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Jason Waldinger

Professor Rytov
ENC 2135
18 July 2016
How far do we value success?
As a child, we are taught that honesty and doing the right thing is
expected in society. Our parents punish us when we lie and teach us when
we are misguided. So why is it that when we become adults, all these lessons
are forgotten and simply disappear. This is the problem that is occurring in
professional sports all across the world today. Athletes have been taught that
hard work and talent will produce success, however, athletes resort to
growth hormones and steroids, which are the two most well-known drugs in
the performance enhancing drugs umbrella. Meanwhile, the professional
leagues have done very little to slow or stop this dangerous trend. This trend
is extremely dangerous because performance enhancing drugs are
substances that are used to improve any physical activity by speeding up
muscle growth and increasing testosterone. Performance enhancing drugs or
PEDs have become a growing trend for athletes in the 21st century as sports
have become more competitive. The defense for their substance abuse is if
you arent cheating, then you arent trying. Creating a growing stream of
athletes that want to stay completive by taking PEDs. As this movement
becomes more popular, then we will begin to see the integrity of sports
slowly dwindle away. In fact, there are truly only a couple of factors that have

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contributed to the growing use of PEDs which are the testing failure of PEDs,
the unfair advantages associated with taking PEDs, and failure of regulation
of PEDs. Together, these factors lead to a colossal failure of integrity in
professional sports, which will result in professionalism to become worthless.
Integrity is crucial to have in professional sports because that keeps all
athletes at the highest level playing the game how it should be played.
However, a damaged integrity can weaken a sport popularity and destroy its
reputation, which makes no fan want to have association with that particular
sport. The growing popularity of PEDs are what is truly damaging the
integrity today. In sports, it is referred to doping when athletes use PEDs.
Doping has become a major concern in sports, nevertheless, sporting
federations have done little to solve this problem and hardly even
acknowledge it is a problem within sports. Many sporting federations defend
themselves by saying there is a small minority of professional athletes using
PEDs, and that the majority of athletes work hard and allow their talent to
take them to another level (Pielke Jr.). However, Pielke Jr. has exposed
professional sporting federations by the lies they have reported. Sporting
federations attempt to cover up the problem of PED use and falsify reports.
Overall losing credibility as reports surface from outside agencies that
professional sports have been lying about the true usage of PEDs. Roger
Pielke Jr. discloses of a recent documentary that ousted and exposed a
majority of elite athletes for using PEDs while competing at the highest level.
Specifically, he writes that several athletes claimed that nearly all of their

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colleagues dope, and with the knowledge of officials (529). While it was
once believed that doping was minimal, but realistically it has really gotten
out of their control.
Performance enhancing drugs main purpose for athletes is to expedite
the muscle growth process and achieve optimal health for their sport. These
drugs allow athletes to achieve a superior edge on their opponents. PEDs
push the level of competition upward since athletes are now able to become
stronger, faster, and healthier. Normally, athletes will take weeks to
overcome injuries or even a few days of a game week to recover from minor
injuries. However, athletes have taken advantage of the perks of PEDs, which
is the faster recovery rate associated with the drugs. Beyond that, the
muscle growth is exponentially greater than those who work out without any
help from drugs. According to John Stamatopoulos, a fitness and
bodybuilding guru, has said that PEDs have been proved to contribute to
exponential muscle growth and up to 25% faster with muscle growth
(Stamatopoulos). This strengthens the point that PEDs are a necessity to
athletes that are focused on improving their strengthen to surpass their
competition on a professional level. Numerous athletes that have used PEDs
have become noticeable bigger in a short amount of time. The increase in
strength will allow athletes to assert dominance in their position and sport
overall easing the rate of success. Ellis Cashmore, a well-known sports writer,
displayed a survey showing half of athletes in a study indicated there was
some likelihood that they would use a performance-enhancing drug for

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rehabilitation purposes (Cashmore 2), which supports the unease about
PEDs as they are being used unfairly for rehabilitation purposes. The
speeding up of the healing process creates a dilemma that the PEDs are
great to be used since they help heal athletes, however it is not a natural
process for the body. Regardless, athletes are achieving an unfair advantage
in their professional sport. Additionally, Cashmore adds that there are various
problems with the integrity of sports as a result of all the cheating from
doping. Since PEDs have become a popular trend in recent years, athletes
have thought of cheating as a norm. They are beginning to cheat by doing
blood diffusions, and using beta blockers to steady nerves all because PEDs
have dwindled the integrity of the game and allowing this to occur.
(Cashmore 2) Currently, nothing can be trusted since athletes are doing
anything to gain an edge on their opponents, which has damaged the
integrity of sports by making cheating okay to occur. The unfair advantages
associated with PEDs are the reason why PEDs are classified as cheating in
professional sporting. Any form of cheating truly has no place in any
professional sports. PEDs have facilitated the movement of cheating and
professional sports have retained the reputation of uncertainty of what is real
success and what is artificial.
There is no bigger heart break when there is a record broken or a
spectacular performance, and later finding out PEDs were the reason that
athlete performed well. The cheating hurts the sport because as a fan you
lose trust in the organization and question the integrity. PEDs have tarnished

