4. Survey lines
5-5. Offsets
5-6. Ranging
5-7. Types of ranging
5-7-1. Direct ranging
5-7-2. Indirect ranging
5-8. Chaining on plain ground
5-9. Points to be observed during chaining
5-10. Errors in ordinary chaining
5-10-1. Compensating errors
5-10-2. Cumulative errors
5-11. Degree of accuracy in chaining work
5-12. Instruments required in chain survey
5-13. Procedure for carrying out chain survey
5-14. Plotting work with conventional signs

Questions 5

Questions asked in GTU exams

Chapter 6 CROSS-STAFF CHAIN SURVEYING AND


INSTRUMENTS
6-1. General
6-2. Purpose
6-3. Basic principle
6-4. Instruments for setting out perpendiculars
6-4-1. Chain or tape
6-4-2. Cross-staff
6-4-3. Optical square
6-5. Cross-staff survey
6-6. Obstacles in chaining
6-6-1. Chaining free but vision obstructed
6-6-2. Chaining obstructed but vision free
6-6-3. Chaining and vision both obstructed

Questions 6

Questions asked in GTU exams

Chapter 7 COMPASS SURVEY

7-1. General
7-2. Traversing and triangulation
7-3. Methods of measuring direction
7-4. Magnetic needle
7-5. Compass
7-6. Bearings
7-7. Magnetic declination
7-8. Classification of declination
7-9. Methods of designation
7-10. Fore bearing and back bearing
7-11. Included angles from bearings
7-12. Chain and compass survey
7-13. Plotting of compass survey
7-14. Closing error
7-15. Errors in compass survey
7-16. Precautions in using the compass
7-17. Accuracy and precision
7-18. Limits of precision

Questions 7

Questions asked in GTU exams

Chapter 8 LEVELLING
8-1. General
8-2. Definitions of some common terms in levelling
8-3. Methods of levelling

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ESSENTIALS OF CIVIL ENGINEERING


Detailed Contents
8-3-1. Direct levelling
8-3-2. Indirect levelling
8-4. Principles of levelling
8-5. Instruments for levelling
8-6. Types of levels
8-7. Levelling staff
8-8. Essential parts of a level
8-9. Parallax and focussing
8-10. Defects of a single lens
8-11. Parts of a telescope
8-12. Accessories to a level
8-13. Bench marks
8-14. Temporary adjustments of levels
8-15. Entering the staff readings
8-16. Reduction of levels
8-17. Difficulties in levelling
8-18. Errors in levelling
8-19. Precision of levelling

Questions 8

Questions asked in GTU exams

13-4. Classification of materials based upon their uses



Questions 13

Questions asked in GTU exams

Chapter 9 CONTOURING

15-1. General
15-2. Clay products
15-2-1. Terra-cotta
15-2-2. Earthenware
15-2-3. Stoneware
15-2-4. Porcelain
15-2-5. Tiles
15-3. Glazing
15-4. Refractories
15-5. Properties of ceramic materials
15-6. Importance of ceramics

Questions 15

9-1. General
9-2. Contour lines
9-3. Contour interval
9-4. Horizontal equivalent
9-5. Characteristics of contours
9-6. Location of contours
9-7. Interpolation of contours
9-8. Contour drawing
9-9. Contour gradient
9-10. Uses of contours

Questions 9

Questions asked in GTU exams

Chapter 10 COMPUTATION OF AREAS


10-1. General
10-2. Methods for the computation of area
10-3. Geometrical figures
10-4. Measuring grids
10-5. Ordinates
10-6. Co-ordinates
10-7. Planimeter
10-8. Method of using a planimeter
10-9. Zero circle

Questions 10

Questions asked in GTU exams

Chapter 11 COMPUTATION OF VOLUMES


11-1. General
11-2. Computation of volume
11-3. Prismoidal correction

Questions 11

Questions asked in GTU exams

Chapter 12 MODERN TECHNIQUES OF SURVEYING


12-1. General
12-2. Electronic distance measurement instruments
12-3. Global positioning system
12-4. Geographic information system
12-5. Remote sensing

Questions 12

Questions asked in GTU exams

Section III : CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS


Chapter 13 PROPERTIES OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS
13-1. General
13-2. Physical properties
13-3. Mechanical properties

Chapter 14 STONES

14-1. General
14-2. Classification of rocks
14-3. Sources of stones
14-4. Texture or structure of a rock
14-5. Fracture of a rock
14-6. Uses of stones
14-7. Tests for stones
14-8. Qualities of a good building stone
14-9. Stone quarrying
14-10. Dressing of stones
14-11. Deterioration of stones
14-12. Preservation of stones
14-13. Common building stones of India
14-14. Artificial stones

