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Engine Textbook

Engine Textbook

Contents
1 Basic Structure of an Engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

6 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

Basic structure of a two-cycle engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

1 Spark plug . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

2 Principles of Two-cycle Engine Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

2 Cylinder and its elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24


3 Engine chain saw - Characteristics of vertical engines . . . . . . . . . . 25

3 Functions of the Engine Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

4 Engine oil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

1 Fuel ( Gasoline ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

5 Seizure of the cylinder and piston . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26

2 Engine oil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

6 Operating principle of the auto-return choke . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26

2-1 Effects of oil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2


2-2 Viscosity of oil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
2-3 Types of engine oils and required performance . . . . . . . . . 2

7 Two-cycle engine exhaust gas control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

3 Lubrication mechanism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

3-1 Mixed fuel methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3


3-2 Mixed gasoline for two-cycle engines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
3-3 Deterioration of gasoline quality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
4 Air-fuel mixture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

4-1
4-2
4-3
4-4
4-5

Principle of the carburetor mechanism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4


Types of carburetors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Fuel-air mixture ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Operating statuses and mixture ratios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Role of the choke . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

5 Valve mechanism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

5-1 Piston valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6


5-2 Reed valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
6 Ignition system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

6-1
6-2
6-3
6-4
6-5

Types of ignition systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7


Flywheel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Ignition coil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Comparison of ignition system characteristics . . . . . . . . . . 8
Spark plug . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

4 Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
1 Three major elements and inhibitory elements of
the normal operation of engines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
2 Troubleshooting and countermeasures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
3 Inspection and cleaning of components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

3-1 Inspection of the fuel filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11


3-2 Cleaning of the air-exhaust port of
the muffler and cylinder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
3-3 Cleaning of the air cleaner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
4 Operation and inspection of the carburetor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

4-1 Operation of the Walbro WA diaphragm type carburetor . . 12


4-2 Operation of the TK diaphragm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
5 Inspection and adjustment of the ignition coil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

5-1 Inspection of the ignition coil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20


5-2 Adjustment of the ignition coil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
6 Inspection of sparking of the spark plug . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

5 Startup and Storage of an Engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22


1 Startup procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
2 Storage of the engine for a long time ( more than one month ) . . . . 22

8 Principle of the new starter system,


"Karugaru Start ( Quick and Easy Start )" . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

1 Basic Structure of an Engine


Engines offer a means to produce power regardless of work site locations.
For engine-loaded tools categorized as power tools, small and light two-cycle engines are the most
appropriate. In this document, we introduce the principles of an engine's operation and structure with
a focus on two-cycle engines.
The basic structure of a two-cycle engine is illustrated below.

Spark plug

Cylinder
Combustion chamber

Choke
Carburetor

Air filter

Muffler

Fuel
tank

Piston

Scavenging port
Needle valve
Connecting rod
Float
Crankshaft
Crankcase

2 Principles of Two-cycle Engine Operation

Scavenging

Compression
and intake

Compression

Explosion

Exhaust

Explosion
Exhaust

Air intake
Scavenging

Scavenging

[ One rotation to complete four processes ]

An engine that completes air


intake, air compression, air
expansion, air exhaust, and air
scavenging while the piston
makes a single reciprocating
motion is called a two-cycle
engine.
Compression and air intake
and air expansion (combustion) and air precompression
are performed at the same
time in the cylinder and
crankcase respectively.
1

3 Functions of the Engine Components


Ignition coil
Air

Air filter
Fuel

( Mixture of gasoline with oil )

Carburetor
Produces air-fuel
mixture (air-fuel ratio)

1 2 3

Crank chamber
Intakes air.

Scavenging
( Combustion chamber )

Spark-timing control
Spark plug

Compression

Explosion

Air
exhaust

Muffler

1. Fuel ( Gasoline )
Gasoline is made from the distillate fraction of crude oil, in the first stage of crude oil distillation, with a
boiling point range of 30 to 200 C. Gasoline is divided into premium gasoline of higher octane values
and regular gasoline of lower octane values.
For two-cycle engines, regular gasoline (octane value: 89 or higher) is used. Gasoline of a low boiling
point is highly combustible. The flammability of gasoline having a high boiling point is low and leaving
it as it is over time will allow the combustible contents of gasoline to vaporize and the nonflammable
contents to remain.

2. Engine oil
2-1. Effects of oil
1 Lubricating effect :

Oil enters conflicting surfaces between metal parts and supports the load
with oil membranes such that the metals do not touch each other directly.

2 Sealing effect :

Oil maintains the gaps between the cylinder, piston, and piston rings sealed
to prevent leakage of gas.

3 Cooling effect :

Oil reduces the heat generated on the cylinder, piston, bearing, etc.
by thermal propagation effect.

4 Cleaning effect :

Oil washes off carbon, deposit, sludge, etc. generated in the mechanism.

5 Rust-preventive effect : The oil film protects metal surfaces from rust.

2-2. Viscosity of oil


Viscosity, or stickiness, is an important property of oil.
1 High viscosity
Strong oil film : Serves as effective lubricating oil.
Low fluidity : Results in a large power loss due to high resistance.
2 Low viscosity
Weak oil film : Has lower lubricating effect.
High fluidity : Has low resistance.

2-3. Types of engine oils and required performance


Degree of necessity (compared within a single required performance item :

Type of oil

Required performance
Cleaning effect
Dispersibility
Acid neutralizing property
Oxidative stability
Corrosion-resistant and rust preventive property
Combustibleness
Wear-resistant and seize-resistant property

Gasoline engine oil


Two-cycle engine oil
Four-cycle engine oil

Diesel engine oil

>

3. Lubrication mechanism
The lubrication mechanisms of two-cycle gasoline engines are divided into mixed fuel methods in
which engine oil is mixed with fuel beforehand and separated lubrication methods in which engine oil
and fuel are supplied separately to be mixed subsequently.

3-1. Mixed fuel methods


1 Most two-cycle gasoline engines employ mixed fuel in
which engine oil is mixed with fuel beforehand.

Mixed gasoline

2 The typical fuel-to-oil mixture ratio is 25:1. However, oils


having a mixture ratio of 50:1 are available in the market as
the quality of engine oils have been improved recently.
3 Mixed fuel is atomized by the carburetor and brought into
the crankcase. Then, oil adheres to the inner wall and
rotating elements in the combustion chamber to serve
for lubricating and cooling effects. Finally, the mixed fuel
is delivered to the combustion chamber for combustion.

Carburetor

4 Mixed fuel methods have the following advantages and disadvantages.


Advantages
The structure is simple without the need for any feeding pump or feeding can.
Fuel feeding is secured even at the start of operation.
Fresh lubricant is always supplied inside the engine.
Disadvantages
Oil consumption is large.
Much exhaust smoke and deposit

3-2. Mixed gasoline for two-cycle engines


Fuel prepared by mixing gasoline with two-cycle engine oil is called mixed fuel.