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the names of many athletes that were once considered great or once broke
an impressive record since they were found out to be using PEDs. These
frequent situations force fans to question any performances by athletes since
it has become a common occurrence. Professional athletes have forgotten
that playing the game is about the love of the sport and not whether youre
the best at your sport. The saying Its not about whether you win or lose, its
about how you play the game one time rang true to every athlete, but now
athletes strictly care about winning and making their money and throw any
integrity out. These priorities have been noticed by committees including the
Olympic committees, and they have attempted to regain their handle on
professionalism and the integrity of sports in the Olympics. They attempt to
handle the situation of cheating with PEDs and regain the integrity of their
sport with a zero-tolerance policy. Any athlete caught using PEDs will result
in an instant suspension. (Anderson 2). A zero-tolerance policy will give fans
a faade that the sporting federations have taken a strong stance on PED
use, however, we dont know if the athletes are taking this policy seriously.
What is happening behind the scenes is hard to tell, but only if you are an
athlete you know the true strength to this policy.
PEDs continue to have a damaging effect to the integrity of sports, but
the true damage came when there started to be a linkage to record breaking
performances and PEDs. It made hearing cheating and breaking the rules
very tough to hear especially at the professional level. However, athletes
have a lot to prove at the professional level. In fact, many athletes will sign

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incentive based deals making their performance meaningful. This creates
immense amount of pressure on athletes to perform well otherwise they risk
not getting paid or even possibly out of a job. Benjamin Brewer, a sport
analyst and reporter, believes that Market pressure imposed on to athletes
and institutions have rationalized PED use (279). This pressure is their
excuse to have used PEDs to calm the pressure and outperform other
athletes for a lucrative reward. Furthermore, Brewer suggests that athletes
resort to PEDs mainly because of the capitalist logic of sponsorships and
profit making from any great or record breaking performances. In addition
to the lucrative reward and vast pressure, Chwang introduced the gametheoretic, which states that although athletes are universally breaking a
major rule and they believe they are improving their individual performance,
however, when a majority of athletes dope, there is no noticeable
improvement within the level of competition (33). The theory suggests that
as a result of everyone doping, then individual stand outs are minimal so
PEDs are not as big of a deal. This is believed to be a major reason many
athletes dope because they are staying level with the competition. Without
the use of PEDs, then athletes fall behind with the competition and become
irrelevant in their sport. This is only the case if majority of athletes in the
sport are taking PEDs and those who follow the rules are losing a step on all
the other athletes. This theory may have some movement as to why PEDs
are widely used; with new testing and rules in place, it is hard to see this
theory actually be reality with majority of athletes.

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Testing has often been leaned on when it comes to cleaning up the
sports internationally. However, like everything else, there are many flaws
when it comes to testing for PEDs. PEDs often go under the radar because of
how they are administered. They are either directly injected into the
bloodstream via syringe in a fatty area of the body or a human growth
hormone is taking via the mouth in a capsule. The syringe method makes it
difficult for testing because of the direct injection into the bloodstream,
which speeds up the process of muscle growth while the capsule is a slower
process (Fitness). The capsule is usually how athletes are caught because the
process is longer since it has to dissolve and activate the muscle growth
process. Usually athletes either can beat the system or the testing simply
doesnt find the drugs in the athletes. This makes the war on doping
extremely harder if the testing simply doesnt work like it was designed to.
According to Aaron Smith, the anomaly rate of the testing was believed to be
a very minimal rate at about .05-2%, but plausible anomalies were estimated
to really be a figure of 14-39% in the biological testing for PEDs (1). This
suggests that the flaws in the system for testing for PEDs are greater than
we initially thought. The recent rise of PED use in sports could be correlated
with the figures presented by Smith since more athletes are using PEDs, but
not as many are being caught. If testing could potentially miss up to 39% of
positive PED use, then one-third of all subjects are passing from a flawed
biological testing. Additionally, others that are using PEDs will continue to
find ways to beat the system. PED testing must be reformed in order to