Questions 14

Questions asked in GTU exams

Chapter 15 CERAMIC MATERIALS

Chapter 16 BRICKS

16-1. General
16-2. Comparison of brickwork and stonework
16-3. Composition of good brick earth
16-4. Qualities of good bricks
16-5. Factors affecting quality of bricks
16-6. Tests for bricks
16-7. Classification of bricks
16-8. Uses of bricks
16-9. Size and weight of bricks
16-10. Special bricks

Questions 16

Questions asked in GTU exams

Chapter 17 LIME

17-1. General
17-2. Some definitions
17-3. Sources of lime
17-4. Classification of limes
17-5. I.S. classifications of lime
17-6. Comparison between fat lime and hydraulic lime
17-7. Uses of lime
17-8. Tests for limestones

Questions 17

Questions asked in GTU exams

Chapter 18 CEMENT

18-1. General
18-2. Cement and lime
18-3. Physical Properties of cement
18-4. Composition of ordinary cement
18-5. Functions of cement ingredients
18-6. Harmful constituents of cement
18-7. Manufacturing of ordinary cement
18-8. Characteristics of cement
18-9. Properties of cement
18-10. Field tests for cement
18-11. Laboratory tests for cement

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ESSENTIALS OF CIVIL ENGINEERING


Detailed Contents
18-12.
18-13.
18-14.

Uses of cement
Varieties of cement
I.S. Specifications of ordinary cement
Questions 18
Questions asked in GTU exams

Chapter 19 SAND
19-1.
19-2.
19-3.
19-4.
19-5.
19-6.
19-7.

Natural sources of sand


Classification of sand
Bulking of sand
Properties of good sand
Function of sand in mortar
Tests for sand
Substitutes for sand
Questions 19

Chapter 23 FERROUS METALS

23-1. General
23-2. Iron ores
23-3. Pig-iron
23-4. Cast-iron
23-5. Wrought-iron

Questions 23

Questions asked in GTU exams

Chapter 24 STEEL

20-1. General
20-2. Classification of mortars
20-3. Properties of good mortar mix and mortar
20-4. Uses of mortar
20-5. Selection of mortar
20-6. Precautions in using mortar

Questions 20

Questions asked in GTU exams

24-1. General
24-2. Manufacture of steel
24-3. Uses of steel
24-4. Factors affecting physical properties of steel
24-5. Magnetic properties of steel
24-6. Defects in steel
24-7. Properties of mild steel
24-8. Properties of hard steel
24-9. Mechanical treatment of steel
24-10. Heat treatment processes
24-11. Market forms of steel

Questions 24

Questions asked in GTU exams

Chapter 21 CEMENT CONCRETE

Chapter 25 NONFERROUS METALS AND ALLOYS

Chapter 20 MORTAR

21-1. General
21-2. Properties of cement concrete
21-3. Materials used in R.C.C. work
21-4. Proportioning concrete
21-5. Grading of aggregates
21-6. Water-cement ratio
21-7. Workability
21-8. Slump test
21-9. Estimating yield of concrete
21-10. Importance of bulking of sand
21-11. Mixing the materials of concrete
21-12. Transporting and placing of concrete
21-13. Consolidation of concrete
21-14. Curing of concrete
21-15. Types of cement concrete
21-15-1. Water-proofing cement concrete
21-15-2. Coloured concrete
21-15-3. Lightweight concrete
21-15-4. No-fines concrete
21-15-5. Pre-cast concrete
21-15-6. Ready-mix concrete
21-15-7. Transit-mix concrete
21-16. Guniting
21-17. Formwork
21-18. Quality control of concrete

Questions 21

Questions asked in GTU exams

Chapter 22 TIMBER

22-1. General
22-2. Trees for life
22-3. Classification of trees
22-4. Structure of a tree
22-4-1. Macrostructure
22-4-2. Microstructure
22-5. Seasoning of timber
22-6. Preservation of timber
22-7. Defects in timber
22-8. Qualities of good timber
22-9. Decay of timber
22-10. Storage of timber
22-11. Industrial timber
22-12. Timber construction
22-13. Uses of timber
22-14. Indian timber trees