20 : 1=5%
25 : 1=4%
33 : 1=3%
50 : 1=2%

Mixture ratio
Gasoline: Oil
20
:
1
25
:
1
33
:
1
50
:
1

Oil
1
Gasoline
from 20 to 50

3-3. Deterioration of gasoline quality


Mixed gasoline, if stored over a long time, may deteriorate due to volatilization, separation, chemical
change, or bacterial effect. Bacteria break down gasoline into alcohol and water which cause rust. In
addition, the sediment of the dead bodies of bacteria clogs the fuel passage.
Volatilization
Bacteria
Gasoline
Oil
Water

[Deteriorated gasoline]
3

4. Air-fuel mixture
4-1. Principle of the carburetor mechanism
1 The explosive combustion of fuel to expand the air volume
within the cylinder is necessary for the rotation of a
gasoline engine. Gasoline is not fed to the cylinder as it is;
it has to be atomized for efficient combustion.

[A]

[B]

[C]

Venturi tube ( A )
Throttle valve

Nozzle ( B )
Air

2 A carburetor mixes fuel with air by the principle of an


atomizer; the atomized fuel is drawn into the engine in
accordance with the operating conditions and compressed
in the engine. The atomized mixture is gasified.
3 With an atomizer, the pressure at the tip of a narrow
stream of strongly pressurized air [ A ] becomes negative
( lower than the atmospheric air pressure ). Due to a
difference between the pressure at the liquid level of the
nozzle [ B ] and the atmospheric pressure working on the
surface [ C ], the liquid is suctioned out of the nozzle and
atomized by the flow of the air.
4 The carburetor operates in the manner that the
atmospheric air is suctioned inside the crankcase via the
suction passage of the carburetor as the pressure inside
the crankcase becomes negative as a result of the rotation
of the engine which raises the piston.

Air-fuel
mixture

Fuel ( C )

5 At the very moment mentioned above, negative pressure is


caused at the narrowest point of the venturi tube ( A ) to
make the fuel ( C ) spray out of the nozzle ( B ) for
atomization.

4-2. Types of carburetors


Carburetors are classified into the float type, diaphragm type, circulation type and other types in
accordance with the respective methods of maintaining the fuel in the carburetor ( fuel chamber in the
carburetor ) at a fixed level.

Float type carburetor


Suction passage
Needle valve
Float

1 In the case of a float type carburetor, a float is positioned in


the fuel to maintain the fluid level fixed and the fuel inflow is
adjusted by interlocking the changed fluid level according
to the consumption of the fuel with the needle valve.

Fluid
level
Float arm
Float
chamber

Drain

Diaphragm type carburetor


High-speed
needle

Suction passage
Main nozzle

Diaphragm

Metering lever

Inlet needle valve

1 In the case of a diaphragm type carburetor, a rubber film


called a "diaphragm" is used in place of a float and the fuel
is suctioned by the pressure variations in the crank
chamber. In this method, the inflow of fuel is controlled on
the basis of the pressure difference between the fluid
pressure and atmospheric pressure working on both
surfaces of the metering diaphragm, with which the needle
valve for the control is interlocked.

Circulation type carburetor


1 The fuel suctioned up by the fuel pump is overflowed from
the weir in the chamber to maintain the fluid at a fixed
level.

From the fuel pump


Weir

2 The structure provides ease of maintenance without the


need for any float or needle valve.
Caution: Do not incline the engine more than 60 degrees;
the fuel flows out of the chamber into the tank to
cause fuel deficiency.
3 The internal elements of the chamber are free of corrosion
or rust as the carburetor of this type is provided with an
auto-drain mechanism, which automatically discharges the
fuel in the chamber to the fuel tank by the capillary
phenomenon of the drain wire when the engine is stopped.

Chamber

Drain
wire

Caution: The time length required from a full-tank state to


an empty state in the chamber is about 40 minutes.

Chamber

To the fuel tank

Flow-rate control
Throttle valve methods are available in butterfly type ( butterfly valve type ), piston valve type, or rotary
valve type.

[ Butterfly type ]

[ Piston valve type ]

[ Rotary valve type ]

4-3. Fuel-air mixture ratio


1 The mass ratio of fuel to air mixed in the carburetor is called the mixture ratio ( air-fuel ratio ). For
complete combustion of fuel, 15 g of air against 1 g of fuel is necessary; this ratio is called the theoretical mixture ratio.
2 A mixture of a ratio lower than the theoretical mixture ratio "1:15" is called a high-density mixture,
while a mixture of a ratio higher than the theoretical ratio is called a low-density mixture. A typical
mixture range for normal combustion varies from 1:8 to 1:20.
5

4 - 4 . Operating statuses and mixture ratios


High Operating status
density

Mixture ratio

Low-temperature startup

1:1

Excessive-density
combustible mixture
Low-speed idling

1:8

Maximum output operation

1 : 13

Theoretical mixture ratio

1 : 15

Economical operation ratio

1 : 16 17

1 : 11

Low
density
density Extremely-low
combustible mixture

1 : 20

1 Though the theoretical mixture ratio is required for


complete combustion of fuel, the actual mixture
ratio required depends on the operating status of
the engine in a practical application.
2 For example, the mixture ratio 1:13 to secure the
maximum output of an engine is called the
maximum-output mixture ratio.
3 An economical operating condition with low fuel
consumption is achieved at a ratio of 1:16 or 1:17,
which is referred to as the economical mixture
ratio.

4 A considerably high density, such as 1:1, is required to increase the starting performance for the
mixture used for starting up a cold engine.

4-5. Role of the choke


It is difficult to supply fuel sufficiently inside the cylinder when it is cold, because the fuel contained in
the air-fuel mixture adheres to the inner wall of the cylinder or around the piston in an atomized
condition. As a solution to such a problem, a choke is used to reduce the amount of air and increase
the amount of fuel for easier startup of the engine under such low temperature conditions.

5. Valve mechanism
The cylinder ports and piston in a two-cycle engine serve as the valves in a four-cycle engine. The
timing of valve operation is determined by the positions of the ports.

5-1. Piston valve


Piston
Air-fuel
mixture

Air-intake
port

Crankcase

1 An air-intake port, scavenging port, and exhaust port are


provided in the inner wall of the cylinder. The ports are
respectively opened or closed by the piston.
2 When the piston starts rising from the bottom dead point,
the pressure in the crankcase, which is sealed by the
piston and oil seal, is reduced gradually. Immediately
before the air-intake port is opened by the piston skirt, the
pressure reaches the highest negative pressure.
3 The moment the air-intake port opens, air-fuel mixture
starts flowing into the crankcase.

4 This air flow stops when the piston reaches the top dead point. However, when the rpm exceeds
2,000 min-1 in actual engine operating conditions, the air flow continues even if the piston starts
descending after the top dead point until the air-intake port starts closing.

