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CHAPTER 1

TRACO CABLES COMPANY AN OVERVIEW


1.1. INTRODUCTION
TRACO CABLE COMPANY, a Premier Kerala Government Company, commenced
operations in the year 1964, manufacturing high quality Electric Cables and Wires in
Technical Collaboration with M/s. Kelsey Engineering Co. Ltd., Canada. Since then
TRACO has been in the forefront in meeting the needs of Public Sector Undertakings
in India like Railways, Electricity Boards of various states in the country and others
for AAC/ACSR, Power and Signalling Cables.
TRACO ABLES COMPANY LIMITED (TRACO or short) was incorporated in the
year 1964 with the main objective of manufacturing all types and sizes of wires,
cables

and

flexibles

for

electrical

power

telecommunication, building wiring, etc.

transmission

and

distribution,

The Company has a power cable

manufacturing division at Irimpanam and telephone cables manufacturing division at


Thiruvalla. The total paid up capital of the company as on 31-12- 1984 is Rs. 146.92
lakhs of which 86.6% worth shares are held by the Government of Kerala. This is a
Government of Kerala undertaking.
One of India's most sought after Paper Insulated Lead Sheathed Telecommunication
Cables were produced by TRACO in collaboration with Hindustan Cables, West
Bengal under an agreement signed in 1974 until the liberalisation of Licensing policy
in the country, TRACO was one of the two manufactures of Telephone Cables in India
and the only one in the whole of South India.
With the progress in Cable Technology, Paper Insulated Cables gave way to the much
more sophisticated Jelly Filled Telephone cables which are superbly suited for
communications. TRACO was one among those who first perceived the opportunities
inherent in this new development. It soon went into Technical collaboration with M/s.
General Cables Inc., USA, world leaders in the Communication cable field and
manufactured them in India to exacting standards.
Always playing its humble role in the process of nation building, TRACOs cables
carry energy, actual signals and helps to connect people in far playing areas in this

vast subcontinent, known-how combined with well-equipped machinery and efficient


workforce. Rigorous quality control is maintained during every stage of production,
which ensures that the products going into market are according to IS specification.
The unit has been manufacturing cables required for the railways, the BSNL and the
KSEB.
Table 1.1 Function Departments
Production Department

Finance Department

Personal And Administrative Department

Quality Assurance Department

Maintenance department
Purchase Department

Marketing And Dispatch Department


Store Department

1.2. MANUFACTURING DIVISIONS


The company has two major manufacturing divisions:
1.

Power Cable Division.


Telephone Cable Division.

2.

TRACO produces different kind of cables for different users. They produce POWER
and Telephone Cables, mainly consumed by electricity board of Kerala (KSEB) and
Bharat Sanchar Nigam Ltd. These products are in turn used for the welfare of the
general public.
1.3. POWER TRANSMISSION CABLES
The major production is of power transmission cables, namely ACSR9aluminium
Conductor Steel Reinforced). These are of the following types classified on the basis
of diameter and current carrying capacity.

Squirrel
Weasel
Rabbit
Racoon
Moose

All these are used by the electricity board of Kerala.


1.3.1. OVERVIEW ABOUT POWER CABLES

A power cable is an assembly of two or more electrical conductor, usually held


together with an overall sheath , used for transmission of power .Power cables maybe
installed as permanent wiring in buildings, buried underground , run overhead, or
exposed. Early telegram systems used the first form of cabling, transmitting small
amount of power. Gutta Percha insulation went out of market because, it deteriorated
rapidly when exposed to air.

CHAPTER 2

PRODUCTS FROM TRACO


TRACO has diversified into Aerial Cables. TRACO's new range of self support Aerial
Cables connect people aerially at the same time, economically. They are manufactured
to both national and international standards.
TRACO has developed Aerially Bunched Cables for LT Overhead lines also. They are
polythene Insulated Aluminium Cables of specification: REC Specification
No.s2/1984 and have a rated voltage of 1.1 K V. This type of cables helps in reducing
the power interruptions to the barest minimum level possible. Many of the advanced
countries are all ready switching over to these cables from the bare counter system.
2.1. STEEL IS NOT THE LIMIT
As Al-Mg-Si Alloy is joined our conductor family, we are growing beyond Steel.
TRACO has added All Aluminium Alloy Conductors (AAAC) to its product range
and joined the energy conservation moment. Some of the salient features which make
All Aluminium Alloy Conductors (AAAC) markedly superior to ACSR are as
follows:
1. High strength/weight ratio: 21 to 26% lighter as compared to ACSR.
Reduction of tension is 21 to 23% and hence lighter towers would be
satisfactory- saving in cost would be greater.
2. High Electrical Conductivity: - Conductivity is 6% to 11% higher than the
corresponding ACSR-Lower AC resistance and hence, considerable decrease
in line losses.
3. Good corrosion Resistance:- Usage of AAAC in the coastal area is of great
significance.
4. Great Abrasion and Creep Resistance: - Abrasion resistance of alloy stands is
more than four times that of E.C.G. Grade Aluminium. Overall strength will
not change in case of repetition short duration short circuits.
5. High conductor Metal Efficiency: - Metal efficiency of Aluminium Alloy wire
is 126 whereas that of EC Grade Aluminium is only 82.