Questions 22

Questions asked in GTU exams

25-1. Non-ferrous metals


25-2. Aluminium
25-2-1. Manufacture of aluminium
25-2-2. Properties of aluminium
25-2-3. Evaluation of aluminium as building material
25-2-4. Economics of using aluminium
25-2-5. Forms of aluminium
25-2-6. Uses of aluminium
25-2-7. Conclusion
25-3. Cobalt
25-3-1. Manufacture of cobalt
25-3-2. Properties of cobalt
25-3-3. Uses of cobalt
25-4. Copper
25-4-1. Manufacture of Copper
25-4-2. Properties of Copper
25-4-3. Uses of Copper
25-5. Lead
25-5-1. Manufacture of Lead
25-5-2. Properties of Lead
25-5-3. Uses of Lead
25-6. Magnesium
25-6-1. Manufacture of Magnesium
25-6-2. Properties of Magnesium
25-6-3. Uses of Magnesium
25-7. Nickel
25-7-1. Manufacture of Nickel
25-7-2. Properties of Nickel
25-7-3. Uses of Nickel
25-8. Tin
25-8-1. Manufacture of Tin
25-8-2. Properties of Tin
25-8-3. Uses of Tin
25-9. Zinc
25-9-1. Manufacture of Zinc
25-9-2. Properties of Zinc
25-9-3. Uses of Zinc
25-10. Alloys
25-10-1. Aluminium alloys
25-10-2. Copper alloys
25-10-3. Magnesium alloys
25-10-4. Nickel alloys
25-10-5. Steel alloys

Questions 25

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ESSENTIALS OF CIVIL ENGINEERING


Detailed Contents

Chapter 26 GLASS

26-1. General
26-2. Classification of glass
26-3. Composition of glass
26-4. Properties of glass
26-5. Types of glass
26-6. Coloured glass
26-7. Special varieties of glass

Questions 26

Chapter 27 PAINTS, VARNISHES AND DISTEMPERS


27-1. General
27-2. Painting
27-2-1. Characteristics of an ideal paint
27-2-2. Pigment volume concentration number (P.V.C.N.)
27-2-3. Ingredients of an oil borne paint
27-2-4. Types of paints
27-3. Varnishing
27-3-1. Characteristics of an ideal varnish
27-3-2. Ingredients of a varnish
27-3-3. Types of varnishes
27-4. Distempering
27-4-1. Properties of distempers
27-4-2. Ingredients of a distemper
27-5. Whitewashing
27-6. Colourwashing

Questions 27

Questions asked in GTU exams

Chapter 28 PLASTICS

28-1. General
28-2. Composition of plastic
28-3. Polymerization
28-4. Classification of plastics
28-5. Properties of plastics
28-6. Uses of plastics
28-7. Biodegradable plastic
28-8. Fibre glass reinforced plastic
28-8-1. Properties of FRP
28-8-2. Applications of FRP in building industry
28-9. Conclusion

Questions 28

Section IV : ELEMENTS OF BUILDING


CONSTRUCTION
Chapter 29 BUILDING PLANNING

29-1. General
29-2. Principles of Site Selection
29-3. Principles of planning
29-4. Orientation of the Building
29-5. Climate and its effects
29-6. Functional requirements of a building
29-7. Building bye-laws
29-7-1. Objects of bye-laws
29-7-2. Importance of bye-laws
29-7-3. Function of local authority
29-7-4. Applicability of bye-laws
29-7-5. Set-back
29-7-6. Light plane
29-7-7. Minimum plot sizes
29-7-8. Some other terms
29-7-9. Floor space index or built-up area
29-7-10. Open space requirements around the buildings
29-7-11. Size of rooms
29-7-12. Height of rooms and buildings
29-7-13. Lighting and ventilation of rooms
29-7-14. Water supply and sanitary positions
29-7-15. Structural design or sizes and sections
29-8. Elements of drawings
29-8-1. Drawing instruments
29-8-2. Scales
29-8-3. Line work
29-8-4. Lettering

29-8-5. Conventional signs and Symbols


29-8-6. Abbreviations for architectural and building drawing
29-9. Submission and working drawings
29-9-1. Requirements of a good drawing
29-9-2. Sketches
29-9-3. Views and details necessary for a drawing
29-9-4. Site plan
29-9-5. Layout plan and key or location plan
29-9-6. Composition of submission drawing
29-9-7. Engineering drawing and architectural drawing
29-9-8. Teaching civil engineering drawing
29-10. Planning of industrial structures
29-10-1. Planning aspects of industrial structures
29-10-2. Requirements of big industrial units
29-10-3. Industrial townships or estates
29-11. Planning of Residential Buildings
29-11-1. Usual requirements in planning