5-2. Reed valve


1 An air-intake port is provided in the crankcase wall. A flat
spring called a reed valve is attached to the air-intake port.
Reed
The reed valve is opened or closed by the differential
pressure.
2 The reed valve mechanism can prevent blowback at a low
rpm, resulting in improved air-intake efficiency.
Air-intake
3 However, it is important to minimize the resistance of the
port
air flow during air-intake and it is necessary to take into
Crank chamber
account the durability and oscillation property of the reed
valve itself.
 A reed valve is an effective means against vapor lock.
6

6. Ignition system
6-1. Types of ignition systems
A flywheel magnet consists of an ignition system including a magneto coil and an interrupting device,
and a flywheel. The ignition system is either a contact type, CDI or TCI, both of which are non-contact
types.

Ignition system
Current-interruption type
Contact type

Non-contact type

Capacity-interruption type
Non-contact type

Point type

TCI

CDI

( Old type )

( Transistor Controlled Ignition )

( Capacitor Discharge Ignition )

Ignition coil
Ignition coil

Flywheel
Flywheel

6-2. Flywheel
A flywheel is provided with a cast magnet for power generation. The flywheel rotates around the fixed
coil to cause flux variation in the coil and generate electromotive force. Flywheels are divided into the
inner-magnet type and outer-magnet type depending on the position of the cast magnet.

6-3. Ignition coil


An ignition coil is a part that generates high voltage electricity used for spark discharge. A primary coil
and a secondary coil are separately wound around an iron core. With the current of the primary coil
interrupted, high voltage electricity is generated in the secondary coil by reciprocal induction.
The figure on the right shows the cross-sectional view
of an ignition coil. The primary coil of about 50 turns,
which is a polyurethane conductor wire ( or polyester
conductor wire ) having a diameter of about 0.6 mm, is
wound around the iron core which consists of layers of
silicon steel sheets. The secondary coil of about 4,000
turns, which is a thin wire having a diameter of about
0.06 mm, is wound over the primary coil.
The voltage value of the electricity generated as the
secondary voltage is determined by the ratio of turns
of the primary coil and secondary coil. For example,
when the voltage generated on the primary coil is
200 V, the secondary voltage becomes as high as
16,000 V ( 200 V X 4,000 turns/50 turns ).

Primary coil
Iron core

Secondary coil

[Ignition coil]

6-4. Comparison of ignition system characteristics


Ignition system

Ignition signal

Characteristics

Interruptor ( point )
Point type
( current Cam
interruption type ) Ignition coil

1 The structure is comparatively simple and the price is low.


2 Point-caused problems occur frequently, requiring periodical maintenance.
( Ignition timing is affected due to stain, heat damage, or wear in the point. )

3 Stable sparking performance is available as the follow-up performance is


high during a high speed rotation.

1 The unit ( electronic circuit ) used in place of an interruptor and capacitor is


( Trigger coil )
TCI type
Electronic circuit of
( currentthyristor and transistor
interruption type )
Ignition coil

small in size and the number of parts is also limited.

2 Ignition timing does not vary, requiring no adjustment.


3 Ignition characteristic is excellent due to a long secondary discharge time.
4 Stable sparking performance is available as the follow-up performance is
high during a high speed rotation.

( Trigger coil )
CDI type
Electronic circuit of
( capacitythyristor and transistor
interruption type )
Ignition coil

1 A compact and light type with coils and unit integrated has been developed.
2 Ignition timing does not vary, requiring no adjustment.
3 The secondary voltage is high and the rise of the voltage is very quick,
resulting in an excellent ignition characteristic even when the spark plug is
stained and excellent acceleration and high-speed operation characteristics.

6-5. Spark plug


Structure
1 The spark plug ignites the air-fuel mixture by
emitting sparks to the air gap by the effect of the
high-voltage developed by the ignition coil.

Terminal nut
Center electrode

Corrugation

Main metal body

2 When the spark plug is stained or carbon


adheres to and is accumulated on the insulating
material to lower the insulation resistance, a
short-circuit fault is caused and sparking is
disabled, resulting in malfunctioning of the
engine.

Insulating
material

Gasket
Fixing screw

Gas volume

Air gap
0.6 0.7mm

Lateral electrode

Screw diameter: 14 mm
Standard hex screw
subtense size: 20.6 mm

Protrudedinsulation type

Small-size plug
( Bantam type )

With resistance
for noise prevention

Thermal value

Screw length:
11.2 mm

Special
specification

A
B
C

18mm
14mm
10mm

M Small-size plug
P Protruded type
R With resistance

2 Burn type Low


4
5
6
7
8
9
10 Cold type High
Radiation

Screw diameter

3 A preferable condition of electrode burn includes


a thin layer of dry cinder colored light gray,
golden brown, or white over the insulating
material.

Screw diameter
No
indication

L
H
E

9.5mm
11.2mm
12.7mm
19.0mm

A Special specification
S Standard specification
V-grooved center
Y electrode (excellent
ignition characteristic)

4 Troubleshooting
1. Three major elements and inhibitory elements of
the normal operation of engines
Gasoline of poor quality
Clogged carburetor jet orifice or
the like
Inadequate aperture of adjusting needle
Hardened diaphragm
Clogged tank filter
Clogged tank air vent
Clogged cock or fuel tube
Air leakage
Overheated carburetor (due to
vapor lock)

Clogging between plug electrode


Stained plug
Wet plug
Leakage between high-voltage
cable and plug cap
Leakage in primary wire
Plug gap failure
Excessively large gap between
flywheel and coil
Dislocated flywheel (without key)
Ignition coil failure
Unit failure

Fuel
Proper air-fuel
mixture

Spark

Engine
Engine Starts
without Fail
Fail

Correct sparks and


ignition timing

Pressure
No pressure leakage
in the combustion
chamber and crank
chamber

Worn piston rings


Worn cylinder bore
Stuck piston rings
Cracked oil seal in the crank chamber
Damaged gasket
Seizure of the piston and crank shaft
Clogged muffler
Clogged cylinder exhaust port

2. Troubleshooting and countermeasures


Condition
Starter handle
cannot be pulled

Crankshaft does not


rotate
Crankshaft rotates

Plug is not wet with


gasoline even if
startup operation is
repeated

Cause

Seizure of piston rings


Seizure of connection rod bearing
Recoil starter failure
Fuel tank has no fuel
Fuel filter is clogged

Air vent of tank (chamber valve) is faulty


Aperture of low-speed fuel adjusting screw is faulty
Carburetor assembly is clogged with dirt

Improper operation of throttle or pump


Stained or affected plug
Poor connection of a plug cap
Engine does not
start

No spark

Poor connection or disconnection of high-voltage cable


Earthing of high-voltage cable
Poor connection or disconnection of ignition coil
Poor connection or damage of lead wire

Plug electrodes are short-circuited with foreign matter clogged between


them

No compression

Faulty piston rings


Worn piston
Service life of oil seal in crank chamber has expired
Stained or affected plug

Weak sparking
Engine starts but it Weak compression
does not continue
idling
Strong sparking and
good compression

Engine stalls
Engine starts but
acceleration is ...