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strengthen the integrity of sports and to create less cheating in sports. These
flaws in the testing for PEDs have led for athletes to get away with PEDs and
secure an upper edge over the competition. However, this has created a
capitalistic opportunity for an outside testing agencies to expand and
monitor professional sports in this crucial time.
Many agencies have been created to keep law and order within
sporting federations. Outside testing agencies have become a credible
source for finding PEDs since they are a complete outsider using their own
testing procedures unlike sporting federations doing the testing and choosing
to cover up for their players. The mission of the testing agencies is to keep
the PEDs out of the game. Sporting federations have leaned on these
agencies to win back any credibility they might have lost in recent reports
disclosing the true number of athletes on PEDs. Ashby describes the
movement of improving the integrity with outside testing agencies as a
smart decision especially with the creation of WADA, who monitors doping
internationally. The creation of WADA (World Anti-Doping Agency) was
founded on the principle that integrity of sport is fundamental to the spirit
of sport as integrity has been threatened by doping (Ashby 2). These
regulatory agencies help improve the integrity as they find many athletes to
be doping in sports across the globe. These independent agencies put the
pressure on federations to firmly suspend athletes and take proper
punishment. Now rules must be followed in all sporting federations. A
suggested a sport writer had was that there should be rules that educate

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athletes, train athletes, and punish athletes that use PEDs unfairly in any
circumstance (Klein 2). Those may be unorthodox set of rules, but
sometimes education is the key to stopping a huge problem. The right rules
in place may be the biggest contributor to slowing the problem of PEDs and
improving the integrity of sports. It is proven when independent agencies
regulate and test athletes, they have a better track record of finding athletes
of PEDs rather than sporting federations doing it on their own. A strong
advocator for PED clean up, Melissa Hewitt, believes that the rules and
regulations should be set by the sporting federation, but all testing should be
done by WADA (Hewitt 1). These rules and regulations with the proper
testing will and can defeat the use of PEDs.
PEDs have truly become a problem in the 21st century. This problem
has truly endangered the integrity of sports and has made many question
any performances that might occur before our eyes because cheating has
usually been the result of those performances. Personally, I have lost my
faith in sports over the last couple of years as I have seen more and more
athletes found using PEDS. It makes it difficult to root for an athlete since his
hard work didnt necessarily help him get there. As an athlete, I respect hard
work by athletes so I take it to heart when others cheat and others are
working hard to achieve the same feat. PEDs have no place in sports, and I
truly hope they begin to disappear drastically over the next couple of years
as sporting federations take back their sport. When rules begin to gain
traction and strength, sporting federations will retake their sport and have

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strong integrity flowing in their sport. Lastly, the suggestions of having
governing forces stepping in to help regulate the integrity is not totally out of
this world and I believe this will truly make a bigger impact as big brother
steps in since they have the money and ability to enforce rules and
regulations (Denham 1). Everyone must put aside capitalism and competition
and go back to doing what is truly right, which is prioritizing the integrity of
the game. The Integrity of the game is important to playing the sport the
right way and must always overcome any unethical and cheating behavior,
proving why diminishing PED use is essential.

Works Cited
Anderson, Jack. "Doping, Sport and the Law: Time for Repeal of Prohibition?" International
Journal of Law in Context 9.2 (2013): 135-59. Print.
Ashby, April. "Why Steroids Have No Place in Sports." Marquette University Law School
Faculty Blog RSS. Marquette University Law School, 20 Oct. 2010. Web. 13 July 2016.
Brewer, Benjamin D. "Commercialization in Professional Cycling 1950-2001: Institutional
Transformations and the Rationalization of 'Doping'." Sociology of Sport Journal 19.3
(2002): 276-301. Print.
Cashmore, Ellis. "Sport's Doping Problem: A Rational Solution-Allow Drugs." Substance Use &
Misuse 49.9 (2014): 1194-7. Print.
Chwang, Eric. "Why Athletic Doping should be Banned." Journal of Applied Philosophy 29.1
(2012): 33-49. Print.
Denham, Bryan E. "Performance-Enhancing Drug use in Amateur and Professional Sports:

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Separating the Realities from the Ramblings." Culture, Sport, Society 3.2 (2000): 56.
"Fitness." Performance-enhancing Drugs: Know the Risks. Mayo Clinic, 15
Oct. 2015. Web. 20 July 2016.
Hewitt, Melissa. "An Unbalanced Act: A Criticism of how the Court of Arbitration for Sport
Issues Unjustly Harsh Sanctions by Attempting to Regulate Doping in Sport." Indiana
Journal of Global Legal Studies 22.2 (2015): 769-87. Print.
Klein, Marco Aurelio. "Protecting Athletes and Ensuring Sports-Free of Doping." Substance Use
& Misuse 49.9 (2014): 1198-200. Print.

Pielke Jr, Roger. "Gather Data to Reveal True Extent of Doping in Sport." Nature 517.7536
(2015): 529-. Print.
Stamatopoulos, John. "Drugs Vs. Natural!" Bodybuilding.com.
BodyBuilding, 17 May 2001. Web. 17 July 2016.
Smith, Aaron C. T., and Bob Stewart. "Why the War on Drugs in Sport Will Never be Won."
Harm Reduction Journal 12 (2015): 1-6. Print.
Vorstenbosch, Jan. "Doping and Cheating." Journal of the Philosophy of Sport 37.2 (2010): 16681. Print.

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