Residential Buildings

Questions 29

Questions asked in GTU Exams

Chapter 30 BUILDING CONSTRUCTION

30-1. General
30-2. Types of buildings
30-2-1. Group A: Residential buildings
30-2-2. Group B: Educational buildings
30-2-3. Group C: Institutional buildings
30-2-4. Group D: Assembly buildings
30-2-5. Group E: Business buildings
30-2-6. Group F: Mercantile buildings
30-2-7. Group G: Industrial buildings
30-2-8. Group H: Storage buildings
30-2-9. Group I: Hazardous buildings
30-3. Structural system of building
30-4. Comparison of load bearing structure with framed structure
30-5. Loads on foundations
30-6. Important Building Components
30-7. Foundations
30-7-1. Objects of foundations
30-7-2. Essential requirements of a good foundation
30-7-3. Types of foundations
30-7-4. Width of foundations
30-7-5. Depth of foundations
30-7-6. Grillage foundations
30-7-7. Raft foundations
30-7-8. Combined footing
30-7-9. Cantilever footing
30-7-10. Continuous footing
30-8. Doors, windows and ventilators
30-8-1. Important considerations for doors and windows
30-8-2. Technical terms for doors, windows and ventilators
30-8-3. Types of doors
30-8-4. Types of windows
30-8-5. Ventilators
30-9. Stairs
30-9-1. Technical terms for stairs
30-9-2. Types of stairs
30-9-3. Stairs of different materials
30-10. Floors and flooring
30-10-1. Types of floors
30-10-2. Timber floors
30-10-3. Composite floors
30-10-4. Materials used for flooring
30-11. Roofs
30-11-1. Requirements of a good roof
30-11-2. Classification of roofs
30-11-3. Pitched or sloping roofs
30-11-4. Types of pitched roofs
30-12. Lintels
30-12-1. Types of lintels

Questions 30

Questions asked in GTU Exams

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ESSENTIALS OF CIVIL ENGINEERING


Detailed Contents

Section V : WATER RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT


Chapter 31 ELEMENTARY HYDROLOGY
31-1. General
31-2. Importance of water supply project
31-3. Elementary hydrology
31-4. Hydrosphere
31-5. Hydrological cycle
31-6. Water exchange
31-7. Transport of water
31-8. Specific terms of hydrology

Questions 31

Questions asked in GTU Exams

Chapter 32 WATER REQUIREMENTS AND ITS


CONSERVATION
32-1.
32-2.
32-3.
32-4.
32-5.

Water requirements
Factors affecting rate of water demand
Water requirements for buildings other than residences
Water requirements for irrigation
Conservation of water resources
Questions 32

Chapter 33 SOURCES OF WATER

33-1. General
33-2. Surface runoff
33-3. Precipitation
33-4. Measurement of rainfall
33-5. Rainfall
33-6. Types of sources of water
33-7. Surface sources of water
33-8. Watershed development
33-9. Salient features of reservoir and dam design
33-10. Earthen Dams (rolled fill type)
33-11. Underground sources of water
33-12. Forms of underground sources

Questions 33

Questions asked in GTU Exams

Section VI : TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING


Chapter 34 INTRODUCTION TO TRANSPORTATION
ENGINEERING
34-1. General
34-2. Significance of transport in national development
34-3. Modes or ways of transport
34-4. Surface transportation
34-4-1. Roadways or highways
34-4-2. Development of roads in India
34-4-3. Characteristics of road transport
34-4-4. Advantages of roads
34-4-5. Importance of roads in India
34-4-6. Requirements of an ideal road
34-4-7. Scope of highway and transportation engineering
34-4-8. Objects of highway planning
34-4-9. Classification of highways
34-4-10. Typical cross-sections of roads
34-4-11. Build, Operate and Transfer (BOT) projects
34-4-12. Boot (build, Own, Operate and Transfer) projects

34-4-13. Difference between bot and boot projects


34-5. Railways
34-5-1. Characteristics of railways
34-5-2. Advantages of railways
34-5-3. Trends in modern railways
34-6. Waterways
34-6-1. General
34-6-2. Advantages of water transportation
34-6-3. Disadvantages of water transportation
34-6-4. Classification of harbours
34-6-5. Ports
34-6-6. Requirements of a good port
34-7. Air transport or aviation
34-7-1. Advantages of air transport
34-7-2. Disadvantages of air transport

Questions 34

Questions asked in GTU Exams

Chapter 35 TRAFFIC ENGINEERING


35-1. General
35-2. Objects of traffic engineering
35-3. Traffic surveys
35-3-1. Accident survey
35-3-2. Origin and destination survey
35-3-3. Parking survey
35-3-4. Spot speed survey
35-3-5. Speed and delay survey
35-3-6. Traffic volume survey
35-4. Road accidents
35-4-1. Causes of road accidents
35-4-2. Measures to prevent road accidents
35-5. Parking
35-6. Methods of parking
35-7. Traffic congestion
35-8. Traffic control
35-9. One-way streets
35-9-1. Advantages of one-way streets
35-9-2. Disadvantages of one-way streets
35-10. Road junctions or intersections
35-11. Types of intersections
35-11-1. At-grade intersections
35-11-2. Grade separations
35-12. Traffic control devices
35-12-1. Road markings
35-12-2. Road signs
35-12-3. Traffic signals
35-12-4. Speed breakers
35-13. Peculiarities of traffic

Questions 35

Questions asked in GTU Exams

Chapter 36 TYPICAL TRAFFIC SIGNS


36-1.
36-2.
36-3.
36-4.

Mandatory/regulatory signs
Typical cautionary/warning signs
Informatory signs
Traffic lights

Appendix I GTU EXAMINATION PAPERS

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