Engine starts
but ...

Acceleration is not
smooth or rpm does
not rise

Rotation fluctuates
at a high speed
Fuel consumption is
too large

Chain oil is not discharged

10

Faulty air gap


Ignition coil failure
Worn piston rings
Service life of oil seal in crank chamber has expired
Carburetor assembly is clogged with dirt
Fuel filter is clogged

Aperture of low-speed fuel adjusting screw is faulty


Idling rpm is too low
Carburetor assembly is clogged with dirt
Aperture of high-speed fuel adjusting screw is too small
Fuel filter is clogged
Aperture of high-speed fuel adjusting screw is faulty

Countermeasure

Disassembling and parts replacement


Fuel replenishment
Cleaning or replacement
Replacement
Adjustment
Cleaning
Proper activation procedure
Cleaning or replacement
Inspection and/or replacement
Repair or replacement
Repair
Replacement
Repair
Removal of foreign matter or
overhaul and cleaning of engine if
short-circuit occurs frequently
Parts replacement
Cleaning or replacement
Adjustment
Replacement
Replacement
Replacement
Cleaning or replacement
Adjustment
Cleaning
Adjustment
Cleaning or replacement
Adjustment

Muffler is clogged with carbon


Air cleaner is clogged

Cleaning

Chain brake is set for activation

Release of brake

Aperture of high-speed fuel adjusting screw is too small


High-speed fuel passage is clogged with dirt
Aperture of high-speed fuel adjusting screw is too large.
Air cleaner is clogged.
There is no oil in the tank
Oil feeding port is clogged
Oil feeding port in the guide bar is clogged
Oil filter is clogged
Adjustment of chain oil discharge is faulty

Adjustment
Adjustment
Adjustment
Cleaning
Oil replenishment
Cleaning
Adjustment

3. Inspection and cleaning of components


3-1. Inspection of the fuel filter
Pull out the fuel filter by using a wire or the like
through the fuel filler port and wash the filter with
gasoline, by rubbing it with fingers as necessary.
After cleaning, remove the fuel filter and blow it
with your breath to see whether air passes
through it. Replace the filter with a new one if the
air does not pass through it.

Fuel filter

3-2. Cleaning of the air-exhaust port of the muffler and cylinder


To clean the muffler, insert a screwdriver or the like into the muffler air-exhaust port or heat the muffler
with a burner to burn off the carbon in the muffler.
To clean the air-exhaust port of the cylinder, remove the muffler, block the air-exhaust port with the
piston so that the carbon in the air exhaust port does not enter the cylinder, and then scrape off the
carbon with a screwdriver or the like.
Caution : Be careful not to damage the piston.
Spark plug

Air-intake
port

Screwdriver

Block the air-intake


port with the piston.

3 - 3 . Cleaning of the air cleaner


Remove the air cleaner cover
assembly and brush off the
chips and dust from the air
filter, seal, and air cleaner
cover assembly. If the air filter
is stained excessively, wash
the air filter with gasoline.
Make sure to dry the filter
before use.

Cleaner cover

Air filter cover

Air Filter

11

4.Operation and inspection of the carburetor


4-1. Operation of the Walbro WA diaphragm type carburetor
Engine side

Air cleaner side


Engine impulses activate the pump
diaphragm for the suction of fuel.

Crank chamber

Fuel flows in through the main


nozzle at high speeds.

Fuel tank

The amount of air and air speed


are changed by the aperture of
the throttle valve, to change the
inlet flow of fuel.

Inlet valve

Fuel flows into from the idle port


at low speeds.

It is necessary to maintain the fluid


level fixed for flow of a fixed amount
of fuel into the engine according to
the aperture of the throttle valve. The
same amount of fuel as that flows
out of the fuel chamber is taken by
the function of both the metering
diaphragm and inlet valve, resulting
in a fixed amount of fuel in the
carburetor.

Idle port

Idling aperture
Low-speed fuel
adjusting screw

Intermediate aperture
Pump
diaphragm

Venturi tube

Throttle
valve

High-speed fuel
adjusting screw

Main nozzle

Idle port

Metering
diaphragm

1 The throttle valve is partially


open. As the air speed near the
throttle valve is faster than that
in the venturi tube, the resultant
negative pressure causes the
fuel to be ejected out of the idle
port.

12

Full aperture

2The pressure near the venturi


tube becomes negative as the
rpm increases with increasing
aperture of the throttle valve
and the fuel starts to flow in
from the main nozzle partially.

3 The air speed in the venturi


tube is maximized as the
aperture of the throttle valve is
fully opened and the fuel mainly
flows in through the main
nozzle. The idle port also ejects
the fuel as the negative
pressure near the venturi tube
also helps.

4-1-1. Inspection points

Completely fastened?
Adjusted correctly?
(See pgs. 15 and 16.)

No damage, looseness,
or hardening?

No damage or leakage?

(See p. 20)

Positioned correctly
without deformation?

Valve is worn or clogged


with dirt?

Overflow.
No fuel flows out.

rpm of the engine is abnormal.


Startup is difficult.

Clogged with dirt?

Adjusted correctly?
(See pgs. 15
and 16.)

Insufficient acceleration.
Unstable at low speeds.
Unstable at high speeds.

No damage,
looseness, or
hardening?

No damage or
leakage?

Fuel does not


flow in.
rpm of the
engine is abnormal.
Engine startup is
difficult.

Completely
fastened

13

4-1-2. Inspection procedure


1 When washing the body, use gasoline or the like for washing and blow it with air after washing.
2 Check the main jet for adhered dirt or corrosion. Wash the jet, if dirt is detected, and blow it with air
after washing. Replace the jet with a new one if corrosion is detected.
3 Inspect the gasket and the like for deformation or damage. Replace them with new ones if they are
deformed or damaged.
4 Inspect the pump diaphragm for hardening or damage. Check the inlet valve and outlet valve to
make sure they are flat, free from bends.
5 Inspect the metering diaphragm to make sure it is free from hardening, damage, or bends in the
plate.
6 Inspect the pump body after washing, for deformation in the metering lever and spring, faulty lever
height, dirt in the inlet screen, malfunction of the valve, or leakage in the valve.
To check the valve for normal operation, blow the check valve in the pump body with your breath,
with the use of rubber or vinyl pipe or the like. If the valve stops when you blow the air and the valve
opens when you suck the air, the check valve function is in good order. ( Caution: Do not blow the
check valve with high-pressure air. )

4-1-3. Adjustment of carburetor

Standard

Adjusting method

Operate the following three types of screws for the adjustment of the carburetor.
Idling adjusting screw

High-speed fuel adjusting screw

Low-speed fuel adjusting screw

Air volume during idling is adjusted.