6. Thermal Expansion: - Along with the rise and fall of temperature the sag
increases or decreases to throughout the conductor.
7. Connectability: - Superior to ACSR - Greater torque can be applied without
concern for the cold flow beneath the conductor.
2.2. MAJOR PRODUCTS
2.2.1. ACSR Cables:
Aluminium has lower relative mechanical tensile strength as compared to steel or
copper. Therefore, ACSR Cables consist of a stranded aluminium cable with a steel
core.

The

steel

proportion

varies

from

6%

to

40%.

There are different types of ACSR Cables:

SQUIRREL: In this, 6 Aluminium strands surround one steel strand, both of

diameter 2.11mm.
WEASEL: In this, 6 Aluminium strands surround one steel strand, both of

diameter 2.59mm.
RABBIT: In this, 6 Aluminium strands surround one steel strand, both of

diameter 3.35mm.
RACOON: In this, 6 Aluminium strands surround one steel strand, both of

diameter 4.09mm.
MOOSE: For high current capacity cables.

2.2.2. AAAC and AAC Cables:


These over head aluminium conductors are used as power transmission and
distribution lines. All aluminium conductors are made up of one or more strands of
aluminium wire depending on the specific application.
Advantages of AAAC Cables:
1. High strength to weight ratio: it is 21-26% lighter than steel but reduction in
strength is minimal, therefore lighter towers are satisfactory.
2. High electrical conductivity: it is 6-11% higher than corresponding ACSR. Lower
AC Resistance, hence decreases in line losses.
3. Higher corrosion resistance-can be used for coastal application.

4. Great abrasion and creep resistance-4x than of ACSR.


5. Overall strength does not change in a short duration.
6. High conductor metal efficiency.
7. Less thermal expansion.
8. Connect ability-superior to ACSR greater torque can be applied.
2.2.3. XLPE Insulated Cables:
Cross linked polythene insulation is used in underground transmission cables.
Polythene has a linear molecular chemistry that gives it a high molecular strength.
Hence it shows resistance to deformation even at high temperature. Cross-linked
Polyethylene Insulated Electric or XLPE Power Cables possesses excellent electrical,
mechanical and heat-resistant properties. It has an advantage over paper insulated
cables because of its easy maintenance.

Figure 2.1 Section of XLPE Cable


2.2.3.2. Testing of XPLE cables

Moisture test
Routine test
Type test
Special test
After insulation test and Tension test

CHAPTER 3

COMPANY PRODUCT PROFILE


3.1. SELF SUPPORTED AERIAL CABLE
Polythene Insulated Moisture barrier self supporting aerial cable. Suspension wire and
the cable core are contained in a single polythene sheath 10 pairs with 0.4, 0.5,
0.63and 0.9 mm gauge. Spec: Telecommunication Research Centre Spec. No. 5223/85 TRC with reference to various ASTM, BS and IS specification.
3.2. PVC DROP WIRE
PVC insulated drop wire Spec: ITD Spec. No. S/WS-118D & P.V.C. insulated and
polythene sheathed aerial cables 5 pairs/10 pairs Spec. No. SP/76-2/87/63
3.3. BARE CONDUCTORS
Bare Conductors - AAC, ACSR and all Aluminium Alloy conductors for transmission
and distribution purposes: Spec: IS 398 Part I IS 398 Part IIIS 398 Part IV
3.4. FLAT TWIN CABLE
3.4.1. Flat Twin Weather Proof Cables - Pvc Insulated Aluminium Flat Twin
Cables
1100 V. Grade Spec: IS 694 extensively used for providing connections to the
domestic consumer.
3.5. POWER CABLE WITH ALUMINIUM CONDUCTOR
PVC insulated and sheathed armoured/unarmoured Aluminium power cables 1100 V.
Grade. Spec: IS: 1554 Part I.
3.6. RAILWAY SIGNALLING CABLES
Signalling

Cables

Used

by

Railways.