Rotating the screw ( the stopper on
the throttle valve close side ) clockwise increases the engine rpm, while
rotating it counterclockwise decreases the engine rpm.

Fuel flow rate during high-speed


operation is adjusted. Rotating the
screw clockwise reduces the fuel
flow rate ( thin fuel ), while rotating it
counterclockwise increases the fuel
flow rate ( thick fuel ).

Fuel flow rate during low-speed


operation ( idling ) is adjusted.
Rotating the screw clockwise
reduces the fuel flow rate ( thin
fuel ), while rotating it counterclockwise increases the fuel flow rate
( thick fuel ).

2,700 to 3,500 min -1 (Make sure


that the blade does not rotate.)

Rotate the screw backward 1 and


1/8 turns from the fully-closed
position ( 1 to 1 and 1/2 turns
depending on the model ).

Rotate the screw backward 1 and


1/8 turns from the fully-closed
position ( 1 to 1 and 1/2 turns
depending on the model ).

The procedure to "rotate the screw backward 1 and 1/8 turns from the fully-closed position" in the
standard setting for the high-speed fuel adjusting screw and low-speed fuel adjusting screw refers to a
position of each screw which is to be reached finally for the setting by rotating the screw backward 1
and 1/8 turns from the extreme position reached first by rotating the adjusting screw clockwise slowly.

Idling adjusting
screw (T)
High-speed fuel
adjusting screw
(H)

Low-speed fuel adjusting screw (L)

14

4-1-4. Fine adjustment


Generally speaking, the optimum adjusted position of an engine carburetor varies with the temperature
and idling conditions. Carry out fine adjustment of the carburetor in accordance with the following
procedure if each standard setting does not result in satisfactory engine performance.
When the high-speed fuel adjusting screw or
low-speed fuel adjusting screw is rotated with the
engine activated, the rpm of the engine varies as
shown in the figure on the right. In short, rotating a
fuel adjusting screw clockwise or counterclockwise,
with the throttle aperture fixed, finds a certain position
where the engine rpm becomes the highest level.

Position of the screw for


Setting the highest engine rpm
position
Engine rpm

Too
thin

Too
thick

A. Idling adjustment
1 The rpm is adjusted with the idling adjusting screw
so that the engine can rotate steadily without the
rotation of the blade. If the rpm is not obtained,
standard setting with the low-speed fuel adjusting
screw shall be performed.

1/8 to 1/4 turns


Counterclockwise

Clockwise

Fuel adjusting screw

2 The position at which the engine reaches the highest rpm shall be determined by rotating the
low-speed fuel adjusting screw clockwise or counterclockwise.
3 The set position shall be at a position reached by rotating the low-speed fuel adjusting screw
counterclockwise by 1/8 to 1/4 turns from the position determined in the step 2 above ( the engine
rpm is reduced by 200 to 300 min-1 as a result ).
4 Operate the idling adjusting screw so that the idling rpm reaches 2,700 to 3,500 min-1.
B. High-speed adjustment
Rotate the high-speed adjusting screw, in the same manner as with the low-speed adjusting screw,
clockwise or counterclockwise to find a position where the engine reaches the highest rpm. The set
position shall be at a position reached by rotating the high-speed fuel adjusting screw counterclockwise by 1/8 to 1/4 turns from the position determined above. If the highest rpm does not result from
this procedure, use the standard setting. Fuel that is too thin may cause seizure and fuel that is too
thick may cause carbon clogging. ( The setting is usually made for the same effect as with the
low-speed fuel adjusting screw. )
C. Height of metering lever
1 Bend the metering lever in the carburetor slightly so that
the height of the metering level is 1.65 mm as shown in
the figure on the right.
 The height varies with the model.

Metering lever
1.65mm

Carburetor body

Clever suggestion
Operate the low-speed fuel adjustment first and return the high-speed fuel adjusting
screw to the same position obtained by the low-speed fuel adjustment ( by the same
number of screw turns ) for quick adjustment.

15

4-2. Operation of the TK diaphragm

Primer pump

1 Pressing the primer pump repeatedly causes the pressure


inside the metering chamber to become negative and
turns the diaphragm upward. As a result of this, the needle
valve opens to suction the fuel from the fuel tank.
2 After the metering chamber is filled with the fuel, the fuel is
discharged out of the return port to return to the fuel tank.
Finish the primer pump operation after confirming the
completion of this particular circulation cycle of fuel.
3 While the primer pump is operated, the check valve is
closed by the negative pressure; thus preventing the air
from being suctioned from the nozzle.
4 When the engine is cold, close the choke valve and pull the
recoil starter so that more fuel than usual is introduced via
the needle jet as the negative pressure of engine increases
for suction. This is done to realize a thick mixture suitable
for startup of the engine. Open the choke valve after the
engine starts.

Check valve
Metering chamber

Fuel tank

Choke
valve

5 Once the engine is started and warmed up, restarting the


engine can be made without closing the choke valve.
However, operate the priming procedure once again when
the fuel is completely consumed.
6 For idling aperture, the aperture of the throttle valve must
be adjusted by operating the idling adjusting screw. The
fuel flow rate is controlled by the gap between the needle
jet and jet needle.

Air

7 The idling negative pressure adjusting groove provided at


the bottom of the throttle valve can optimize the negative
pressure that works on the fuel injection hole, thus
smoothing the fuel flow during idling operation.
8 In the case of intermediate aperture, the fuel flow rate is
controlled by the gap between the needle jet and jet
needle.

Metering chamber

9 In the case of full aperture, the fuel flow rate is mainly


controlled by the needle jet, with the main adjusting screw
used for adjustment.

Idling negative
pressure adjusting
groove
Throttle
valve

Needle jet

Jet needle

Idling aperture
16

Intermediate aperture

Full aperture

4 - 2 - 1. Inspection points

Idling adjusting screw


Inspect it to make sure it
is adjusted properly.
Low-speed rpm: 2,700
to 3,500 min-1

E-ring

Jet needle

Inspect it for deformation


and make sure it is
adjusted properly.

Replace it with a new one if


found worn. If verdigris has
adhered to it, clean it as well
as the needle jet.

Gasket
Carburetor body
Inspect the fuel passage for
clogging with dirt, corrosion, or wear. Clean or
repair it as necessary.

Metering lever spring

Inspect it for damage or


leakage.
Pump diaphragm
Inspect it for damage,
hardening, or warpage.
Pay attention to the correct
assembling order of the parts

Pump gasket
Inspect it for damage or
leakage.

Main adjusting screw


Inspect it for wear and
make sure it is adjusted
properly.
High-speed rpm: 10,500
to 11,000 min-1

Pump cover
Inspect the fuel passage
for clogging with dirt or
damage.

Metering lever spring

Gasket

Needle valve
Inspect it for wear or dirt.
Air tightness test
Valve-opening pressure:
0.14 Mpa
Valve-closing pressure:
0.049 Mpa or more

Inspect it for damage


or leakage.

Metering lever

Inspect it for deformation


and make sure it is positioned in place.

Inspect it to make sure it is


adjusted properly.
Lever height: 2.1 to 2.4 mm
from the bottom of the
carburetor body

Priming pump
Inspect it for cracks, damage, or leakage.

Diaphragm gasket
Inspect it for damage
or leakage.

Metering diaphragm
Inspect it for damage,
hardening, or warpage.
Replace it with a new
one if found defective.

Combination valve
Metering lever pin

Inspect it for clogging with dirt


or warpage.

Check valve
Inspect it for damage, hardening,
or warpage.

17

4-2-2. Adjustment of the carburetor assembly


1 Adjustment of idling rpm
Operate the adjusting screw to adjust the idling rpm.
Rotating the screw clockwise increases the rpm.
Rotating the screw counterclockwise decreases the
rpm.
If the cutting blade rotates in idling mode, decrease the
rpm so that the blade does not rotate. If the rpm is too
low in idling mode, the engine may stop. If that
happens, increase the rpm by making sure that the
cutting blade does not rotate.

Adjusting screw

Main adjusting
screw

2 Adjustment of low-speed and intermediate-speed rpm


The low-speed and intermediate-speed rpm is
determined by the position of the jet needle clip.
3 Adjustment of high-speed rpm
The high-speed rpm is adjusted by operating the main
adjusting screw.
Rotating the screw clockwise reduces the flow rate ( thin mixture ). ( The engine rpm increases
normally. )
Rotating the screw counterclockwise increases the flow rate ( thick mixture ). ( The engine rpm
decreases normally. )
Basically, use the standard setting. When adjusting the rpm under unavoidable circumstances,
rotate the main adjusting screw clockwise or counterclockwise with the cutting blade in place. After
finding a position where the rpm becomes the highest, rotate the screw backward by 1/8 turns
counterclockwise.
4 Standard setting of the carburetor assembly is completed as described below.

Adjusting screw

2,700 to 3,500 min-1


( Make sure that the blade does not rotate. )

Position of jet needle clip

Middle of the three positions

Main adjusting screw

1 and 3/41/2 turns backward from fully-closed

The standard setting of the main adjusting screw is completed by rotating the screw clockwise
slowly to its extreme end and then returning the screw counterclockwise.
5 The jet needle of the throttle valve is fixed in position with an E-ring. Changing the position of the
E-ring varies the gap between the jet needle and needle jet; thus changing the fuel flow rate and
adjusting the air-fuel ratio.
Attaching the E-ring to the upper groove of the clip
reduces the flow rate ( thin mixture ).
Standard position of
the clip (middle level)
Attaching the E-ring to the lower groove of the clip
Fuel is thinner.
increases the flow rate ( thick mixture ).
6 When the jet needle is worn to result in an excessive
amount of fuel after using the equipment for a long
time or if the fuel consumption is excessive by the
use in a cold region, change the position of the clip
for adjustment.

E-ring
Fuel is thicker.

Jet needle

18

7 Inspection of the inlet valve


A

Stepped
wear

1 Remove the dirt around the needle valve. Replace


the valve with a new one when the tapered top of
the needle valve has worn with a step of about 0.5
mm or more.
2 Since the mounting load of the metering lever
spring (B) is important, be careful not to expand
the spring or change the free length.
3 Make sure that the spring is securely seated over
the convex section of the metering lever.

Dirt

8 The standard height of the control lever is 2.1 to 2.4 mm from the surface of the packing. The level is
satisfactory as long as the lever is flush with the plate surface. Adjust the control lever height,
checking with a rule or other similar tool.

Control lever
2.1 to 2.4 mm
Packing surface

Control lever

Plate

Plate

19

5. Inspection and adjustment of the ignition coil


5-1. Inspection of the ignition coil
Inspect the ignition coil for coil disconnection and layer short with a tester.

Inspection of the
primary coil

Inspection of the
secondary coil

Resistance of
the secondary coil
K

Model

Resistance of
the secondary coil
K

CS35EC

1.2 1.8 ( CDI )

CG24E

1.3 1.8 ( CDI )

CS35ED

1.2 1.8 ( CDI )

CG22ED

1.5 2.5 ( CDI )

CS40ED

1.2 1.8 ( CDI )

CG24ED

1.3 1.8 ( CDI )

CS35EC2 (S)

1.2 1.8 ( CDI )

CG26ED

12 13 ( TCI )

CS35ED2 (S)

1.5 2.5 ( CDI )

CG26EF

12 13 ( TCI )

CS35ED2

1.5 2.5 ( CDI )

FCG21E

1.5 2.5 ( CDI )

CS40ED2

1.5 2.5 ( CDI )

FCG23E

1.3 1.8 ( CDI )

CS40EF

1.5 2.5 ( CDI )

FCG25E

12 13 ( TCI )

CS45EF

1.5 2.5 ( CDI )

E12

10 20% ( TCI )

E20SA

10 20% ( TCI )

E26SA

10 20% ( TCI )

Model

5-2. Adjustment of the ignition coil


Adjustment of the gap between the periphery of the magneto rotor and
the ignition coil
1 Loosen the hexagon socket head screw in
the manner that the ignition coil is fastened
temporarily.

Ignition coil
Hexagon socket
head screw

2 Adjust the gap between the periphery of the


magneto rotor and ignition coil in a range of
0.3 to 0.4 mm.

Gap
0.3 to 0.4 mm

3 With the gap as set above, fasten the


hexagon socket head screw finally.
Magneto rotor

20

6. Inspection of sparking of the spark plug


Caution :
Do not touch the metal part of the spark plug when pulling the starter handle. Otherwise an electric
shock may be caused.
Wipe off the fuel adhered to parts near the spark plug to prevent them from catching fire.
(1) Remove the spark plug off the cylinder.
If carbon has adhered to the electrode of the spark plug
( forming bridges ), clean the electrode with a brush. If
the electrode gap is faulty, adjust it to a specified
dimension. If the electrode is wet with fuel, wipe it off
with a cloth. Then, remove the fuel remaining in the
cylinder by the procedure mentioned below.
1 Remove the spark plug off the cylinder.
2 Open the choke (with the choke pressed down) .
3 Open the throttle (pulled condition) .
4 Pull the starter handle several times to remove fuel
completely.

Electrode gap
( 0.6 to 0.7 mm )

Electrode

Spark plug

(2) Insert the spark plug in the plug cap and make the electrode touch the metal part of the engine. Then, turn the
switch to "ON" and pull the starter handle lightly.
High-voltage wire

(3) If the setting is in good condition, the spark plug electrode will spark with a pop.