PVC

armoured/unarmoured Copper cables. 1100 V. Grade.

CHAPTER 4

insulated

&

sheathed

MANUFACTURING OF XPLE CABLES


The details of manufacturing process and sequence of operations in the production of
XLPE Cables up to 11 KV is as follows:
The main raw material used is Aluminium Rod (9mm diameter). This Rod is drawn
in Rod Breakdown Machine to size of 2 mm diameter in steel bobbins.

Figure 4.1 Breakdown Machine Rods


The 2 mm Aluminium wire is stranded as per our size requirement in the 54 Bobbin
Stranding Machine.

Figure 4.2 Triple strander

The stranded core is then given triple extrusion (conductor screening with semi
conductor material, XLPE insulation using sioplast and insulation screening) and the
output is wound on steel drums. After curing the triple extruded core in drums it is
taken for laying up in our modified DT2240machine as per the core requirement. The
core is then inner sheathed using PVC and lapping of thermoplast tapes is done. The
inner sheathed cable is then armoured if required in our 54 Bobbin Strander machine.
Armoured Cable is given final outer sheathing using PVC, followed by Testing, end
sealing and Packing.

CHAPTER-5
PRODUCTION PROCESS
5.1. ALUMINIUM WIRE DRAWING:
The raw aluminium is drawn into the required diameter using a wire drawing
machine. Usually it is drawn into wires of 9.5mm in size.

Figure 5.1 RBD


5.2. PRODUCTION OF CABLES FROM WIRES:
First one cable is sent into the machine and in successive stages, 6,12 and 17 wires are
twisted together to form one cable of around 300mm2 for 11 kV application.

Figure 5.2 Wire Twister

5.3. INSULATION
The cable is sent through a device which melts the polythene material, applies it on
the wire after which it is sent for cooling. The insulated wire is passed through a long
basin of flowing water to cool and finish the process of insulation.
5.4. SHEATHING, ARMOURING
The conductive sheath typically of copper tape or sometimes lead alloy, is used as a
shield to keep electromagnetic radiation in an also provide a path for fault and leakage
current. Armour is for the mechanical protective of conductor bundle. Steel wire
armour is typically used.
Galvanizing is used for prevent rust.
After this the cables are sent for further insulation processes, especially for
underground cables and Arial bunched cables, and given another layer of polythene
coating. After all these process, the wires are marked to indicate whether they are HT,
LT or MT cables.
5.5. WINDING INTO HT OR LT CABLES
The insulated cables are then twisted together around a messenger cable to form
3phase and so on. The winding process is achieved by rotating the bobbins on which
they are wound so as to maintain a uniform twist.

Figure 5.3 HT Cables

Figure 5.4 MT Cables

Figure 5.5 LT Cables


5.6. ELECTRICAL MAINTENANCE
Apart from the production department, there is also an electrical maintenance
department that caters to the maintenance requirements of the plant including winding
of motors, changing of bearings. Fault equipment is sent to the electrical maintenance
department with a detailed report of the fault. The employees of the department fix the
problem and return the equipment back to the production department.
5.7. MECHANICAL MAINTENANCE
Like the above mentioned electrical maintenance department, theres also a
mechanical maintenance department that takes care of maintenance issues related to
all mechanical components in the plant.
5.8. OTHER FACILITIES

Theres a tool and die room for supplies and a store that open 24x7 for any
components that the employees may require. Theres a well maintained canteen that
provides food for the employees around the clock.

CHAPTER 7
CONCLUSIONS
This internship conducted at Traco Cable Company, helped to throw knowledge and
insight into the working of organization. It helped me to familiarize with different
departments in the organization and their functionings. This study helped me to
understand the relation between management principles and practical applications. It
also helped me to know the threats and opportunities faced by the company and
industry. This internship was a great experience for me and I am proud that I was able
to do my internship at Indias no.1 Cable manufacturer.
During our internship period we were made familiar with different industrial
equipments and processes. We were able to understand how the plant works.
The primary objective of an internship is to gather a real life working experience and
put the theoretical knowledge in practice. We believe during our internship period we
were able to achieve that objective.