Spark plug cap


Spark plug
Ignition
spark

Engine metal part

[ Defective conditions ]

0.8mm
0.6mm

Smoldering

Flashover

Expanded gap
due to friction

Bridge

21

5 Startup and Storage of an Engine


1. Startup procedure
1 Startup procedure : Chain saw
A. When the engine is cold
1 Set the chain brake, if any provided.
2 Turn the switch to "ON" (Start).
3 Pull the choke lever ( to close the air passage ).
4 Set the throttle lever to the "half-open"
state.
5 Press the primer pump, if provided, several
times and confirm that the fuel has entered
the primer pump.
6 Pull the starter handle several times.
7 When there is an explosion sound, push in
the choke lever (to open the air passage).
8 Pull the starter handle again.
9 Pull once and release the throttle lever to
start idling.
0 Release the chain brake.
B. When the engine is warmed up
1 Turn the switch to "ON" ( Start ).
2 Pull the starter handle.
Caution : If the engine does not start after
pulling the starter handle ten
times, remove the spark plug and
remove the fuel from inside of the
cylinder and the spark plug. Then,
perform the procedure A above.

2 Startup procedure : Weed cutter


A. When the engine is cold
1 Turn the switch to "ON" ( Start ).
2 Press the primer pump, if provided, several
times and confirm that the fuel has entered
the primer pump.
3 Set the choke lever to "CLOSE".
4 Pull the starter handle several times.
5 With the engine started, adjust the choke
lever gradually toward "OPEN." If the
engine starts once and stops immediately,
open the choke lever and pull the starter
handle again to start it again.
B. When the engine is warmed up
1 Turn the switch to "ON" ( Start ).
2 Press the primer pump, if provided, several
times and confirm that the fuel has entered
the primer pump.
3 Pull the starter handle.
* Be careful not to cause excessive fuel
intake.

2. Storage of the engine for a long time ( more than one month )
1 Drain the fuel tank completely.
2 In the case of an engine with a primer pump, remove the fuel from the carburetor fuel chamber by
the primer pump.
3 Start the engine to consume the fuel in the carburetor passage completely.
4 Remove the spark plug and supply a few drops of two-cycle engine oil through the plug mount hole.
Then, pull the starter several times so that oil film is formed over the surfaces of the piston and
cylinder wall (rust prevention measure).
5 Set the piston at a level about 10 to 15 mm below the top dead point. (This is to prevent insects
from entering via this air-intake port or air-exhaust port.)
6 Attach the spark plug in place and put the engine in a dry and well-ventilated location.

22

6 References
1. Spark plug
Plug with a resistor element

Resistor
element

A plug with a resistor element ( R plug ) refers to a spark plug


that has a built-in resistor with resistance of about 5 k for
the prevention of radio noise.
When a plug sparks, radio noise develops as the ignition
system undergoes a very rapid change in current. Employing
a resistor in a spark plug can suppress such a rapid change
in current in the ignition system to alleviate the change in
current for the reduction of radio disturbance.
Features :
1 The plug eliminates ignition noises that can affect AM/FM
radio and television performance.
2 The service area of mobile ham, business radio, or
personal radio can be expanded.

Cross-sectional view

3 The plug can prevent the malfunction of electronic control


for engine generators.

Green plug
A green plug is provided with a V-groove on the center
electrode.
Features :

90-degree V-groove at the


tip of the center electrode

Flame kernel
(source of spark)
Anti-inflammatory action by the
center electrode
is minimized for
the machined
90-degree Vgroove.

Center
electrode

Outer
electrode

1 The V-groove is in parallel with the center electrode to eject


sparks outward with respect to the electrode without fail.
Since the flame kernel ( source of spark ) is formed in an
outer position where anti-inflammatory action ( action of
the electrode to deprive the source of spark of heat ) rarely
takes place, the ignition characteristic improves.
2 With the ignition characteristic improved, the starting
performance, acceleration efficiency, idling stability, and
fuel performance are effectively increased.
3 With a V-groove machine in the center electrode, the tip of
the center electrode is sharply pointed for increased
sparking performance.

The flame kernel (source of spark) is


enlarged outward as the anti-inflammatory
action is limited.

Spark plug interchangeability


CHAMPION

NGK

DENSO

L86C

B6HS

W20FS

Standard type

CJ8

BM6A

W20M

Insulator-discharging type

CJ8Y

BPM6A

W20MP-U

Insulator-discharging type

CJ7Y

BPM7A

W22MP-U

Plug with resistor

RCJ8Y

BPMR6A

W20MPR-U

BPM7Y

Green plug

23

2. Cylinder and its elements


Bore and stroke
Top dead
point

Stroke

Bore

1 The inner diameter of the cylinder is called a bore, while the


piston motion distance is called a stroke. Generally, a
short-stroke engine refers to an engine whose bore is
larger than the stroke and is suitable for high rpm
applications.

Bottom dead
point

Total volumetric displacement ( total piston displacement )


Top
dead
point
VC

1 Volumetric displacement ( piston displacement ) refers to


the volume of air suctioned or exhausted by a single stroke
of the piston inside the cylinder. This volumetric
displacement value is a typical measure to represent the
size of an engine.
2 The volumetric displacement is equal to the volume of
intake air and is closely associated with the output of the
engine resulted from the combustion and expansion of air.

Bottom
dead
point

3 The volumetric displacement is generally expressed in mL


and determined by the following equation.
V : Total volumetric displacement (mL)

V=

D2LN

D : Cylinder bore (cm)


L : Piston stroke (cm)
N : Number of cylinders
: 3.14

Compression ratio
Top
dead
point
VC

L
Bottom
dead
point

1 A compression ratio indicates the degree of compaction of


the intake air. It is the ratio of the upper volume of a
cylinder ( cylinder volume plus combustion chamber volume ) when the piston is at the bottom dead point against
the volume left at the top of the cylinder when the piston is
at the top dead point ( combustion chamber volume ).
2 Typical compression ratios of engines are 6 to 8 for
two-cycle engines, 8 to 11 for four-cycle engines, and 16
to 20 for diesel engines.

Compression ratio =

24

Cylinder volume ( V ) + Combustion chamber volume ( VC )


Combustion chamber volume ( VC )

3. Engine chain saw -- Characteristics of vertical engines


1. Excellent high-speed performance
1 A short-stroke engine is used for the vertical engine structure so that the product height can be minimized.
2 A short stroke engine can reduce the piston speed in comparison with other types of engines having the same
displacement and engine rpm.
3 The engine performance is suitable for high-speed rotation due to reduced sliding load with the piston.
4 The engine fits well with an application such as a chain saw which involves full-open operation.
5 "Excellent high-speed performance" implies that the engine is suitable for full-open operation, not that its
full-open rpm is high.

2. Excellent durability
1 The engine employs a suction-thrust structure in which the piston is pressed against the air-intake side
when the piston moves downward from the top dead point.
2 The air-intake side of the piston where the temperature is lowest in the cylinder serves as the sliding
surface in this structure; therefore, durability against seizure is increased. A horizontal engine employs
an exhaust and scavenging-thrust structure in which the piston is pressed against the exhaust and
scavenging side ( high in temperature ).
3 With the piston speed reduced, durability against seizure is increased.

3. Low pitch sound ( tone quality is also low )


1 With the piston speed reduced, the tone is low.
2 Since the muffler can be large in size, the noise reduction effect can be increased.
A muffler can be installed in a front position; the long muffler with large capacity can be employed.

4. Low risk of a burn injury


1 The muffler is located at the front and farthest point from the operator; thus reducing the risk of a burn injury.

4. Engine oil
Role of engine oil
Engine oil is indispensable as it lubricates the major rotating elements of the engine such as the piston,
piston rings, and crank shaft.

Friction-reducing effect

Sealing effect

Cooling effect

Cleaning effect

Instruction related with engine oil


There are a great variety of two-cycle engine oils in the market. Select engine oil carefully and heedfully
since some of these oils are not recommendable in terms of performance as a lubricant.
25

Classification according to the Fire Service Law


Type
Type IV

Product name

Flash point

Equivalent oil type

Designated regulation volume

Class 1 oil product

Lower than 21C

Crude oil, gasoline, and naphtha

200L

Class 2 oil product

21 to 70C

Kerosene and diesel oil

1,000L

Class 3 oil product

Higher than 70C

Heavy oil and lubricant

2,000L

Designated regulation volume: In accordance with Articles 30 and 9-3 of Chapter 4, Section 1 Standards for Storage
and Handling of Hazardous Substances of Amounts Lower Than the Designated Regulation Volume under the Fire
Prevention Ordinance General Standards, handling and storage of hazardous substances of amounts lower than the
regulation volume stipulated under the government decrees concerning the regulation of hazardous substances
(referred to as Designated regulation volume hereinafter) must comply with the technical standards specified
independently.

5. Seizure of the cylinder and piston


Seizure of the cylinder and piston is often attributed to
careless or improper handling of the users. Typical causes of
seizure are described below.
Examples of causes of seizure of the cylinder and piston
1 Raw gasoline or gasoline of low mixture rates was used.
2 High-speed continuous operation with a fully opened throttle was carried out.
3 Oil of poor quality was used ( old and deteriorated gasoline
mixture ).
4 A lot of foreign matter was suctioned via the air cleaner
( such as sand and/or dust ).

6. Operating principle of the auto-return choke


1 If you pull the choke knob
under the initial condition
illustrated below,

2 the choke will close and the


throttle will be half-opened.

Throttle: Idling

Throttle: Half-opened

(Engine rpm: 7,000 7,500min-1)

3 Press in the choke knob


when you hear the first
explosion sound.
Throttle: Remains half-opened

Choke: Open
Choke: Open

Choke: Closed

Choke knob

Press the decompression


knob to activate the brake.
Then, pull the recoil rope.

With only the choke opened


and the throttle half-opened,
press the decompression
knob to start the engine.
Hold the throttle trigger to
release it. The engine
returns to the idling condition shown in the figure1.

26

7. Two-cycle engine exhaust gas control


Toxicity of engine exhaust gas components
Carbon monoxide ( CO ), nitrogen oxide ( NOx ), and hydrocarbon ( HC ), which are regulated by CARB
and EPA, are harmful to humans in particular.
Substance name

Effects on the human body

Major sources of atmospheric contamination

CO

It easily combines with hemoglobin in blood to cause


anoxia that hinders circulation of oxygen all through
the human body, which then causes headache
and/or dizziness, leading to death in the worst case
scenario.

Typical sources include automobiles, especially during idling of engines. It is a major product of the
incomplete combustion of carbon and carbon-containing compounds.

NOx

NO becomes NO2 through photochemical reactions


and causes asthma when the density is low. It
affects human lungs, when the density is high, and
sometimes leads to death. Coexistence of NO with
HC is the cause of photochemical smog, causing
serious breathing problems.

Typical sources include automobile exhaust gas,


gases generated from chemical factories, gases
exhausted from types of incineration facilities. It is
produced either through the oxidation of nitrogen in
the atmosphere during combustion of substances or
through the oxidation of nitrogen oxide in the process
of combustion.

HC

HC by itself has no toxicity; however, the coexistence


of HC with NOx causes photochemical smog, which
hinder vision and stimulates mucous membranes of
eye. It is a typical product through the oxidation of
NOx during combustion.

Typical sources include automobile exhaust gas and


gases generated from types of incineration facilities.
With two-cycle engines, the unburned gas after the
blowing out of fresh air in scavenging step is the
source of this substance.

Exhaust gas regulation (Emission: 20 to 50 cc, handheld)


Year
Regulation
Total
(State of California only) volume
control

CARB (USA)

EPA (USA)
(All states except for
the State of California)

EC
(EU member nations)

Japan: Voluntary
regulation
(Japan Land
Engine Manufacturers
Association)

Total
volume
control

Individual
regulation

Total
volume
control

95

96

97

98

Tier 1
THC + Nox : 246
CO
: 805

99

00

01

02

03

04

05

(g/kWh)
06

07

08

09

10

11

12

13

14

Tier 3
THC + Nox : 50
CO : 536, PM : 2

Tier 2
THC + Nox : 72
CO : 536, PM : 2

Transpiration control 2g/m2/day

Phase 1
THC + Nox : 246
CO
: 805

Stepped regulation

THC + Nox :
246 50
CO : 805

Stage 1
THC + Nox : 246
CO
: 805

Phase 2
THC + Nox : 50
CO
: 805

From
February
2008

Primary phase
THC + Nox : 246
CO
: 805

Stage 2
THC + Nox : 50
CO
: 805

Secondary phase
THC + Nox : 50
CO
: 805

THC
NOx
CO
PM

: Total hydrocarbon
: Nitrogen oxide
: Carbon monoxide
: Particulate matter

27

8. Principle of the new starter system, "Karugaru Start ( Quick and Easy Start )"
When the rope reel rotates with the starter handle pulled, the complete spring rotates via the ratchet.
When the complete spring rotates, the cam plate connected with the startup spring housed in the
complete spring rotates. The torque is transmitted to the crank shaft as the cam plate is engaged
with the starter pulley.
Since the compressive force of the cylinder is large, the crank shaft does not rotate. Only the startup
spring is rotated to accumulate the force.
With the starter handle returned in place, the rope reel is wound back by the spiral spring. However,
the complete spring is not wound back by ratchet B; the force in the startup spring remains
unchanged.
Then, with the starter handle pulled again, the startup spring is wound back further to increase the
accumulated force. When this force becomes larger than the compressive force of the cylinder, the
accumulated force in the startup spring is released all at once, to finally rotate the crank shaft and
start the engine operation.

Compressive force

Starter housing

Starter
handle

Spiral
spring
Crank shaft
Rope reel
Complete spring
Ratchet
Ratchet B
Startup spring

Cam plate

Starter pulley

3
4
* The arrows in the figure show the respective
directions of rotation and activation order

28

5
6

Crank shaft